Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G;
BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet, with the...
Moingeon, Philippe; Cox, Linda
Grass pollen allergy is common and clinically consequential in North America. While it is frequently treated with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy, debate remains regarding whether allergen immunotherapy is best carried out using a single representative or multiple cross-reactive allergen(s). Patients are commonly exposed to pollens from multiple allergenic grass species belonging to the Pooideæ subfamily. Beyond the known IgE cross-reactivity, considerable molecular heterogeneity exists with respect to allergen content among grass species, with further evidence that these molecular variants can be detected by the patients' immune system. These observations provide a compelling scientific rationale for the use of mixed pollen allergen extracts to broaden the allergen repertoire, with the aim of reorienting inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. PMID:26813047
McDonell, Amanda L; Wahn, Ulrich; Demuth, Dirk; Richards, Catrina; Hawes, Charlie; Andreasen, Jakob Nørgaard; Allen-Ramey, Felicia
Background Allergy immunotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with allergic rhinitis whose symptoms are unresolved with pharmacotherapy. Allergy immunotherapy for grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis is available in three modalities: subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy as a tablet or drop. This study aimed to understand trends in allergy immunotherapy prescribing and practice patterns for grass allergies in adult and paediatric patients in Germany. Methods A re...
Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A
Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one antigen has been used for immunotherapy of allergic disorders. So far less than five antigens have been employed with variable results. AIM: To evaluate effect of multiple antigens up to six in the immunotherapy of nasobronchial allergy. SETTING AND DESIGN: Based on clinical history, symptoms present for at least 3 years with set criteria of immunomodulation for asthma and rhinitis: documented IgE mediated asthma and rhinitis, failure in allergen avoidance and moderate to severe clinical manifestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred cases of various allergic disorders attending allergy clinic of Bombay hospital were screened. Allergen specific immunotherapy was initiated in 131 subjects (56 -rhinitis and 75 asthma with prior consent. Patients suffering from allergic disorders secondary to diseases or drug therapy were excluded. Multiple allergen immunotherapy was given at specific intervals up to a period of one year. Allergen extracts were prepared as per standard technique. For statistical analysis "students′t test" was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement in PEFR, reduction in skin sensitivity to allergens used in immunotherapy formulation and symptomatic relief without any untoward reaction show that multiple allergen immunotherapy is as effective as monoallergen immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.
Joshi S; Tripathi D; Dhar H
BACKGROUND: More than one antigen has been used for immunotherapy of allergic disorders. So far less than five antigens have been employed with variable results. AIM: To evaluate effect of multiple antigens up to six in the immunotherapy of nasobronchial allergy. SETTING AND DESIGN: Based on clinical history, symptoms present for at least 3 years with set criteria of immunomodulation for asthma and rhinitis: documented IgE mediated asthma and rhinitis, failure in allergen avoidance and modera...
Song, Tae Won
Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established pro...
Silvia Pecora; Massimo Milani; Roberta Alesina
Background. Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is considered a causal treatment of respiratory allergies. Compliance to the SLIT is an important aspect for a positive clinical outcome. Study Aim. To evaluate if compliance with grass Allergy Immunotherapy Tablet (AIT) can be increased by providing an electronic compliance device (CED) (Memozax; a tablet-container with a programmable daily acoustic alarm). Patients and Methods. 261 patients with grass allergy were enrolled and ra...
Durham, S.R.; Nelson, H S; Nolte, H; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z.; Andersen, J S
Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...
Durham, Stephen R.; Emminger, Waltraud; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Rak, Sabina; Scadding, Glenis K.; Andersen, Jens S.; Riis, Bente; Dahl, Ronald
Background: Sustained and disease-modifying effects of sublingual immunotherapy have never before been confirmed in a large-scale randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Objective: We sought to investigate sustained efficacy I year after a 3-year period of daily treatment with the SQ-sta
Lal, Amrith; Sunaina Waghray, Sunaina; Nand Kishore, N. N.
In the present study of 331 patients suffering from signs/symptoms of nasal allergy, 9 nasal polyps, allergic conjunctivitis and allergic asthma, who were referred by clinician, were taken up for diagnosis of allergy with skin prick test (Ten et al. Mayo Clin Proc 70(8):783–784, 1995) and subjective improvement of patients by immunotherapy. Out of 331 patients tested 321 patients showed significant positive results and rest of them tested negative for allergy. High incidences of positive resu...
Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Montagni, Marcello; Ridolo, Erminia
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was introduced more than a century ago and is yet the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. AIT is currently conducted with whole allergen extracts and several studies clearly support its efficacy in the treatment of respiratory allergies, however the need for a long treatment - that affects costs and patients compliance - and possible IgE-mediated adverse events are still unresolved issues. Peptide immunotherapy is based on the use of short synthetic peptides which represent major T-cell epitopes of the allergen with markedly reduced ability to cross-link IgE and activate mast cells and basophils. Data from clinical trials confirmed the efficacy and tolerability of peptide immunotherapy in patients with cat allergy, with a sustained clinical effect after a short course treatment. Peptide therapy is a promising safe and effective new specific treatment for allergy to be developed for the most important allergens causing rhinitis or asthma. PMID:26901667
Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;
Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen...... (SLIT), and 8 (placebo) patients after treatment compared to 10, 4, and 10 patients, respectively, before SIT. The symptom scores to apple during challenges decreased in all groups, but only significantly in the placebo group (p = 0.03). As evaluated by the questionnaire, the severity of food allergy in......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...
Moran, Timothy P.; Vickery, Brian P.; Burks, A. Wesley
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence and present an emerging epidemic for westernized countries. Strict dietary avoidance is the only approved management for food allergy, but accidental exposures regularly occur, leading to significant patient anxiety and decreased quality of life. Over the past decade, oral and sublingual immunotherapies have emerged as potential treatments for food allergy. While several small clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can desensitize food...
Full Text Available Sian W Ludman,1 Robert J Boyle2 1Paediatric Allergy Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28, but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment.Keywords: anaphylaxis, quality of life
Sheikh, A.; Nurmatov, U.; Venderbosch, I.; Bischoff, E.W.
BACKGROUND: Allergy to peanuts is associated with considerable morbidity and, in a minority of cases, mortality. Natural resolution to peanut allergy occurs in only a few cases, hence the need to find effective interventions. Peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a potentially important new therapeutic
Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J
Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation. PMID:26593873
Design and recruitment for the GAP trial, investigating the preventive effect on asthma development of an SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet in children with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
Valovirta, Erkka; Berstad, Aud Katrine Herland; de Blic, Jacques; Bufe, Albrecht; Eng, Peter; Halken, Susanne; Ojeda, Pedro; Roberts, Graham; Tommerup, Lene; Varga, Eva-Maria; Winnergard, Inger; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck
Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a risk factor for asthma development. Treating the underlying allergy may represent an attractive method of asthma prevention. No regulatory guidance exists in this area, and, to our knowledge, no clinical investigations meeting modern regulatory standards have bee...
Gomez, R. Maximiliano; Linnemann, Désirée Larenas; Passalacqua, Giovanni; González-Díaz, Sandra; Coce, Victor H.; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E
Background In April 2011 a group of Latin American (LA) allergy experts, leaders in their countries in the area of immunotherapy, met in Cordoba, Argentina, to discuss how allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) can be improved in the region. The need for a situational sketch was expressed. Methods A questionnaire on allergy training (AT), ASIT, extracts and legislation was sent out to 22 leaders in the field of nine LA countries to obtain an overview of the LA situation. Results R...
Gregory, James A; Shepley-McTaggart, Ariel; Umpierrez, Michelle; Hurlburt, Barry K; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Mayfield, Stephen P; Berin, M Cecilia
Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between preparations complicates immunotherapy studies. Moreover, peanut immunotherapy is associated with frequent negative side effects and patients are often at risk of allergic reactions once immunotherapy is discontinued. Allergen-specific approaches using recombinant proteins are an attractive alternative because they allow more precise dosing and the opportunity to engineer proteins with improved safety profiles. We tested whether Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, two major peanut allergens, could be produced using chloroplast of the unicellular eukaryotic alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C. reinhardtii is novel host for producing allergens that is genetically tractable, inexpensive and easy to grow, and is able to produce more complex proteins than bacterial hosts. Compared to the native proteins, algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain and Ara h 2 have a reduced affinity for IgE from peanut-allergic patients. We further found that immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain confers protection from peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model of peanut allergy. PMID:26801740
Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Huber, Hans; Swoboda, Ines;
BACKGROUND: The FAST (food allergy-specific immunotherapy) project aims at developing safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy for fish allergy, using recombinant hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1. OBJECTIVES: Preclinical characterization and good manufacturing practice (GMP) production...... chromatography and mass spectrometry. Allergenicity was assessed by ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release assay, immunogenicity by immunization of laboratory animals and stimulation of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reference molecules were purified wild-type Cyp c 1 (natural...... and/or recombinant). GMP-compliant alum-adsorbed mCyp c 1 was tested for acute toxicity in mice and rabbits and for repeated-dose toxicity in mice. Accelerated and real-time protocols were used to evaluate stability of mCyp c 1 as drug substance and drug product. RESULTS: Purified mCyp c 1 behaves as...
Little is known about specific psychological factors that affect parents\\' decisions to take part in clinical studies. We examined factors, related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), that may influence parents\\' decision to allow their children to participate in research on clinical food allergy.
Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Wolf, Hendrik; Schnitker, Jörg
Background Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) triggered by fruit and vegetables often occurs in patients with pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis because of cross-reactive epitopes in pollen and associated foods. This open observational study examined the effect of pollen-specific sublingual immunotherapy ([SLIT] B. U. Pangramin or SLITone involving birch/alder/hazel, grasses/rye, and/or mugwort) on OAS triggered by several foods in patients treated in standard practice. Very few studies have examine...
Full Text Available Abstract The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT, using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1 and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3, respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models, SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication.
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the practice of administering gradually increasing doses of the specific causative allergen to reduce the clinical reactivity of allergic subjects. A bulk of literature demonstrates that AIT is an effective and safe treatment to reduce allergic symptoms and the use of drugs. The preventive capacity of AIT is less investigated. The studies thus far available showed that this treatment, in both forms of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is able to prevent the development of asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of new sensitizations in patients monosensitized. Such outcomes demonstrate the ability of AIT to change the natural history of respiratory allergy. Of particular importance, SCIT with Hymenoptera venom has an invaluable role in preventing potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions to the culprit sting in venom-allergic patients. Ongoing studies are aimed at evaluating the possible capacity of AIT in primary prevention of allergy. All these capabilities are related to the mechanisms of action of AIT. In fact, both SCIT and SLIT are able to modify the allergen presentation by dendritic cells that in turn modify the phenotype of allergen-specific T cells, switching from the Th2-type response, typical of allergic inflammation, to a Th1-type response. An important role is played by allergen-specific T regulatory (Treg) cells, which produce suppressive cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. PMID:24396984
Hallett, Jeffrey S
Fatalities after administration of specific allergen immunotherapy are rare occurrences in a general allergy practice, as is medical negligence litigation. The author has experienced both and now relates his personal reflections on the lessons that were learned from the experiences. The twelve lessons that are reviewed encompass observations that are relevant not only to immunotherapy litigation but also to any general medical negligence litigation that one might encounter. Three principles of practice that are specific for allergen immunotherapy administration and that were closely scrutinized during the litigation are also reviewed. PMID:15709451
... Help raise $300,000 this month to find cures. Loading... Immunotherapy Immunotherapy SHARE: Print Glossary Immunotherapy, also ... destroy the antigens. In most circumstances, the body's natural immune system seems unable to identify cancer as ...
Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke; de Blay, Frederic; Klimek, Ludger; Broge, Louise; Ljørring, Christian
analysis for the entire trial population showed no statistically significant difference between the placebo and actively treated groups. No safety concerns were observed. CONCLUSION: Efficacy in mild to severe AR of 6 SQ-HDM compared with placebo was demonstrated by statistically significant improvements......BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory...... subgroup, the absolute difference in end-of-treatment TCRS between 6 SQ-HDM and placebo was -0.78 (95% confidence interval -1.47 to -0.07, relative difference 28.8%, P = .0357). Furthermore, a significant difference was found for the total score of the Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire with...
Morfin Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Morfin, Blanca María
Natural rubber latex has been in widespread use for over a century. Reports of immediate hypersensitivity to latex have increased dramatically since the first case was reported in 1979, specially in persons with cumulative latex exposure. A 13 year old male was referred to our office. He had been wearing orthodontic rubber bands for two years. The previous year he started having itchy, red and watery eyes, with sneezing and runny nose when he was exposed to rubber products. Then he developed oral edema and lip ulcers. Finally, he experienced cough, wheezing, chest tightness and dyspnea. The patient had no history of undergoing surgery, and his mother denied pacifier use. He had no history of fruit and vegetables allergy. Physical examination revealed conjunctival hyperemia, with fine papillary response in the upper tarsal plate, hyaline rhinorrhea, turbinate hypertrophy and perioral ulcers. Skin prick test were positive for latex and Quercus albus. Patch test with latex glove was negative, but positive with rubber tourniquet. Total IgE was 365 UI/mL. Latex-specific IgE testing confirmed the diagnosis. Spirometric values were normal. He started rush sublingual immunotherapy with latex extract. When he had finished, he traveled abroad. At immigration the inspectors examined him with latex gloves. Immediately he developed anaphylaxis, needing urgent medical attention. Although the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for latex allergy has been demonstrated, the most effective strategy is complete avoidance of latex-containing products. World Public Health Services must promote the use of synthetic elastomer gloves in airports worldwide. PMID:19058485
Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D;
BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma may be more susceptible to adverse events (AEs) with sublingual immunotherapy tablet (SLIT-tablet) treatment, such as severe systemic reactions and asthma-related events. Using data from eight trials of grass SLIT-tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with....../without conjunctivitis (AR/C), AE frequencies were determined in adults and children with and without reported asthma. METHODS: Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Timothy grass SLIT-tablet MK-7243 (2800 BAU/75 000 SQ-T, Merck/ALK-Abelló) were pooled for post hoc analyses. Subjects with......, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In the AR/C subjects with reported well-controlled mild asthma included in these studies, grass SLIT-tablet did not increase TEAE frequency, severe local allergic swelling, or systemic allergic reactions versus subjects without asthma. There was no indication that treatment led to...
Datta, Ankur; Moitra, Saibal; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Swapna
Pollen grains are well established to be an important cause of respiratory allergy. Current pharmacologic therapies for allergic asthma do not cure the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment method which re-directs the immune system away from allergic response leading to a long lasting effect. The mechanism by which immunotherapy achieves this goal is an area of active research world-wide. The present experimental study was designed to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation based on a relevant human allergen, Alstonia scholaris pollen, and to establish the immunological and cellular features of specific allergen immunotherapy using this same pollen extract. Our results revealed that Alstonia scholaris pollen sensitization and challenge causes eosinophilic airway inflammation with mucin hypersecretion. This is associated with increased total IgE, increased expression of FcɛRI on lung mast cells and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 as confirmed by ELISA, in-situ immunofluorescence and FACS assay. Allergen specific immunotherapy reduced airway inflammation and also decreased total IgE level, FcɛRI expression, IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 levels. It was further noted that the reduction of these levels was more by intra-nasal route than by intra-peritoneal route. Thus we present a novel animal model of Alstonia scholaris pollen allergic disease and specific allergen immunotherapy which will pave the way towards the development of better treatment modalities. PMID:26667977
Bin Lan; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv
The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186
Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Johnsen, Claus;
Background: TH2-biased immune responses are important in allergy pathogenesis. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) might include the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 blocking antibodies, a reduction in the number of effector cells, and skewing of......G4). Methods: Eleven birch and/or grass pollen-allergic patients and 10 healthy nonatopic controls were studied before and during SIT. Tregs, chemokine receptors, soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G), Ig-like transcript (ILT) 2, specific IgE, and IgG4 were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were...... stimulated with pollen extract in vitro and immune factors were evaluated. Results: During SIT, the main changes in the peripheral blood were an increase in CXCR3+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs and a decrease in CCR4+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs, an increase in allergen-specific IgG4, and a decrease in sHLA-G during...
Tucker Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain
Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M; Patriarca, G; Panzner, P; Seberova, E; Didier, A
BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass...... pollen sublingual tablets of 100 IR (index of reactivity), 300 IR or 500 IR, or placebo starting 4 months before the pollen season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this complementary analysis was to determine whether 300 IR 5-grass pollen SLIT-tablets is effective in different subtypes of patients who are allergic...... RTSS did not differ significantly with different doses of SLIT. In Groups 2, 3 and 4, doses of 300 IR and 500 IR were significantly more effective than 100 IR and placebo (P< or =0.035). All doses of SLIT administered in this study can be considered safe in the patients investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The...
Gomez, R. Maximiliano; Linnemann, Désirée Larenas; Passalacqua, Giovanni; González-Díaz, Sandra; Coce, Victor H.; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E.
Background In April 2011 a group of Latin American (LA) allergy experts, leaders in their countries in the area of immunotherapy, met in Cordoba, Argentina, to discuss how allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) can be improved in the region. The need for a situational sketch was expressed. Methods A questionnaire on allergy training (AT), ASIT, extracts and legislation was sent out to 22 leaders in the field of nine LA countries to obtain an overview of the LA situation. Results Results are presented with descriptive statistics. All 22 questionnaires were returned (9 countries). AT in 56% of the surveyed LA countries is at the third-level of medical care, after a core-training of 2 to 3 years internal medicine or pediatrics; in 3 countries it is a second-level career and in one country there is no AT. Board certification with exam is only mandatory in a third of the countries; recertification being obtained without exam. Mostly, training is in general allergy; pediatric AT only exists in 2 countries. Both sublingual (SLIT, only in the form of drops) and subcutaneous (SCIT) immunotherapy are practiced in all countries, from the age of 3 years (mean, range 1–5 years) onward. As no strict legislation exists IT can be managed by non-allergists in 7/9 countries. Mixed extracts are used with mostly 3 to 5 allergens/vial (range 2 to 6-10 allergens/vial) and all countries have bacterial vaccine. SCIT extracts come from US and European (89%) and 56% local providers. SLIT extracts are almost exclusively from Europe (Spain), but in Argentine, Brazil, and Mexico also local SLIT extracts exist. There is rudimentary regulation concerning extract potency in 2 countries. IT is generally paid for by private patients. Insurance companies reimburse IT in 56% of the countries, the social security system in 33% and in one country selected third level governmental hospitals supply IT. Publications on adverse events with IT are starting to appear (3 countries) and 3
Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Głodkowska-Mrówka, Eliza; Demkow, Urszula
Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis) coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis), whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations. PMID:26457309
Full Text Available Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT. Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis, whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.
Jutel, Marek; Bartkowiak-Emeryk, Małgorzata; Bręborowicz, Anna; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Emeryk, Andrzej; Gawlik, Radosław; Gonerko, Paweł; Rogala, Barbara; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Samoliński, Bolesław
SLIT (sublingual immunotherapy,) induces allergen-specific immune tolerance by sublingual administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen. The mechanism of SLIT is comparable to those during SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy), with the exception of local oral dendritic cells, pre-programmed to elicit tolerance. In the SLIT dose, to achieve the same efficacy as in SCIT, it should be 50-100 times higher with better safety profile. The highest quality evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT lasting 1-3 years has been provided by the large scale double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) trials for grass pollen extracts, both in children and adults with allergic rhinitis. Current indications for SLIT are allergic rhinitis (and conjunctivitis) in both children and adults sensitized to pollen allergens (trees, grass, Parietaria), house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae), cat fur, as well as mild to moderate controlled atopic asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites. There are positive findings for both asthma and new sensitization prevention. Severe adverse events, including anaphylaxis, are very rare, and no fatalities have been reported. Local adverse reactions develop in up to 70 - 80% of patients. Risk factors for SLIT adverse events have not been clearly identified. Risk factors of non-adherence to treatment might be dependent on the patient, disease treatment, physician-patient relationship, and variables in the health care system organization. PMID:27012173
... video about: Allergies Common allergens include: Drugs Dust Food Insect venom Mold Pet and other animal dander Pollen ... effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used to treat food allergies because of the danger of a severe ...
Larsen, T H; Poulsen, Lars K.; Melac, M;
A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis.......A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis....
The incidence of food allergy has increased in recent years.The current management of food allergy includes strict dietary avoidance and rapid medical treatment in case of accidental exposure.As a new immunotherapy method,sublingual immunotherapy has shown promising as alternative treatment for food allergy.This review discusses the clinical effectiveness and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy that are recently being investigated.%食物过敏患病率呈上升趋势,而目前有效的临床治疗方法是严格回避致敏食物并对症处理.近年来,特异性舌下免疫疗法为食物过敏的治疗提供了新的思路.该文就特异性舌下免疫疗法在治疗食物过敏中安全性及有效性的研究进展进行综述.
Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.
Elizur, A; Appel, M Y; Goldberg, M R; Yichie, T; Levy, M B; Nachshon, L; Katz, Y
Studies examining the long-term effect of oral immunotherapy in food-allergic patients are limited. We investigated cow's milk-allergic patients, >6 months after the completion of oral immunotherapy (n = 197). Questionnaires, skin prick tests, and basophil activation assays were performed. Of the 195 patients contacted, 180 (92.3%) were consuming milk protein regularly. Half experienced adverse reactions, mostly mild. Thirteen patients (6.7%) required injectable epinephrine. Higher reaction rate after immunotherapy was associated with more anaphylactic episodes before treatment and a lower starting dose (OR = 2.1, P = 0.035 and OR = 2.3, P = 0.035, respectively). Reaction rate in patients who were 6-15 months, 15-30 months, or >30 months post-treatment decreased from 0.28/month to 0.21/month to 0.15/month, respectively (P Milk-induced %CD63 and %CD203c expression was significantly lower in patients >24 months vs in patients <24 months post-treatment (P = 0.038 and P = 0.047, respectively). In conclusion, many patients experience mild adverse reactions after completing oral immunotherapy and some require injectable epinephrine. Progressive desensitization, both clinically and in basophil reactivity, occurs over time. PMID:26482941
Demoly, Pascal; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Sastre, Joaquin; Wahn, Ulrich
Allergy immunotherapy (AIT) is acknowledged to produce beneficial mid- and long-term clinical and immunologic effects and increased quality of life in patients with allergic respiratory diseases (such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma). However, poor adherence to AIT (due to intentional and/or non-intentional factors) is still a barrier to achieving these benefits. There is an urgent need for patient support programs (PSPs) that encompass communication, educational and motivational components. In the field of AIT, a PSP should be capable of (1) improving adherence, (2) boosting patient engagement, (3) explaining how AIT differs from pharmacological allergy treatments; (4) increasing health literacy about chronic, progressive, immunoglobulin-E-mediated immune diseases, (5) helping the patient to understand and manage local or systemic adverse events, and (6) providing and/or predicting local data on aeroallergen levels. We reviewed the literature in this field and have identified a number of practical issues to be addressed when implementing a PSP for AIT: the measurement of adherence, the choice of technologies, reminders, communication channels and content, the use of "push" messaging and social networks, interactivity, and the involvement of caregivers and patient leaders. A key issue is "hi-tech" (i.e. approaches based mainly on information technology) vs. "hi-touch" (based mainly on interaction with humans, i.e. family members, patient mentors and healthcare professionals). We conclude that multistakeholder PSPs (combining patient-, provider and society-based actions) must now be developed and tested with a view to increasing adherence, efficacy and safety in the field of AIT. PMID:27478445
... Allergies Disabilities? Allergies Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Latex Allergy ... Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Latex Allergy Mold Allergy Pet Allergy Pollen ...
Kumar, Mudnakudu Nagaraju Kiran; Zhou, Chang; Wu, Mei X
Allergen specific immunotherapy has been shown to be the only effective treatment for long-lasting clinical benefit to IgE-mediated allergic diseases, but a fewer than 5% of patients choose the treatment because of inconvenience and a high risk of anaphylaxis. Recently, epicutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (EPIT) has proven effective, yet with limitations owing to strong skin reactions. We demonstrate here safer and faster EPIT, named μEPIT, by delivering powdered allergen and adjuvants into many micropores in the epidermis. We fabricated a microarray patch fractionally coated with a powder mixture of ovalbumin (OVA) model allergen, CpG, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3). Topical application of the patch onto laser-microperforated skin resulted in a high level of epidermal delivery while greatly minimizing allergen leakage into circulation system as compared to current subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Moreover, only three times of μEPIT over two weeks could sufficiently inhibit allergen-specific IgE responses in mice suffering OVA-induced airway hyperresponsivness (AHR), which was unattainable by eight times of SCIT over three weeks. Mechanistically, μEPIT preferably enhanced IgG2a production suggesting TH1-biased immune responses and induced a high level of T-regulatory (Treg) cells against repeated allergen sensitization. The immune tolerance was confirmed by marked reduction in airway wall thickness as well as eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration into the respiratory airway. The μEPIT represents a novel and painless technology to treat IgE-mediated allergic diseases with little local skin reaction and a minimal risk of anaphylaxis. PMID:27235977
Dahl, Ronald; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; deMonchy, Jan G. R.; Rak, Sabina; Emminger, Waltraud; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Ribel, Mette; Durham, Stephen R.
Background: Allergen immunotherapy (desensitization) by injection is effective for seasonal allergic rhinitis and has been shown to induce long-term disease remission. The sublingual route also has potential, although definitive evidence from large randomized controlled trials has been lacking. Obje
... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...
... This medicine comes in an easy-to-carry container that looks like a pen. Epinephrine is available ... allergens. People with environmental allergies should keep their house clean of dust and pet dander and watch ...
Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr;
tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test...
Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr;
corticosteroid (ICS) reduction period. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted between August 2011 and April 2013 in 109 European trial sites. The trial included 834 adults with HDM allergy-related asthma not well controlled by ICS or combination products......, and with HDM allergy-related rhinitis. Key exclusion criteria were FEV1 less than 70% of predicted value or hospitalization due to asthma within 3 months before randomization. Efficacy was assessed during the last 6 months of the trial when ICS was reduced by 50% for 3 months and then completely...... moderate or severe asthma exacerbation during the ICS reduction period. Secondary outcomes were deterioration in asthma symptoms, change in allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), change in asthma control or asthma quality-of-life questionnaires, and adverse events. RESULTS: Among 834 randomized...
930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with
Marcucci, F; Duse, M; Frati, F; Incorvaia, C; Marseglia, G L; La Rosa, M
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is currently the most prescribed form of allergen immunotherapy in many European countries. Its use has been accepted in the international consensus publications, and recently also the scepticism of USA scientists is attenuated. Still, this treatment may be improved, and the possible developments consist of modification of the materials, use of adjuvants and use of recombinant allergens. Moreover, new applications of SLIT, such as food allergy, seem promising. Concerning materials, the future form of SLIT is likely to be represented by tablets, which were already tested for efficacy and safety with grass pollen extracts, and are likely to increase the convenience for the patient by the use of no-updosing schedule. Adjuvants fitting with the characteristics of SLIT seem to be CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG), able to interact with the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) whose activation induces a Th1-like pattern of cytokine release, combination of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 plus dexamethasone (VitD3-Dex), and Lactobacillus plantarum. The approach with recombinant allergens, named component-resolved diagnosis, offers the possibility to tailor immunotherapy, which was found to be effective in two randomized trials of subcutaneous SIT (16-17), while studies with SLIT are not yet available. Regarding food allergy, an important controlled study demonstrated that SLIT with hazelnut is able to increase patients tolerance over possible reactions from inadvertent assumption of the culprit food, and warrants for further trials with other foods. PMID:19944008
de Jongste Johan C
Full Text Available Abstract Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on ... as pills, chewable tablets, capsules, and liquids. How antihistamines help Antihistamines treat these allergy symptoms: Congestion, runny ...
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based o...
到目前为止,食物过敏治疗尚没有确切的有效治疗方法,主要采用回避过敏原和针对严重过敏反应急诊处理等方法,口服免疫治疗(oral immunotherapy,OIT)作为一种新的食物过敏治疗方法,它能诱导IgE介导的儿童食物过敏的脱敏,但仍不了解诱导耐受的状况能否持续.虽然OIT治疗过程中发生严重过敏反应并不多见,但不良反应是共同存在的.今后需在严格设计的多中心随机、双盲、对照研究基础上,进一步了解OIT治疗后过敏原耐受状况能否维持,并明确耐受的特异性实验室指标.%At present there is no definitive therapy for food allergy and the mainstays of treatment are allergen avoidance and ready access to emergency medications. Significant progress toward an novel oral immunotherapy (OIT)for food allergy has been made. These preliminary data on OIT are encouraging, OIT can be effective in desensitizing at least a subset of children with IgE-mediated food allergy, however, it remains uncertain whether OIT can induce long-term tolerance. During OIT, allergic reactions are common, although severe reactions are less common. Additional studies are needed to realize whether tolerance would be maintained, and to determine the specific laboratory indicators in rigorous multicenter randomized and placebo-controlled trials.
Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K
Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus on the recent advances in a proof of concept study in food allergy, FAST (Food allergy specific immunotherapy), which may increase interest within the biomolecular and pharmaceutical industry to embark on similar projects of immunology driven precision medicine within the allergy field. PMID:26558320
Rønborg, Steen; Johnsen, Claus R; Theilgaard, Sune; Winther, Anders; Hahn-Pedersen, Julie; Andreasen, Jakob Nørgaard; Olsen, Jens
Objectives Currently, patients with persistent moderate-to-severe house dust mite (HDM) allergic rhinitis despite use of symptom-relieving medication can be offered subcutaneously administered allergy immunotherapy (SQ SCIT; Alutard SQ) as standard care of treatment in Denmark. Recently, a HDM sublingually administered allergy immunotherapy tablet (SQ SLIT-tablet; ACARIZAX) has been developed for at-home treatment. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the costs related to treatment and administration of SQ SLIT-tablet and SQ SCIT. Methods Assuming equal efficacy between ther SQ SLIT-tablet and SQ SCIT, the cost-minimization analysis was the most appropriate for the comparison. According to guidelines and Summary of Product Characteristics, the treatment duration of SQ SLIT-tablet is 3 years and 3-5 years for SQ SCIT. The courses of treatment vary among patients and, therefore, the costs of treatment have been calculated for an average patient with HDM respiratory allergic disease (RAD) receiving either SQ SLIT-tablet or SQ SCIT. All costs associated with allergy immunotherapy were collected, i.e., cost of medication, administration and treatment setting, and discounted according to Danish guidelines. Comprehensive univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results The treatment costs for an average patient with HDM RAD are €3094 for SQ SLIT-tablet and €3799 for SQ SCIT; however, when adding indirect costs to the calculations the total costs of the treatments are €3697 and €6717 for SQ SLIT-tablet and SQ SCIT, respectively. Therefore, if 2500 patients with HDM RAD were treated with SQ SLIT-tablet instead of SQ SCIT, it would elicit a saving to the healthcare system of ∼€1.8 million. The conclusion was robust to any changes in the sensitivity analysis. Conclusion With regards to the cost of treating Danish patients with HDM RAD, it is clearly cost-saving to treat patients with SQ SLIT-tablet compared to SQ SCIT. PMID:26909663
Joshi, Smita; Dimov, Ves
Technology and social media have dramatically altered the landscape in which we practice medicine. Clinicians have increasingly turned to technology and the internet to enhance patient care. Allergists have used these modalities to improve utilization and adherence to immunotherapy. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are being widely adopted by allergy practices and some offer allergy/immunology specific modules that aid in daily workflow. The development of specialized devices that reduce pain associated with immunotherapy administration may improve compliance with immunotherapy. Social media and other forms of electronic communication such as e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, short message service (SMS), and YouTube give clinicians multiple avenues to disseminate information and reach their patients, possibly improving patient adherence to therapy. Finally, tablet computers, online networks, and electronic surveys provide additional ways to connect patients and physicians. PMID:25709743
Full Text Available En la actualidad la alergia al látex es un problema importante dada la gravedad de la sintomatología que produce y los grupos de riesgo a los que implica. La evitación completa del látex resulta prácticamente imposible, por lo que en los últimos años se ha estado trabajando intensamente en la estandarización de un extracto con el fin de mejorar no sólo el diagnóstico clínico sino de poder ofertar otra alternativa terapéutica a la evitación tal como la inmunoterapia. Desde 1998 se han comunicado en la literatura aproximaciones puntuales de inmunoterapia con látex con pauta de desensibilización oral (tres pacientes, subcutánea (un paciente y sublingual (un paciente. En todos los casos la mejoría clínica fue evidente. En el momento actual, la inmunoterapia subcutánea con látex, aunque se muestra eficaz, es un tratamiento de alto riesgo. La IT sublingual con látex ha sido recientemente comercializado en España y conocemos su eficacia por los resultados de un ensayo abierto en 26 pacientes adultos. Las expectativas de seguridad se muestran mejores que para la vía subcutánea.At present, allergy to latex is an important problem due to the severity of the symptomatology that it produces and the risk groups involved. Complete avoidance of latex is practically impossible, which is why in recent years there has been intense work on standardizing an extract in order not only to improve its clinical diagnosis but also to be able to offer a therapeutic alternative other than avoidance, such as immunotherapy. Since 1998, timely approaches to immunotherapy with latex have been published, with oral desensitization (three patients, subcutaneous (one patient and sublingual (one patient. In every case there was an evident clinical improvement. At present, subcutaneous immunotherapy with latex, although efficient, is a high risk treatment. Sublingual immunotherapy with latex has recently been commercialized in Spain and we know of its
Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents
... attracts these insects. Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips: Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...
With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods.
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141
de Bot, Cindy M. A.; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Roder, Esther; de Groot, Hans; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; van der Wouden, Johannes C.
Background: For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized doub
Mitsias, Dimitris I; Kalogiros, Lampros A; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G
The only method aiming to permanently cure allergic disorders is allergen immunotherapy. Over the last 20 years there has been great progress in understanding the mechanisms that govern allergen immunotherapy in order to meet three basic prerequisites: safety, effectiveness and compliance. In the present summary report from the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology-World Allergy Organization Congress held last June in Milan, we review key points concerning the main axes as diagnosis, novel modalities, routes and protocols, as well as two important immunotherapy fields: food and insect venom allergy. PMID:24088073
Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;
Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...
Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of
Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or wher...
Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876
Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;
BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AI...
Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment
Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen
Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future. PMID:23329212
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Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine. Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.
Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo
IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11 months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693
Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;
To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses in......-presenting cells (mostly Langerhans and myeloid dendritic cells) exhibit a tolerogenic phenotype, despite constant exposure to danger signals from food and microbes. This reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses leading to systemic allergic reactions. Oral tissues contain relatively few mast...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...
Hrubiško, M; Špičák, V
Specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only therapeutic method with positive impact on natural course of allergic disease - affecting clinical development (including the progression of rhinitis to asthma) and new sensitisations. The actual problem is the increasing number of patients manifesting poly-sensitivity in allergy skin tests and / or in specific IgE tests. Usually, AIT is not recommended in such individuals. The objective we are facing is that in many patients tested as poly-reactive, we have to distinguish in which cases it is a true polysensitization, and when it is due to cross-reactivity of specific IgE antibodies induced by panallergens. This may really determine when AIT may be an appropriate course of action. The article focuses on this problem in more detail, applying the long time Czech and Slovak experience with allergy testing and allergen immunotherapy. PMID:27152601
Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S
During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122
Kerzl, Regina; Mempel, Martin; Ring, Johannes
Specific immunotherapy (SIT) protocols for nutritional allergens have only recently been established with a focus on oral allergy syndrome because of pollen cross-reacting antibodies. For these patients, a substantial number of studies have been published suggesting benefits from SIT. The situation in true anaphylaxis to food allergens such as peanut allergy is more complex, and therapeutic strategies are based on individual protocols rather than controlled studies. However, in defined cases,...
Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.
could be demonstrated in immunoblotting experiments with Bet v1 specific IgE containing serum samples from patients suffering birch pollen allergy. Conclusions The impact of this study can be seen in the usage of a gram-positive organism for the production of pyrogen-free self-assembling recombinant S-layer/allergen fusion protein with great relevance for the development of vaccines for immunotherapy of atopic allergy.
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Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M.; Senti, Gabriela
IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the a...
Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Bousquet, Jean; Sheikh, Aziz; Frew, Anthony; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Malling, Hans J; Valenta, Rudolph; Bilo, Beatrice; Nieto, Antonio; Akdis, Cezmi; Just, Jocelyne; Vidal, Carmen; Varga, Eva M; Alvarez-Cuesta, Emilio; Bohle, Barbara; Bufe, Albrecht; Canonica, Walter G; Cardona, Victoria; Dahl, Ronald; Didier, Alain; Durham, Stephen R; Eng, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Jacobsen, Lars; Jutel, Marek; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Lötvall, Jan; Moreno, Carmen; Mosges, Ralph; Muraro, Antonella; Niggemann, Bodo; Pajno, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Rak, Sabina; Senna, Gianenrico; Senti, Gabriela; Valovirta, Erkka; van Hage, Marianne; Virchow, Johannes C; Wahn, Ulrich; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos
Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals' quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a
Calderon Moises A
Full Text Available Abstract Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy. Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in
Full Text Available Elide Anna Pastorello,1 Laura Losappio,1 Stefania Milani,2 Giuseppina Manzotti,3 Valentina Fanelli,4 Valerio Pravettoni,5 Fabio Agostinis,6 Alberto Flores D’Arcais,7 Ilaria Dell'Albani,8 Paola Puccinelli,9 Cristoforo Incorvaia,10 Franco Frati81Allergy and Immunology Department, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, 2Allergy Department, San Marco General Hospital, Bergamo, 3Allergy Department, Treviglio Hospital, Bergamo, 4Allergy Department, Italian Institute for Auxology, Milan, 5Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit, Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, 6Department of Pediatrics, Riuniti Hospital, Bergamo, 7Department of Pediatrics, Legnano Hospital, Milan, 8Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes Italy, Milan, 9Regulatory Department, Stallergenes Italy, Milan, 10Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyBackground: An important subpopulation in allergic rhinitis is represented by patients with severe form of disease that is not responsive to drug treatment. It has been reported that grass pollen subcutaneous immunotherapy is effective in drug-resistant patients. In a real-life study, we evaluated the efficacy of 5-grass pollen tablets in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug therapy.Methods: We carried out this multicenter observational study in adults and adolescents with grass-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug therapy who were treated for a year with 5-grass pollen tablets. Clinical data collected before and after sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT included Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA classification of allergic rhinitis, response to therapy, and patient satisfaction.Results: Forty-seven patients entered the study. By ARIA classification, three patients had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, ten had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and 34 had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. There were no cases
Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.
... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Egg Allergy Diagnosis Treatment Getting the Flu Vaccine Food Labels: What ...
Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available t...
Hourihane, Jonathan O'B
Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.
Nasal allergies are prevalent affecting a large percentage of the population. Not only the upper respiratory tract but the whole body is involved. Allergies produce morbidity (and even occasional mortality) as they can lead to asthma development, and increased number of accidents. Immunotherapy results can be evaluated by following symptom scores, medication use, and objective measurements. Using a Peak Flow Meter (Pf) to evaluate immunotherapy results, it became evident that patients with and without asthma exhibited an improvement in the Peak Flow (PF) value, suggesting that lower airway involvement in allergic patients could be more prevalent than assumed. A consecutive chart review was performed including patients of any age with nasal allergies (with or without asthma) treated with immunotherapy for at least 6 months that had at least 2 complete evaluations. When immunotherapy was successful, most patients exhibited an increase in the PF value regardless of asthma status. A very significant finding was that most allergy sufferers may have lower airway inflammation. The use of the PF value to assess immunotherapy results and the potential failure to diagnose asthma in allergy sufferers are discussed. A better diagnosis of lower airway inflammation could be substantial in the management of these patients pulmonary function
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...
... a skin test. A doctor or nurse will scratch the skin (usually on the forearm or back) ... Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Celiac Disease Egg Allergy Allergy Testing Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...
... cheese, soy fiber, soy flour, soy grits, soy ice cream, soy milk, soy nuts, soy sprouts, soy yogurt) ... Kaeding AJ, Matsui EC, Wood RA. The natural history of soy allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2010; ...
Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Leo, Gualtiero; Ridolo, Erminia
Adherence is a major issue in any medical treatment. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is particularly affected by a poor adherence because a flawed application prevents the immunological effects that underlie the clinical outcome of the treatment. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1990s, and the early studies suggested that adherence and compliance to such a route of administration was better than the traditional subcutaneous route. However, the recent data from manufacturers revealed that only 13% of patients treated with SLIT reach the recommended 3-year duration. Therefore, improved adherence to SLIT is an unmet need that may be achieved by various approaches. The utility of patient education and accurate monitoring during the treatment was demonstrated by specific studies, while the success of technology-based tools, including online platforms, social media, e-mail, and a short message service by phone, is currently considered to improve the adherence. This goal is of pivotal importance to fulfill the object of SLIT that is to modify the natural history of allergy, ensuring a long-lasting clinical benefit, and a consequent pharmaco-economic advantage, when patients complete at least a 3-year course of treatment. PMID:26758865
Full Text Available Getahun Abate,1 Daniel F Hoft1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy and Immunology, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB is still a major global health problem. A third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only ~10% of infected individuals develop TB but there are 9 million TB cases with 1.5 million deaths annually. The standard prophylactic treatment regimens for latent TB infection take 3–9 months, and new cases of TB require at least 6 months of treatment with multiple drugs. The management of latent TB infection and TB has become more challenging because of the spread of multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant TB. Intensified efforts to find new TB drugs and immunotherapies are needed. Immunotherapies could modulate the immune system in patients with latent TB infection or active disease, enabling better control of M. tuberculosis replication. This review describes several types of potential immunotherapies with a focus on those which have been tested in humans. Keywords: tuberculosis, HDT, immunotherapy, treatment
Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.
wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to wheat. Keywords: IgE mediated food allergy, non-IgE mediated food allergy, wheat allergy, baker’s asthma, wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis
Eigenmann, P A
Up to 5% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. Several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, by the oral route or by systemic injections shows promising preliminary results, but current interpretation of these therapeutic options are mostly handicapped by studies with insufficient scientific support, or by severe side-effects. Currently, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. Finally, most promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, or various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure of food allergy in the near future. PMID:14616094
Up to 6% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have IgE-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. The only proven treatment is avoidance of the offending food, which can be identified using standardised allergic tests. However, several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, administered orally or by systemic injections, shows promising preliminary results, but these therapeutics are based on studies with insufficient scientific support, or are associated with a high risk of severe side effects. At present, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. However, promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, and various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T-cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure for food allergy in the near future. PMID:15571483
Gouw, Launce G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Jones, Kevin B. [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Randall, R. Lor [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)
Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis.
Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis
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Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... vomiting to life-threatening anaphylaxis . A true drug allergy is caused by a series of chemical steps ...
Fedorov, A. S.; L. S. Litvinova; V. I. But-Gusaim; S. N. Litvinenko
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is the most effective method of allergy treatment which consists of exposure to small doses of antigen responsible for development of allergic condition in the particular patient. Therefore, one may achieve desensitization to this antigen. The history of ASIT application lasts for more than 100 years, and, over this time, huge clinical evidence for the usage of the method has been accumulated. Use of ASIT causes reduction of allergy symptoms and treatmen...
Conrad, Melanie L; Renz, Harald; Blaser, Kurt
Allergy is the consequence of an inappropriate inflammatory immune response generated against harmless environmental antigens. In allergic disorders such as asthma and rhinitis, the Th2 mediated phenotype is a result of loss of peripheral tolerance mechanisms. In cases such as these, approaches such as immunotherapy attempt to treat the underlying cause of allergic disease by restoring tolerance. Immunotherapy initiates many complex mechanisms within the immune system that result in initiation of innate immunity, activation of both cellular and humoral B cell immunity, as well as triggering T regulatory subsets which are major players in the establishment of peripheral tolerance. Though studies clearly demonstrate immunotherapy to be efficacious, research to improve this treatment is ongoing. Investigation of allergenicity versus immunogenicity, native versus modified allergens, and the use of adjuvant and modality of dosing are all current strategies for immunotherapy advancement that will be reviewed in this article. PMID:21598104
... McAllen, TX The report looks at 3 important factors: Pollen score Allergy medication usage Availability of Board-certified allergists This year’s report named Jackson, Mississippi, as the top Spring Allergy Capital due to its: Higher than average pollen Higher ...
Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)
Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M
Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. PMID:25902841
. However, in spite of having been shown to be safe, it is not free of adverse effects and must be administered under the supervision of medical personnel. This has encouraged the search for new ways of administration of similar efficacy, with a good safety profile and good adherence on the patient’s side. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is the most relevant of the different alternatives studied. In this alternative the antigen is administered in the form of drops under the tongue. There are different dosages of administration depending on the allergen involved. The optimum treatment dose has still to be determined, at present a wide range of dosages are found in comparison with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Its mechanism of action is little known although immunological changes have been observed in different studies. SLIT has shown a good safety profile with scarce secondary effects, normally of a local character. Similarly, different clinical tests have been carried out in which its efficacy has been shown in the treatment of respiratory allergy both in children and in adults. For this reason, although there are still unresolved data concerning this way of administering the immunotherapy, it has been proposed by the WHO as a valid alternative to SCIT.
Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar
Summary The present guideline (S2k) on allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) was established by the German, Austrian and Swiss professional associations for allergy in consensus with the scientific specialist societies and professional associations in the fields of otolaryngology, dermatology and venereology, pediatric and adolescent medicine, pneumology as well as a German patient organization (German Allergy and Asthma Association; Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) according to the ...
Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with
Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi
An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730
Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Devereux, Graham; Sheikh, Azizx
Background Oral and sublingual immunotherapy to food allergens aim to enable the safe consumption of the foods containing these allergens. Methods Systematic review of intervention studies, searching 11 international databases and contacting an international panel of experts. Studies were critically appraised using the Cochrane approach and meta-analysed. Results We identified 721 potentially relevant papers, from which we selected 16 reports of 14 eligible trials (12 randomised controlled tr...
... Safe Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A ... egg allergy will usually carry — or have a grown-up carry — an epinephrine injection, just in case. continue ...
An allergy shot is medicine that is injected into your body. The medicine contains a small amount of an allergen . This ... Insect venom A doctor or nurse gives you shots over the course of 3 to 5 years. ...
... Fight the Cause of Allergies CIU & You Get Smart About Asthma Know Your Count Tackle Asthma Tackle ... leaks. Promote ground water drainage away from a house. Remove leaves and dead vegetation near the foundation ...
... little swelling that looks and feels like a mosquito bite will occur where the allergen(s) to which ... of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) believes are not useful, effective or may lead to inappropriate diagnosis and ...
... requires immediate medical attention. The thin, stretchy latex rubber in gloves, condoms and balloons is high in this protein. ... Latex is a rubber product. Am I at risk for other rubber allergies? What products contain latex? How do I ...
... help reduce the severity of pollen allergy symptoms. Antihistamines Antihistamines, which are taken by mouth or as a ... to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness. Some older antihistamines can cause side effects such as drowsiness and ...
... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. Symptoms ...
Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Muraro, Antonella
There is an unmet medical need for an effective food allergy therapy; thus, development of therapeutic interventions for food allergy is a top research priority. The food allergen-nonspecific therapies for food-induced anaphylaxis include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies and Chinese herbs. The food allergen-specific therapies include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation. Oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. PMID:21453816
Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley
Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224
... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient ... life more enjoyable. Why does the body develop allergies? Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts ...
... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Allergy Shots KidsHealth > For Parents > Allergy Shots Print A ... to help a child deal with them. Why Allergy Shots Are Used An allergy occurs when the ...
Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...
Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;
Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the...
Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;
Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....
Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to
Full Text Available In 1993 the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology was the first official organization to recognize that sublingual administration could be “promising route” for allergic desensitization. A few years later, the World Health Organization recommended this therapy as “a viable alternative to the injection route in adults.” The first meta-analysis showed sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy (SLIT effectiveness for allergic rhinitis and another study showed SLIT can actually help prevent the development of asthma both in adults and in children. The main goal of this review article is to present insight into the most up-to-date understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. A literature review was performed on PubMed from 1990 to 2015 using the terms “asthma,” “allergic rhinitis,” “children,” “allergen specific immune therapy.” Evaluating data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (DB-PC-RCTs, the clinical efficacy (assessed as the reduction of symptom score and the need of rescue medicament of SLIT for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, has been confirmed in various meta-analysis Outcomes such as rhinoconjunctivitis score and medication scores, combined scores, quality of life, days with severe symptoms, immunological endpoints, and safety parameters were all improved in the SLIT-tablet compared with placebo group. SLIT safety has been already proven in many DB-PC-RCTs and real-life settings. In accordance with all of the above mentioned, the goals for future trials and studies are the development of comprehensive guidelines for clinical practice on immunotherapy, embracing all the different potential participants. The importance of allergen immunotherapy is of special relevance in the pediatric age, when the plasticity and modulability of the immune system are maximal, and when
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them. Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/23/2013.
... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...
Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Sterner, Therese; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Smedje, Greta
Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results. PMID:24803940
Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.
Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.
In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom sensitisatio
Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
... allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that occur during certain times ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Environmental Control Measures Can Kids Get Allergies All Year? Do ...
... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...
Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...
... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...
Richter, J; Susický, P
The authors describe a case of an allergic affection in a patient with occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, revealed by the method CAP Phadiatop. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. The authors emphasize the high incidence of latex allergy, the manifestations of which may be encountered also in clinical ophthalmology. PMID:10874793
Warrington Richard; Silviu-Dan Fanny
Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR) not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis a...
Kemp, Andrew S
Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.
Murphy, Joseph F.
Modulation of the immune system for therapeutic ends has a long history, stretching back to Edward Jenner’s use of cowpox to induce immunity to smallpox in 1796. Since then, immunotherapy, in the form of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, has enabled doctors to treat and prevent a variety of infectious diseases, including cholera, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles and mumps. Immunotherapy is now increasingly being applied to oncology. Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the power an...
Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.
Joshi, Smita; Dimov, Ves
Technology and social media have dramatically altered the landscape in which we practice medicine. Clinicians have increasingly turned to technology and the internet to enhance patient care. Allergists have used these modalities to improve utilization and adherence to immunotherapy. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are being widely adopted by allergy practices and some offer allergy/immunology specific modules that aid in daily workflow. The development of specialized devices that reduce pai...
Neimert Andersson, Theresa
Allergy is a common disease in the industrialized countries, affecting approximately 25% of the population. Therefore, there is a need to find new treatment strategies to improve the quality of life for allergic individuals. Today the only treatment that gives long-lasting reduction of allergic symptoms is allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). However, despite successful clinical outcome, the method as it is performed today has some drawbacks such as therapy associated side...
O'Leary, Paula F G
Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.
... people with pet allergy do better with a dog that has short hair or sheds less. Question 2 Pet allergies are triggered by the hair on a pet. True False False: Pet allergies are caused by an allergen found on the pet’s skin (dander), saliva or urine. Question 3 Symptoms of pet allergy ...
Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin
Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR is a disease with high and increasing prevalence. The management of AR includes allergen avoidance, anti-allergic drugs, and allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT, but only the latter works on the causes of allergy and, due to its mechanisms of action, modifies the natural history of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT was proposed in the 1990s as an option to traditional, subcutaneous immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed all the available controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of SLIT. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Thus far, more than 60 trials, globally evaluated in 6 meta-analyses, showed that SLIT is an effective and safe treatment for AR. However, it must be noted that to expect clinical efficacy in the current practice SLIT has to be performed following the indications from controlled trials, that is, sufficiently high doses to be regularly administered for at least 3 consecutive years.
Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Morfín, Blanca María
It has been described two main phenotypes of helper T cells. On activation, the immune system develops the most effective Th response. Whereas Th1 cells promote cell-mediate immunity against intracellular pathogens and an over expression could favor autoimmune diseases; Th2 cells develop humoral immunity against extracellular pathogens promoting allergic response. Normally, the two profiles coexist in the same individual with different grades of expression. Recently, it has been described a new subset: Th17, which is related to tissue injury in autoimmune diseases. Then, allergic and autoimmune diseases result from an unbalanced response of the immune system. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of a specific allergy, which leads to a life-long tolerance against allergens. There are no controlled studies about the effectiveness or risks associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, scleroderma is an autoimmune chronic systemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by excess collagen deposition in the skin and viscera, along with vascular injury. We report a girl with allergic asthma and with a second degree family history of systemic sclerosis who developed localized scleroderma during allergen specific immunotherapy. Because allergy vaccination alter the balance between effector and regulatory T-cell populations, which regulate immune tolerance, a positive family history of autoimmunity in first or second degree, could be a contraindication for allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:19768975
Full Text Available Abstract Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT is the practice of administering gradually increasing doses of the specific causative allergen to reduce the clinical reactivity of allergic subjects, and is the only treatment targeting the causes of hypersensitivity and not only the symptoms, as done by drugs. The traditional, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT was burdened by the problem of systemic reactions which may be sometimes severe and - though very rarely - even fatal. This was the background to develop non injections routes for SIT and particularly sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT, that emerged as a real treatment option for respiratory allergy. A number of studies was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of SLIT, the first meta-analysis - including 22 placebo-controlled trials - concluded for positive results in both issues, but the number of studies on children was too low to draw definite conclusions. Since then, many other studies became available and make possible to analyze SLIT in children in its well defined aspects as well as in sides still requiring more solid data.
van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk;
to dietary habits. Molecular allergology and biotechnology now offer the possibility to combat the increasing burden of food allergy by developing safe immunotherapies for food allergy, using hypoallergenic mutant recombinant molecules. The first clinical trials to evaluate such approaches are underway. Last......Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune...... disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac...
... and Children" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 22, 2013 Allergy Shots and Allergy Drops for Adults and Children Formats View PDF ( ... this Web page . Understanding Your Condition What are allergies? An allergy is a reaction your body has ...
Jutel, Marek; Kosowska, Anna; Smolinska, Sylwia
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), although in clinical use for more than a century, is still the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. The safety and efficacy of AIT has been demonstrated in a large number of clinical trials. In addition to allergy symptom reduction AIT plays an essential role in preventing new allergies and asthma and shows long-term effects after discontinuation of treatment. Ideally, it is capable of curing allergy. However, AIT is not effective in all allergic individuals and is not equally effective in the treatment of various hypersensitivities to different allergens. For many years, the route of administration and the vaccine compositions have been evolving. Still there is a strong need for research in the field of new AIT modalities to increase its effectiveness and safety. Growing evidence on immunological effects of AIT, especially new T cell subsets involved in antigen/allergen tolerance, provides novel concepts for safer and more effective vaccination. Pharmacoeconomic studies have demonstrated a clear advantage of AIT over pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26922928
Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela
IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873
Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E
Allergy to natural rubber latex products emerged as an important clinical condition following an increase in the use of latex gloves for barrier protection in the early 1980s. In addition to latex glove users, other high-risk groups with different latex exposure include spina bifida patients and others with multiple surgical procedures. Subjects with fruit and vegetable allergy are also at risk due to cross-reactive allergens. Following the significant advances in the identification and characterization of common aeroallergens, latex allergy was well placed to become an excellent model of therapy. Awareness of latex allergy and modes of sensitization enabled epidemiological studies to inform allergen avoidance initiatives, substantially reducing inadvertent exposure in major hospitals in Western countries. Spina bifida is often identified in utero or soon after birth, allowing vigorous latex allergen avoidance with enhanced efficacy of primary prevention. However, changing demographics of latex allergy and technological revolution in countries such as China and India are predicted to unleash a second wave of latex allergy reemphasizing the incentive for improved manufacturing procedures for latex products. The desirable high tensile strength and elasticity of natural rubber latex have made the commercial identification of good alternatives very difficult but this would also be attractive for primary prevention. In addition, an effective specific immunotherapy regimen would be valuable for selected high-risk atopic individuals. Current subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy schedules have been tested for treatment of latex allergy with evidence of efficacy but the risks of adverse events are high. For such potent allergens as latex, hypoallergenic but T cell-reactive preparations are required for clinical use. Identification of allergenic components of latex products, with generation of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant allergens, allowed sequence
... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Latex allergy TTR Share | Latex Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... not contain any natural rubber latex protein. Latex allergy was unusual until the late 1980s when more ...
... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Food allergy TTR Share | Food Allergy For most people, celebrations are fun events. But ... the cells release chemicals including histamine, which cause food allergy symptoms such as itching, hives, swelling, diarrhea, wheezing ...
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.
Yashin К.S.; Medyanik I.А.
The review analyzes Russian and foreign reports concerned with a rapidly developing brain cancer treatment technique — immunotherapy. There has been presented a current view on the basic concept of antitumor immunity, on the problem of immune system interaction with a tumor in general and under the conditions of an immunologically privileged nervous system, shown the theoretical background of efficiency of immunotherapy used against brain cancer (the capability of tumor antigens and activated...
Food allergy is a serious medical problem without definitive treatment at this time. Intense research focuses on severe peanut allergy. Recombinant peanut major allergens engineered to lose IgE binding capacity mixed with E coli showed great promise in a murine model of peanut anaphylaxis. Rectal vaccine containing E.coli expressing engineered recombinant major peanut allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3 is in preparation for first human clinical trials. Oral desensitization and sublingual immunotherapy w...
Pasquale Mansueto; Giuseppe Montalto; Maria Luisa Pacor; Maria Esposito-Pellitteri; Vito Ditta; Claudia Lo Bianco; Stefania Maria Leto-Barone; Gabriele Di Lorenzo
Food allergy is a common and increasing problem worldwide. The newly-found knowledge might provide novel experimental strategies, especially for laboratory diagnosis. Approximately 20% of the population alters their diet for a perceived adverse reaction to food, but the application of double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the "gold standard" for diagnosis of food allergy, shows that questionnaire-based studies overestimate the prevalence of food allergies. The clinical disorders determined by adverse reactions to food can be classified on the basis of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms and the organ system or systems affected. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin prick tests, and laboratory tests to detect serum-food specific IgE, elimination diets and challenges. The primary therapy for food allergy is to avoid the responsible food. Antihistamines might partially relieve oral allergy syndrome and IgE-mediated skin symptoms,but they do not block systemic reactions. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in treating chronic IgE-mediated disorders. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylaxis. Experimental therapies for IgE-mecliated food allergy have been evaluated, such as humanized IgG anti-IgE antibodies and allergen specific immunotherapy.
... Close ‹ Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...
... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...
de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep;
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....
Food allergies and intolerance Summary It is rather necessary to distinguish between food allergy and food intolerance. While the nature of allergy is based on the immunological response, intolerance may be mostly caused by the lack of an enzyme that is needed to digest certain foods seamlessly. Clinical manifestations may be varied. These may be a more serious case of anaphylactic reaction, oral allergy syndrome, dermatological symptoms, gastrointestinal reactions or as respirato...
Inflammation is evoked in defence against invading pathogens entering the body. Sometimes inflammation is started against harmless antigens, which leads to allergic diseases, or against selfantigens or commensal microbiota as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This thesis addresses treatment of allergic disease and IBD and how immune cells are affected by the treatment. To date, the only curative treatment available for allergy is allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), whi...
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...
Rapp, Doris J.
Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)
DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson
Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…
Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy. PMID:26598816
... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...
Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy
Pham-Thi, N; de Blic, J; Scheinmann, P
Children with controlled intermittent mild-to-moderate asthma, controlled rhinitis and a single sensitivity may be appropriate candidates for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Positive effects of SLIT may depend on initiation in early childhood and a long duration of treatment. To ensure optimum compliance, sociological, economic and familial factors should also be taken in to consideration when prescribing SLIT. Evidence from recent long-term trials indicates that SLIT interfered with the atopic march and the allergic progression from rhinitis to asthma without any severe adverse side effects. Local immune response has been seen to be blunted with SLIT, which suggests that treatment has an immunomodulatory effect. In addition, it may also decrease the risk of new sensitizations. Ongoing developments in SLIT, particularly advances in dosing and new indications, such as food allergies, will increase the use of this treatment modality in children. PMID:16792599
Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M; Devillier, P
To cite this article: Howarth P, Malling H-J, Molimard M, Devillier P. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients. Allergy 2012; 67: 321-327. ABSTRACT: Background: The assessment of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) efficacy in the...... treatment for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) symptoms is challenging. Allergen immunotherapy differs from symptomatic therapy in that while symptomatic therapy treats patients after symptoms appear and aims to reduce symptoms, AIT is administered before symptoms are present and aims to prevent...... them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective of...
Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653
Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo
The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy. PMID:26595763
Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Valenta, Rudolf; Swoboda, Ines
Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710
Wang, Julie; Sicherer, Scott H
Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 3-4% of adults in Westernized countries, and is the most common cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most studies. The mainstay of treatment is strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding the use of emergency medication in cases of accidental ingestions or exposures. While these approaches are generally effective, there are no definitive treatments that cure or provide long-term remission from food allergy. However, with recent advances in characterizing food allergens and understanding humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy, several therapeutic strategies are being investigated. Potential treatments include allergen-specific immunotherapy as well as allergen-nonspecific approaches to downregulate the overall allergic response in food-allergic individuals. PMID:20477008
This thesis deals with the possibilities of portable tablets. The aim of the thesis is to describe tablet hardware, operating systems, applications and also current market situation. Furthermore thesis compares portable tablets and gives recommendations for the selection of the best one. The thesis includes the survey of extension of portable tablets among university students and their views on its use.
Hogue, Rebecca J.
This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…
DunnGalvin, Audrey; Chang, Wen Chin; Laubach, Susan; Steele, Pamela H.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; Burks, A. Wesley; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about specific psychological factors that affect parents' decisions to take part in clinical studies. We examined factors, related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), that may influence parents' decision to allow their children to participate in research on clinica
The fun is just a tap away with the nifty NOOK Tablet! It's an e-reader, it's a tablet, and it's hot! The NOOK Tablet offers all the advantages of an Android-based tablet, and this small-trim book is packed with information about how to use it. Learn to set up your NOOK Tablet, navigate the touchscreen, download and read e-books, access the Internet, use all the cool Android apps that are included, and much more. Find out how to create your own e-books, share books with others, listen to music or watch streaming video on your NOOK Tablet, personalize your tablet, add accessories, and
Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent
As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409
Woo Chee K; Bahna Sami L
Abstract The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-react...
... therapies in such disorders as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Inner-City Asthma Consortium: Since 1991, the NIAID ... reactions. Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies / Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment / Seasonal ...
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... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... proteins that cause allergic reactions. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins ...
Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Halken, Susanne; Calderón, Moises A; Muraro, Antonella; Roberts, Graham; Du Toit, George; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Pajno, Giovanni; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Pfaar, Oliver; Ryan, Dermot; Santos, Alexandra F; Timmermanns, Frans; Wahn, Ulrich; Sheikh, A
BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the...... established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. DISCUSSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recomendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
... in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ... Food Allergy Mom Gretchen Food Allergy Mom Managing Food Allergies Learn more about managing food allergies in ...
Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B
The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied a...
Martorell-Aragonés, A; Echeverría-Zudaire, L; Alonso-Lebrero, E; Boné-Calvo, J; Martín-Muñoz, M F; Nevot-Falcó, S; Piquer-Gibert, M; Valdesoiro-Navarrete, L
The present document offers an update on the recommendations for managing patients with cow's milk allergy - a disorder that manifests in the first year of life, with an estimated prevalence of 1.6-3% in this paediatric age group. The main causal allergens are the caseins and proteins in lactoserum (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactoalbumin), and the clinical manifestations are highly variable in terms of their presentation and severity. Most allergic reactions affect the skin, followed by the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, and severe anaphylaxis may occur. The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is based on the existence of a suggestive clinical history, a positive allergy study and the subsequent application of controlled exposure testing, which constitutes the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis. The most efficient treatment for cow's milk allergy is an elimination diet and the use of adequate substitution formulas. The elimination diet must include milk from other mammals (e.g., sheep, goat, etc.) due to the risk of cross-reactivity with the proteins of cow's milk. Most infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy become tolerant in the first few years of life. In those cases where cow's milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral immunotherapy, although most authors do not currently recommend this technique in routine clinical practice. Enough evidence is not there to confirm the efficacy of elimination diets in the mother and infant for preventing the appearance of cow's milk allergy. Likewise, no benefits have been observed with prebiotic and probiotic dietetic supplements in infants for preventing food allergy. PMID:25800671
Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672
Full Text Available With the recent advances in the immunological surveillance system, an understanding of the role of host immunity has become essential to the management of carcinogenesis, tumor proliferation, recurrence and metastasis. Although it is important to continue chemical and surgical treatment of cancer, support of the anti-tumor immune system of the host should also be considered. Long term remission has been reported in leukemia by treating with BCG after chemotherapy whereas surgical treatment is usually more effective in preventing cancer recurrence in digestive organ cancer. The first step is extirpating the tumor as thoroughly as possible and the second step is chemo-immunotherapy. Cancer immunity, however weak, constitutes the basis for other treatments in selectively attacking cancer cells remaining after surgery, chemotherapy or irradiation. Immunotherapy should thus not replace chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but these methods should be employed in combination to attain more favorable results.
Snyder, Alexandra; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Wolchok, Jedd D
The history of immunotherapy is rooted in the treatment of melanoma and therapy with immune checkpoint-blocking agents is now a cornerstone for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The first effective immunotherapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in melanoma included interleukin-2 for metastatic disease and interferon alpha in the adjuvant setting. These were followed by a group of new therapies, including checkpoint-blocking antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1. Therapies intended to 'reeducate' T cells, such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy, oncolytic viruses and tumor vaccines, have yielded promising results and are under development. Finally, the integration of the above therapies as well as development of new coinhibitory and costimulatory agents, though in early stages, appear very promising and likely represent the next phase in drug development for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26376963
Morais Silva, P; Antunes, J; Chambel, M; Prates, S.; Leiria-Pinto, P
Although the standard of care for cow’s milk (CM) allergy is strict food avoidance, oral immunotherapy (OIT) is being widely investigated as an alternative management option in certain cases. Immediate adverse reactions to OIT have been described, but its long-term effects are much less often reported. We present the case of a girl diagnosed with IgE-mediated CM allergy that was proposed for our CM OIT protocol at the age of 3 years. The first sessions (dose escalation up to 5 ml) were ...
Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Lorenzo Cecchi,2,3 Enrico Scala,4 Erminia Ridolo,5 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Eleni Makrì,6 Giovanni Pajno,7 Cristoforo Incorvaia6 1Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Interdepartmental Centre of Bioclimatology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Azienda Sanitaria di Prato, Prato, Italy; 4Experimental Allergy Unit, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; 6Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 7Department of Pediatrics, Allergy Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: The molecular allergy technique, currently defined as component-resolved diagnosis, significantly improved the diagnosis of allergy, allowing for differentiation between molecules actually responsible for clinical symptoms (genuine sensitizers and those simply cross-reacting or shared by several sources (panallergens, thus influencing the appropriate management of a patient's allergy. This also concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT, which may be prescribed more precisely based on the component-resolved diagnosis results. However, the advance in diagnosis needs to be mirrored in AIT. According to consensus documents and to expectations of specialists, therapy should be based on standardized extracts containing measured amounts of the clinically relevant molecules, ie, the major allergens. The new generation of extracts for sublingual immunotherapy fulfills these requirements and are thus defined as biomolecular (BM. BM refers to natural extracts with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms. All Staloral BM products are indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. The effectiveness of AIT is related to its ability to modify the immunological response of allergic subjects. The 5-grass and house dust mite extracts were evaluated addressing the T helper 1, T
Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M
A randomized controlled prospective evaluation of intravesical and percutaneous bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy was done in 57 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, 9 patients at high risk for tumor recurrence were treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin produced a self-limited cystitis and 1 complication (hydronephrosis) of immunotherapy was observed. Of the 57 randomized patients 54 were followed for 3 to 30 months. Tumor recurrence was documented in 13 of 26 controls (50 per cent) and only 6 of 28 patients (21 per cent) treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (p equals 0.027, chi-square). The interval free of disease was prolonged significantly with bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment (p equals 0.014, generalized Wilcoxon test). Importantly, a simple purified protein derivative skin test distinguished those patients who responded to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy from those who did not. Only 1 of 17 treated patients (6 per cent) whose purified protein derivative test converted from negative to positive had tumor recurrence compared to 5 recurrences (38 per cent) among the 13 patients whose test remained negative or had been positive before treatment (p equals 0.022, chi-square). Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was given to 10 patients with stage B transitional cell carcinoma who were not candidates for cystectomy and 7 are free of disease. Of 5 patients with carcinoma in situ 3 remain free of tumor after bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment and 5 of 6 who had multiple recurrences after intravesical chemotherapy responded favorably to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy. PMID:6757467
Full Text Available The review analyzes Russian and foreign reports concerned with a rapidly developing brain cancer treatment technique — immunotherapy. There has been presented a current view on the basic concept of antitumor immunity, on the problem of immune system interaction with a tumor in general and under the conditions of an immunologically privileged nervous system, shown the theoretical background of efficiency of immunotherapy used against brain cancer (the capability of tumor antigens and activated lymphocytes to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. There has been demonstrated the role of a transforming growth factor β, interleukin 10, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin Е2, protein MCP-1, interactions Fas-receptor/Fas-ligand, antigen-4 cytotoxic Т-lymphocytes in tumor immunoresistance development. The review presents a current classification of the types of active and passive immunotherapy, each of the types being considered separately specifying the characteristics, the results of preclinical and clinical trials of each type efficiency, and possible side effects. Special attention has been paid to a new concept of a key role of tumor stem cells in the pathogenesis of cerebral gliomas and the target action on these cells.
Taylor, Kelley R.
In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…
... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...
Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694
Full Text Available Angel Moral,1 Victoria Moreno,2 Francisco Girón,3 David El-Qutob,4 José D Moure,5 Manuel Alcántara,6 Antonia Padial,7 Alberto G Oehling,8 Carmen Millán,9 Fernando de la Torre10 1Allergy Service, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, 2Allergy Service, Hospital Blanca Paloma, Huelva, 3Consulta Privada, Granada, 4Allergy Service, Clínica Atenea, Castellón, 5Pediatric Department, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, A Coruña, 6Allergy Service, Complejo Hospitalario de Jaén, Jaén, 7Allergy Service, Hospital Infanta Sofía, Madrid, 8Centro de Alergia y Asma Balear, Mallorca, 9Consulta Privada, Cádiz, 10ALK-Abelló, SA, Madrid, Spain Background: Sublingual allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment against allergic respiratory disease. Many studies have shown the safety of this type of therapy, although the factors that might affect the tolerability of high-dose sublingual immunotherapy have not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that affect the tolerability of sublingual allergen immunotherapy.Patients and methods: A total of 183 subjects aged ≥5 years, diagnosed with allergic rhinitis with/without mild to moderate asthma due to sensitization to grass, olive pollen, or mites, were included in this open, retrospective, multicentric, noninterventional study. Sublingual immunotherapy was administered for at least 3 months.Results: The most frequent adverse reaction was oral pruritus (13.7% of the patients. Most of the reactions were local (84.7% and immediate (93.5% and occurred during the initiation phase (60.6%. All reactions were mild to moderate in severity. No serious adverse reactions were registered. When comparing factors with potential influence on the occurrence of adverse reactions, the results between the groups of subjects with and without adverse reactions showed no statistically significant differences in sex (P=0.6417, age (P=0.1801, years since the disease was first
Cezmi A Akdis; Akdis, Mübeccel
Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early d...
Weinberger, Esther E.; Himly, Martin; Myschik, Julia; Hauser, Michael; Altmann, Friedrich; Isakovic, Almedina; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard
The incidence of allergic disorders and asthma continuously increased over the past decades, consuming a considerable proportion of the health care budget. Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy represents the only intervention treating the underlying causes of type I allergies, but still suffers from unwanted side effects and low compliance. There is an urgent need for novel approaches improving safety and efficacy of this therapy. In the present study we investigated carbohydrate-medi...
O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mubeccel; Crameri, Reto; Akdis, Cezmi A
The immune response is a tightly regulated process, which normally results in protection from infection and tolerance of innocuous environmental antigens. However, in allergic disease, the activated immune response results in a chronic pro-inflammatory state characterized by antibody secretion (IgE) and T cell activation to normally well-tolerated antigens. Currently, the treatment of allergic disease is focused on the suppression of key inflammatory mediators or inflammatory cell populations and include anti-histamines, anti-leukotrienes, β2 adrenergic receptor agonists and corticosteroids. However, these approaches only provide a temporary suppression of disease symptoms. Successful long-term treatment can only be provided by allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT), which restores normal immunity against allergens. This review will discuss novel approaches to the management of allergy and asthma by targeting the T regulatory cell via modulation of the commensal microbiota and allergen-SIT. PMID:20380589
Falkentoft, Alexander Christian; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers
Passive anti-beta-amyloid (Aß) immunotherapy has been shown to clear brain Aß deposits. Results from phase III clinical trials in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with two monoclonal antibodies bapineuzumab and solanezumab and intravenous immunoglobulin have been disappointing. Subsequent analysis of pooled data from both phase III trials with solanezumab showed a reduction in cognitive decline in patients with mild AD. Solanezumab and new monoclonal antibodies are being tested in patients with prodromal and preclinical AD in search for a disease-modifying treatment. PMID:26815584
Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer
Full Text Available Cristoforo Incorvaia1, Simonetta Masieri2, Silvia Scurati3, Silvia Soffia3, Paola Puccinelli3, Franco Frati31Allergy/Pulmonary rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan, Italy; 2ENT Clinic, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 3Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Allergic rhinitis is a very common disease affecting about 20% of people. It may be treated by allergen avoidance when possible, by antiallergic drugs such as antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, and by allergen-specific immunotherapy. The latter is the only treatment able to act on the causes and not only on the symptoms of respiratory allergy and is able to maintain its efficacy even after stopping, provided an adequate duration of treatment of 3–5 years is ensured. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT was introduced in the 1990s as a possible solution to the problem of adverse systemic reactions to subcutaneous immunotherapy and has been demonstrated by more than 50 trials and globally evaluated thus far by five meta-analyses as an effective and safe treatment for allergic rhinitis. Life-threatening reactions are extremely rare. However, it is important to note that clinical efficacy occurs only if SLIT meets its needs, ie, sufficiently high doses are regularly administered for at least 3 consecutive years. This is often overlooked in the current practice and may prevent the same success reported by trials from being achieved.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, sublingual immunotherapy, efficacy, safety, compliance, meta-analysis
Full Text Available Silvia Scurati1, Franco Frati1, Gianni Passalacqua2, Paola Puccinelli1, Cecile Hilaire1, Cristoforo Incorvaia3, Italian Study Group on SLIT Compliance 1Scientific and Medical Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyObjectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence.Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10.Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists, followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%, and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%. Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists.Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers.Keywords: adherence, sublingual immunotherapy, efficacy, cost, side effects
Full Text Available Beevenom immunotherapy(BVIT in allergic patients is a well-established treatment modality for the prevention of systemic anaphylactic reactions caused by insect stings. BVIT is accompanied by increases in allergen-specific IgG, particularly the IgG4 isotype, which blocks not only IgE-dependent histamine release from basophils but also IgE-mediated antigen presentation to T cells. Inhibition of T cells after BVIT also involves decreased induction of the costimulatory molecule ICOS, which, in turn, seems to be dependent on the presence of IL-10, also associated with the inhibited status of T cells after BVIT. Suppression of T cells by IL-10 is an active process, which depends on the expression and participation of CD28. Immune tolerance in specific allergen immunotherapy might be a consequence of decreased Th2 or increased Th1 response of allergen specific T lymphocytes. BVIT shifted cytokine responses to allergen from a TH-2 to a TH-1 dominant pattern, suggesting direct effects on T cells. Many studies showed that severe side effects due to venom immunotherapy are rare. These results suggest that immunological changes after BVIT may be applied to be therapeutic alternative of general allergic diseases including beevenom allergy.
McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y
We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant. PMID:9469693
Nowadays allergy and asthma are a huge medical problem. Despite deeper and more precise knowledge concerning their pathogenesis and the role of the immune system in these processes, so far immunotherapy is the only treatment which can modify the course of these diseases. Considering that regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a great significance in pathogenesis of both diseases it seems appropriate to pay attention to their role in the treatment process. This work summarizes the Treg cells characteristics, the influence of allergen specific immunotherapy and other treatment modalities on Treg cells, and the possibility of using Treg cells in therapy. PMID:25462834
Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J
Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. PMID:22264261
... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... allergist / immunologist has specialized training and skills to test for stinging insect allergy and develop a plan ...
... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... An allergy (say: al -ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , ...
... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...
Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C
Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved in vitro and in vivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043
Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...
Gunnarsson, Nina Veetnisha
Two general questions directed the focus of this thesis: (1). What are the everyday practical and moral underpinnings of parenting children with allergy? (2). How do particularly mothers retrospectively account for and justify they are responsible parents and moral agents in the interview situation? The overall aim was to explore the everyday practical and interactional strategies used by mothers when they are parenting children with allergy and in such contexts and relations where their...
Bégin, Philippe; Nadeau, Kari C.
Diagnosis of food allergy can be challenging. Given the limited specificity of available allergy tests, these need to be interpreted in light of pre-test probability that is determined by a careful history. Using likelihood ratios calculated from previous publication may allow a more individualized assessment. This approach is likely to be most useful in patients with low to moderate results, below the 95% positive predictive value for that food. This review covers the diagnostic approach of ...
Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The...
Ngiow, Shin Foong; Loi, Sherene; Thomas, David; Smyth, Mark J
Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients. PMID:26922998
Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi
Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA. PMID:26932732
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Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.;
Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....
Iemoli, E; Borgonovo, L; Fusi, A; Magni, C; Ricci, E D; Rizzardini, G; Piconi, S
HIV infection is a relative contraindication for allergic immunotherapy (AIT). In the last decade, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the immune function and life expectancy in HIV-infected patients whose respiratory allergic incidence is similar to the general population. We evaluated the safety and clinical effectiveness of sublingual immunotherapy in a group of grass pollen-allergic HAART-treated HIV-positive patients. Thirteen patients received sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet (Oralair, Stallergenes©) and symptomatic therapy and were compared with nine patients receiving symptomatic therapy alone. Clinical benefits were evaluated by the analysis of total combined score (TCS), sum of symptom-medication score, and a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire. HIV viral load and peripheral TCD4 lymphocytes were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Clinical efficacy data showed a significant improvement in SLIT-treated patients compared to controls (TCS: P = 0.0001; QoL: P = 0.03). We did not observe any significant alteration of TCD4 cell counts and viral load (VL) in both groups. Our preliminary data showed that SLIT therapy in viro-immunological controlled HAART treated HIV positive patients was efficacious, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26228482
Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest
Juergens, Rosalyn A.; Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Singnurkar, Amit; Snider, Denis P.; Valliant, John F.; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.
Immune-based therapies have been in use for decades but recent work with immune checkpoint inhibitors has now changed the landscape of cancer treatment as a whole. While these advances are encouraging, clinicians still do not have a consistent biomarker they can rely on that can accurately select patients or monitor response. Molecular imaging technology provides a noninvasive mechanism to evaluate tumors and may be an ideal candidate for these purposes. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of varied immunotherapies and the current strategies for monitoring patients with imaging. We then describe some of the key researches in the preclinical and clinical literature on the current uses of molecular imaging of the immune system and cancer. PMID:26949344
Fuge, Oliver; Vasdev, Nikhil; Allchorne, Paula; Green, James Sa
It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest benefit in metastatic disease, although the role in superficial bladder cancer remains unclear. PMID:26000263
Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Manso, Luis; Caminati, Marco; de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Barbarroja-Escudero, José; Sánchez-González, María José; Huertas-Barbudo, Beatriz; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor
Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Promising approaches such as specific oral or epicutaneous immunotherapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies are progressively being investigated worldwide. However, even that an increasing number of centers fulfill those approaches, they are not fully implemented enough in clinical practice. The mean annual cost of health care has been estimated in international dollars (I$) 2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95 % confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and interestingly, it was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. The constant threat of exposure, need for vigilance and expectation of outcome can have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Several studies have analyzed the impact of food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children in different countries. There have been described different factors that could modify HRQL in food allergic patients, the most important of them are perceived disease severity, age of the patient, peanut or soy allergy, country of origin and having allergy to two or more foods. Over the last few years, several different specific Quality of Life questionnaires for food allergic patients have been developed and translated to different
In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....
JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei
Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.
Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. PMID:26289653
Darna Bikshapathi; Kandikonda Saikrishna; Uppuluru Ashok Kumar; Gade Sabitha; Bhupathi Saikumar
Fast dissolving tablets are dissolving rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Other ingredients to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Fast or mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatri...
Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy
Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun
Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy.
Cifuentes, Liliana; Balzer, Lukas; Simon, Blank; Seismann, Henning; Darsow, Ulf; Spillner, Edzard; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus
Background Up to 3% of the general population suffers from potentially life-threatening systemic reactions after honeybee and wasp stings. Unfortunately, there are still individuals who have a convincing history of an anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic, making difficult the decision for immunotherapy. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of using recombinant allergens in the Basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera allergy and to develop a high-t...
Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim;
systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) patients' organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and...
Haldrup, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Michelle Mia; Nielsen, Laura; Sørensen, Peter; Thorsboe, Morten; Bruus-Jensen, Anne; Diernæs, Kristina
Allergies have been an increasing problem in Denmark over the last couple of decades and are now defined as an epidemic. There are different types of treatments already developed for grass pollen allergy, but none of these treatments have been optimal. One of the most common allergies is grass pollen allergy. A few years back a new kind of immunotherapy was developed for treatment of this kind of allergy. This new type of immunotherapy distributed in tablet form, named GRAZAX, makes treatm...
Sergeev, A. V.; M. A. Mokronosova
Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic reactions that occur at oral and pharyngeal mucosae in the patients with pollen sensitization after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, ...
The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goals of treating patients with cancer are to cure the disease, prolong survival, and improve quality of life. Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Therefore, stimulating immune reactions to tumors can be an attractive therapeutic and prevention strategy. CONTENT: During immune surveillance, the host provides defense against foreign antigens, while ensuring it limits activation against self antigens. By targeting surface antigens expressed on tumor cells, monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated efficacy as cancer therapeutics. Recent successful antibody-based strategies have focused on enhancing antitumor immune responses by targeting immune cells, irrespective of tumor antigens. The use of antibodies to block pathways inhibiting the endogenous immune response to cancer, known as checkpoint blockade therapy, has stirred up a great deal of excitement among scientists, physicians, and patients alike. Clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of antibodies that block the T cell inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 have reported success in treating subsets of patients. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT is a highly personalized cancer therapy that involve administration to the cancer-bearing host of immune cells with direct anticancer activity. In addition, the ability to genetically engineer lymphocytes to express conventional T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors has further extended the successful application of ACT for cancer treatment. SUMMARY: For cancer treatment, 2011 marked the beginning of a new era. The underlying basis of cancer immunotherapy is to activate a patient’s own T cells so that they can kill their tumors. Reports of amazing recoveries abound, where patients remain cancer-free many years after receiving the therapy. The idea of harnessing immune cells to fight cancer is
Carter M Suryadevara
Full Text Available Malignant gliomas (MG are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Most patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM, the most common and malignant glial tumor, die within 12-15 months. Moreover, conventional treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy, can be highly toxic by causing nonspecific damage to healthy brain and other tissues. The shortcomings of standard-of-care have thus created a stimulus for the development of novel therapies that can target central nervous system (CNS-based tumors specifically and efficiently, while minimizing off-target collateral damage to normal brain. Immunotherapy represents an investigational avenue with the promise of meeting this need, already having demonstrated its potential against B-cell malignancy and solid tumors in clinical trials. T-cell engineering with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is one proven approach that aims to redirect autologous patient T-cells to sites of tumor. This platform has evolved dramatically over the past two decades to include an improved construct design, and these modern CARs have only recently been translated into the clinic for brain tumors. We review here emerging immunotherapeutic platforms for the treatment of MG, focusing on the development and application of a CAR-based strategy against GBM.
To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy
Roth, Patrick; Preusser, Matthias; Weller, Michael
The brain has long been considered an immune-privileged site precluding potent immune responses. Nevertheless, because of the failure of conventional anti-cancer treatments to achieve sustained control of intracranial neoplasms, immunotherapy has been considered as a promising strategy for decades. However, several efforts aimed at exploiting the immune system as a therapeutic weapon were largely unsuccessful. The situation only changed with the introduction of the checkpoint inhibitors, which target immune cell receptors that interfere with the activation of immune effector cells. Following the observation of striking effects of drugs that target CTLA-4 or PD-1 against melanoma and other tumor entities, it was recognized that these drugs may also be active against metastatic tumor lesions in the brain. Their therapeutic activity against primary brain tumors is currently being investigated within clinical trials. In parallel, other immunotherapeutics such as peptide vaccines are at an advanced stage of clinical development. Further immunotherapeutic strategies currently under investigation comprise adoptive immune cell transfer as well as inhibitors of metabolic pathways involved in the local immunosuppression frequently found in brain tumors. Thus, the ongoing implementation of immunotherapeutic concepts into clinical routine may represent a powerful addition to the therapeutic arsenal against various brain tumors. PMID:27260656
Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y
To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Hales, B J; Hizawa, N; Jenmalm, M; Sverremark-Ekström, E; Wardlaw, A J
The pathogenesis of asthma continues to be a major topic of interest to our authors with reviews and original papers on the role of viruses, mechanisms of inflammation, biomarkers, and phenotypes of asthma being major topics. A number of papers described new treatments for asthma focusing on blocking the Th2 response reflecting the fact that two decades of work in this area is finally bearing fruit. The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis is a growing area of interest, but there has been less on the genetics of airways disease than in previous years possibly reflecting the degree of rigour (and therefore a smaller body of work), with which these sorts of studies are now being undertaken. There continues to be a wide range of papers dealing with mechanisms of allergic disease ranging from clinical-based studies to basic research and the use of in vivo animal models especially mice. As before, mechanisms and new approaches to immunotherapy are common themes. Several were published in the allergens section investigating modification of allergens to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of adverse events. Risk factors for allergic disease was a common theme in the epidemiology section and food allergy a common theme in clinical allergy with papers on the development of protocols to induce tolerance and attempts to find biomarkers to distinguish sensitization from allergic disease. This was another exciting year for the editors, and we hope the readers of the journal. PMID:26492197
Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…
Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne
Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirm...
Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:16455349
Nony, Emmanuel; Martelet, Armelle; Jain, Karine; Moingeon, Philippe
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is established as a curative treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, as well as insect venom allergy. AIT is based on the administration of natural allergen extracts via the subcutaneous or sublingual routes to reorient the immune system towards tolerogenic mechanisms. In this regard, since many patients are poly-allergic, mixtures of allergen extracts are often used with a potential risk to cause allergen degradation, thereby affecting treatment efficacy. Herein, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of mixing homologous (i.e., related) or heterogeneous (i.e., unrelated) allergen extracts. We provide evidence for incompatibilities between mixes of grass pollen and house dust mite extracts containing bodies and feces, and summarize critical points to consider when mixing allergen extracts for AIT. PMID:26652799
Restifo, Nicholas P; Smyth, Mark J; Snyder, Alexandra
Advances in immunotherapy have resulted in remarkable clinical responses in some patients. However, one of the biggest challenges in cancer therapeutics is the development of resistant disease and disease progression on or after therapy. Given that many patients have now received various types of immunotherapy, we asked three scientists to give their views on the current evidence for whether acquired resistance to immunotherapy exists in patients and the future challenges posed by immunotherapy. PMID:26822578
Full Text Available Background & Objective. Ultrarush induction for specific venom immunotherapy has been shown to be reliable and efficacious in adults. In this study its safety and tolerance in children was evaluated. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 102 ultrarush desensitizations carried out between 1997 and 2005 in 94 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Diagnosis and selection for immunotherapy were according to recommendations of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Systemic adverse reactions (SARs were described using the classification of H. L. Mueller. Results. All patients reached the cumulative dose of 111.1 μg hymenoptera venom within 210 minutes. Six patients (6% had allergic reactions grade I; 2 patients (2% grade II and 5 patients (5% grade III. Three patients (3% showed unclassified reactions. SARs did not occur in the 15 patients aged 4 to 8 years and they were significantly more frequent in girls (29% compared with boys (12% (=0.034, multivariant analysis and in bee venom extract treated patients (20% compared to those treated with wasp venom extract (8% (OR 0.33, 95% Cl 0.07–1.25. Conclusion. Initiation of specific immunotherapy by ultrarush regimen is safe and well tolerated in children and should be considered for treating children with allergy to hymenoptera venom.
Stephen S Roberts
Full Text Available Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing’s family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and Liposomal-muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (L-MTP have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiology of immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody based and cell based therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed.
Roberts, Stephen S; Chou, Alexander J; Cheung, Nai-Kong V
Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing's family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and liposomal-muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiology of immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody-based and cell-based therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed. PMID:26301204
Full Text Available Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. ODTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. Orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes the various formulation aspects, disintegrants employed and technologies developed for ODTs, along with various excipients, evaluation tests, marketed formulations, and drugs explored in this field.
Learn all you need to know about your Android tablet in one quick and easy reference! It's not a computer and it's not a smartphone-so what in the world is it? Whether you're new to Android or new to tablets altogether, you're about to experience mobile computing like never before with this fun, full-color guide! Inside, longtime and bestselling author Dan Gookin walks you through setting up your Android tablet, navigating the interface, browsing the web, setting up email, connecting to social media, finding plenty of apps, music, books, and movies to indulge your interests-and so much more.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785
Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Colombo, Giselda; Marcucci, Francesco; Caminati, Marco; Sensi, Laura; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Frati, Franco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo
The most common allergic diseases, and especially the respiratory disorders such as rhinitis and asthma, are closely related to the allergic inflammation elicited by the causative allergen. This makes inflammation the main target of anti-allergic therapies. Among the available treatments, allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) has a patent effect on allergic inflammation, which persists also after its discontinuation, and is the only therapy able to modify the natural history of allergy. The traditional, subcutaneous route of administration was demonstrated to modify the allergen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that in turn correct the phenotype of allergen-specific T cells, switching from the Th2-type response, typical of allergic inflammation and characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-32 cytokines to a Th1-type response. This immune deviation is related to an increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 production as well as to the anergy of Th2 or to tolerance, the latter being related to the generation of allergen-specific T regulatory (Treg) cells, which produce cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms observed during sublingual AIT with high allergen doses proved to be similar to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Data obtained from biopsies clearly indicate that the pathophysiology of the oral mucosa, with particular importance for mucosal DCs, plays a crucial role in inducing tolerance to the administered allergen. PMID:22506880
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785
Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T; Johansen, J D
frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not...... restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...... contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000ppm....
Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D
frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not...... restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...... contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000ppm....
This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.
MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; Deleanu, Diana
Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosi...
Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan
One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic react...
The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....
Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the...... Institute of Food Research. The InformAll database is curated by the Institute of Food Research which also maintains the website....
Heine, Ralf G
Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. PMID:26022877
Willemsen, Linette E M
The rise in non-communicable diseases, such as allergies, in westernized countries links to changes in lifestyle and diet. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) present in marine oils facilitate a favorable milieu for immune maturation and may contribute to allergy prevention. N-3 LCPUFA can suppress innate and adaptive immune activation and induce epigenetic changes. Murine studies convincingly show protective effects of fish oil, a source of n-3 LCPUFA, in food allergy and asthma models. Observational studies in human indicate that high dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFA and low intake of n-6 PUFA may protect against the development of allergic disease early in life. High n-6 PUFA intake is also associated with an increased asthma risk while n-3 LCPUFA may be protective and reduce symptoms. The quality of the marine oil used has impact on efficacy of allergy prevention and several observations link in particular n-3 LCPUFA DHA to allergy suppression. Randomized controlled trials indicate that optimal timing, duration and dosage of n-3 LC-PUFA is required to exert an allergy protective effect. Supplementation during early pregnancy and lactation has shown promising results regarding allergy prevention. However these findings should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Although clinical trials in asthma patients reveal no consistent clinical benefits of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on lung function, it can suppress airway inflammation. Future food-pharma approaches may reveal whether adjunct therapy with dietary n-3 LCPUFA can improve allergy prevention or immunotherapy via support of allergen specific oral tolerance induction or contribute to the efficacy of drug therapy for asthma patients. PMID:27041644
Vacchelli, Erika; Pedro, José-Manuel Bravo-San; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N.; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P.; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Fridman, Wolf H.; Fučíková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M.; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E.; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T.; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K.; Talmadge, James E.; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J.; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping
During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into “passive” and “active” based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519
Weksler Marc E
Full Text Available Abstract Only a small percentage of patients with Alzheimer's disease benefit from current drug therapy and for only a relatively short time. This is not surprising as the goal of these drugs is to enhance existing cerebral function in Alzheimer patients and not to block the progression of cognitive decline. In contrast, immunotherapy is directed at clearing the neurotoxic amyloid beta peptide from the brain that directly or indirectly leads to cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The single trial of active immunization with the amyloid beta peptide provided suggestive evidence of a reduction in cerebral amyloid plaques and of stabilization in cognitive function of half the patients who developed good antibody responses to the amyloid beta peptide. However, 6% of actively immunized Alzheimer patients developed sterile meningoencephalitis that forced the cessation of the clinical trial. Passive immunotherapy in animal models of Alzheimer's disease has provided similar benefits comparable to those seen with active immunotherapy and has the potential of being effective in the half of Alzheimer's disease patients who do not make a significant anti-amyloid beta peptide antibody response and without inducing T-cell-mediated encephalitis. Published studies of 5 patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease treated with intravenous immunoglobulin containing anti-amyloid beta peptide antibodies showed that amyloid beta peptide was mobilized from the brain and cognitive decline was interrupted. Further studies of passive immunotherapy are urgently required to confirm these observations.
Chang, Christopher; Mahmood, Mubashar M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric
Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. However, most patients who report a positive history of a prior reaction to penicillin are not found to be allergic to penicillin upon skin testing. Often, this history is vague or based on a parent's recollection of an event that occurred in the distant past. Avoidance of penicillin based on self-reported allergic history alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. Patients with a negative skin test to both major and minor determinants may generally be given penicillin, with a statistical risk of developing an allergic reaction similar to that observed in the general population. A more cautious approach in these cases where the degree of suspicion is low, an allergic etiology is unproven, or there is a negative skin test, is to do a graded challenge. If the skin test is positive, an alternate antibiotic should be used. If, however, an alternate antibiotic is not available, then desensitization may be performed, but there are limitations to desensitization as well, and tolerance is not permanent. Avoidance of cephalosporins may be recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, but newer generation cephalosporins have demonstrate less cross-reactivity to penicillin than earlier generation ones. Desensitization protocols for cephalosporins are available but not standardized. The mechanisms of antibiotic sensitization are not clearly understood. PMID:21789743
Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O
Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357
Munasir, Zakiudin; Muktiarti, Dina
Prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, including food allergy. It is different between countries because food allergy can vary by culture and population. Prevalence of food allergy in Indonesia is unknown; therefore it is not known yet the burden and impact of food allergy in our population. However, we already start to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy, especially cow's milk allergy.
Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B; Mösges, Ralph; Pfaar, Oliver; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Sastre, Joaquin; Khaitov, Musa; Demoly, Pascal
BACKGROUND: A patient's knowledge of his/her allergic condition and treatment is a key factor in adherence and effectiveness. METHODS: To assess patients' understanding of allergy and acceptance of allergen immunotherapy on the basis of (i) information given by their physician at the time of...... prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end of the...... effectiveness (39 %) and complained about expense (39 %) and practical constraints (32 %). Twenty-two percent of the non-starters feared side effects. The communication template was considered to be clear (by 92 % of the patients), convincing (by 75 %) and reassuring (by 89 %); 80 % of the participants felt...
... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...
Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T
The efficacy of allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with or without seasonal bronchial asthma and anaphylaxis caused by the sting of the hymenoptera class of insects has been clearly demonstrated in numerous well-designed, placebo-controlled trials. Immunotherapy whether by subcutaneous injection of allergen extract or by oral/sublingual routes modifies peripheral and mucosal TH2 responses in favour of TH1 responses and augments IL-10 synthesis by TRegs both locally and by peripheral T cells. Recent researches into the cellular and molecular basis of allergic reactions have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms involved in allergic diseases. They have also helped the development of innovative approaches that are likely to further improve the control of allergic responses in the future. Novel approaches to immunotherapy that are currently being explored include the use of peptide-based allergen preparations, which do not bind IgE and therefore do not activate mast cells, but reduce both Th1 and Th2-cytokine synthesis, while increasing levels of IL-10. Alternative strategies include the use of adjuvants, such as nucleotide immunostimulatory sequences derived from bacteria CpG or monophosphoryl lipid A that potentiate Th1 responses. Blocking the effects of IgE using anti-IgE such as omalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to IgE, has been shown to be a useful strategy in the treatment of allergic asthma and rhinitis. The combination of anti-IgE-monoclonal antibody omalizumab with allergen immunotherapy has proved beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases, offering improved efficacy, limited adverse effects, and potential immune-modifying effects. This combination may also accelerate the rapidity by which immunotherapy induces TReg cells. If allergic diseases are due to a lack of allergen-specific TReg cells, then effective therapies should target the induction and the
Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco
Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests. PMID:26774053
Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti
Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383
Couderc, Rémy; Just, Jocelyne
Identification of culprit allergens is important for prophylactic measures and specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT). Since the late 1980s, the use of molecular cloning technology has led to a major improvement in our knowledge of epitopes involved in IgE-mediated allergy, and has also allowed in vitro production of recombinant allergens of interest for the diagnosis of allergenic sensitization. It has also improved our understanding of allergen cross-reactivity, which can be responsible for severe clinical manifestations, particularly in children with food allergy and allergic asthma. Better knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergenic sensitization, based on the use of natural or modified recombinant allergens, has led to the development of effective SIT strategies which, in the foreseeable future, could provide genuine cure, therefore avoiding use of symptomatic therapeutics, starting very early in childhood. PMID:25163347
Yousef A. Taher
Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a disease characterized by persistent allergen-driven airway inflammation, remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. CD4+ T-cells, especially T-helper type 2 cells, play a critical role in orchestrating the disease process through the release of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is currently the only treatment with a long-term effect via modifying the natural course of allergy by interfering with the underlying immunological mechanisms. However, although SIT is effective in allergic rhinitis and insect venom allergy, in allergic asthma it seldom results in complete alleviation of the symptoms. Improvement of SIT is needed to enhance its efficacy in asthmatic patients. Herein, the immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SIT are discussed with the ultimate aim to improve its treatment efficacy.
... latex to be removed from your room The pharmacy and dietary staff to be told about your latex allergy so they do not use latex when they prepare your medicines and food Alternative Names Latex products - hospital; Latex allergy - hospital; Latex sensitivity - hospital; Contact dermatitis - ...
The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…
Full Text Available In order to approach human cancer immunotherapy, the author carried out the immunotherapy with BCG on mice having homotransplanted cancer, observed the posttransplantation results with lapse of time, conduced daily macrophage inhibition test (MI test and found the immunotherapy to be effective. At the same time the MI test proved to be a useful criterion in determining the course of cancer progress and effectiveness of the immunotherapy.
Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical tha...
Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin
Poor powder tabletability is a common problem that challenges the successful development of high-quality tablet products. Using noncompressible microcrystalline cellulose beads, we demonstrate that surface coating is an effective strategy for modulating tabletability, almost at will, through judicious selection of coating material. This strategy has broad applicability as tabletability of such particles is dictated by the properties of the outermost layer coat regardless the nature of the core. PMID:26059496
XinZHAO; XueMeiXU; GuoxingSONG
Being one of the most abundant intracellular proteins，heat shock proteins(HSPs) have many housekeeping functions which are crucial for the survival of organisms．In addition,some HSPs are new immunoactive molecules which play important roles in both adaptive and innate immunity．They could activate CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes，induce innate immune response including natural killer(NK) cell activation and cytokine secretion，and induce maturation of dendritic cells(DCs)．These characteristics have been used for immunotherapy of various types of cancers and infectious disenses．This review focuses on the main HSP families——HSP70 and 90 families．The mechanism of HSPs’ function in eliciting immune response are elucidated and various forms of HSPs used in immunotherapy are discussed in details．At the end of this review,authors summarize clinical trials related to HSPs and evaluate their clinical efficacy．
Erker, Craig; Harker-Murray, Paul; Burke, Michael J
Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma collectively are the third most common cancer diagnosed in children each year. For children who relapse or have refractory disease, outcomes remain poor. Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a novel approach to treat hematologic malignancies. The field has been rapidly expanding over the past few years broadening its armamentarium which now includes monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates and cellular therapies including bispecific T-cell engagers and chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells. Many of these agents are in their infancy stages and only beginning to make their mark on lymphoma treatment while others have begun to show promising efficacy in relapsed disease. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current and emerging immunotherapies in the field of pediatric lymphoma. PMID:26616565
Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna
Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…
Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie;
presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along......Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC and...
Carnés, Jerónimo; Robinson, Douglas S
Specific allergen immunotherapy, consisting in the administration of increasing amounts of offending allergens into sensitive patients was first used nearly one hundred years ago and remains in use worldwide for treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. It has been recognised as the only effective treatment for type I allergic diseases when the appropriate quantities of allergens are used. The immunological mechanisms by which specific immunotherapy is effective include the modulation of T cells and the response of B-cells and is accompanied by significant decreases of specific IgE and increases in allergen specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG4. While specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective and the most common way of administration other routes such as oral or intranasal ways have been considered as and alternative to subcutaneous injections. During the last century, allergenic vaccines have been prepared using individual allergens adsorbed to different adjuvant substances. These vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and good results in different clinical trials. However, many novel approaches to allergen immunotherapy have been developed in the last years in order to increase the safety and efficacy of allergenic vaccines. In that way, different and modern vaccines have been prepared including more purified products such as depigmented allergen extracts; allergoids, consisting on big molecules of thousands of kDa, which contain all the individual allergens and show a significant decrease in severe adverse reactions; peptides or small aminoacid sequences; recombinant allergens; hypoallergenic vaccines where the IgE binding sites have been modified; or allergen-CpG fusion molecules. New presentations are under study and new treatments will be developed in the near future with the objective that the prevention of allergic disease may become a reality. The review article also discuss recent patent related to the field. PMID:19075996
Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sperindè, Martina; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano
Fungal infections still represent relevant human illnesses worldwide and some are accompanied by unacceptably high mortality rates. The limited current availability of effective and safe antifungal agents makes the development of new drugs and approaches of antifungal vaccination/immunotherapy every day more needed. Among them, small antibody(Ab)-derived peptides are arousing great expectations as new potential antifungal agents. In this topic, the search path from the study of the yeast kill...
Weksler Marc E
Abstract Only a small percentage of patients with Alzheimer's disease benefit from current drug therapy and for only a relatively short time. This is not surprising as the goal of these drugs is to enhance existing cerebral function in Alzheimer patients and not to block the progression of cognitive decline. In contrast, immunotherapy is directed at clearing the neurotoxic amyloid beta peptide from the brain that directly or indirectly leads to cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's d...
Petersen, Karin Dam; Kronborg, Christian; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte;
. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in disease severity, demographic and socioeconomic status between allergic rhinitis patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis patients not receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy. METHODS: A total of 366...... patients were studied of whom 210 were going to receive subcutaneously administrated immunotherapy (SIT) against grass pollen and/or house dust mite allergy. The severity of rhino-conjunctivitis (hay fever) and/or asthma was classified according to international guidelines. The questionnaires included an...... EQ-5D visual analogue scale instrument and some socio-economic questions. RESULTS: Severity of disease, young age, high level of education as well as greater perceived impairment of health-related quality of life due to allergic symptoms were significantly associated with use of SIT. Somewhat...
Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng
Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fcγ1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human FcεRIα and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFcεRIα transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking FcγRII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fcγ can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607
Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J; Younes, Anas
The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted 'breakthrough' designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®)) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683
McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael
This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…
... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...
Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L
Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927
Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi
Van Winkle, R Christopher; Chang, Christopher
Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are ubiquitous proteins that are found in divergent plant species. Although the exact function of LTPs is not fully understood, LTPs are conserved across a broad range of plant species. Because LTPs share structural features, there is an increased probability for significant allergic cross-reactivity. The molecular features of LTPs also decrease the probability of degradation due to cooking or digestion, thereby increasing the probability of systemic absorption and severe allergic reactions. LTP allergy, unlike other forms of anaphylaxis, tends to occur more frequently in areas of lower latitude. The geographic distribution of LTP allergy, along with evidence of increased sensitization after respiratory exposure, has led to the hypothesis that LTP-related food allergy may be secondary to sensitization via the respiratory route. Clinical reactions associated with LTPs have broad clinical phenotypes and can be severe in nature. Life-threatening clinical reactions have been associated with ingestion of a multitude of plant products. Component-resolved diagnosis has played a significant role in research applications for LTP allergy. In the future, component-resolved diagnosis may play a significant role in day-to-day clinical care. Also, quantitative analysis of LTPs in foodstuffs may allow for the identification and/or production of low-LTP foods, thereby decreasing the risk to patients with LTP allergy. Furthermore, sublingual immunotherapy may provide a therapeutic option for patients with LTP allergy. PMID:23179517
Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil;
limited. This review presents the current knowledge on the topic and discusses the evidence and characteristics of an increased susceptibility factor, possible causes to and genetic markers for the increased susceptibility, composition of the patient group and identification of patients at risk of...... developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition of...
Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos
The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as...
Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena
In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the char...
Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P;
reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete......Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light on...
Mansoor, Darlene K; Sharma, Hemant P
Food allergies are immune-mediated responses to food proteins. Because of differences in the underlying immunologic mechanisms, there are varying clinical presentations of food allergy. This article discusses the manifestations of IgE-mediated disorders, including urticaria and angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, gastrointestinal anaphylaxis, generalized anaphylaxis, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and oral allergy syndrome. It also reviews the presentations of mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, including atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, the manifestations of cell-mediated food allergies are discussed, including dietary protein-induced proctitis and proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, celiac disease, and food-induced pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21453804
... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Infant Allergies ...
Rapp, Doris J.
Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)
Shamji, M H; Durham, S R
Allergen immunotherapy is allergen-specific, allergen dose- and time-dependent and is associated with long-term clinical and immunological tolerance that persists for years after discontinuation. Successful immunotherapy is accompanied by the suppression of numbers of T-helper 2 (Th2) effector cells, eosinophils, basophils, c-kit+mast cells and neutrophils infiltration in target organs, induction of IL-10 and/or TGF-β+Treg cells and increases in 'protective' non-inflammatory blocking antibodies, particularly IgG4 and IgA2 subclasses with inhibitory activity. These events are accompanied by a reduction and/or a redirection of underlying antigen-specific Th2-type T cell-driven hypersensitivity to the allergen(s) used for therapy. This suppression occurs within weeks or months as a consequence of the appearance of a population of regulatory T cells that exert their effects by mechanisms involving cell-cell contact, but also by the release of cytokines such as IL-10 (increases IgG4) and TGF-β (increases specific IgA). The more delayed-in-time appearance of antigen-specific T-helper 1 responses and alternative mechanisms such as Th2 cell anergy and/or apoptosis may also be involved. The mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy are similar to those following a subcutaneous administration of allergen, whereas it is likely that additional events following antigen presentation in the sublingual mucosa and regional lymph nodes are involved. These insights have resulted in novel approaches and portend future biomarkers that may be surrogate or predictive of the clinical response to treatment. PMID:21762223
Myrna Serapião dos Santos; Milton Ruiz Alves; Denise de Freitas; Luciene Barbosa de Sousa; Ricardo Wainsztein; Sérgio Kandelman; Mauricio Lozano; Francisco Beltrán; Oscar Baça Lozada; Concepción Santacruz; Giovanni Guzzo; Carlos Alberto Zaccarelli Filho; José Álvaro Pereira Gomes
PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocul...
Krishna, M T; Knibb, R C; Huissoon, A P
Telemedicine refers to the application of telecommunication and information technology (IT) in the delivery of health and clinical care at a distance or remotely and can be broadly considered in two modalities: store-and-forward and real-time interactive services. Preliminary studies have shown promising results in radiology, dermatology, intensive care, diabetes, rheumatology and primary care. However, the evidence is limited and hampered by small sample sizes, paucity of randomized control studies and lack of data relating to cost-effectiveness, health-related quality of life and patient and clinician satisfaction. This review appraises the evidence from studies that have employed telemedicine tools in other disciplines and makes suggestions for its potential applications in specific clinical scenarios in adult allergy services. Possible examples include: triaging patients to determine the need for allergy tests; pre-assessment for specialized treatments such as allergen immunotherapy, follow-up to assess treatment response and side effects; and education in self-management plan including training updates for self-injectable adrenaline and nasal spray use. This approach might improve access for those with limited mobility or living far away from regional centres, as well as bringing convenience and cost savings for the patient and service provider. These potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against evidence of service safety and quality. Keys to success include delineation of appropriate clinical scenarios, patient selection, training, IT support and robust information governance framework. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to evaluate its role. PMID:26742680
Linhart, Birgit; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Narayanan, Meena; Neubauer, Angela; Mayrhofer, Hannes; Blatt, Katharina; Lupinek, Christian; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf
More than 10% of the population in Europe and North America suffer from IgE-associated allergy to grass pollen. In this article, we describe the development of a vaccine for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy based on two recombinant hypoallergenic mosaic molecules, designated P and Q, which were constructed out of elements derived from the four major timothy grass pollen allergens: Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6. Seventeen recombinant mosaic molecules were expressed and pur...
Full Text Available Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3.01, Pru p 3.02, and Pru p 3.03. Pru p 3.01 showed very similar allergenic activity as the wild type by in vitro assays. However, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 presented reduced IgE binding with respect to the native form, by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. In addition, Pru p 3.03 had affected the IgG4 binding capacity and presented a random circular dichroism, which was reflected in the nonrecognition by specific antibodies anti-Pru p 3. Nevertheless, both Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 maintained the binding to IgG1 and their ability to activate T lymphocytes. Thus, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 could be good candidates for potential immunotherapy in peach-allergic patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.
Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D
Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities. PMID:26486534
Greenhawt, Matthew J
Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an investigational peanut allergy treatment aimed to achieve specific oral tolerance induction. Allergic children are given titrated oral (or sublingual) doses of their allergen on a daily basis, unlike in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). OIT is theorized to cause a shift from a Th2 to a Th1 regulatory environment, reflected by increases in food-specific IgG4/IgE, and the production of FoxP3. Peanut OIT holds special promise because peanut allergy has an unfavorable natural history and is rarely outgrown. A high percentage of the participants experience symptoms during peanut OIT, including anaphylaxis, warranting epinephrine and/or discontinuation of therapy. This is a concerning fact given that the studies have mostly targeted only older children, with less historical reactivity for enrollment. The handful of peanut OIT studies have shown that some participants can be desensitized to peanut, but none have shown that long-term tolerance can be reestablished. Factors predictive of which patients are most likely to succeed and become desensitized through OIT are unknown. Some private practices have begun offering peanut OIT as a therapy. Such practice is potentially dangerous given the safety and efficacy of OIT in randomized controlled clinical trials is still not well established. Therefore, until further investigation emerges that conclusively demonstrates OIT is safe, intermediate and long-term outcomes are better established, the number of participants that experience symptoms is reduced, and proof of concept established in patients of all ages, (irrespective of past reaction severity), OIT is not ready for use in the general allergy practice. PMID:23676568
Suresh K Yadav
Full Text Available Mouth dissolving tablets are disintegrating and dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Oral delivery is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery having the highest patient compliance. Fast- or mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for paediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and travelling and may not have access to water.
Payal A. Shah
Full Text Available From the early 20th century, immunotherapy has been studied as a treatment modality for cancers, including in children. Since then, developments in monoclonal antibodies and vaccine therapies have helped to usher in a new era of cancer immunotherapeutics. However, efficacy of these types of therapies has been limited, mostly in part due to low tumor immunogenicity, cancer escape pathways, and toxicities. As researchers investigate the cellular and molecular components of immunotherapies, mechanisms to improve tumor specificity and overcome immune escape have been identified. The goal of immunotherapy now has been to modulate tumor escape pathways while amplifying the immune response by combining innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Although several limiting factors have been identified, these recent advances in immunotherapy remain at the forefront of pediatric oncologic therapeutic trials. Immunotherapy is now coming to the forefront of precision treatment for a variety of cancers, with evidence that agents targeting immunosuppressive mechanisms for cancer progression can be effective therapy [1-3]. In this review, we review various types of immunotherapy, including the cellular biology, limitations, recent novel therapeutics, and the application of immunotherapy to pediatric oncology.
Eugenia Dumitrescu; Romeo T. Cristina
This paper is a brief description of tablets and possible uses in veterinary therapeutics. Are described: classification, components, method of preparation and methods of compression defects and control tablets. Are also described special purpose tablets and coated tablets (tablets).
Hanna, Michael G.; Key, Marc E.
In many multimodal therapies of cancer, postsurgical chemotherapy is administered before immunotherapy for treatment of micrometastatic disease. This sequence may not be the most efficacious. Experiments in which strain 2 guinea pigs bearing syngeneic L10 hepatocarcinomas were given immunotherapy showed that infiltrating immune effector cells not only were tumoricidal but disrupted the characteristically compact structure of metastatic foci. When cytotoxic drugs were administered at the peak of this inflammatory response, the survival rate of the guinea pigs increased significantly. We conclude that postsurgical immunotherapy can enhance the effect of cytotoxic drugs administered subsequently.
Drop the mop and play with Fido is Patrick Holt's recommendation for raising an allergy-free child. Although a tangled web of factors underlies allergies and asthma, Holt believes that preventing lifelong affliction could be simple.
Predny, Mary Lorraine
Allergic reactions are caused by an overactive immune system response to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust, or molds. This publication goes over the common plants that cause allergies and ways to prevent allergies while gardening.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...
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Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph;
Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....
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... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 12 months: 8.4% Number with reported respiratory allergies in the past 12 months: 7.4 million ...
Full Text Available Food allergy and intolerance are wide spread nowadays. However, the problem existed and was registered and described still by the ancients. It was fully understood and scientifically depicted in the 20th century after IgE and anaphylaxis were discovered, new diagnostic tests were initiated and the term “allergy” was introduced. There are some interesting aspects of the problem. Epidemiology is the first one – in the last two decades the number of people suffering from food allergy increased significantly and reached 4% of the population. Food allergy covers all ages, both sexes; atopic people and these with other allergic or digestive diseases are in the risk group also. There is certain influence of the eating habits as well. Etiology is rich and varied. It includes all foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, spices, honey, medicinal products - milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, etc. Pathogenesis is complex.
Braga, M; Quecchia, C; Cavallucci, E; Di Giampaolo, L; Schiavone, C; Petrarca, C; Di Gioacchino, M
The progressive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the last decade has changed the concept of immune tolerance, that is no longer considered as a mere lack of immune reactivity but as a finely regulated process that requires specific activity of cells, adhesion and secreted molecules. Tregs play a key role in maintenance of self-tolerance and induction of tolerance against ubiquitous innocuous non-self antigens, so preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review will focus on the Treg response in allergy that is characterized by a down-regulation of allergen specific T cell proliferation and inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines production. Hence, Treg cells suppress allergen-specific Th1 and Th2 cell responses playing an important role in the physiological immune response to allergens. Further, Treg cells are able to suppress IgE production by B lymphocytes and directly or indirectly inhibit the activity of allergic inflammation effector cells, namely eosinophils, basophils and mastcells. Finally, increasing evidence suggests that Treg cells are also implicated in chronicity development of inflammatory diseases. This appears to happen through a fine interaction they entertain with resident tissue cells and has been particularly highlighted in the study of airways remodeling in asthma. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergen tolerance has brought new interest in the development of new allergy treatment, able to target Treg cells, both in allergy prevention and in the therapy of established allergy. PMID:21329567
Myrna Serapião dos Santos
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.
Frati, Franco; Moingeon, Philippe; Marcucci, Francesco; Puccinelli, Paola; Sensi, Laura; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Incorvaia, Cristoforo
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an effective and safe treatment for respiratory allergy, and its mechanism of action currently is investigated with increasing attention. Studies of pharmacokinetics showed that allergen extracts administered via the sublingual route are not directly absorbed by the oral mucosa but are long retained at mucosal level, where the allergen molecules are captured by dendritic cells and, following their migration in the draining lymph nodes, presented to T cells. This seems to be the pivotal factor underlying the mechanisms of action of SLIT, at least for the long-term effects, and for the short-term efficacy, observed with ultrarush or coseasonal treatment, a down-regulation of mast cells resulting in hyporeactivity at the peak of the pollen season may be suggested. Regarding the clinically established long-lasting effects, the core mechanism is likely to consist of T regulatory (Treg) cell activation. In particular, Treg cells differentiate from naive T cells after application of soluble antigens to the mucosae, a crucial factor being the tolerogenic function of dendritic cells, and exert a suppressive effect on both Th1 and Th2 responses. Moreover, at least for the type 1 cells (Treg1), a production of IL-10 with consequent down-modulation of the immune response has been reported. Another characteristic of sublingual immunization is the absence of effectors cells, viz., mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils, in the oral mucosa of allergic subjects, which account for the excellent tolerability of SLIT. PMID:17390755
Ozdemir, C; Kucuksezer, U C; Akdis, M; Akdis, C A
Hymenoptera venoms are important allergens that can elicit both local and systemic allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) remains the most effective treatment, reducing the risk of systemic reactions in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy. VIT can restore normal immunity against venom allergens and provide patients with a lifetime of tolerance to venoms. During VIT, peripheral tolerance is induced by the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress proliferative and cytokine responses against the venom allergens. Treg cells are characterized by IL-10 secretion that directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Treg cells also have influence on B cells, suppressing IgE production and inducing the production of blocking type IgG4 antibodies against venom allergens. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Treg cells may affect allergen sensitization and methods for enhancing this cell population may eventually improve the efficacy of VIT. In this article, immune mechanisms enrolled in bee and wasp VIT are reviewed. PMID:21729181
Lu, Binfeng; Yang, Min; Wang, Qingqing
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 gene family and mainly expressed in the nucleus of tissue lining cells, stromal cells, and activated myeloid cells. IL-33 is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings such as tissue repair, allergy, autoimmune disease, infectious disease, and cancer. The biological functions of IL-33 include maintaining tissue homeostasis, enhancing type 1 and 2 cellular immune responses, and mediating fibrosis during chronic inflammation. IL-33 exerts diverse functions through signaling via its receptor ST2, which is expressed in many types of cells including regulatory T cells (Treg), group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), myeloid cells, cytotoxic NK cells, Th2 cells, Th1 cells, and CD8(+) T cells. Tumor development results in downregulation of IL-33 in epithelial cells but upregulation of IL-33 in the tumor stroma and serum. The current data suggest that IL-33 expression in tumor cells increases immunogenicity and promotes type 1 antitumor immune responses through CD8(+) T cells and NK cells, whereas IL-33 in tumor stroma and serum facilitates immune suppression via Treg and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC). Understanding the role of IL-33 in cancer immunobiology sheds lights on targeting this cytokine for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26922618
Wyatt, J P
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the nature and accuracy of information carried by patients about their drug allergies. SUBJECTS: 2500 new adult patients. SETTING--Accident and emergency department of a tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Patients were questioned about drug allergies. Where they claimed allergies, general practitioners were contacted for corroboration. RESULTS--242 patients (9.7%) claimed 276 allergies; 32 different drugs were implicated. Penicillin was implicated most often (151 pat...
Teodor T. Postolache; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
Ray Jones; Anita O'Connor; Edward Kaminski
Background The principle reason for referral to specialist allergy clinics is to establish diagnoses and provide treatment plans to help patients manage their allergy. If patients do not accept, understand, or remember diagnoses or treatment, clinic visits may have been a waste of time. Few specialist allergy clinics follow up patients after diagnosis. Design and Methods This was a postal survey to assess patients’ i) perception of usefulness of specialist allergy clinic visits, ii) understan...
Full Text Available Infantile autism is one of the most disabling illnesses of neurological, emotional and intellectual development. The cause of autism remains unknown. However, recent investigations suggest that this disorder shares several features of established autoimmune disorders.The aim of this article is to describe the news of imunodiagnostic and immunotherapy in autism. Interpretation of data is made by conceptual and methodological differences between studies. The autoimmune response is most likely directed against the brain myelin, perhaps secondary to a viral infection. The idea that autism is an autoimmune disorder is further strengthened by the fact that autistic patients respond well to treatment with immune modulating drugs. Immune interventions can produce immune modulation-state of suppression or stimulation. Immune therapy should always be done in consultation with physicians.
van Nunen, Sheryl
Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this a...
Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons. Although details of the disease pathomechanisms remain unclear, Aβ likely acts as a key protein for AD initiation and progression, followed by abnormal tau phosphorylation and neuronal death (amyloid-cascade hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, Aβ immunization therapies are created to eliminate Aβ from the brain, and to prevent the neurons from damage by these pathogenic proteins. There are two methods for Aβ immunotherapies: active and passive immunization. Previous studies have shown Aβ removal and improved cognitive function in animal models of AD. Clinical trials on various drugs, including AN1792, bapineuzumab, and solanezumab, have been carried out; however, all trials have failed to demonstrate apparent clinical benefits. On the contrary, side effects emerged, such as meningoencephalitis, vasogenic edema, which are currently called amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-E and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H). In neuropathological studies of immunized cases, Aβ was removed from the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau was reduced in the neuronal processes. Moreover, deterioration of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and an increase of microhemorrhages and microinfarcts were described. Aβ is cleared from the brain mainly via the lymphatic drainage pathway. ARIA could stem from severe CAA due to dysfunction of the drainage pathway after immunotherapy. Aβ immunization has a potential of cure for AD patients, although the above-described problems must be overcome before applying this therapy in clinical treatment. PMID:23568994
Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…
... Your Child All About Food Allergies Going to School With Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Parents > Going to School With Food Allergies Print A A A Text ... Once school starts, consider speaking at "Back to School" night or whenever you will first meet other parents. Meeting you in person can help get others ...
Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...
About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…
van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.
Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio
Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle
School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…
Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.;
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....
Full Text Available Pharmaceutical oral solid dosage forms have been used widely for decades mainly due to their convenience of administration and their suitability for delivery for delivery of drugs for systemic effects. The most commonly used pharmaceutical solid dosage forms today include granules, pellets, tablets and capsules. The tablets and capsules can be made directly from powders or from granules pellets, or from film-coated multiple units. Tablets are now the most popular dosage form, accounting for some 70% of all ethical pharmaceutical preparations produced.Tablets may be defined as solid pharmaceutical dosage forms containing drug substances with or without suitable diluents and prepared by either compression or molding methods. Hence, tablets can be broadly classified as compressed tablets and molded tablets. Compressed tablets can be further classified as directly compressible tablets, chewable tablets and tablet triturates.
Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergy is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Current research efforts are focused on understanding the immune basis of food allergy, identifying environmental factors that may contribute to its rising prevalence, and developing immunotherapeutic approaches to establish immune tolerance to foods. Technological advances such as peptide microarray and MHC class II tetramers have begun to provide a comprehensive profile of the immune response to foods. The burgeoning field of mucosal immunology has provided intriguing clues to the role of the diet and the microbiota as risk factors in the development of food allergy. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge that need answers to stem the progression of this disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:23648309
Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S;
BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. METHODS: Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven...... is limited and weak and is therefore difficult to interpret. Overall, SPT and sIgE appear sensitive although not specific for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergy....... databases were searched and international experts were contacted. Two reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and used QUADAS-2 to assess risk of bias. Where possible, meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Twenty-four (2831 participants) studies were included. For cows' milk allergy...
IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions account for the majority of well-documented food allergy reactions, but non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms do cause some hypersensitivity disorders. A variety of gastrointestinal, cutaneous, respiratory, and generalized symptoms and syndromes have been associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. The diagnostic approach to adverse food reactions begins with a careful medical history and physical examination. Laboratory studies may then be used appropriately in the evaluation. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is established, the only proven therapy is the strict elimination of the food from the patient's diet. Studies in both children and adults indicate that symptomatic reactivity to food allergens is often lost over time, except possibly reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood. PMID:12023192
Yata, J. [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)
This paper describes the mechanism of allergy. Allergy is defined as the immune reaction which causes tissue damage instead of its original role for body defense. Usually, antibodies of IgE (immunoglobulin E) class are formed against some substances, to remove antigens through one-to-one reaction (specific reaction) with antigens. However, it is improper for bodies hurriedly to exhaust harmless substances such as pollens by a large amount of snivel and sneezes, which is called allergy. Genetic and environmental factors relate to allergy. In addition, the response of nerve and the sensitivity of tissue are related to the development of symptoms, which makes things complicated. There are allergic reactions caused by the immune complex formed by antigens and antibodies of IgE class or by the cytokine production from T lymphocytes responding to the antigen. In the living environment, allergic reactions are caused by allergens which are antigens causing allergy, such as ticks and mold particles in houses, stimulating and sensitive substances for bronchus, such as formalin from building materials, and antibody production inducing substances. 7 figs.
Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong
There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…
This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…
Fox Bernard A
Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.
A. S. Fedorov
Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT is the most effective method of allergy treatment which consists of exposure to small doses of antigen responsible for development of allergic condition in the particular patient. Therefore, one may achieve desensitization to this antigen. The history of ASIT application lasts for more than 100 years, and, over this time, huge clinical evidence for the usage of the method has been accumulated. Use of ASIT causes reduction of allergy symptoms and treatment needs and, moreover, it has the potential for long-term clinical benefit, by preventing the development of allergy and its symptoms. The treatment affects basic immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical symptoms. ASIT is an antiinflammatory, pathogenetic and prophylactic treatment of allergic airway disease. The review considers the results of major clinical trials of the ASIT applications for treatment of allergic diseases of the respiratory system (allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Various schemes of ASIT are discussed including its different variants (injectable and sublingual ASIT, the issues of preparation choice for ASIT from those currently available on the pharmaceutical market, patient selection criteria, and the issues of modern molecular allergodiagnostic (allergic sensitization mapping of the patient at molecular level, in order to optimize them. Immunological mechanisms of ASIT are also considered, since appropriate views are rather contraversial. The ASIT effect is mediated through the following basic immunological mechanisms: the suppressed increase of the eosinophil concentrations, reduced duration of the delayed hypersensitivity phase, as well as initiation and maintenance of the Th2-to-Th1-like immune response transition. Regulatory T-cells play a major role in implementation of the immunological mechanism in ASIT, they have a significant impact on the Th2 response suppression. Such suppression may proceed
Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.
Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.
Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre
Burks, Wesley; Lehrer, Samuel B; Bannon, Gary A
Food allergy is a major cause of life-threatening hypersensitive reactions. Food-induced anaphylaxis is the most common reason for a person to present to the emergency department for treatment of the anaphylactic reaction. Avoiding the allergenic food is the only currently available method for sensitized patients to prevent further reactions. Strict avoidance of specific foods is accepted treatment of food-induced allergic reactions but is often an unrealistic therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of food-induced hypersensivity reactions for the many reasons. Desirable therapeutic strategies for the treatment and prevention of the food allergies must be safe, relatively inexpensive, and easily administered. Recent advances in the understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying allergic disease and better characterization of food allergens have greatly expanded the potential therapeutic option for future use. Several different forms of immunodulatory therapies are currently under investigation: peptide immunotherapy, mutated protein immunotherapy, allergen DNA immunization, vaccination with immunostimulatory DNA sequences, and anti-immunoglobulin E-therapy. PMID:15630155
Moneret-Vautrin, D A
The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental
Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil;
. Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...
In this article the use of the Phadiatoptest as a first screening for atopy is described. An allergy is developed. In this strategy unnecessary RAST for inhalation allergens is avoided. Reuse of the Phadiatoptest reagentia is possible but with a loss of result
Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel
One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.
Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan;
Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the...
Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude-Elberink, JNG
The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula
Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis;
Background. Nickel is widely used in coins; nickel may cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in those who handle them. Objectives. To investigate alloy use, coin composition and nickel and cobalt release for a worldwide selection of currently circulating coins. Materials and methods...
Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan
One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692
Kulkarni S. D.
Full Text Available Mouth dissolving Tablets disintegrate and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva extremely fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Mouth or Fast dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients and in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms because of hand tremors and dysphagia. The technologies used for manufacturing fast-dissolving tablets are freeze-drying, spray-drying, molding, sublimation, sugar-based excipients, compression, and disintegration addition. As a result of increased life expectancy, the elderly constitute a large portion of the worldwide population today. These people eventually will experience deterioration of their physiological and physical abilities.
Full Text Available Montelukast Sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA used for the treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of Montelukast Sodium were prepared using novel coprocessed superdisintegrants consisting of crospovidone along with croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone along with sodium starch glycolate in the different ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Effect of co-processed superdisintegrants on wetting time, disintegrating time, drug content, and in-vitro release have been studied. The prepared tablets were characterized by DSC and FTIR Studies. No chemical interaction between drug and excipients was confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. Stability studies were carried out as per ICH guidelines for three months. The values of pre-compression parameters evaluated were within prescribed limits and indicated good free flowing property. The prepared tablets formulations were evaluated for post-compressional parameters. All the postcompressional parameter are evaluated were prescribed limits and results were within IP acceptable limits. The in-vitro disintegration time of fast dissolving tablets were found to be 12.06 to 39.14 sec. which is in the range of fulfilling the official requirements. By the addition of superdisintegrants the disintegration time increased significantly (P<0.05. The tablets shows the t50% and t90%between 0.94 min to 1.82 min and 3.61 min to 5.83 min respectively. Among all formulations CP3 showed 99.79% drug release within 4 min. Montelukast sodium tablets containing co-processed superdisintegrants exhibit quick disintegration and improved drug dissolution. It can be concluded from the present work that co-processed superdisintegrants of crosscarmellose sodium+ crospovidone are superior to crospovidone + sodium starch glycolate co-processed superdisintegrants used in Montelukast Sodium fast dissolving tablets.
Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike
Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods. PMID:25445756
Full Text Available Fast dissolving tablets are dissolving rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Other ingredients to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Fast or mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and traveling and may not have access to water. Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. This article describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In this review describes in detail about FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, spray drying, mass extrusion and direct compression. Several techniques have been developed in the recent past, to improve the disintegration quality of these delicate dosage forms without affecting their integrity. This article focuses on the technologies available and the advances made so far in the field of fabrication of fast dissolving tablets. Apart from the conventional methods of fabrication, this review also provides the detailed concept of some unique patented technologies like Zydis, Orasolv, Durasolv, Flashtab, Flash dose and Wowtab, Lyoc, Pharmaburst technology, Frosta technology, OraQuick, Quick-Dis Technology, Sheaform Technology, Ceform Technology, Nano technology, Advatab.Fast dissolving, Patented technologies, Sudisintegrants, Evaluation techn
Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Gogas, Helen
The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and despite early detection and intervention, the number of patients dying from metastatic disease continues to rise. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor, with median survival between 6 and 9 months. Over the past 30 years and despite extensive clinical research, the treatment options for metastatic disease were limited and melanoma is still considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. Single-agent and combination chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agent therapy and combination regimens failed to show a significant improvement in overall survival (OS). Recent advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma, have contributed to the development of new agents. Based on the molecular and immunological background of the disease, these new drugs have shown benefit in overall and progression-free survival (PFS). As the picture of the disease begins to change, oncologists need to alter their approach to melanoma treatment and consider disease biology together with targeted individualized treatment. In this review the authors attempt to offer an insight in the present and past melanoma treatment options, with a focus on the recently approved immunotherapeutic agents and the clinical perspectives of these new weapons against metastatic melanoma. PMID:27563656
Burgess, Melissa; Gorantla, Vikram; Weiss, Kurt; Tawbi, Hussein
Immunologic approaches to cancer are over a century old. Over the years, the strategy has been fine-tuned from inciting infections in subjects to inhibiting negative regulatory signals from the innate immune system. Sarcomas are among the first tumors to be considered for immune interventions. From Coley's toxin to cytokine-based therapies to adoptive cell therapy, there have been numerous immunotherapeutic investigations in this patient population. A promising strategy includes adoptive T cell therapy which has been studied in small cohorts of synovial sarcoma, a subtype that is known to widely express the cancer testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. Additionally, recent data in metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma demonstrate the utility and tremendous efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade with increased rates of durable responses compared to standard therapies. Responses in traditionally "non-immunogenic" tumors, such as lung and bladder cancers, provide ample rationale for the study of immune checkpoint inhibitors in sarcoma. While immunotherapy has induced some responses in sarcomas, further research will help clarify optimal patient selection for future clinical trials and new combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26423769
Soyer, Ozge U; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative approach in the treatment of allergic diseases defined up-to-date. Peripheral T-cell tolerance to allergens, the goal of successful allergen-SIT, is the primary mechanism in healthy immune responses to allergens. By repeated administration of increased doses of the causative allergen, allergen-SIT induces a state of immune tolerance to allergens through the constitution of T regulatory (Treg) cells, including allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells; induction of suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor β; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4 and IgA; and suppression of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and inflammatory dendritic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen-SIT with emphasis on the roles of Treg cells in allergen-SIT. PMID:21530813
Bukowski, R M
Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma continue to present a therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic approaches involve surgery and various types of immunotherapy. The rationale for this latter form of therapy include the observations of spontaneous tumor regression, the presence of a T-cell-mediated immune response, and the tumor responses observed in patients receiving cytokine therapy. Analysis of prognostic factors in these patients demonstrates that clinical responses occur most frequently in individuals with good performance status. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2, aldesleukin [Proleukin], interferon-alfa (Intron A, Roferon-A), or the combination produce responses in 15% to 20% of patients. Randomized trials suggest that administration of interferon-alfa may result in a modest improvement in median survival. Investigation of the molecular genetics of renal cell carcinoma and the presence of T-lymphocyte immune dysregulation have suggested new therapeutic strategies. Further preclinical and clinical studies investigating inhibitors of angiogenesis or pharmacologic methods to reverse immune dysregulation are ongoing. Therapeutic results in patients with renal cell carcinoma remain limited, and investigational approaches are warranted. PMID:10378218
Full Text Available Rita Elena Serda Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Elevated understanding and respect for the relevance of the immune system in cancer development and therapy has led to increased development of immunotherapeutic regimens that target existing cancer cells and provide long-term immune surveillance and protection from cancer recurrence. This review discusses using particles as immune adjuvants to create vaccines and to augment the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutics. Several particle prototypes are presented, including liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, and porous silicon microparticles, the latter existing as either single- or multiparticle platforms. The benefits of using particles include immune-cell targeting, codelivery of antigens and immunomodulatory agents, and sustained release of the therapeutic payload. Nanotherapeutic-based activation of the immune system is dependent on both intrinsic particle characteristics and on the immunomodulatory cargo, which may include danger signals known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and cytokines for effector-cell activation. Keywords: adjuvant, particle, immunotherapy, dendritic cell, cancer, vaccine
Rui Tang; Jin-Lu Sun; Jia Yin; Zhi Li
Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia a...
Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Josephs, Debra H; Saul, Louise; Gilbert, Amy E; Upton, Nadine; Gould, Hannah J
The pathogenic role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in triggering and maintaining allergic inflammation in response to allergens is due to the binding of multivalent allergens to allergen-specific IgEs on sensitized effector cells. These interactions trigger effector cell activation, resulting in release of potent inflammatory mediators, recruitment of inflammatory cells, antigen presentation, and production of allergen-specific antibody responses. Since its discovery in the 1960s, the central role of IgE in allergic disease has been intensively studied, placing IgE and its functions at the heart of therapeutic efforts for the treatment of allergies. Here, we provide an overview of the nature, roles, and significance of IgE antibodies in allergic diseases, infections, and inflammation and the utility of antibodies as therapies. We place special emphasis on allergen-IgE-Fcε receptor complexes in the context of allergic and inflammatory diseases and describe strategies, including monoclonal antibodies, aimed at interrupting these complexes. Of clinical significance, one antibody, omalizumab, is presently in clinical use and works by preventing formation of IgE-Fcε receptor interactions. Active immunotherapy approaches with allergens and allergen derivatives have also demonstrated clinical benefits for patients with allergic diseases. These treatments are strongly associated with serum increases of IgE-neutralizing antibodies and feature a notable redirection of humoral responses towards production of antibodies of the IgG4 subclass in patients receiving immunotherapies. Lastly, we provide a new perspective on the rise of recombinant antibodies of the IgE class recognizing tumor-associated antigens, and we discuss the potential utility of tumor antigen-specific IgE antibodies to direct potent IgE-driven immune responses against tumors. PMID:26184813
Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert
On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. PMID:26968958
Agrawal, Neena Stephanie; Miller, Rickey; Lal, Richa; Mahanti, Harshini; Dixon-Mah, Yaenette N; DeCandio, Michele L; Vandergrift, W Alex; Varma, Abhay K; Patel, Sunil J; Banik, Naren L; Lindhorst, Scott M; Giglio, Pierre; Das, Arabinda
Glioblastoma is a form of brain tumor with a very high morbidity and mortality. Despite decades of research, the best treatments currently in clinical practice only extend survival by a number of months. A promising alternative to conventional treatment for glioblastomas is immunotherapy. Although proposed over a century ago, the field of cancer immunotherapy has historically struggled to translate it into effective clinical treatments. Better understanding is needed of the various regulatory and co-stimulatory factors in the glioblastoma patient for more efficient immunotherapy treatments. The tumor microenvironment is anatomically shielded from normal immune-surveillance by the blood-brain barrier, irregular lymphatic drainage system, and it's in a potently immunosuppressive environment. Immunotherapy can potentially manipulate these forces effectively to enhance anti-tumor immune response and clinical benefit. New treatments utilizing the immune system show promise in terms of targeting and efficacy. This review article attempts to discuss current practices in glioblastoma treatment, the theory behind immunotherapy, and current research into various clinical trials. PMID:25346943
Sahadevan, A; Cusack, R; Lane, S J
Seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) occurs predominantly as a result of grass pollen allergy. Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proven effective in treating AR1. SLIT is currently licensed for use in AR with concomitant stable mild asthma. There is evidence that SLIT improves asthma control when primarily used to treat AR2. The aim was to assess the safety of SLIT in patients with severe seasonal allergic rhinitis who have co-existing stable mild asthma. The secondary aim was to determine whether asthma control improved post SLIT. There was no deterioration in asthma control after 6-36 months of SLIT. 27/30 (90%) patients' asthma control remained stable or indeed improved (p < 0.021). Of this 15 (50%) patients' asthma improved. There was no statistically significant change in their asthma pharmacotherapy after SLIT (p = 0.059). In conclusion, grass pollen SLIT is safe and can potentially treat dual allergic rhinitis- mild asthmatic patients. PMID:26817287
Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and
THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.
Full Text Available La alergia alimentaria es una situación clínica de alta prevalencia y posible riesgo vital. En este artículo se revisan los alimentos más frecuentemente responsables de las reacciones graves, incluyendo datos de la Comunidad Autónoma de Navarra. Puesto que la dieta de eliminación constituye el punto primordial del tratamiento a largo plazo de la alergia alimentaria, se analizan sus dificultades, limitaciones y riesgos. Por último se exponen las nuevas perspectivas que ofrece la tecnología en el campo de la alergia a alimentos, tanto en la producción de alimentos hipoalergénicos como en el desarrollo de nuevas formas de inmunoterapia.Food allergy is a clinical state of high frequency and possible risk to life. This article reviews the foodstuffs most often responsible for serious reactions, including data from the Autonomous Community of Navarre. Given that dietetic elimination is the primordial long term treatment for food allergy, its difficulties, limitations and risks are analyzed. Finally, we set out the new perspectives offered by technology in the field of food allergy, both in the production of hypoallergens and in the development of new forms of immunotherapy.
de Leon, Maria P; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, with increasing prevalence worldwide. To date, there is no cure for peanut allergy, and, unlike many other food allergies, it usually persists through to adulthood. Prevention of exposure to peanuts is managed through strict avoidance, which can be compromised by the frequent use of peanuts and peanut products in food preparations. Conventional subcutaneous-injection allergen immunotherapy using crude peanut extract is not a recommended treatment because of the risk of severe side effects, largely as a result of specific IgE antibodies. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a suitable peanut allergen preparation that can induce specific clinical and immunological tolerance to peanuts in allergic individuals without adverse side effects. This requires detailed molecular and immunological characterisation of the allergenic components of peanut. This article reviews current knowledge on clinically relevant peanut allergens, in particular Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, together with options for T-cell-reactive but non-IgE-binding allergen variants for specific immunotherapeutic strategies. These include T-cell-epitope peptide and hypoallergenic mutant vaccines. Alternative routes of administration such as sublingual are also considered, and appropriate adjuvants for delivering effective treatments at these sites examined. PMID:17210088
Gagandeep Chawla* and Nitin Jain
The gold standard in pharmaceutical industry is the oral delivery because it is the easiest, safest, economical and convenient method for the drug delivery. Mouth dissolving tablets have becomes the most demanding application during last decades and in the pharmaceutical industry this field has become a rapidly area. Mouth dissolving tablets during insertion in the mouth should have to dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth within 15sec to 3 minutes without the help or need of any drinking age...
Pen computing tools such as Tablet PC, Tablet Monitors and its various supporting software tool offer another dimension to enhance our today's digitally integrated and connected classroom learning environment. This paper first reviews the various state-of-the-art pen-computing hardware and software that have been applied in the classroom setting to introduce student-centric learning, collaboration and making annotations and designing classroom activities easier. We then propose a new classroo...
Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein;
cancer immunotherapies has yet to be fulfilled. The insufficient efficacy of existing treatments can be attributed to a number of biological and technical issues. In this review, we detail the current limitations of immunotherapy target selection and design, and review computational methods to streamline......The mechanisms of immune response to cancer have been studied extensively and great effort has been invested into harnessing the therapeutic potential of the immune system. Immunotherapies have seen significant advances in the past 20 years, but the full potential of protective and therapeutic...... and co-targets for single-epitope and multi-epitope strategies. We provide examples of application to the well-known tumor antigen HER2 and suggest bioinformatics methods to ameliorate therapy resistance and ensure efficient and lasting control of tumors....
Hassan, Sufia Butt; Sørensen, Jesper Freddie; Olsen, Barbara Nicola;
activation and thus enhancement of immune responses. Treatment with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies has been exploited in several cancer immunotherapy studies in mice and led to the development of anti-CD40 antibodies for clinical use. Here, Dacetuzumab and Lucatumumab are in the most advanced stage...... with other cancer immunotherapies, in particular interleukin (IL)-2. An in-depth analysis of this immunotherapy is provided elsewhere. In the present review, we provide an update of the most recent clinical trials with anti-CD40 antibodies. We present and discuss recent and ongoing clinical trials...... in this field, including clinical studies which combine anti-CD40 treatment with other cancer-treatments, such as Rituximab and Tremelimumab....
In combination with chemotherapy or radiation, passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies is state of the art in cancer therapy. For this purpose, two properties of antibodies are harnessed: i) via the Fab fragment they bind a specific tumour antigen and ii) via the Fc portion they recruit effector cells and activate the complement system. One of these antibodies is trastuzumab (Herceptin), a growth-inhibitory humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody recognizing the tumour antigen HER-2, which is overexpressed in 30% of human breast cancers. Interestingly, all antibodies applied for passive immunotherapy are so far exclusively of the IgG subclass. In contrast, antibodies of the IgE subclass are best-known for their detrimental function in type I hypersensitivity. It is little-known that IgE has anti-tumour capacity which could be exploited for immunotherapy of cancer. Thus, the aim of this doctoral thesis was to examine alternative strategies for cancer treatment based on IgE antibodies, and to compare their efficacy with that of IgG. The oral immunization route is well suited for the induction of a Th2 immunity including high affine IgE responses to administered antigens. Therefore, the establishment of an IgE dependent food allergy model in mice is described, which we applied also for our cancer studies. When mice were fed with different concentrations of ovalbumin under concomitant anti-acid medication, an antigen-specific IgE induction in a Th2 environment could be achieved. This oral vaccination regimen was also used for feeding HER-2 mimotopes, i.e. epitope-mimics of the anti-HER-2 IgG antibody trastuzumab. Indeed, these mimotopes induced IgE antibodies recognizing the tumour antigen which were able to bind HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer cells and led to tumour cell lysis. Complementary to this active immunotherapeutic approach a trastuzumab-like IgE antibody for passive immunotherapy was constructed. We could show that this trastuzumab IgE exhibited the
Rivas, Magali Noval; Burton, Oliver T.; Wise, Petra; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Georgiev, Peter; Oettgen, Hans C.; Rachid, Rima; Chatila, Talal
Oral immunotherapy has had limited success in establishing tolerance in food allergy, reflecting failure to elicit an effective regulatory T (Treg) cell response. We show that disease-susceptible mice (Il4raF709) with enhanced IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling exhibited STAT6-dependent impaired generation and function of mucosal allergen-specific Treg cells. This failure was associated with the acquisition by Treg cells of T helper 2 (Th2) cell-like phenotype, also found in peripheral blood all...
Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B.; Faustmann, S.; Kopp, S.; Wolkersdorfer, M.; Bohle, B
It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients w...
Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K;
previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists, this......Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on...... document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management of...
Yi-Ling Ye; Ya-Hui Chuang; Bor-Luen Chiang
Incidences of allergic disease have recently increased worldwide.Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has long been a controversial treatment for allergic diseases.Although beneficial effects on clinically relevant outcomes have been demonstrated in clinical trials by subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT),there remains a risk of severe and sometimes fatal anaphylaxis.Mucosal immunotherapy is one advantageous choice because of its non-injection routes of administration and lower side-effect profile.This study reviews recent progress in mucosal immunotherapy for allergic diseases.Administration routes,antigen quality and quantity,and adjuvants used are major considerations in this field.Also,direct uses of unique probiotics,or specific cytokines,have been discussed.Furthermore,some researchers have reported new therapeutic ideas that combine two or more strategies.The most important strategy for development of mucosal therapies for allergic diseases is the improvement of antigen formulation,which includes continuous searching for efficient adjuvants,collecting more information about dominant T-cell epitopes of allergens,and having the proper combination of each.In clinics,when compared to other mucosal routes,sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a preferred choice for therapeutic administration,although local and systemic side effects have been reported.Additionally,not every allergen has the same beneficial effect.Further studies are needed to determine the benefits of mucosal immunotherapy for different allergic diseases after comparison of the different administration routes in children and adults.Data collected from large,well-designed,double-blind,placebo-controlled,and randomized trials,with post-treatment follow-up,can provide robust substantiation of current evidence.
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张洢祎; 王学民; 王婷婷; 孙丽囡
Food allergy,as an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food,is a common allergic problem in infants.The misunderstanding of food allergy in children's parents and indefinite diagnosis have leaded to a series of feeding and health problems.The mechanism of IgE-mediated food allergy is multifactorial,and is mainly associated with the interaction between genetic predisposition and environment,while the mechanism of non-IgE mediated food allergy is unclear,and it is considered to be mediated mainly by T cells,and can cause subacute or chronic gastrointestinal or skin reactions.Therefore,it is of great significance to expand knowledge on clinical diagnostic methods for food allergy,and to correctly diagnose food allergy by combining medical history,elimination diet trials and oral food challenge results for reducing the occurrence of food allergy,guiding elimination diet and corresponding immunotherapy.%食物过敏是指免疫介导的食物不良反应,是婴幼儿常见的过敏性疾病,患儿家长对食物过敏的错误认识及诊断的不明确,导致一系列的喂养和健康问题.IgE介导的食物过敏机制是多因素的,主要受遗传体质和环境的相互作用;非IgE介导的食物过敏的机制尚不清楚.目前认为,其主要由T细胞介导,可引起亚急性或慢性胃肠道或皮肤反应.因此,了解食物过敏诊断相关的临床检查方法,结合临床病史、饮食排除试验、食物激发试验等方法正确诊断食物过敏,对减少食物过敏反应的发生以及指导正确的规避饮食和相应的免疫治疗具有重要意义.
张洢祎; 王学民; 王婷婷; 孙丽囡
食物过敏是指免疫介导的食物不良反应,是婴幼儿常见的过敏性疾病,患儿家长对食物过敏的错误认识及诊断的不明确,导致一系列的喂养和健康问题.IgE介导的食物过敏机制是多因素的,主要受遗传体质和环境的相互作用;非IgE介导的食物过敏的机制尚不清楚.目前认为,其主要由T细胞介导,可引起亚急性或慢性胃肠道或皮肤反应.因此,了解食物过敏诊断相关的临床检查方法,结合临床病史、饮食排除试验、食物激发试验等方法正确诊断食物过敏,对减少食物过敏反应的发生以及指导正确的规避饮食和相应的免疫治疗具有重要意义.%Food allergy,as an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food,is a common allergic problem in infants.The misunderstanding of food allergy in children's parents and indefinite diagnosis have leaded to a series of feeding and health problems.The mechanism of IgE-mediated food allergy is multifactorial,and is mainly associated with the interaction between genetic predisposition and environment,while the mechanism of non-IgE mediated food allergy is unclear,and it is considered to be mediated mainly by T cells,and can cause subacute or chronic gastrointestinal or skin reactions.Therefore,it is of great significance to expand knowledge on clinical diagnostic methods for food allergy,and to correctly diagnose food allergy by combining medical history,elimination diet trials and oral food challenge results for reducing the occurrence of food allergy,guiding elimination diet and corresponding immunotherapy.
Geier, J; Uter, W
The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114
appropriate "safe" thresholds of ingredients, the food industry must take increasingly proactive steps to avoid direct or cross-contamination as well as ensuring that their products are appropriately labeled and identified for those at risk. This book covers a range of critical topics in this area, including......Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining...
Narisety, Satya D.; Skripak, Justin M.; Steele, Pamela; Hamilton, Robert G.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Burks, A Wesley; Wood, Robert A
MOIT can be effective in desensitizing children with severe IgE-mediated CMA, with most tolerating markedly increased amounts of cow’s milk protein over time and demonstrating changes in serologic markers.
Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.
Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also severe, therefore it is important to know different manifestations and how to prevent them. Objective: Report two clinical cases of natural rubber latex allergy in children and to present the safety meas...
Ersin Aydin; Ercan Karabacak; Ali Kutlu; Bilal Dogan
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disease, associated with food and inhalant allergies. The relationship between food and AD is controversial. Greater than 90% parents and 60 % of primary care providers considers that food allergies as the cause for AD. However, it is difficult to reveal that food aggravating AD. In this article the relationship between AD and food allergy was reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000): 105-110
Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Gerez, Irvin Francis A; Soh, Shu E.; Van Bever, Hugo P
Objective This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. Methods PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. Results There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have result...
Surtees, S. J.; Stockton, M G; Gietzen, T W
OBJECTIVE--To assess whether, on the basis of one blood test, penicillin allergy might be excluded sufficiently for general practitioners to give oral penicillin to patients claiming a history of penicillin allergy. DESIGN--Prospective study of patients referred by general practitioners. SETTING--Outpatient allergy clinic in a district general hospital. PATIENTS--175 referred patients who gave a history of immediate type reaction to penicillin, of whom 144 attended as requested and 132 comple...
This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2015.
This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/20/2015.
Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL; Danielle Cavalcanti SALES; Urbano, Stela Antas; José Geraldo Bezerra GALVÃO JÚNIOR; Júlio César de ANDRADE NETO; Cláudia de Souza MACÊDO
Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). Th...
Stefanie Leniszewski; Richard Mauseth
Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for t...
Leniszewski Stefanie; Mauseth Richard
Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for ...
Armstrong, D.; RYLANCE, G.
OBJECTIVE—To compare findings of tests for nut allergy in children. DESIGN—Retrospective survey of a clinical practice protocol. SETTING—Children's hospital paediatric outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS—96 children referred by general practitioners and accident and emergency doctors over 27 months (1994-96). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Allergic manifestations (generalised urticarial rash, facial swelling, bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock, vomiting on three occasions) related to spe...
Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.
Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches incl...
Póster Actually, a large segment of the world population suffers from an eating disorder. While one of the disorders with the highest incidence in the European population are disorders resulting from ingestion of lactose (found in milk and dairy products protein). Described that 35% of the population may have some form of said protein intolerance while allergies account for 8.5% (www.eaaci.org).
Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen
Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…
Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.
Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a sy
The discovering of IgE and the development of RIA to measure the amount of total IgE and assay IgE to specific allergens opened up a new dimension in the study of allergy. PRIST and RAST have been helpful in diagnosis as well as definition of new diseases and quality control of allergen extracts. A clinical diagnosis should not be based on an in vitro measurement alone, but must be combined with a clinical history, physical exam, and other diagnostic tests, such as skin tests. This combination of examinations is probably sufficient to make a diagnosis in the majority of cases, thus obviating the need for provocation testing, except where there are discrepancies in the data or no definitive results. Since provocation testing is time-consuming, uncomfortable, and potentially hazardous for the patient, any decrease in its frequency of use is significant. The standardization, purification, and separation of active fractions of allergens is essential to the further understanding and treatment of allergy and RAST is instrumental in this effort. It must always be kept in mind that the RAST is only as accurate and significant as the antigen that is linked to the disc. In cases where a purified, well-tested antigen is used, the results are excellent as with the codfish study. When the antigen is more variable and contains several proteins, results with RAST will be variable also. As more allergens are studied and purified, RAST will become a more important tool in allergy management
de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H
We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession. PMID:9534922
Full Text Available Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode affecting dogs and cats that causes human infestations by ingestion of embryonated eggs excreted in dogs' faeces. Humans are transport hosts, in whom the larvae do not develop to adult worms, but may migrate to various tissues and organs, and survive for several years, giving rise to several clinical symptoms, which include allergy-like presentations. We report three cases presenting as dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis which were diagnosed and unsuccessfully treated as allergy. The correct diagnosis was established after detecting anti-Toxocara antibodies by Western blotting. All clinical symptoms showed improvement after starting treatment with mebendazole and subsequent courses of the antiparasitic drug resulted in full recovery. This suggests the possible role of Toxocara canis in inducing chronic symptoms of allergic type. This is particularly important for asthma, where it has been demonstrated that Toxocara canis infection causes allergic inflammation in the lungs associated with bronchial hyperreactivity. On the other hand, in our patients with asthma and with dermatitis the positive results from allergy tests were a confounding factor in delaying the correct diagnosis, which was finally obtained by the detection of antibodies to Toxocara canis.
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P=0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P=0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS. PMID:25819922
Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki
Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies. PMID:25326106
Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B
It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:26443126
Antonicelli, L; Braschi, M C; Bilò, M B; Angino, A; Pala, A P; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Bonifazi, F
Both rhinitis (ARIA) and asthma (GINA) guidelines recommend allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) tailored to the specific levels of severity of each disease. Real world studies evaluating congruence between these recommendations and prescribing practice in the single patient with comorbidity are lacking. An observational polycentric study was carried out in 518 patients recruited from 34 allergy centers throughout Italy. A questionnaire was administered to each consecutive patient over a span of four months. Taking into account guideline recommendations for both diseases, concomitant in the same patient, three subsets resulted: patients not eligible for SIT (11%); patients eligible for SIT for one disease only (60%); patients eligible for SIT for both diseases (29%). SIT was prescribed in 257 (49.6%) subjects. The level of SIT prescription was about 50% in all three groups. Consistent with the ARIA guidelines, a correlation between the prescription of SIT and the severity of rhinitis was documented (r=0.87; p=0.001). An association with asthma severity was found (p=0.02), but the trend was inconsistent with the GINA recommendations. Young age was the most important factor for SIT prescription both in the eligible for one disease and in the eligible for both diseases subset. The tendency towards worsening of symptoms was a factor for SIT in the eligible for one disease subset. In mite allergic patients with rhinitis and asthma comorbidity, the severity of rhinitis and the young age are the most important factors driving the SIT prescription. The congruence of SIT prescription was better for the ARIA than GINA guidelines. PMID:21628094
Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Caicun; Ren, Shengxiang
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of the key cytokines with pleiotropic effects on immune system. It has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of IL-2 in regulating lymphocytes that has led to exciting new directions for cancer immunotherapy. While improved IL-2 formulations might be used as monotherapies, their combination with other anticancer immunotherapies, such as adoptive cell transfer regimens, antigen-specific vaccination, and blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitory molecules, for example cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) mono-antibodies, would held the promise of treating metastatic cancer. Despite the comprehensive studies of IL-2 on immune system have established the application of IL-2 for cancer immunotherapy, a number of poignant obstacles remain for future research. In the present review, we will focus on the key biological features of IL-2, current applications, limitations, and future directions of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27471638
Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke
Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...
Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Songur, Abdullah; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalcin
Topical immunotherapy made by diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is an alternative treatment that can be used safely and efficaciously in recalcitrant alopecia areata patients. DPCP-induced vitiligo is a rare, but documented, unwanted side effect. The real mechanism of DPCP-induced vitiligo is not well known. PMID:26963903
The involvement of the Italian "pizza" in the wide and variegate field of food allergy is certainly uncommon. This simple Italian dish consists of a breadlike crust covered by a spiced preparation of cheese and tomatoes and baked. Italian pizza found its origin in Napoli and only in recent years has become a very popular food in the rest of Italy and elsewhere. In the beginning, it was the food of the poor, but was made with natural foods, but nowadays has been enriched by a number of ingredients and flavourings, thus multiplying the risk of allergic reactions. PMID:11075625
Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B
Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. PMID:25459121
Raj Kumari; Chandel Priya; Kapoor Ankita
Oral route is the most important and preferred route for drug administration due to the convenience, ease of administration and patient compliance. Tablet is the most preferred conventional oral unit dosage form. During tablet administration dysphasia is the main problem. Fast dissolving tablets can reduce this problem by dissolving and disintegrating rapidly within few seconds in mouth without water. Fast dissolving tablets become advantageous for those patients which have swallowing problem...
Srivastava Saurabh; Bala Rajni; Joshi Baibhav; Rana A.C; Singla Vikas
An orally disintegrating tablet or mouth dissolving tablet (MDT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. MDTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. A variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among the dosage forms developed to facilitate ease of medication, the mouth dissolving tablet (MDT) is one of the m...
Deshmukh Keshav Ram; Patel Vidyanand; Verma Shekhar; Pandey Alok Kumar; Dewangan Pramod
The objective of this paper was to review the information about mouth dissolving tablets prepared by solid dispersion technique. Mouth dissolving tablets are being increasingly recognized in the market because of their potential benefits over conventional tablets. Solid dispersion is an innovative technique to improve solubility of drug moieties with low solubility profile. Formulation of solid dispersion as mouth dissolving tablet not only improves dissolution characteristics of drug but als...
Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.
Food allergy has become an emerging health problem in Western societies. Although food allergy is characterized by a relatively low mortality and an almost continual absence of physical symptoms, food allergic patients are continually confronted with the possibility of potentially severe reactions a
de Groot, A C; Meijer, P; van Joost, T; Hausen, B M
We report 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to Alstroemeria cultivars. Four of them presented with the clinical picture of 'tulip fingers'. They all reacted to parts of fresh plants and to tuliposide A. The literature on Alstroemeria allergy is reviewed. PMID:2142514
Erp, F.C. van
Food allergy has a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Although food allergic patients usually do not experience daily symptoms, they are faced with dietary restrictions and the risk for a severe reaction every day. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is important to presc
Currently, food allergy is a major health problem with an estimated prevalence of about 5% in young children and 3-4% in adults and the prevalence is increasing. However, no cure or approved treatment is available, despite the increased knowledge of mechanisms playing a role in food allergy. The ary
Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D
BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...
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D.P. Raggio; L.B. Camargo; G.M.C.C. Naspitz; G.T. Politano; C.C. Bonifacio; F.M. Mendes; F. Kierstman
Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also severe
This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/20/2015.
Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.
Katzan, Harry, Jr.
In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel....
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1 gram of dichlorophene. (b) Sponsor. See 023851 in § 510.600(c) of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of primidone. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin....
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg) nitenpyram. (b) Sponsor. See No. 058198 in §...
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 260 milligrams (4 grains) of sulfisoxazole. (b) Sponsor....
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams (mg) clomipramine hydrochloride. (b)...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cefpodoxime tablets. 520.370 Section 520.370 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains cefpodoxime proxetil equivalent to 100 or 200 milligrams (mg)...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of carnidazole. (b) Sponsor. See 053923 in § 510.600(c)...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron tablets. 520.1288 Section 520.1288 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1288 Lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications—(1) Tablets containing 45, 90, 204.9, or 409.8 milligrams (mg) lufenuron for use as in...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856...
Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.
The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine...... in up to 50% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80% before puberty. CONCLUSIONS: CMPA is the most common food allergy in early childhood with an incidence of 2 to 3% in the first year of life. The overall prognosis of CMPA in infancy is good with a remission rate of approximately 85 to 90%. In...... particular, gastrointestinal symptoms show a good prognosis. An early increased immunoglobulin E-response to CMP is associated with an increased risk of persistent allergy to CMP, development of adverse reactions to other foods, and development of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis later in childhood....
6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate and...... adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes. The...... overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...
Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan;
Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...... to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental...... assistants, occupationally exposed to latex, were genotyped for filaggrin null mutations R501X and 2282del4. Latex allergy was determined by a positive reaction or a historical positive reaction to a skin prick test with NRL. Results 41 individuals were successfully genotyped. Three individuals were...
Muhammad Tariq Shakoor
Full Text Available As a medical resident we have always been taught that there is some sort of cross reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and nonantibiotic sulfonamides. Even the manufacturerâs package inserts contain a precautionary statement about possible Cross-reactivity. The most common approach to this problem is avoidance of all sulfa containing drugs. However, there are few data supporting this contraindication. Thus we may be withholding appropriate therapies from patients unnecessarily. To provide a critical and comprehensive review of literature to explore either cross reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and nonantibiotic sulfonamides is a fact or fiction and to present an approach to use nonantibiotic sulfonamides in sulfa allergic patients. A PubMed and general medline search was conducted using the individual names of nonantibiotic sulfonamides. We reviewed all of the available case reports and studies regarding sulfonamide antibiotic cross-reactivity with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. Also reviewed the manufacturerâs package insert for each nonantibiotic sulfonamide drug for information concerning possible cross-reactivity with sulfonamide antibiotics. Sulfa drug allergy is one word holding the whole cross-reactivity theory in it. It should be obsolete from the medical dictionary. This one word is complicating the medical decision-making. Allergies should not be attributed to classes or groups of drugs unless proven. After reviewing all the available literature we can conclude that assumptions about cross-reactivity are a FICTION.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste......Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...
Burdon, J J; Burdon, J G
A case of allergic rhinitis which occurred on exposure to Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum) is described. Symptoms developed on exposure both to flowering and to dead, dried plants. Inhalational challenge tests with pure preparations of pollen and epidermal debris, including plant hairs, resulted in the symptoms and signs of allergic rhinitis. Field experiments in a large natural stand of Paterson's curse showed that pollen and particulate plant debris, including plant hairs, were airborne during the flowering season. These findings indicate that pollen, epidermal hairs, and particulate matter cause allergic symptoms in susceptible subjects, and suggest that allergies to Paterson's Curse may be encountered beyond the main flowering period. PMID:6679054
Vionnet, Julien; Petitpierre, Stéphanie; Fumeaux, Alexandre; Meuli, Reto; Spertini, Francois; Comte, Denis
Allergy to radiographic contrast media Hypersensitivity reactions to radio-contrast media are common in the daily practice. These products are responsible for immediate ( 1 hour after administration) hypersensitivity reactions. A diagnostic work-up by an allergologist with skin tests and in some cases provocation tests is of value in reducing the risk of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. A careful selection of the patients is required because the incidence of breakthrough reactions is still concerning, even with proper premedication. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. For gadolinium-based contrast agents, data in the literature is not sufficient for suggesting guidelines. PMID:23667970
Full Text Available Abstract Although recent FDA approvals on ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T represent major milestones, the ultimate success of immunotherapy approaches will likely benefit from appropriate combinations with other immunotherapeutic and/or non-immunotherapeutic approaches. However, implementation of ideal combinations in the clinic may still face formidable challenges in regulatory, drug-availability and intellectual property aspects. The 2011 SITC annual meeting hosted a workshop on combination immunotherapy to discuss: 1 the most promising combinations found in the laboratory; 2 early success of combination immunotherapy in clinical trials; 3 industry perspectives on combination approaches, and 4 relevant regulatory issues. The integrated theme was how to accelerate the implementation of efficacious combined immunotherapies for cancer patients. Rodent animal models are providing many examples of synergistic combinations that typically include more than two agents. However, mouse and human immunology differ in a significant number of mechanisms and hence we might be missing opportunities peculiar to humans. Nonetheless, incisive animal experimentation with deep mechanistic insight remains the best compass that we can use to guide our paths in combinatorial immunotherapy. Combination immunotherapy clinical trials are already in progress and preliminary results are extremely promising. As a key to translate promising combinations into clinic, real and “perceived” business and regulatory hurdles were debated. A formidable step forward would be to be able to test combinations of investigational agents prior to individual approval. Taking together the FDA and the industrial perspective on combinatorial immunotherapy, the audience was left with the clear message that this is by no means an impossible task. The general perception is that the road ahead of us is full of combination clinical trials which hopefully will bring clinical benefit to our cancer
Martinez Forero, Ivan; Okada, Hideho; Topalian, Suzanne L; Gajewski, Thomas F; Korman, Alan J; Melero, Ignacio
Although recent FDA approvals on ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T represent major milestones, the ultimate success of immunotherapy approaches will likely benefit from appropriate combinations with other immunotherapeutic and/or non-immunotherapeutic approaches. However, implementation of ideal combinations in the clinic may still face formidable challenges in regulatory, drug-availability and intellectual property aspects. The 2011 SITC annual meeting hosted a workshop on combination immunotherapy to discuss: 1) the most promising combinations found in the laboratory; 2) early success of combination immunotherapy in clinical trials; 3) industry perspectives on combination approaches, and 4) relevant regulatory issues. The integrated theme was how to accelerate the implementation of efficacious combined immunotherapies for cancer patients. Rodent animal models are providing many examples of synergistic combinations that typically include more than two agents. However, mouse and human immunology differ in a significant number of mechanisms and hence we might be missing opportunities peculiar to humans. Nonetheless, incisive animal experimentation with deep mechanistic insight remains the best compass that we can use to guide our paths in combinatorial immunotherapy. Combination immunotherapy clinical trials are already in progress and preliminary results are extremely promising. As a key to translate promising combinations into clinic, real and "perceived" business and regulatory hurdles were debated. A formidable step forward would be to be able to test combinations of investigational agents prior to individual approval. Taking together the FDA and the industrial perspective on combinatorial immunotherapy, the audience was left with the clear message that this is by no means an impossible task. The general perception is that the road ahead of us is full of combination clinical trials which hopefully will bring clinical benefit to our cancer patients at a fast pace. PMID
Papadopoulos Nikolaos G
more coherent, uniform and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein.
<正>During the four and half months of my staying at the Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem and in the Hebrew University(01.12.2013–13.04.2014),I had the chance to read and study some unpublished cuneiform tablets.Here,I would like to make a small contribution to the work of publishing the precious information hidden in the cuneiform tablets from ancient Mesopotamia,and hope that some colleagues can give some improved reading to
Catalin sodium (tab) is used as an anti-cataract drug. It is dissolved in sterile aqueous buffer and administered as eye drops. It has to be sterile. These tablets are irradiated to 14 - 35 kGy dose of gamma rays from 60Co source and physico-chemical studies were done in solid state and in solution. Physical appearance, pH and light absorption properties show no change. Assay of the irradiated samples gives a value of around 102% of the labeled amount which is within the specified limits. The solution of the irradiated tablet can be stored at 5-10 deg C for a month. (author)
... reaction could be quickly treated. Because drugs called beta-blockers may interfere with the ability to treat these reactions, people who take beta-blockers are often advised to avoid immunotherapy. If patients ...
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? Print A A ... if he has allergies or just a lingering cold? – Michelle Seasonal allergies and the common cold can ...
Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood in the developed world next to egg allergy. The prevalence is estimated at three to seven per cent, with a resolution rate of 80 to 90 per cent at six years. Accurate diagnosis rests on a good clear allergy focused history.
Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas
We present the case of a 29-year-old farmer with hay fever and atopic dermatitis since adolescence who had developed work-related asthma about 5 years earlier. He was sensitized to grass pollen, wheat and rye flour, dust from the floors of the animal facilities (cows and pigs) and grain barn, and a battery of animal feed from his farm. Work-relatedness of his asthma was demonstrated by serial measurements of spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide at work and during a holiday. Immunoblot analyses revealed dominant IgE-binding to grass pollen and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat). IgE inhibition experiments demonstrated that sensitization to triticale was not due to cross-reactivity to grass pollen. Testing of specific IgE-antibodies to recombinant wheat allergens showed sensitizations to profilin, peroxidase, and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins type I subfamily 9.1 and 9.7. We conclude that triticale allergy may occur as a distinct allergy in farmers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:501-505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26814013
Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes
Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365
Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is complex heterogeneous due to unclear biological characteristics in terms of cell origin, pathogenesis and driver genes etc. Diagnosis and treatment of SCLC has been slowly improved and few breakthroughs have been discovered up to now. Therefore new strategies are urgently needed to improve the efficacy of SCLC treatment. Tumor immunotherapy has potential to restore and trigger the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumor cells, notably it has only minimal adverse impact on normal tissue. Cancer vaccine, adoptive immunotherapy, cytokines and checkpoint inhibitors have now been launched for clinical treatment of SCLC. Ipilimumab is the most promising medicine of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is expected to bring new vision to the treatment of SCLC. And further researches are needed on such problems affecting efficacy of immunotherapy as the heterogeneity of SCLC, the uncertainty of target for immunotherapy, the immune tolerance, etc.
Singh, Parminder; Pal, Sumanta K; Alex, Anitha; Agarwal, Neeraj
PROSTVAC immunotherapy is a heterologous prime-boost regimen of two different recombinant pox-virus vectors; vaccinia as the primary immunotherapy, followed by boosters employing fowlpox, to provoke immune responses against prostate-specific antigen. Both vectors contain transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and a triad of T-cell costimulatory molecules (TRICOM). In a placebo-controlled Phase II trial of men with minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, PROSTVAC was well tolerated and associated with a 44% reduction in death. With a novel mechanism of action, and excellent tolerability, PROSTVAC has the potential to dramatically alter the treatment landscape of prostate cancer, not only as a monotherapy, but also in combination with other novel agents, such as immune check point inhibitors and novel androgen receptor blockers. A Phase III trial recently completed accrual. PMID:26235179
Megan A. McNamara
Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.
Baumeister, Susanne H; Freeman, Gordon J; Dranoff, Glenn; Sharpe, Arlene H
The immune system is capable of recognizing tumors and eliminates many early malignant cells. However, tumors evolve to evade immune attack, and the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive. Immune responses are regulated by a number of immunological checkpoints that promote protective immunity and maintain tolerance. T cell coinhibitory pathways restrict the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby limiting immune-mediated tissue damage, controlling resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity. Tumors exploit these coinhibitory pathways to evade immune eradication. Blockade of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints is proving to be an effective and durable cancer immunotherapy in a subset of patients with a variety of tumor types, and additional combinations are further improving response rates. In this review we discuss the immunoregulatory functions of coinhibitory pathways and their translation to effective immunotherapies for cancer. PMID:26927206
At present the only cure for food allergy is to avoid eating the food responsible for the allergy. Thus, food allergy or food hypersensitivity is a disease that is not only of concern to the individual who is affected but also to those involved directly and indirectly in supplying and preparing food for the food-allergic individual, and its impact on society should be evaluated on this basis. It is generally assumed that questionnaire-based studies vastly overestimate the prevalence of food hypersensitivity. The reported perceived prevalence of food hypersensitivity varies from 3.24% to 34.9%, which may be explained partly by the difference in reporting lifetime prevalence compared with point prevalence. However, of more importance is the apparent inverse correlation between response rate and prevalence (the higher the response rate, the lower the perceived prevalence). The three most-recent prevalence studies on food hypersensitivity (one on perceived food hypersensitivity and two on confirmed food hypersensitivity) all report estimates for prevalence of approximately 3%, but their criteria for including subjects as being positive are not identical, although they do overlap. Furthermore, because of differences in methodology there is no definitive information to indicate whether the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. However, the high prevalence of pollen-related food allergy in younger adults in the population suggests that the increase in pollen allergy is also being accompanied by an increase in pollen-related food allergy. PMID:16313682
This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…
... splitting unless it's specified in the drug’s professional prescribing information. If a patient is considering splitting a tablet, FDA recommends that the patient get advice directly from his or her doctor or pharmacist to determine whether it is appropriate or not ...
Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping
Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with th...
Full Text Available Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based ﬁlm to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. Solid dosage forms are coated for a number of reasons, the most important of which is controlling the release profiles. The amount of coating on the surface of a tablet is critical to the effectiveness of the oral dosage form. Tablets are usually coated in horizontal rotating pans with the coating solution sprayed onto the free surface of the tablet bed. The advantages of tablet coating are taste masking, odour masking, physical and chemical protection, protects the drug from the gastric environment etc. There are various techniques for tablet coating such as sugar coating, film coating, and enteric coating. Recent trends in pharmaceutical technologies are the development of coating methods which overcomes the various disadvantages associated with solvent based coatings. In these latest technologies coating materials are directly coated onto the surface of solid dosage forms without using any solvent. Various solventless coatings are available such as electrostatic dry coating, magnetically assisted impaction coating, compression coating, hot melt coating, powder coating, and supercritical fluid coating. Supercell Coating Technology is a revolutionary tablet coating that accurately deposits controlled amounts of coating materials on tablets even if they are extremely hygroscopic or friable. Magnetically assisted impaction coating, electrostatic dry coating in solventless coatings, aqueous film coating and Supercell coating technology are also available recent technique of coating. An ideal tablet should be free from any visual defect or functional defect. The advancements and innovations in tablet manufacture have not decreased the problems, often encountered in the production, instead have increased the problems, mainly because of the complexities of tablet presses; and/or the