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Sample records for allergy immunotherapy tablet

  1. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  2. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included....... CONCLUSION: Therefore, the SQ grass SLIT-tablet has an indication as a disease-modifying therapy in Europe, and a sustained effect is recognized in the United States....

  3. Economic evaluation of SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (Grazax® in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldson S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Ronaldson,1 Matthew Taylor,1 Peter G Bech,2 Ruth Shenton,1 Albrecht Bufe3 1York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK; 2ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark; 3Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany Background: Grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis is a common allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 20% of the UK population in terms of quality of life and sleep, work, and school patterns. The SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT has been demonstrated as a disease-modifying treatment which gives a sustained effect even after completion of a treatment course. The objective of this study was to provide an economic assessment of whether treatment with the SQ-standardized grass AIT, Grazax® (Phleum pratense in combination with symptomatic medications is preferable to the standard of care using symptomatic medications only. The analysis was performed for children with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis, with or without concomitant asthma, in the UK. Methods: The model evaluated the two treatment regimens in a cohort of 1,000 children from a payer’s perspective. Treatment was modeled in terms of management of symptoms, impact on resource use, and development of allergic asthma. The analysis modeled the use of SQ-standardized grass AIT and the sustained effects of treatment over a 9-year time horizon (ie, 3 years of treatment, with modeled long-term benefits. Data inputs were drawn from a recent clinical trial, published studies, and databases. Results: SQ-standardized grass AIT improves patient outcomes, generating an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of £12,168. This is below commonly accepted thresholds in the UK. Conclusion: The resulting incremental cost per QALY falls below commonly accepted willingness to pay thresholds. Therefore, the SQ-standardized grass AIT is a cost-effective option for the treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis in the UK pediatric population

  4. Immunotherapy for food allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinolli, Francesco; Carraro, Silvia; Berardi, Mariangela; Ferraro, Valentina; Baraldi, Eugenio; Zanconato, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem all over the world and especially in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. During childhood natural tolerance development is frequent, but some children with cow's milk or hen's egg allergy and the majority of children with peanut allergy will remain allergic until adulthood, limiting not only the diet of patients but also their quality of life. Within the last several years, the usefulness of immunotherapy for food allergies has been investigated in food allergic patients. Several food immunotherapies are being developed; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. The approach generally follows the same principles as immunotherapy of other allergic disorders and involves administering small increasing doses of food during an induction phase followed by a maintenance phase with regular intake of a maximum tolerated amount of food. Oral immunotherapy seems to be a promising approach for food allergic patients based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation for cow's milk and egg allergic subjects. However, oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. Additional bigger, multicentric and hopefully randomized-controlled studies must answer multiple questions including optimal dose, ideal duration of immunotherapy, degree of protection, efficacy for different ages, severity and type of food allergy responsive to treatment.

  5. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. Canonica (Giorgio Walter); L. Cox (Linda); R. Pawankar (Ruby); C.E. Baena-Cagnani (Carlos); M.S. Blaiss (Michael); S. Bonini (Sergio); J. Bousquet (Jean); M. Calderon (Moises); E. Compalati (Enrico); S.R. Durham (Stephen); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); D. Larenas-Linnemann (Désirée); H. Nelson (Harold); G. Passalacqua (Giovanni); O. Pfaar (Oliver); K. Rosario (Karyna); D. Ryan (Dermot); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); P. Schmid-Grendelmeier (Peter); G.E. Senna (Gianenrico); E. Valovirta (Erkka); H.P. van Bever (Hugo); P. Vichyanond (Pakit); U. Wahn (Ulrich); O.M. Yusuf (Osman)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe have prepared this document, "Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update", according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, "Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Pa

  6. Allergen specific immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one antigen has been used for immunotherapy of allergic disorders. So far less than five antigens have been employed with variable results. AIM: To evaluate effect of multiple antigens up to six in the immunotherapy of nasobronchial allergy. SETTING AND DESIGN: Based on clinical history, symptoms present for at least 3 years with set criteria of immunomodulation for asthma and rhinitis: documented IgE mediated asthma and rhinitis, failure in allergen avoidance and moderate to severe clinical manifestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred cases of various allergic disorders attending allergy clinic of Bombay hospital were screened. Allergen specific immunotherapy was initiated in 131 subjects (56 -rhinitis and 75 asthma with prior consent. Patients suffering from allergic disorders secondary to diseases or drug therapy were excluded. Multiple allergen immunotherapy was given at specific intervals up to a period of one year. Allergen extracts were prepared as per standard technique. For statistical analysis "students′t test" was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement in PEFR, reduction in skin sensitivity to allergens used in immunotherapy formulation and symptomatic relief without any untoward reaction show that multiple allergen immunotherapy is as effective as monoallergen immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  8. Novel immunotherapy approaches to food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, Simone M; Kostadinova, Atanaska I; Garssen, Johan; Otten, Henny G; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite reaching high percentages of desensitization using allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) in patients with food allergy, recent studies suggest only a low number of patients to reach persistent clinical tolerance. This review describes current developments in strategies to

  9. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  10. Immunotherapy for food allergies: a myth or a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Andrea D; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a worldwide issue, with an estimated prevalence of 2-10%. An effective treatment is not available for people affected and the only management is the avoidance of the allergen. Oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy have been tested by several authors, in particular for milk, egg and peanuts allergy, with significant results in term of desensitization induction. The achievement of tolerance is by the contrary doubtful, with different results obtained. In this review, we reviewed protocols of oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy published in literature, mainly against milk, egg and peanut. At present, immunotherapy does not represent the gold standard in the treatment of food allergy, even if it can desensitize patients.

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated Food Allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we sought to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost...

  12. A European perspective on immunotherapy for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Food allergies are common, and frequently, the only treatment option is strict avoidance. Unfortunately, many patients accidentally ingest allergenic foods, which can result in severe anaphylactic reactions. Several immunotherapies are being developed for food allergies; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. Oral immunotherapy seems to be the most promising approach based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. However, it is a challenge to compare results among immunotherapy trials because of differences in protocols. Studies conducted thus far have tested the most prevalent food allergens: it is not clear whether their results can be extended to other allergens. Sublingual administration of immunotherapy has shown some efficacy and fewer side effects than oral administration in some trials, yet neither approach can be recommended for routine practice. Controlled studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to determine short- and long-term efficacy and side effects. In Europe immunotherapy trials for food allergies face many ethical and regulatory issues. Guidelines from the European Medicine Agency on the clinical development of products for specific immunotherapy of allergic diseases do not adequately address immunotherapy for food allergies, especially for therapies that orally administer native food or that include pediatric patients.

  13. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open....... Therefore, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple should not be considered as a main criterion for selecting patients for birch pollen immunotherapy at present....

  14. The future of specific immunotherapy: strategies and challenges for the next generation of allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, P

    2011-07-01

    : The use of specific immunotherapy (SIT) for allergic disorders has recently been extended by introduction of a convenient, tablet-based, disease-modifying vaccine against grass pollen allergy. Allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT) programmes targeting house dust mite and other allergies are currently in late-phase development. Next-generation allergy vaccines can have optimised potency and onset of action without compromising safety or convenience. Key to achieving these objectives is a combination of evidence-based mode-of-action studies and biomarker-centric translational research approaches. This will rely on using biobank and bioinformatics resources for multi-omic characterisations of the 'immunome' of allergic disease. Other important areas are ongoing paediatric trials and long-term studies in adults for further defining the potential role of SIT in allergic disease and primary prevention of asthma. Finally, combining cellular- and serological-based assays, and developments in targeted delivery platforms and component-resolved diagnostics will lead to increased ability to stratify patients, with more personalised diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  16. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use.

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food...... allergy. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established...

  18. Efficacy of a House Dust Mite Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy Tablet in Adults With Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled corticos......IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled...... moderate or severe asthma exacerbation during the ICS reduction period. Secondary outcomes were deterioration in asthma symptoms, change in allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), change in asthma control or asthma quality-of-life questionnaires, and adverse events. RESULTS: Among 834 randomized...... in allergen-specific IgG4. However, there was no significant difference for change in asthma control questionnaire or asthma quality-of-life questionnaire for either dose. There were no reports of severe systemic allergic reactions. The most frequent adverse events were mild to moderate oral pruritus (13...

  19. Novel ways for immune intervention in immunotherapy: mucosal allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarell, Laurent; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Moingeon, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently the only curative treatment for allergy. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been successfully used to treat patients who are allergic to insect venom, house dust mites, or tree or grass pollens. In the context of potentially severe, albeit infrequent, side effects associated with SCIT, mucosal routes of administration are being investigated to conduct allergenic desensitization. This article reviews recent developments in the field of nasal, oral, and sublingual immunotherapy as they relate to safety, clinical efficacy, and immune mechanisms of action. Implications for the design and development of improved allergy vaccines that could be used through such nonparenteral routes are discussed. Specifically, allergen presentation platforms and adjuvants facilitating the targeting of immune cells at mucosal surfaces to promote tolerance induction are reviewed.

  20. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Dhami, Sangeeta; Netuveli, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. Methods:Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using ran...

  1. A Review of Allergy and Allergen Specific Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 20th  century, when allergy was defined, an ongoing attempt for discovering the mechanisms underlying it and its treatment began. Defining allergens as well as cells such as regulatory T-cells and characterizing the antibodies involved in the pathogenesis (including blocking antibodies have helped very much towards a better understanding of the immunologic process.However, Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT, as a specific curative treatment for allergy also dates back to the beginning of the previous century and has progressed considerably during these years. SIT similar to natural immunomodulation, directs the immune response towards tolerance.New strategies in this field, such as using recombinant allergens, T- and B-cell-epitope- containing peptides, and DNA vaccination have shown promising results. Sublingual immunotherapy, although not yet  FDA-approved, as an alternative  strategy in SIT  has demonstrated efficacy as well as safety.Furthermore, allergen extracts, their standardization and their modification have also been the focus of much research. Undoubtedly, specific immunotherapy is proven to be an efficacious  method  to  treat  allergy,  so  its  cost-effectiveness  should  be  estimated  in developing countries in order to include it in the country's health priorities. Informing physicians about the new anti-vaccination movement is also crucial.

  2. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food...... allergy. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established...... instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. DISCUSSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  3. SQ house dust mite sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK) improves allergic rhinitis in patients with house dust mite allergic asthma and rhinitis symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory ...

  4. Specific immunotherapy by the sublingual route for respiratory allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorvaia Cristoforo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment able to act on the causes and not only on the symptoms of respiratory allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT was introduced as an option to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT, the clinical effectiveness of which is partly counterbalanced by the issue of adverse systemic reactions, which occur at a frequency of about 0.2% of injections and 2-5% of the patients and may also be life-threatening. A large number of trials, globally evaluated by several meta-analyses, demonstrated that SLIT is an effective and safe treatment for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, severe reactions being extremely rare. The application of SLIT is favored by a good compliance, higher than that reported for SCIT, in which the injections are a major factor for noncompliance because of inconvenience, and by its cost-effectiveness. In fact, a number of studies showed that SLIT may be very beneficial to the healthcare system, especially when its effectiveness persists after treatment withdrawal because of the induced immunologic changes.

  5. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludman SW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sian W Ludman,1 Robert J Boyle2 1Paediatric Allergy Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28, but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment.Keywords: anaphylaxis, quality of life

  6. Development of a hypoallergenic recombinant parvalbumin for first-in-man subcutaneous immunotherapy of fish allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Huber, Hans; Swoboda, Ines;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The FAST (food allergy-specific immunotherapy) project aims at developing safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy for fish allergy, using recombinant hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1. OBJECTIVES: Preclinical characterization and good manufacturing practice (GMP) production...... PBMCs. Toxicity studies revealed no toxic effects and real-time stability studies on the Al(OH)3-adsorbed drug product demonstrated at least 20 months of stability. CONCLUSION: The GMP drug product developed for treatment of fish allergy has the characteristics targeted for in FAST: i.......e. hypoallergenicity with retained immunogenicity. These results have warranted first-in-man immunotherapy studies to evaluate the safety of this innovative vaccine....

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Muraro, Antonella; Roberts, Graham; Akdis, Cezmi; Alvaro-Lozano, Montserrat; Beyer, Kirsten; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Burks, Wesley; du Toit, George; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eigenmann, Philippe; Knol, Edward; Makela, Mika; Nadeau, Kari Christine; O'Mahony, Liam; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Poulsen, Lars; Sackesen, Cansin; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra; van Ree, Ronald; Timmermans, Frans; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food a

  8. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-20

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual's immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

  9. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation.

  10. Design and recruitment for the GAP trial, investigating the preventive effect on asthma development of an SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet in children with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Berstad, Aud Katrine Herland; de Blic, Jacques;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a risk factor for asthma development. Treating the underlying allergy may represent an attractive method of asthma prevention. No regulatory guidance exists in this area, and, to our knowledge, no clinical investigations meeting modern regulatory standards have been...

  11. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual’s immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection ...

  12. Immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h1 core domain suppresses peanut allergy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between prepara...

  13. Oral Immunotherapy for Treatment of Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Food Allergy: The Transition to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, Giovanni B; Cox, Linda; Caminiti, Lucia; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    Today, there is neither an effective nor an active treatment for food allergy. Allergy immunotherapy has been proposed as an attractive strategy to actively treat food allergy. Oral immunotherapy (OIT), also known as oral desensitization, is a method of inducing the body's immune system to tolerate a food that causes an allergic overreaction. It has been studied for the use in treatment of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy to the most common foods, including milk, egg, and peanut. OIT has been able to desensitize subjects to varying degrees. However, many questions remain unanswered, including efficient formulation, optimal dosing, and induction protocol to achieve full tolerance, transition of OIT to clinical practice, and maximal safety profile. This review focuses on the use of OIT as a new and active treatment for food allergy. The possibility of transition of OIT to clinical practice represents, in this field, the next pivotal step with the goal of improving the quality of life of patients with food allergy and their families.

  14. Profiling families enrolled in food allergy immunotherapy studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey

    2009-09-01

    Little is known about specific psychological factors that affect parents\\' decisions to take part in clinical studies. We examined factors, related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), that may influence parents\\' decision to allow their children to participate in research on clinical food allergy.

  15. Sublingual grass allergen tablet immunotherapy provides sustained clinical benefit with progressive immunologic changes over 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, Ronald; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; De Monchy, Jan G. R.; Rak, Sabina; Emminger, Waltraud; Riis, Bente; Gronager, Pernille M.; Durham, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This is an interim analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial with 3 years of daily treatment with grass tablet immunotherapy (GRAZAX; ALK-Abello A/S, Horsholm, Denmark) or placebo, followed by 2 years of follow-up to assess the persistent efficacy. Object

  16. Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Karen J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

  17. FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K; Neubauer, Angela; Asturias, Juan; Blom, Lars; Boye, Joyce; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Clausen, Michael; Ferrara, Rosa; Garosi, Paula; Huber, Hans; Jensen, Bettina M; Koppelman, Stef; Kowalski, Marek L; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Maillere, Bernard; Mari, Adriano; Martinez, Alberto; Mills, Clare En; Nicoletti, Claudio; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan; Papadopoulos, Nikos G; Portoles, Antonio; Rigby, Neil; Scala, Enrico; Schnoor, Heidi J; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Stavroulakis, George; Stolz, Frank; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; van den Hout, Rob; Versteeg, Serge A; Witten, Marianne; van Ree, Ronald

    2012-03-09

    The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models), SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication.

  18. FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models), SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication. PMID:22409908

  19. FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan Laurian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT, using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1 and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3, respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models, SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication.

  20. A milestone in house dust-mite-allergen immunotherapy: the new sublingual tablet S-524101 (actair).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahceciler, Nerin N; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Galip, Nilufer

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy has long been used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and its efficacy has been confirmed. However, due to the discomfort of injections and the risk of severe adverse reactions, alternative routes of allergen administration have emerged. Delivery of allergens through the mucosal route had been proposed and investigated thoroughly, confirming the sublingual route to be the most efficacious. Later, the efficacy and safety of this route have been documented by numerous controlled trials both for house dust mite (HDM) and pollens. Recently, sublingual orodispersable grass pollen allergen tablets were in use followed by the newly developed HDM allergen tablets with satisfactory clinical results: Moreover, very recently 1 year of HDM tablet treatment was demonstrated to exert its clinical efficacy 1 year after discontinuation of tablet IT. The persistence of efficacy after only 1 year of treatment is a new and promising era. Currently, Sublingual Immunotherapy is the most easily administered and safe treatment option until more immunogenic, less allergenic and more efficient allergen extracts are developed.

  1. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force report on 'dose-response relationship in allergen-specific immunotherapy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Larenas, D; Kleine-Tebbe, J;

    2011-01-01

    For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen prod...

  2. Basophil activation test in the diagnosis and monitoring of mastocytosis patients with wasp venom allergy on immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidad, Katayoon; Nawijn, Martijn C.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; van der Heide, Sicco; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is need for an accurate diagnostic test in mastocytosis patients with wasp venom allergy (WVA) and monitoring of these patients during immunotherapy (IT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the Basophil Activation Test (BAT) as a diagnostic and monito

  3. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this tab......BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety...... of this tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test......: sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, nasal congestion, watery eyes, and itchy eyes. Secondary end points included rescue medication intake, individual scores, and safety. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 266 children (mean age, 10.9 +/- 3.22 years). The RTSS for the 300-IR group was highly...

  4. A recombinant hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant for immunotherapy of IgE-mediated fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; Bugajska-Schretter, Agnes; Linhart, Birgit; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Schulmeister, Ulrike; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Peltre, Gabriel; Quirce, Santiago; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2007-05-15

    IgE-mediated allergy to fish is a frequent cause of severe anaphylactic reactions. Parvalbumin, a small calcium-binding protein, is the major fish allergen. We have recently isolated a cDNA coding for carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1, and expressed in Escherichia coli a recombinant Cyp c 1 molecule, which contained most IgE epitopes of saltwater and freshwater fish. In this study, we introduced mutations into the calcium-binding domains of carp parvalbumin by site-directed mutagenesis and produced in E. coli three parvalbumin mutants containing amino acid exchanges either in one (single mutants; Mut-CD and Mut-EF) or in both of the calcium-binding sites (double mutant; Mut-CD/EF). Circular dichroism analyses of the purified derivatives and the wild-type allergen showed that Mut-CD/EF exhibited the greatest reduction of overall protein fold. Dot blot assays and immunoblot inhibition experiments performed with sera from 21 fish-allergic patients showed that Mut-CD/EF had a 95% reduced IgE reactivity and represented the derivative with the least allergenic activity. The latter was confirmed by in vitro basophil histamine release assays and in vivo skin prick testing. The potential applicability for immunotherapy of Mut-CD/EF was demonstrated by the fact that mouse IgG Abs could be raised by immunization with the mutated molecule, which cross-reacted with parvalbumins from various fish species and inhibited the binding of fish-allergic patients' IgE to the wild-type allergen. Using the hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin mutant Mut-CD/EF, it may be possible to treat fish allergy by immunotherapy.

  5. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G and Regulatory T Cells during Specific Immunotherapy for Pollen Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Johnsen, Claus R; Dalgaard, Louise Torp;

    2013-01-01

    with pollen extract in vitro and immune factors were evaluated. Results: During SIT, the main changes in the peripheral blood were an increase in CXCR3+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs and a decrease in CCR4+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs, an increase in allergen-specific IgG4, and a decrease in sHLA-G during the first......Background: TH2-biased immune responses are important in allergy pathogenesis. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) might include the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 blocking antibodies, a reduction in the number of effector cells, and skewing...... of the cytokine profile towards a TH1-polarized immune response. We investigated the effects of SIT on T cells, on immunomodulation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, which has been associated with allergy, on regulatory cytokine expression, and on serum allergen-specific antibody subclasses (IgE and IgG4...

  6. Effectiveness and safety of orally administered immunotherapy for food allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Devereux, Graham; Worth, Allison; Healy, Laura; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-14

    The aim of using oral and sublingual immunotherapy with food allergies is to enable the safe consumption of foods containing these allergens in patients with food allergies. In the present study, a systematic review of intervention studies was undertaken; this involved the searching of eleven international databases for controlled clinical trials. We identified 1152 potentially relevant papers, from which we selected twenty-two reports of twenty-one eligible trials (i.e. eighteen randomised controlled trials and three controlled clinical trials). The meta-analysis revealed a substantially lower risk of reactions to the relevant food allergen in those receiving orally administered immunotherapy (risk ratios (RR) 0·21, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·38). The meta-analysis of immunological data demonstrated that skin prick test responses to the relevant food allergen significantly decreased with immunotherapy (mean difference - 2·96 mm, 95 % CI - 4·48, - 1·45), while allergen-specific IgG4 levels increased by an average of 19·9 (95 % CI 17·1, 22·6) μg/ml. Sensitivity analyses excluding studies at the highest risk of bias and subgroup analyses in relation to specific food allergens and treatment approaches generated comparable summary estimates of effectiveness and immunological changes. Pooling of the safety data revealed an increased risk of local (i.e. minor oropharyngeal/gastrointestinal) adverse reactions with immunotherapy (RR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·95); there was a non-significant increased average risk of systemic adverse reactions with immunotherapy (RR 1·08, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·19). There is strong evidence that orally administered immunotherapy can induce immunomodulatory changes and thereby promote desensitisation to a range of foods. However, given the paucity of evidence on longer-term safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, orally administered immunotherapy should not be used outside experimental conditions presently.

  7. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  8. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Allergies KidsHealth > For Teens > Allergies Print A A A ... even get rid of your symptoms. What Are Allergies? Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things ...

  9. Debates in allergy medicine: specific immunotherapy efficiency in children with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Slavyanakaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT has been the only pathogenetically relevant treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases (ADs for many years. The use of AIT for atopic dermatitis (AD treatment is dubious and has both followers and opponents. The improvement of subcutaneous AIT (SCIT and introduction of Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT gives prospects of their application both for adults and children suffering from AD. This review presents results of scientific research, system and meta-analyses that confirm the clinical efficacy of AIT for children with AD who has the sensitization to allergens of house dust mite, grass and plant pollen suffering from co-occurring respiratory ADs and with moderate and severe course of allergic AD. There have been analyzed the most advanced achievements in AIT studies as well as there have been specified the unmet needs in AD. The preliminary diagnostics of IgE-mediated AD and pathophysiological disorders, including immune ones, will allow a doctor to develop appropriate comprehensive treatment algorithm for children’s AD aimed at its correction. The including of AIT to the children’s comprehensive therapy program is reasonable only if AD has the allergic form. It is necessary better to design the randomized research studies and to acquire extended clinical practice in children with AD. Use of the successes of molecular-based allergy diagnostics will help to optimize and personalize the process of selecting the necessary allergens to determine the most appropriate vaccines for children considering the results of the allergen component diagnostics. The strategy of treatment of children with AD in future will be based on individual target therapy.

  10. Specific allergen immunotherapy attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ankur; Moitra, Saibal; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grains are well established to be an important cause of respiratory allergy. Current pharmacologic therapies for allergic asthma do not cure the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment method which re-directs the immune system away from allergic response leading to a long lasting effect. The mechanism by which immunotherapy achieves this goal is an area of active research world-wide. The present experimental study was designed to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation based on a relevant human allergen, Alstonia scholaris pollen, and to establish the immunological and cellular features of specific allergen immunotherapy using this same pollen extract. Our results revealed that Alstonia scholaris pollen sensitization and challenge causes eosinophilic airway inflammation with mucin hypersecretion. This is associated with increased total IgE, increased expression of FcɛRI on lung mast cells and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 as confirmed by ELISA, in-situ immunofluorescence and FACS assay. Allergen specific immunotherapy reduced airway inflammation and also decreased total IgE level, FcɛRI expression, IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 levels. It was further noted that the reduction of these levels was more by intra-nasal route than by intra-peritoneal route. Thus we present a novel animal model of Alstonia scholaris pollen allergic disease and specific allergen immunotherapy which will pave the way towards the development of better treatment modalities.

  11. First successful case of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with venom immunotherapy for hymenoptera sting allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Michael J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain

  12. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Methods. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. Results. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA. PMID:27924689

  13. Specific immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis--Four-year treatment in different age and airborne allergy type subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory disease involving the skin and frequently other organs and systems such as respiratory system. The recently recognized atopic nature of the skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in the treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). In this study, the efficacy of SIT was evaluated in a group of 37 AD patients aged 5-44 years: 14 allergic to house dust mites (HDM), 17 to grass pollen allergens, and 6 allergic to grass and mugwort pollen allergens. IgE-mediated airborne allergy was well documented in all cases. SIT was performed with Novo Helisen Depot allergy vaccines of appropriate composition. Control group included 29 patients with AD and confirmed IgE-mediated airborne allergy to analogous allergens: HDM, 14 patients; grass pollen allergens, 11 patients; and grass and mugwort pollen allergens, 4 patients. Conventional methods of AD treatment were used in the control group. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed with W-AZS index after 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of therapy. SIT was found to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment for selected patients with AD and IgE-mediated airborne allergy. The efficacy of this therapeutic method was significantly higher than that recorded by conventional methods used in the control group in all 3 age subgroups and all 3 types of airborne allergy (HDM, grass pollen, and grass and mugwort pollen). It is concluded that SIT may be highly promising method of controlling skin inflammation in AD with the potential to prevent the development of AD into respiratory allergy.

  14. Assessing the efficacy of oral immunotherapy for the desensitisation of peanut allergy in children (STOP II): a phase 2 randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Islam, Sabita; King, Yvonne; Foley, Loraine; Pasea, Laura; Bond, Simon; Palmer, Chris; Deighton, John; Ewan, Pamela; Clark, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Small studies suggest peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) might be effective in the treatment of peanut allergy. We aimed to establish the efficacy of OIT for the desensitisation of children with allergy to peanuts. Methods We did a randomised controlled crossover trial to compare the efficacy of active OIT (using characterised peanut flour; protein doses of 2–800 mg/day) with control (peanut avoidance, the present standard of care) at the NIHR/Wellcome Trust Cambridge Clinical...

  15. Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that will trigger an immune response. What's more, cancer cells may also suppress immunity, which may contribute to the immune system's failure to recognize cancer cells as foreign invaders. Immunotherapy is based on ...

  16. The adsorption of allergoids and 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL®) to microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT) in formulations for use in allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A J; Heath, M D; Hewings, S J; Skinner, M A

    2015-11-01

    Infectious disease vaccine potency is affected by antigen adjuvant adsorption. WHO and EMA guidelines recommend limits and experimental monitoring of adsorption in vaccines and allergy immunotherapies. Adsorbed allergoids and MPL® in MATA-MPL allergy immunotherapy formulations effectively treat IgE mitigated allergy. Understanding vaccine antigen adjuvant adsorption allows optimisation of potency and should be seen as good practice; however current understanding is seldom applied to allergy immunotherapies. The allergoid and MPL® adsorption to MCT in MATA-MPL allergy immunotherapy formulations was experimental determination using specific allergen IgE allerginicity and MPL® content methods. Binding forces between MPL® and MCT were investigated by competition binding experiments. MATA-MPL samples with different allergoids gave results within 100-104% of the theoretical 50μg/mL MPL® content. Unmodified drug substance samples showed significant desirable IgE antigenicity, 1040-170 QAU/mL. MATA-MPL supernatant samples with different allergoids gave results of ≤2 μg/mL MPL® and ≤0.1-1.4 QAU/mL IgE antigenicity, demonstrating approximately ≥96 & 99% adsorption respectively. Allergoid and MPL® adsorption in different MATA-MPL allergy immunotherapy formulations is consistent and meets guideline recommendations. MCT formulations treated to disrupt electrostatic, hydrophobic and ligand exchange interactions, gave an MPL® content of ≤2 μg/mL in supernatant samples. MCT formulations treated to disrupt aromatic interactions, gave an MPL® content of 73-92 μg/mL in supernatant samples. MPL® adsorption to l-tyrosine in MCT formulations is based on interactions between the 2-deoxy-2-aminoglucose backbone on MPL® and aromatic ring of l-tyrosine in MCT, such as C-H⋯π interaction. MCT could be an alternative adjuvant depot for some infectious disease antigens.

  17. FoxP3 Tregs Response to Sublingual Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Children Depends on the Manifestation of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT. Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis, whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  18. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  19. Progress in sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy%特异性舌下免疫疗法治疗食物过敏的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靖雯

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy has increased in recent years.The current management of food allergy includes strict dietary avoidance and rapid medical treatment in case of accidental exposure.As a new immunotherapy method,sublingual immunotherapy has shown promising as alternative treatment for food allergy.This review discusses the clinical effectiveness and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy that are recently being investigated.%食物过敏患病率呈上升趋势,而目前有效的临床治疗方法是严格回避致敏食物并对症处理.近年来,特异性舌下免疫疗法为食物过敏的治疗提供了新的思路.该文就特异性舌下免疫疗法在治疗食物过敏中安全性及有效性的研究进展进行综述.

  20. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Okada, Yu; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have suggested that a large subset of children (approximately 70%) who react to unheated milk or egg can tolerate extensively heated forms of these foods. A diet that includes baked milk or egg is well tolerated and appears to accelerate the development of regular milk or egg tolerance when compared with strict avoidance. However, the indications for an oral food challenge (OFC) using baked products are limited for patients with high specific IgE values or large skin prick test diameters. Oral immunotherapies (OITs) are becoming increasingly popular for the management of food allergies. However, the reported efficacy of OIT is not satisfactory, given the high frequency of symptoms and requirement for long-term therapy. With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods.

  1. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  2. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working g...

  3. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Calderon (Moises); P. Demoly; T.B. Casale (Thomas); C.A. Akdis; C. Bachert (Claus); Bewick, M.; Bilò, B.M.; B. Bohle (B.); S. Bonini (Sergio); A. Bush (Andrew); Caimmi, D.P.; G. Canonica (Gwalter); D. Cardona (Doris); A.M. Chiriac (A.); L. Cox (Linda); A. Custovic; F. de Blay; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Di Lorenzo, G.; G. Du Toit (George); S.R. Durham (Stephen); C. Eng (Charis); A. Fiocchi (Alessandro); Fox, A.T.; R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); Gomez, R.M.; Haathela, T.; S. Halken (Susanne); P.W. Hellings (P.); L. Jacobsen; P.M. Just; Tanno, L.K.; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); L. Klimek (Ludger); E.F. Knol (Edward Frank); P. Kuna; D. Larenas-Linnemann (Désirée); A. Linneberg (Allan); Matricardi, M.; H.-J. Malling; Moesges, R.; Mullol, J.; Muraro, A.; N. Papadopoulos; G. Passalacqua (Giovanni); Pastorello, E.; O. Pfaar (Oliver); D. Price (David); P.R. Del Rio (P. Rodriguez); Ruëff, R.; Samolinski, B.; G.K. Scadding; Senti, G.; Shamji, M.H.; A. Sheikh (Aziz); J.C. Sisul (J.); D. Solé (D.); G.J. Sturm; Tabar, A.; R. Van Ree; Ventura, M.T.; C. Vidal (Carmen); E.M. Varga; M. Worm (M.); T. Zuberbier (Torsten); J. Bousquet (Jean)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAllergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a

  4. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with different clinical profiles of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass......-treatment assessment: Group 1=high specific IgE; Group 2=high symptom scores; Group 3=high skin sensitivity; Group 4=any of Group 1, 2 or 3. RESULTS: Asthma and sensitization status were not significant covariates as the average Rhinoconjunctivitis Total Symptom Score (RTSS) was identical for patients with and without...... RTSS did not differ significantly with different doses of SLIT. In Groups 2, 3 and 4, doses of 300 IR and 500 IR were significantly more effective than 100 IR and placebo (Pstudy can be considered safe in the patients investigated. CONCLUSIONS...

  5. Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with

  6. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The immune system normally protects the body against harmful substances, such as bacteria and viruses. It also reacts ... during the allergic reaction Drowsiness and other side effects of medicines When to Contact a Medical ... Breastfeeding can help prevent or decrease allergies when you ...

  7. Efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, Ronald; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; deMonchy, Jan G. R.; Rak, Sabina; Emminger, Waltraud; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Ribel, Mette; Durham, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Allergen immunotherapy (desensitization) by injection is effective for seasonal allergic rhinitis and has been shown to induce long-term disease remission. The sublingual route also has potential, although definitive evidence from large randomized controlled trials has been lacking. Obje

  8. Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

  9. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: study design and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongste Johan C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register

  10. Developments in allergen-specific immunotherapy: from allergen extracts to allergy vaccines bypassing allergen-specific immunoglobulin E and T cell reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, M; Swoboda, I; Marth, K; Valenta, R

    2010-03-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific and disease-modifying approach for the treatment of allergy but several disadvantages have limited its broad applicability. We argue that the majority of the possible disadvantages of SIT such as unwanted effects, poor efficacy and specificity as well as inconvenient application are related to the poor quality of natural allergen extracts, which are the active ingredients of all currently available allergy vaccines. Because of the progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization, new allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergens, recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and allergen-derived T cell peptides have entered clinical testing and hold promise to reduce the side-effects and to increase the specificity as well as the efficacy of SIT. Here, we present a refined immunotherapy concept, which is based on the use of peptides derived from allergen surfaces that exhibit reduced, allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. These peptides when fused to non-allergenic carriers give rise to allergen-specific protective IgG responses with T cell help from a non-allergenic carrier molecule. We summarize the experimental data demonstrating that such peptide vaccines can bypass allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell activation and may be administered at high doses without IgE- and T cell-mediated side-effects. Should these peptide vaccines prove efficacious and safe in clinical trials, it may become possible to develop convenient, safe and broadly applicable forms of SIT as true alternatives to symptomatic, drug-based allergy treatment.

  11. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are intended for short-term use; long-term usage can actually make symptoms worse. Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy (allergy ... Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  12. Oral immunotherapy for food allergy in childhood%儿童食物过敏的口服免疫治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏尤佳; 鲍启萌

    2011-01-01

    到目前为止,食物过敏治疗尚没有确切的有效治疗方法,主要采用回避过敏原和针对严重过敏反应急诊处理等方法,口服免疫治疗(oral immunotherapy,OIT)作为一种新的食物过敏治疗方法,它能诱导IgE介导的儿童食物过敏的脱敏,但仍不了解诱导耐受的状况能否持续.虽然OIT治疗过程中发生严重过敏反应并不多见,但不良反应是共同存在的.今后需在严格设计的多中心随机、双盲、对照研究基础上,进一步了解OIT治疗后过敏原耐受状况能否维持,并明确耐受的特异性实验室指标.%At present there is no definitive therapy for food allergy and the mainstays of treatment are allergen avoidance and ready access to emergency medications. Significant progress toward an novel oral immunotherapy (OIT)for food allergy has been made. These preliminary data on OIT are encouraging, OIT can be effective in desensitizing at least a subset of children with IgE-mediated food allergy, however, it remains uncertain whether OIT can induce long-term tolerance. During OIT, allergic reactions are common, although severe reactions are less common. Additional studies are needed to realize whether tolerance would be maintained, and to determine the specific laboratory indicators in rigorous multicenter randomized and placebo-controlled trials.

  13. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus on the recent advances in a proof of concept study in food allergy, FAST (Food allergy specific immunotherapy), which may increase interest within the biomolecular and pharmaceutical industry to embark on similar projects of immunology driven precision medicine within the allergy field.

  14. Use of new technology to improve utilization and adherence to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Smita; Dimov, Ves

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social media have dramatically altered the landscape in which we practice medicine. Clinicians have increasingly turned to technology and the internet to enhance patient care. Allergists have used these modalities to improve utilization and adherence to immunotherapy. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are being widely adopted by allergy practices and some offer allergy/immunology specific modules that aid in daily workflow. The development of specialized devices that reduce pain associated with immunotherapy administration may improve compliance with immunotherapy. Social media and other forms of electronic communication such as e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, short message service (SMS), and YouTube give clinicians multiple avenues to disseminate information and reach their patients, possibly improving patient adherence to therapy. Finally, tablet computers, online networks, and electronic surveys provide additional ways to connect patients and physicians.

  15. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...

  16. Perspectivas de tratamiento de la alergia al látex: inmunoterapia Perspectives in the treatment of allergy to latex: immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tabar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la alergia al látex es un problema importante dada la gravedad de la sintomatología que produce y los grupos de riesgo a los que implica. La evitación completa del látex resulta prácticamente imposible, por lo que en los últimos años se ha estado trabajando intensamente en la estandarización de un extracto con el fin de mejorar no sólo el diagnóstico clínico sino de poder ofertar otra alternativa terapéutica a la evitación tal como la inmunoterapia. Desde 1998 se han comunicado en la literatura aproximaciones puntuales de inmunoterapia con látex con pauta de desensibilización oral (tres pacientes, subcutánea (un paciente y sublingual (un paciente. En todos los casos la mejoría clínica fue evidente. En el momento actual, la inmunoterapia subcutánea con látex, aunque se muestra eficaz, es un tratamiento de alto riesgo. La IT sublingual con látex ha sido recientemente comercializado en España y conocemos su eficacia por los resultados de un ensayo abierto en 26 pacientes adultos. Las expectativas de seguridad se muestran mejores que para la vía subcutánea.At present, allergy to latex is an important problem due to the severity of the symptomatology that it produces and the risk groups involved. Complete avoidance of latex is practically impossible, which is why in recent years there has been intense work on standardizing an extract in order not only to improve its clinical diagnosis but also to be able to offer a therapeutic alternative other than avoidance, such as immunotherapy. Since 1998, timely approaches to immunotherapy with latex have been published, with oral desensitization (three patients, subcutaneous (one patient and sublingual (one patient. In every case there was an evident clinical improvement. At present, subcutaneous immunotherapy with latex, although efficient, is a high risk treatment. Sublingual immunotherapy with latex has recently been commercialized in Spain and we know of its

  17. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focu...

  18. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  19. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yanagida

    2016-04-01

    With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods.

  20. Double-blind placebo controlled specific immunotherapy with mixed Cupressaceae taxodiaceae pollens in respiratory allergy to Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, R; Panzani, R C; Augeri, G

    1997-01-01

    Twenty adult patients presenting a respiratory allergy to the pollen of Cupressus sempervirens were randomly divided into two groups; one received a placebo the other one an equal mixture of Cupresssus sempervirens and Cryptomeria japonica pollen during a period of 3 years (1993-1996). According to the following criteria: symptoms score, drug consumption, skin test and RAST, nasal provocation test, the results for the treated group were statistically better than those for the placebo group. No side effects were observed.

  1. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  2. Immunological treatments for occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G; Marcer, G; Passalacqua, G

    2013-01-01

    Although avoidance of occupational triggers remains the primary step in the management of work-related allergies, immunological treatments (including biological agents and specific immunotherapy) can be regarded as potential therapeutic options for IgE-mediated diseases; for example, many studies with allergen-specific immunotherapy have been carried out on latex allergy, showing overall favorable results, at least with sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, only few case reports have suggested the efficacy of immunotherapy in baker's asthma as well as in laboratory animal-induced asthma. The new technologies, including component-resolved diagnosis and recombinant allergens, are expected to improve the quality and efficacy of specific immunotherapy in the future. Also the use of omalizumab may represent a suitable therapeutic choice in very selected cases of occupational allergy, as well as an approach to reduce side effects of venom immunotherapy in subjects with previous severe reactions to the treatment.

  3. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy Timothy grass tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and history of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D

    2015-01-01

    ). CONCLUSIONS: In the AR/C subjects with reported well-controlled mild asthma included in these studies, grass SLIT-tablet did not increase TEAE frequency, severe local allergic swelling, or systemic allergic reactions versus subjects without asthma. There was no indication that treatment led to acute asthma...

  4. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care : study design and recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cindy M. A.; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Roder, Esther; de Groot, Hans; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized doub

  5. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: Study design and recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. de Bot (Cindy); H. Moed (Heleen); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein); E. Röder (Esther); H. de Groot (Hans); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A ran

  6. Improvement of Therapeutic Efficacy of Oral Immunotherapy in Combination with Regulatory T Cell-Inducer Kakkonto in a Murine Food Allergy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuka; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Michie; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been considered a promising approach for food allergies (FAs). However, the current OIT strategy is limited in terms of the long-term efficacy and safety. We have previously demonstrated that kakkonto, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, suppresses the occurrence of allergic symptoms in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced FA, which is attributed to the induction of the Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we established an OIT model using the FA mice with already established allergic symptoms and determined whether kakkonto could improve the efficacy of OIT. The OIT method consisted of initially administrating a very small amount of OVA and slowly increasing the amount. Allergic symptoms decreased in the OIT-treated FA mice. OIT significantly downregulated Th2 immune response-related gene expression in the FA mouse colon, and decreased the level of mouse mast cell protease-1, a marker of mast cell degranulation in the FA mouse plasma. Moreover, the concomitant use of kakkonto significantly enhanced the effectiveness of OIT on the allergic symptoms, and the combination therapy further suppressed the Th2 immune responses and the mast cell degranulation. In addition, OIT significantly increased the population of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells in the FA mouse colon, and this population was further increased by OIT in combination with kakkonto. Furthermore, the combined therapy with kakkonto reduced the expression of RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 mRNA in the FA mouse colon. These findings indicated that the combination of OIT with kakkonto represents a promising approach for FA treatment. PMID:28107533

  7. Allergen Specific Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Çekiç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only treatment that can provide a cure for allergic disorders. This treatment is based on development of immune tolerance by exposure to allergen in repetitive and increasing doses. It is tertiary to avoidance of allergen and pharmacotherapy. Allergens used for immunotherapy, must be confirmed by skin prick test or specific IgE and must be applied in supervision of allergy specialists. Studies show that immunotherapy, improve asthma symptoms, decreases drug consumption, prevent development of asthma in rhinitis patients and reduce new sensitizations. Common side effects diminished with the usage of standardized allergen solutions. It is contraindicated in severe asthma. Though it is recommended to avoid immunotherapy in patients using beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, immunotherapy can be considered in mandatory situations regarding possible benefits and harms. Most common ways of administration are subcutaneous and sublingual; new methods such as epicutaneous and intralymphatic injections are currently being studied.

  8. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  9. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses...... in allergic patients. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been approved, notably in the European Union, as an effective alternative to subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) for allergic rhinitis patients. Compared with SCIT, SLIT has a better safety profile. This is possibly because oral antigen...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...

  10. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  11. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common ...

  12. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  13. Adjuvants and vector systems for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Lombardi, Vincent; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Tourdot, Sophie; Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a curative treatment of type I allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is conducted with allergens adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate particles, whereas sublingual immunotherapy relies on high doses of soluble allergen without any immunopotentiator. There is a potential benefit of adjuvants enhancing regulatory and Th1 CD4+T cell responses during specific immunotherapy. Molecules affecting dendritic cells favor the induction of T regulatory cell and Th1 responses and represent valid candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Furthermore, the interest in viruslike particles and mucoadhesive particulate vector systems, which may better address the allergen(s) to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is documented.

  14. Induction of a Th1 immune response and suppression of IgE via immunotherapy with a recombinant hybrid molecule encapsulated in liposome-protamine-DNA nanoparticles in a model of experimental allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Davies, Janet M; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2015-07-01

    Liposome-protamine-DNA nanoparticles (LPD) are safe, effective, and non-toxic adjuvants that induce Th1-like immune responses. We hypothesized that encapsulation of allergens into liposomes could be an appropriate option for immunotherapy. The present study evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of a recombinant hybrid molecule (rHM) encapsulated in LPD nanoparticles in a murine model of Chenopodium album allergy. BALB/c mice were sensitized with the allergen in alum, and the immunotherapy procedure was performed by subcutaneous injections of LPD-rHM, rHM, or empty LPD at weekly intervals. Sensitized mice developed a Th2-biased immune response characterized by strong specific IgG1 and IgE production, IL-4, and the transcription factor GATA3 in spleen cell cultures. Treatment with the LPD-rHM resulted in a reduction in IgE and a marked increase in IgG2a. The LPD-rHM induced allergen-specific responses with relatively high interferon-gamma production, as well as expression of the transcription factor T-bet in stimulated splenocytes. In addition, lymphoproliferative responses were higher in the LPD-rHM-treated mice than in the other groups. Removal of the nanoparticles from the rHM resulted in a decrease in the allergen's immunogenicity. These results indicate that the rHM complexed with LPD nanoparticles has a marked suppressive effect on the allergic response and caused a shift toward a Th1 pathway.

  15. Therapeutic Effects and Biomarkers in Sublingual Immunotherapy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Fujimura; Yoshitaka Okamoto; Masaru Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is considered to be the only curative treatment for allergic diseases such as pollinosis, perennial rhinitis, asthma, and food allergy. The sublingual route is widely applied for immunotherapy for allergy, instead of the conventional administration by subcutaneous route. A recent meta-analysis of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has shown that this approach is safe, has positive clinical effects, and provides prolonged therapeutic effects after discontinuation of treatment. Ho...

  16. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Shellfish Allergy Print A A ... Home en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  17. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  18. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  19. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  20. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  2. The effects of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy by Alutard SQ allergy vaccination in management of perennial allergic rhinitis%标准化屋尘螨疫苗特异性免疫治疗常年性变应性鼻炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符微; 林霞; 蔡飞; 王刚; 邓慧林; 黎箐; 王小娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解标准化屋尘螨疫苗特异性免疫治疗常年性变应性鼻炎的疗效.方法:对38例变应性鼻炎患者用标准化屋尘螨疫苗特异性免疫治疗3年或3年以上,免疫前后进行症状和体征评分.结果:38例中,显效21例,有效7例,无效10例,总有效率达73.68%.结论:标准化屋尘螨疫苗特异性免疫治疗变应性鼻炎疗效明显.%Objective: To study the effects of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy by Alutard SQ allergy vaccination in management of perennial allergic rhinitis. Method:Thirty-eight cases of the perennial allergic rhinitis received the subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy by Alutard SQ allergy vaccination for 3 years or more than 3 years. The clinical symptoms and signs were compared before and after treatment. Result:Good result were obtained in 21 of 38 cases, 7 cases effective, and 10 cases ineffective. Total effective rate was 73. 68%. Conclusion: The subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy by Alutard SQ allergy vaccination was very effective for the perennial allergen rhinitis.

  3. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  4. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  5. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  6. New directions in immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Linda; Compalati, Enrico; Kundig, Thomas; Larche, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective in reducing the clinical symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis, asthma and venom-induced anaphylaxis. Subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with unmodified allergen extracts are the most widely prescribed AIT regimens. The efficacy of these 2 routes appears comparable, but the safety profile with SLIT is more favorable allowing for home administration and requiring less patient time. However, both require that the treatment is taken regularly over several years, e.g., monthly in a supervised medical setting with SCIT and daily at home with SLIT. Despite the difference in treatment settings, poor adherence has been reported with both routes. Emerging evidence suggests that AIT may be effective in other allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, venom sting-induced large local reactions, and food allergy. Research with oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergies suggest that many patients can be desensitized during treatment, but questions remain about whether this can produce long term tolerance. Further studies are needed to identify appropriate patients and treatment regimens with these conditions. Efforts to develop safer and more effective AIT for inhalant allergies have led to investigations with modified allergens and alternate routes. Intralymphatic (ILIT) has been shown to produce long-lasting clinical benefits after three injections comparable to a 3-year course of SCIT. Epicutaneous (EPIT) has demonstrated promising results for food and inhalant allergies. Vaccine modifications, such as T cell epitopes or the use of viral-like particles as an adjuvant, have been shown to provide sustained clinical benefits after a relatively short course of treatment compared to the currently available AIT treatments, SLIT and SCIT. These newer approaches may increase the utilization and adherence to AIT because the multi-year treatment requirement of currently available AIT is a likely deterrent for

  7. Novel Approaches and Perspectives in Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Valovirta, Erkka; Pfaar, Oliver;

    2017-01-01

    In this review we report on relevant current topics in allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which were broadly discussed during the 1(st) Aarhus Immunotherapy Symposium (Aarhus, Denmark) in December, 2015 by leading clinicians, scientists and industry representatives in the field. The aim of this symposium...... have substantiated proof of effectiveness of this disease-modifying therapeutic option. Novel treatments like peptide immunotherapy, intralymphatic immunotherapy and use of recombinant allergens herald a new age in which AIT may address treatment of allergy as a public health issue by reaching a large...

  8. Diagnosis, management, and investigational therapies for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies.

  9. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  10. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Research 2016 Fall Allergy Capitals If you’re one of the millions ... needs of their residents with allergic diseases. Fall Allergies by the Numbers Nasal allergies affect more than ...

  11. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  12. Cockroach Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Cockroach Allergy Cockroaches are insects that live in many locations ... other children with asthma. What Is a Cockroach Allergy? Cockroaches contain a protein that is an allergen ...

  13. Allergy vaccines: dreams and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2007-12-01

    Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.

  14. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  15. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-03-26

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines.

  16. 5-grass pollen tablets achieve disease control in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis unresponsive to drugs: a real-life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorello EA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Elide Anna Pastorello,1 Laura Losappio,1 Stefania Milani,2 Giuseppina Manzotti,3 Valentina Fanelli,4 Valerio Pravettoni,5 Fabio Agostinis,6 Alberto Flores D’Arcais,7 Ilaria Dell'Albani,8 Paola Puccinelli,9 Cristoforo Incorvaia,10 Franco Frati81Allergy and Immunology Department, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, 2Allergy Department, San Marco General Hospital, Bergamo, 3Allergy Department, Treviglio Hospital, Bergamo, 4Allergy Department, Italian Institute for Auxology, Milan, 5Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit, Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, 6Department of Pediatrics, Riuniti Hospital, Bergamo, 7Department of Pediatrics, Legnano Hospital, Milan, 8Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes Italy, Milan, 9Regulatory Department, Stallergenes Italy, Milan, 10Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyBackground: An important subpopulation in allergic rhinitis is represented by patients with severe form of disease that is not responsive to drug treatment. It has been reported that grass pollen subcutaneous immunotherapy is effective in drug-resistant patients. In a real-life study, we evaluated the efficacy of 5-grass pollen tablets in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug therapy.Methods: We carried out this multicenter observational study in adults and adolescents with grass-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug therapy who were treated for a year with 5-grass pollen tablets. Clinical data collected before and after sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT included Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA classification of allergic rhinitis, response to therapy, and patient satisfaction.Results: Forty-seven patients entered the study. By ARIA classification, three patients had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, ten had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and 34 had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. There were no cases

  17. What Is Cancer Immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Side Effects Treatment Types Immunotherapy What is cancer immunotherapy? Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of ... so that it will destroy them. Types of cancer immunotherapy The main types of immunotherapy now being used ...

  18. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  19. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Bousquet, Jean; Sheikh, Aziz; Frew, Anthony; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Malling, Hans J; Valenta, Rudolph; Bilo, Beatrice; Nieto, Antonio; Akdis, Cezmi; Just, Jocelyne; Vidal, Carmen; Varga, Eva M; Alvarez-Cuesta, Emilio; Bohle, Barbara; Bufe, Albrecht; Canonica, Walter G; Cardona, Victoria; Dahl, Ronald; Didier, Alain; Durham, Stephen R; Eng, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Jacobsen, Lars; Jutel, Marek; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Lötvall, Jan; Moreno, Carmen; Mosges, Ralph; Muraro, Antonella; Niggemann, Bodo; Pajno, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Rak, Sabina; Senna, Gianenrico; Senti, Gabriela; Valovirta, Erkka; van Hage, Marianne; Virchow, Johannes C; Wahn, Ulrich; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-10-30

    Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals' quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a

  20. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Moises A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy. Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in

  1. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  2. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  3. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  4. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja

    The present guideline (S2k) on allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) was established by the German, Austrian and Swiss professional associations for allergy in consensus with the scientific specialist societies and professional associations in the fields of otolaryngology, dermatology and venereology, pediatric and adolescent medicine, pneumology as well as a German patient organization (German Allergy and Asthma Association; Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) according to the criteria of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF). AIT is a therapy with disease-modifying effects. By administering allergen extracts, specific blocking antibodies, toler-ance-inducing cells and mediators are activated. These prevent further exacerbation of the allergen-triggered immune response, block the specific immune response and attenuate the inflammatory response in tissue. Products for SCIT or SLIT cannot be compared at present due to their heterogeneous composition, nor can allergen concentrations given by different manufacturers be compared meaningfully due to the varying methods used to measure their active ingredients. Non-modified allergens are used for SCIT in the form of aqueous or physically adsorbed (depot) extracts, as well as chemically modified allergens (allergoids) as depot extracts. Allergen extracts for SLIT are used in the form of aqueous solutions or tablets. The clinical efficacy of AIT is measured using various scores as primary and secondary study endpoints. The EMA stipulates combined symptom and medication scores as primary endpoint. A harmonization of clinical endpoints, e. g., by using the combined symptom and medication scores (CSMS) recommended by the EAACI, is desirable in the future in order to permit the comparison of results from different studies. The current CONSORT recommendations from the ARIA/GA2LEN group specify standards for the

  5. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  6. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Pollen Allergy Allergy Symptoms Anaphylaxis / Severe Allergic Reaction Eye Allergies Rhinitis Sinusitis Skin Allergies Eczema Contact Dermatitis Hives Swelling Allergy Diagnosis Allergy Treatment Allergy ...

  7. Allergen immunotherapy, routes of administration and cytokine networks: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppari, Caterina; Leonardi, Salvatore; Manti, Sara; Filippelli, Martina; Alterio, Tommaso; Spicuzza, Lucia; Rigoli, Luciana; Arrigo, Teresa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Salpietro, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a disease-modifying therapy, effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis or stinging insect allergy. Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of increasing doses of allergens with the aim of ameliorating the allergic response. Although precise underlying mechanisms of the induction of immune tolerance remain unclear, immunotherapy has been associated with the induction of distinct subsets of Tregs that eventually lead to peripheral tolerance by inducing a deviation from Th2 to Th1 immune responses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of immunotherapy in relationship to different routes of administration and also provides a unifying view.

  8. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  9. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to wheat. Keywords: IgE mediated food allergy, non-IgE mediated food allergy, wheat allergy, baker’s asthma, wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis

  10. Recombinant allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy: 10 years anniversary of immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, B; Swoboda, I; Niederberger, V

    2011-06-01

    The broad applicability of allergen-specific immunotherapy for the treatment and eventually prevention of IgE-mediated allergy is limited by the poor quality and allergenic activity of natural allergen extracts that are used for the production of current allergy vaccines. Today, the genetic code of the most important allergens has been deciphered; recombinant allergens equalling their natural counterparts have been produced for diagnosis and immunotherapy, and a large panel of genetically modified allergens with reduced allergenic activity has been characterized to improve safety of immunotherapy and explore allergen-specific prevention strategies. Successful immunotherapy studies have been performed with recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and will lead to the registration of the first recombinant allergen-based vaccines in the near future. There is no doubt that recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies will be generally applicable to most allergen sources, including respiratory, food and venom allergens and allow to produce safe allergy vaccines for the treatment of the most common forms of IgE-mediated allergies.

  11. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay in Touch Donate Get Support Kids with Food Allergies Search: Resources Recipes Community Home About KFA Programs ... AAFA KFA-AAFA Merger Contact Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy ...

  12. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  13. Sublingual Immunotherapy: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Compalati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of administering sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergy is gaining more and more diffusion worldwide as a consequence of the robust demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety provided by recent high-powered and well-designed studies, confirming for individual seasonal allergens the results of previous metanalyses in adult and pediatric populations. Preliminary evidence derives from recent rigorous trials on perennial allergens, like house dust mites, and specifically designed studies addressed the benefits on asthma. Emerging research suggests that SLIT may have a future role in other allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, food, latex and venom allergy. Efforts to develop a safer and more effective SLIT for inhalant allergens have led to the development of allergoids, recombinant allergens and formulations with adjuvants and substances targeting antigens to dendritic cells that possess a crucial role in initiating immune responses. The high degree of variation in the evaluation of clinical effects and immunological changes requires further studies to identify the candidate patients to SLIT and biomarkers of short and long term efficacy. Appropriate management strategies are urgently needed to overcome the barriers to SLIT compliance.

  14. Immunotherapy for tuberculosis: future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Getahun Abate,1 Daniel F Hoft1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy and Immunology, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB is still a major global health problem. A third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only ~10% of infected individuals develop TB but there are 9 million TB cases with 1.5 million deaths annually. The standard prophylactic treatment regimens for latent TB infection take 3–9 months, and new cases of TB require at least 6 months of treatment with multiple drugs. The management of latent TB infection and TB has become more challenging because of the spread of multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant TB. Intensified efforts to find new TB drugs and immunotherapies are needed. Immunotherapies could modulate the immune system in patients with latent TB infection or active disease, enabling better control of M. tuberculosis replication. This review describes several types of potential immunotherapies with a focus on those which have been tested in humans. Keywords: tuberculosis, HDT, immunotherapy, treatment

  15. Penicillin Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other conditions resulting from penicillin allergy Less common penicillin allergy reactions occur days or weeks after exposure to the drug and may persist for some time after you stop taking it. These conditions include: Serum sickness, which may cause fever, joint pain, rash, swelling ...

  16. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management.

  17. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, C; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Hansen, K S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). METHODS: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests (SPTs......) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were nonresponders. Of the 11...

  18. [The role of immunotherapy in the prevention of allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Duvancić, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy through repeated administration of allergens and augmentation of doses (hyposensibilization) with the purpose of decreasing the severity of type I allergic reactions or even its complete elimination is known already for a longer period of time. This type of therapy is especially beneficial in allergies to Hymenoptera venom, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic asthma and is implemented in patients with previously proven allergy to appropriate allergens (insects, pollen, house dust mite, pet dander and other). The most common form of therapy is subcutaneous immunotherapy which includes a series of injections containing specific allergens (allergy vaccines) with increasingly larger doses administered subcutaneously during a period of 3-5 years. There are also other forms of immunotherapy (for instance sublingual immunotherapy) although these are less effective. Repetition of the hyposensibilization procedure leads to further reduction in severity of allergy disease in the majority of patients. The efficacy of immunotherapy is also proven by a lower risk of allergic rhinitis patients developing asthma as well as by prevention of new sensibilizations.

  19. [ Food allergy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, W; Frosch, B

    1983-06-01

    Food allergies' following food incompatibilities, which are not caused immunologically. Mostly allergic symptoms are caused by cow's milk or chicken eggs. Allergic reactions are preceded by sensitizing events; certain characteristics of foodstuffs and conditions in the human body facilitate their development. Gastrointestinal symptoms very often are just accompanying signs. In differential diagnosis the so-called "pseudo-allergies' following food ingestion have to be separated. Most important diagnostic measures are clinical history, prick-/scratch test, RAST, gastrointestinal provocation and abstinence test. The therapeutic program consists of allergen abstinence, avoiding all allergy-arousing factors, oral desensitizing and pharmaceutical treatment.

  20. Sarcoma Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouw, Launce G., E-mail: launce.gouw@hsc.utah.edu [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Jones, Kevin B. [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Randall, R. Lor [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis.

  1. [Immunotherapy in Latin America. From the past to the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnani, Carlos E Baena; Lockey, Richard F; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, G Walter

    2008-01-01

    In Latin America, allergic diseases have a very high prevalence, comparable to that of many other countries of the world, and that prevalence is constantly increasing. Within the region, the number of allergy specialists is quite high, although allergy is not recognized as a full specialty in all countries. Specific immunotherapy is the only available allergen-oriented immunomodulator, capable of improving symptoms and modifying the natural course of the disease, and therefore it represents a powerful therapeutic tool for specialists. During the last 20 years, the practice of immunotherapy in Latin America has much improved, especially because of the intensive educational effort, the widespread divulgation of the international guidelines and the adoption of the paradigm of the evidence-based medicine. In this regard, indications, contraindications, and limits of immunotherapy, are currently well acknowledged. In Latin America, immunotherapy is properly prescribed for inhalant allergens and hymenoptera venom by allergy specialists, although some non-evidence based forms of immunotherapy (e.g. bacterial extracts, treatment of atopic dermatitis) are still occasionally practiced. Sublingual immunotherapy is now accepted as a viable alternative to the traditional subcutaneous administration, and it begins to be proposed and studied also in some Latin American countries. Some debate remains on the use of immunotherapy for one or few versus multiple allergens, and also the availability of standardized extracts is not uniform. Finally, this therapeutic modality is not always given for free to low income patients such is the case in some countries and the different modalities of reimbursement among countries often represent a limit to the use of this treatment. Much has been done in improving the use of immunotherapy in Latin America. The main challenges and objectives for the near future are greater diffusion of the evidence-based medicine, a better standardization of

  2. Melanoma immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Glodny, Bradley; Pan, Michael; Merad, Miriam; Saenger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma immunotherapy has been an area of intense research for decades, and this work is now yielding more tangible results for patients. Work has focused on 4 main areas: cytokine therapy, administration of immune-modulating antibodies, adoptive T-cell therapy, and vaccines. Cytokine therapy is an established treatment for advanced melanoma, and immune-modulating antibodies have recently emerged as an exciting new area of drug development with efficacy now established in a phase III trial. Adoptive T-cell therapy provides the proof of principle that T cells can attack and eliminate tumors. It has been challenging, however, to adapt this treatment for widespread use. Vaccines have generally yielded poor results, but intratumor pathogen-based strategies have shown encouraging results in recent trials, perhaps due to stronger immune stimulation. A review of the field of melanoma immunotherapy is provided here, with emphasis on those agents that have reached clinical testing. Novel strategies to induce the immune system to attack melanomas are reviewed. In the future, it is envisioned that immunotherapy will have further application in combination with cytotoxic and targeted therapies.

  3. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  4. From allergen genes to allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Ferreira, Fatima; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Niederberger, Verena; Swoboda, Ines; Vrtala, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. The structures of the most common allergens have been revealed through molecular cloning technology in the past two decades. On the basis of this knowledge of the sequences and three-dimensional structures of culprit allergens, investigators can now analyze the immune recognition of allergens and the mechanisms of allergic inflammation in allergic patients. Allergy vaccines have been constructed that are able to selectively target the aberrant immune responses in allergic patients via different pathways of the immune system. Here we review various types of allergy vaccines that have been developed based on allergen structures, results from their clinical application in allergic patients, and future strategies for allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergy prophylaxis.

  5. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. SymptomsWhat ...

  6. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  7. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...

  8. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  9. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  10. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  11. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with

  12. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  13. [Tablet splitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinzler, R; Haefeli, W E

    2006-06-01

    The splitting of scored tablets provides many advantages. One benefit is to achieve dose flexibility to account for the huge interindividual differences in dose requirements for instance in paediatric and geriatric patients, which are often not covered by the available strengths in the market. Moreover, large-sized tablets can easier be swallowed if broken before swallowing and medication costs can often be reduced by splitting brands with higher strength. But not all tablets, mostly unscored tablets, are suitable for splitting. Splitting of extended release formulations can result in an overdose by uncontrolled release of the active component and degradation of the compound can occur if an enteric coating is destroyed by the splitting process. Whether tablets are suitable for splitting depends on the properties of the active component (e.g. light sensitivity), the galenics, the shape of the tablet, and the shape of the scoreline. Moreover, not all patients are informed, able, or willing to split tablets and the majority of the elderly population is not capable to break tablets. When split tablets are prescribed it is therefore important to view the shape of the tablet, to assess the patients ability and willingness to break tablets, to properly inform the patient about the appropriate way of splitting, and if necessary to suggest (and instruct) the use of a tablet splitting device.

  14. Recombinant allergens for pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Michael; Pichler, Ulrike; Ferreira, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Specific immunotherapy (IT) represents the only potentially curative therapeutic intervention of allergic diseases capable of suppressing allergy-associated symptoms not only during treatment, but also after its cessation. Presently, IT is performed with allergen extracts, which represent a heterogeneous mixture of allergenic, as well as nonallergenic, compounds of a given allergen source. To overcome many of the problems associated with extract-based IT, strategies based on the use of recombinant allergens or derivatives thereof have been developed. This review focuses on recombinant technologies to produce allergy therapeuticals, especially for allergies caused by tree, grass and weed pollen, as they are among the most prevalent allergic disorders affecting the population of industrialized societies. The reduction of IgE-binding of recombinant allergen derivatives appears to be mandatory to increase the safety profile of vaccine candidates. Moreover, increased immunogenicity is expected to reduce the dosage regimes of the presently cumbersome treatment. In this regard, it has been convincingly demonstrated in animal models that hypoallergenic molecules can be engineered to harbor inherent antiallergenic immunologic properties. Thus, strategies to modulate the allergenic and immunogenic properties of recombinant allergens will be discussed in detail. In recent years, several successful clinical studies using recombinant wild-type or hypoallergens as active ingredients have been published and, currently, novel treatment forms with higher safety and efficacy profiles are under investigation in clinical trials. These recent developments are summarized and discussed.

  15. Inmunoterapia local Local immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lasa

    2003-01-01

    . However, in spite of having been shown to be safe, it is not free of adverse effects and must be administered under the supervision of medical personnel. This has encouraged the search for new ways of administration of similar efficacy, with a good safety profile and good adherence on the patient’s side. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is the most relevant of the different alternatives studied. In this alternative the antigen is administered in the form of drops under the tongue. There are different dosages of administration depending on the allergen involved. The optimum treatment dose has still to be determined, at present a wide range of dosages are found in comparison with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Its mechanism of action is little known although immunological changes have been observed in different studies. SLIT has shown a good safety profile with scarce secondary effects, normally of a local character. Similarly, different clinical tests have been carried out in which its efficacy has been shown in the treatment of respiratory allergy both in children and in adults. For this reason, although there are still unresolved data concerning this way of administering the immunotherapy, it has been proposed by the WHO as a valid alternative to SCIT.

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Demoly, Pascal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Ronald Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Linnemann, Desiree Larenas; Lin, Sandra; Maggina, Vivian; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke; Pajno, Giovanni; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT i

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic asthma: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); I. Agache; S. Lau (Susanne); Muraro, A. (Antonella); M. Jutel (M.); G. Roberts; C.A. Akdis; M. Bonini (Matteo); M. Calderon (Moises); T.B. Casale (Thomas); Cavkaytar, O. (Ozlem); L. Cox (Linda); P. Demoly; Flood, B. (Breda); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); Izuhara, K. (Kenji); O. Kalayci; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); A. Nieto (Antonio); N. Papadopoulos; O. Pfaar (Oliver); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); D. Ryan (Dermot); C.B. Schmidt-Weber; S.J. Szefler; U. Wahn (Ulrich); R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Asthma. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of

  18. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); G. Roberts; O. Pfaar (Oliver); Muraro, A. (Antonella); I.J. Ansotegui (I.); M. Calderon (Moises); Cingi, C. (Cemal); P. Demoly; S.R. Durham (Stephen); R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); S. Halken (Susanne); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); P.W. Hellings (P.); L. Jacobsen; E.F. Knol (Edward Frank); D.L. Linnemann (D. Larenas); Lin, S. (Sandra); Maggina, V. (Vivian); H.N.G. Oude Elberink (Hanneke N.G.); G. Pajno (G.); Panwankar, R. (Ruby); Pastorello, E. (Elideanna); C. Pitsios; Rotiroti, G. (Giuseppina); Timmermans, F. (Frans); Tsilochristou, O. (Olympia); E.M. Varga; Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); Williams, A. (Andrew); M. Worm (M.); Zhang, L. (Luo); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and saf

  19. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: from therapeutic vaccines to prophylactic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, R; Campana, R; Marth, K; van Hage, M

    2012-08-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease.

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  1. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

  2. Therapeutic Effects and Biomarkers in Sublingual Immunotherapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is considered to be the only curative treatment for allergic diseases such as pollinosis, perennial rhinitis, asthma, and food allergy. The sublingual route is widely applied for immunotherapy for allergy, instead of the conventional administration by subcutaneous route. A recent meta-analysis of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has shown that this approach is safe, has positive clinical effects, and provides prolonged therapeutic effects after discontinuation of treatment. However, the mechanism of SLIT and associated biomarkers are not fully understood. Biomarkers that change after or during SLIT have been reported and may be useful for response monitoring or as prognostic indicators for SLIT. In this review, we focus on the safety, therapeutic effects, including prolonged effects after treatment, and new methods of SLIT. We also discuss response monitoring and prognostic biomarkers for SLIT. Finally, we discuss immunological mechanisms of SLIT with a focus on oral dendritic cells and facilitated antigen presentation.

  3. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  4. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know that some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food allergy , his ... sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have ...

  5. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... butters (such as almond butter) and sunflower seeds Ethnic foods including African, Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai and Vietnamese ... Toit G, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for ... RA. Food allergy in children: Prevalence, natural history, and monitoring ...

  6. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Hypersensitivity and the Working Environment for Allergy Nurses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kalm-Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.

  8. Food allergy prevalence: new possibilities for therapy and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.

  9. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom sensitisatio

  10. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...... in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically...... appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. CONCLUSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  12. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  13. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  14. Current issues on sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology was the first official organization to recognize that sublingual administration could be “promising route” for allergic desensitization. A few years later, the World Health Organization recommended this therapy as “a viable alternative to the injection route in adults.” The first meta-analysis showed sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy (SLIT effectiveness for allergic rhinitis and another study showed SLIT can actually help prevent the development of asthma both in adults and in children. The main goal of this review article is to present insight into the most up-to-date understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. A literature review was performed on PubMed from 1990 to 2015 using the terms “asthma,” “allergic rhinitis,” “children,” “allergen specific immune therapy.” Evaluating data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (DB-PC-RCTs, the clinical efficacy (assessed as the reduction of symptom score and the need of rescue medicament of SLIT for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, has been confirmed in various meta-analysis Outcomes such as rhinoconjunctivitis score and medication scores, combined scores, quality of life, days with severe symptoms, immunological endpoints, and safety parameters were all improved in the SLIT-tablet compared with placebo group. SLIT safety has been already proven in many DB-PC-RCTs and real-life settings. In accordance with all of the above mentioned, the goals for future trials and studies are the development of comprehensive guidelines for clinical practice on immunotherapy, embracing all the different potential participants. The importance of allergen immunotherapy is of special relevance in the pediatric age, when the plasticity and modulability of the immune system are maximal, and when

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  16. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  17. Medicines to Treat Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antihistamines . Some examples of brand- name antihistamines are Zyrtec and Claritin . You can buy antihistamines with or ... generic antihistamines as the best for most people:  Cetirizine (tablets)  Loratadine (tablets, dissolving tablets, or liquid)  Alavert ( ...

  18. Fish and shellfish allergy in children: review of a persistent food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabouri, Sophia; Triga, Maria; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Church, Martin K; Priftis, Kostas N

    2012-11-01

    The increased consumption of fish and shellfish has resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions to seafood, emphasizing the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of this condition and exploring reasons for the persistence of this allergy. This review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish and shellfish allergy. New allergens and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. The diagnostic approach may require prick to-prick tests using crude extracts of both raw and cooked forms of seafood for screening seafood sensitization before a food challenge or where food challenge is not feasible. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can be important; mutated less allergenic seafood proteins have been developed for this purpose. The persistence of allergy because of seafood proteins' resistance after rigorous treatment like cooking and extreme pH is well documented. Additionally, IgE antibodies from individuals with persistent allergy may be directed against different epitopes than those in patients with transient allergy. For a topic as important as this one, new areas of technological developments will likely have a significant impact, to provide more accurate methods of diagnosing useful information to patients about the likely course of their seafood allergy over the course of their childhood and beyond.

  19. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  20. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  1. Tablet Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  2. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Safety of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Relation between dosage regimen, allergen extract, disease and systemic side-effects during induction treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Hahn, G W; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2000-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a well-documented treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and allergy to Hymenoptera venoms. The drawbacks of injection immunotherapy are related to the risk of inducing systemic side-effects (especially during the induction phase), the time used to reach...

  4. [Successful desensitization to latex by sublingual immunotherapy in a health worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-De Sá, Adriano; Gaspar, Angela; Solé, Dirceu; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Latex allergy is still a public health problem responsible for some occupational diseases tough to be treated without removing the patient from his/her workspace. For patients allergic to latex, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for latex is a tool that can be very useful. We report the case of a nurse with latex allergy who underwent successful desensitization to latex by SLIT, and discuss about possible causes of the success of this therapy.

  5. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abramson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  6. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  7. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy: routes, safety,efficacy, and mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochfelder JL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jillian Leigh Hochfelder, Punita PondaDivision of Allergy and Immunology, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and allergic asthma have been steadily increasing in prevalence in recent years. These allergic diseases have a major impact on quality of life and are a major economic burden in the US. Although allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy are currently the mainstays of therapy, they are not always successful in treating patients’ symptoms effectively. If a patient fails allergen avoidance and medical therapy, immunotherapy may be indicated. Furthermore, immunotherapy is the only therapy that may change the course of the disease and induce long-term remission. Though subcutaneous administration has been the standard route for immunotherapy for many decades, there are several other routes of administration that have been and are currently being studied. The goal of utilizing alternative routes of immunotherapy is to improve safety without decreasing the efficacy of treatment. This paper will review the novel routes of immunotherapy, including sublingual, oral, local nasal, epicutaneous, and intralymphatic.Keywords: immunotherapy, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, sublingual, intralymphatic

  9. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy medlineplus.gov/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...

  10. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, prebiotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable.

  11. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  12. Biotechnology-based allergy diagnosis and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-03-01

    The diagnosis and immunotherapy currently applied to allergic diseases involve the use of crude extracts of the allergen source without defining the allergy-eliciting molecule(s). Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made identification, cloning, expression and epitope mapping of clinically significant allergens possible. Recombinant allergens that retain the immunological features of natural allergens form the basis of accurate protein-chip-based methods for diagnosing allergic conditions. The ability to produce rationally designed hypoallergenic forms of allergens is leading to the development of novel and safe forms of allergy vaccines with improved efficacy. The initial clinical tests on recombinant-allergen-based vaccine preparations have provided positive results, and ongoing developments in areas such as alternative routes of vaccine delivery will enhance patient compliance.

  13. Food Allergy: Review, Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cianferoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies, defined as an immune response to food proteins, affect as many as 8% of young children and 2% of adults in westernized countries, and their prevalence appears to be rising like all allergic diseases. In addition to well-recognized urticaria and anaphylaxis triggered by IgE antibody-mediated immune responses, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis. New knowledge is being developed on the pathogenesis of both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and initiating therapy if ingestion occurs. However, novel strategies are being studied, including sublingual/oral immunotherapy and others with a hope for future.

  14. Treating allergic rhinitis by sublingual immunotherapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoforo Incorvaia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR is a disease with high and increasing prevalence. The management of AR includes allergen avoidance, anti-allergic drugs, and allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT, but only the latter works on the causes of allergy and, due to its mechanisms of action, modifies the natural history of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT was proposed in the 1990s as an option to traditional, subcutaneous immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed all the available controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of SLIT. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Thus far, more than 60 trials, globally evaluated in 6 meta-analyses, showed that SLIT is an effective and safe treatment for AR. However, it must be noted that to expect clinical efficacy in the current practice SLIT has to be performed following the indications from controlled trials, that is, sufficiently high doses to be regularly administered for at least 3 consecutive years.

  15. Nanoparticulate Adjuvants and Delivery Systems for Allergen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana De Souza Rebouças

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  16. Nanoparticulate adjuvants and delivery systems for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Rebouças, Juliana; Esparza, Irene; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María Luisa; Irache, Juan Manuel; Gamazo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  17. [Scleroderma related to specific immunotherapy. A report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Morfín, Blanca María

    2009-01-01

    It has been described two main phenotypes of helper T cells. On activation, the immune system develops the most effective Th response. Whereas Th1 cells promote cell-mediate immunity against intracellular pathogens and an over expression could favor autoimmune diseases; Th2 cells develop humoral immunity against extracellular pathogens promoting allergic response. Normally, the two profiles coexist in the same individual with different grades of expression. Recently, it has been described a new subset: Th17, which is related to tissue injury in autoimmune diseases. Then, allergic and autoimmune diseases result from an unbalanced response of the immune system. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of a specific allergy, which leads to a life-long tolerance against allergens. There are no controlled studies about the effectiveness or risks associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, scleroderma is an autoimmune chronic systemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by excess collagen deposition in the skin and viscera, along with vascular injury. We report a girl with allergic asthma and with a second degree family history of systemic sclerosis who developed localized scleroderma during allergen specific immunotherapy. Because allergy vaccination alter the balance between effector and regulatory T-cell populations, which regulate immune tolerance, a positive family history of autoimmunity in first or second degree, could be a contraindication for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  18. Long-term effect evaluation of antigen specific immunotherapy for patients with pollen allergy%抗原特异性免疫治疗对花粉症的长期疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小平; 何韶衡; 高军; 迟秀丽

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨抗原特异性免疫治疗(specific immunotherapy,SIT)对花粉症患者的疗效及作用机制.方法:选择对夏秋季豚草(Ragweed)和蒿草(Atremisa vulgaris)过敏的花粉症患者(过敏性鼻炎或哮喘)235例,随机分为SIT组:包括过敏性鼻炎组(n=65);过敏性鼻炎+哮喘组(n=60);对症治疗组(symptomatic therapy,ST),同样包括过敏性鼻炎组(n=56),和过敏性鼻炎+哮喘组(n=54).健康对照组(n=43).应用UniCAPsystem免疫荧光法、双抗体夹心ELISA法、放射比浊法和瑞氏染色法分别测定血清特异性IgE(sIgE)、总IgE(tIgE)、嗜酸性粒细胞阳离子蛋白(ECP)、IgG水平和外周血嗜酸性粒细胞(Eos)计数.分别比较二组治疗前、后上述各种参数、肺功能指标、症状评分和皮肤试验指数的变化.结果:治疗前,患者血清sIgE、tIgE、ECP水平、血Eos计数、tIgE:IgG值均明显升高(P<0.01).经SIT治疗后,上述指标均明显下降,而IgG含量明显上升(P<0.01).肺功能指标、症状评分和皮肤试验指数均在治疗后有明显改善(P<0.05).其中临床控制率40%,有效率57.7%(显效46.4%,好转11.3%),无效率仅为2.3%,不良反应8.9%.ST组治疗前、后上述各种参数无明显改变,其中23%的过敏性鼻炎患者发生了哮喘.ST组以上各种参数无改变.结论:SIT能明显改善过敏性鼻炎和哮喘的临床症状,增加血清IgG水平,减少IgE的生成并抑制Eos的募集.

  19. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  20. Food allergy in gastroenterologic diseases: Review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasquale Mansueto; Giuseppe Montalto; Maria Luisa Pacor; Maria Esposito-Pellitteri; Vito Ditta; Claudia Lo Bianco; Stefania Maria Leto-Barone; Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy is a common and increasing problem worldwide. The newly-found knowledge might provide novel experimental strategies, especially for laboratory diagnosis. Approximately 20% of the population alters their diet for a perceived adverse reaction to food, but the application of double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the "gold standard" for diagnosis of food allergy, shows that questionnaire-based studies overestimate the prevalence of food allergies. The clinical disorders determined by adverse reactions to food can be classified on the basis of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms and the organ system or systems affected. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin prick tests, and laboratory tests to detect serum-food specific IgE, elimination diets and challenges. The primary therapy for food allergy is to avoid the responsible food. Antihistamines might partially relieve oral allergy syndrome and IgE-mediated skin symptoms,but they do not block systemic reactions. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in treating chronic IgE-mediated disorders. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylaxis. Experimental therapies for IgE-mecliated food allergy have been evaluated, such as humanized IgG anti-IgE antibodies and allergen specific immunotherapy.

  1. Food allergy: Diagnosis, management & emerging therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Glick Robison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgE-mediated food allergy is an important health concern with increasing prevalence worldwide. Manifestations of IgE-mediated food allergy include urticaria, angioedema, pruritus, difficulty in breathing, laryngeal oedema, vomiting, diarrhoea and/or hypotension within minutes to two hours of the offending food′s ingestion. Diagnosis requires both a careful history and supportive testing with laboratory studies and possibly oral food challenges. Current treatment of food allergy focuses on avoidance of the allergen and prompt emergency management of reactions. Epinephrine autoinjectors are provided to patients for the treatment of severe reactions. More research is needed to determine the optimal timing with which to introduce common allergens into a child′s diet to possibly prevent the development of food allergy. Novel therapies are under investigation given the difficulty of allergen avoidance and the potentially fatal nature of reactions. Both allergen specific therapies such as oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy and allergen non-specific therapies such the Chinese herbal formula FAHF-2 and omalizumab show promise though more data on efficacy and long-term safety are needed before these therapies become mainstream.

  2. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Children About Your Allergies Managing at Work Healthcare Providers Child Care Facilities Americans with Disabilities Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...

  3. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... for children of any age." back to top Allergy Shots People who don't respond to either ...

  4. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  5. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  6. Food allergy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods...

  7. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  8. FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Santalha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  9. Addressing Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  10. The anti-vaccination movement and resistance to allergen-immunotherapy: a guide for clinical allergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-09-15

    Despite over a century of clinical use and a well-documented record of efficacy and safety, a growing minority in society questions the validity of vaccination and fear that this common public health intervention is the root-cause of severe health problems. This article questions whether growing public anti-vaccine sentiments might have the potential to spill-over into other therapies distinct from vaccination, namely allergen-immunotherapy. Allergen-immunotherapy shares certain medical vernacular with vaccination (e.g., allergy shots, allergy vaccines), and thus may become "guilty by association" due to these similarities. Indeed, this article demonstrates that anti-vaccine websites have begun unduly discrediting this allergy treatment regimen. Following an explanation of the anti-vaccine movement, the article aims to provide guidance on how clinicians can respond to patient fears towards allergen-immunotherapy in the clinical setting. This guide focuses on the provision of reliable information to patients in order to dispel misconceived associations between vaccination and allergen-immunotherapy, and the discussion of the risks and benefits of both therapies in order to assist patients in making autonomous decisions about their choice of allergy treatment.

  11. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binkley Karen E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45, nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48. Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03. Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors.

  12. Etude de la réponse lymphocytaire T dans l’allergie de l’enfant, au diagnostic et au cours de la désensibilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, Bénédicte

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are steadily increasing steadily and especially in children. Allergen specific immunotherapy (desensitization) is the only curative treatment for which accurate diagnosis of allergy is essential. Currently, the presence of specific IgE diagnoses a sensitization to an allergen but not a clinically symptomatic allergy. In a first part, we studied the value of a functional test, the ELISpot (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot) in the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites (HDM)...

  13. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  14. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  15. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  16. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  17. Immunotherapy with Allergen Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Larché Mark

    2007-01-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is disease-modifying and efficacious. However, the use of whole allergen preparations is associated with frequent allergic adverse events during treatment. Many novel approaches are being designed to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy preparations whilst maintaining immunogenicity. One approach is the use of short synthetic peptides which representing dominant T cell epitopes of the allergen. Short peptides exhibit markedly reduced capacity to cro...

  18. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy.

  19. T cell epitope-based allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larché, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) with extracts containing intact allergen molecules is clinically efficacious, but associated with frequent adverse events related to the allergic sensitization of the patient. As a result, treatment is initiated in an incremental dose fashion which ultimately achieves a plateau (maintenance dose) that may be continued for several years. Reduction of allergic adverse events may allow safer and more rapid treatment Thus, many groups have developed and evaluated strategies to reduce allergenicity whilst maintaining immunogenicity, the latter being required to achieve specific modulation of the immune response. Peptide immunotherapy can be used to target T and/or B cells in an antigen-specific manner. To date, only approaches that target T cells have been clinically evaluated. Short, synthetic peptides representing immunodominant T cell epitopes of major allergens are able to modulate allergen-specific T cell responses in the absence of IgE cross linking and activation of effector cells. Here we review clinical and mechanistic studies associated with peptide immunotherapy targeting allergy to cats or to bee venom. 

  20. Food allergy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  1. Research needs in allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health...... in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...

  2. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... proteins that cause allergic reactions. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins ...

  3. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  4. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ... Food Allergy Mom Gretchen Food Allergy Mom Managing Food Allergies Learn more about managing food allergies in ...

  5. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M;

    2011-01-01

    To cite this article: Howarth P, Malling H-J, Molimard M, Devillier P. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients. Allergy 2012; 67: 321-327. ABSTRACT: Background:  The assessment of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) efficacy...... in the treatment for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) symptoms is challenging. Allergen immunotherapy differs from symptomatic therapy in that while symptomatic therapy treats patients after symptoms appear and aims to reduce symptoms, AIT is administered before symptoms are present and aims to prevent...... them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...

  6. The effect of immunotherapy with gynandropsis gynandra pollen in atopic asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunotherapy (IT was first described by Noon and Freeman in 1911. The mechanism underlying successful immunotherapy is however not known. The protection from allergy is achieved long before IgE levels are de-creased, and they are indeed not frequently increased. Continued therapy may decrease IgE and skin reaction, although it may take years. Objective: The evaluation of effect of immunotherapy with specific pollen Gyn-andropsis gynandra. Material & Methods: Clinical subjects like skin test response, symptoms score, drugs intake and total sIgE levels were studied in sixty patients. Results: Both immediate and delayed skin test responses were highly significant. The intensity of symptoms score and medication was reduced and total sIgE levels were inconsistent after the course of IT. Conclusion: The decrease in clinical subjects may be attributed to the beneficial effect of immunotherapy with Gynandropsis gynandra.

  7. Tablet Use within Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  8. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  9. NOOK tablet for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2012-01-01

    The fun is just a tap away with the nifty NOOK Tablet! It's an e-reader, it's a tablet, and it's hot! The NOOK Tablet offers all the advantages of an Android-based tablet, and this small-trim book is packed with information about how to use it. Learn to set up your NOOK Tablet, navigate the touchscreen, download and read e-books, access the Internet, use all the cool Android apps that are included, and much more. Find out how to create your own e-books, share books with others, listen to music or watch streaming video on your NOOK Tablet, personalize your tablet, add accessories, and

  10. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Emily F.; Smyth, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4) trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients. PMID:27669318

  11. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Goode

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4 trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients.

  12. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are probably allergic to the allergen. previous continue Taking Control Your doctor will probably suggest ways to stay ... away from the allergen might be enough to control your allergy. If your ... and taking medicines, an allergist might recommend allergy shots. These ...

  13. Immunotherapy with Allergen Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larché Mark

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT is disease-modifying and efficacious. However, the use of whole allergen preparations is associated with frequent allergic adverse events during treatment. Many novel approaches are being designed to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy preparations whilst maintaining immunogenicity. One approach is the use of short synthetic peptides which representing dominant T cell epitopes of the allergen. Short peptides exhibit markedly reduced capacity to cross link IgE and activate mast cells and basophils, due to lack of tertiary structure. Murine pre-clinical studies have established the feasibility of this approach and clinical studies are currently in progress in both allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  14. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, A

    1983-01-01

    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  15. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  16. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Miehlke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  18. [Animals and fungi as allergy inducers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A

    2001-05-01

    preventive steps especially at home may help to control growth of molds. Specific immunotherapy may be indicated for both domestic animal and fungal (mold) allergies in certain circumstances. Clinical relevance, however, needs to be demonstrated by an accurate allergological assessment.

  19. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...... in the prevention of allergic disease. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using...

  20. Perspectives on allergen-specific immunotherapy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Gerth van Wijk, R; Eichler, I;

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of consensus reached by a working group of clinical experts in paediatric allergology as well as representatives from an ethical committee and the European Medicine Agency (EMA). The manuscript covers clinical, scientific, regulatory and ethical perspectives on allergen......-specific immunotherapy in childhood. Unmet needs are identified. To fill the gaps and to bridge the different points of view, recommendations are made to researchers, to scientific and patient organizations and to regulators and ethical committees. Working together for the benefit of the community is essential....... The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) serves as the platform of such cooperation....

  1. Active Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodon, Thinle; Koya, Richard C; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    Clinical progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy has been slow for many years but within the last 5 years, breakthrough successes have brought immunotherapy to the forefront in cancer therapy. Promising results have been observed in a variety of cancers including solid tumors and hematological malignancies with adoptive cell therapy using natural host tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, host cells that have been genetically engineered with antitumor T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors, immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy. However, most treatment modalities have shown limited efficacy with single therapy. The complex nature of cancer with intra- and inter-tumor antigen and genomic heterogeneity coupled with the immune suppressive microenvironment emphasizes the prospect of personalized targeted immunotherapy to manipulate the patient's own immune system against cancer. For successful, robust and long-lasting cure of cancer, a multi-modal approach is essential, combining anti-tumor cell therapy with manipulation of multiple pathways in the tumor microenvironment to ameliorate tumor-induced immunosuppression.

  2. Basics of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Yuki; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders including cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy, which employs our own immune systems to attack cancer cells, is now emerging as a promising modality of cancer treatment based upon the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell transfer. In hematologic malignancies, clinical application of anti-PD-1 mAb and CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T therapy is now being extensively tested in Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and CD19(+) acute lymphocytic leukemia. In sharp contrast to conventional anti-cancer reagents which directly kill cancer cells, cancer immunotherapy activates various types of immune effector cells to attack cancer cells. However, more than half of the treated patients showed no activation of anti-tumor CD8(+) killer T cells and CD4(+) helper T cells and failed to respond to immune therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade, even when administered in combination regimens. Thus, development of novel immunotherapies to achieve more effective activation of anti-cancer immunity and immuno-monitoring of biomarkers, allowing proper evaluation of immune responses in cancer patients in order to detect responders, are urgent issues. Additionally, we must pay attention to characteristic immunological side effects not observed following treatment with conventional anti-cancer reagents. Herein, we present a summary outline and discuss the future direction of cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  4. [Pollen as the cause of allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Grendelmeier, P

    2001-05-01

    Pollinosis or hay fever is the most common allergic disease in Switzerland. For symptoms during spring pollens of birch and related trees (alder, hazel) and also ash tree are responsible, while hay fever during summer is mainly caused by pollens of grasses, rye and mugwort. These main plant pollen allergens, relevant cross-reactivities with other pollen and food allergens are reviewed in this article. The well-established methods of pollen-counting in Switzerland allow to define the varying amounts of measurable pollen depending on geographic and climatic conditions. Similarly clinical symptoms, the diagnostic work-up of pollen allergies and therapeutic aspects including preventive measures, symptomatic therapy and specific immunotherapy are presented. Finally, occupational and travelling aspects of pollinosis are briefly discussed.

  5. New product development with the innovative biomolecular sublingual immunotherapy formulations for the management of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Lorenzo Cecchi,2,3 Enrico Scala,4 Erminia Ridolo,5 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Eleni Makrì,6 Giovanni Pajno,7 Cristoforo Incorvaia6 1Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Interdepartmental Centre of Bioclimatology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Azienda Sanitaria di Prato, Prato, Italy; 4Experimental Allergy Unit, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; 6Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 7Department of Pediatrics, Allergy Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: The molecular allergy technique, currently defined as component-resolved diagnosis, significantly improved the diagnosis of allergy, allowing for differentiation between molecules actually responsible for clinical symptoms (genuine sensitizers and those simply cross-reacting or shared by several sources (panallergens, thus influencing the appropriate management of a patient's allergy. This also concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT, which may be prescribed more precisely based on the component-resolved diagnosis results. However, the advance in diagnosis needs to be mirrored in AIT. According to consensus documents and to expectations of specialists, therapy should be based on standardized extracts containing measured amounts of the clinically relevant molecules, ie, the major allergens. The new generation of extracts for sublingual immunotherapy fulfills these requirements and are thus defined as biomolecular (BM. BM refers to natural extracts with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms. All Staloral BM products are indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. The effectiveness of AIT is related to its ability to modify the immunological response of allergic subjects. The 5-grass and house dust mite extracts were evaluated addressing the T helper 1, T

  6. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  7. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22......%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy...

  8. Food allergies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  9. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  10. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  11. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  12. Seasonal Allergies in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrists, and ankles also may indicate an allergy. Eczema When it comes to rashes, the most common ... seen with the naked eye Furry animals: cats, dogs, guinea pigs, gerbils, rabbits, and other pets Clothing ...

  13. Coping with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accurately predicted from the severity of past ones. Fast Facts About one in 20 children and one in every 25 adults in the United States has a food allergy. In the United States, the most common ...

  14. History of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  15. [Food allergy:definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    upcoming economies are likewise expected to lead to increased prevalence of food allergies, sometimes to different foods due to dietary habits. Molecular allergology and biotechnology now offer the possibility to combat the increasing burden of food allergy by developing safe immunotherapies for food allergy, using hypoallergenic mutant recombinant molecules. The first clinical trials to evaluate such approaches are underway. Last but not least, the identification and clinical risk characterization of a more and more complete list of food allergens additionally provides the allergenicity risk assessment of genetically modified foods a firmer basis.

  16. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  17. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to create the best and most far-reaching cancer immunotherapy treatments. THE BASICS : The human immune system is ... none, abound these days – and point to why cancer immunotherapies matter. Immunotherapy is “providing options for people out ...

  18. 60 Tear IFN-G is Increased After Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Conjunctivitis Patients and Correlates With Clinical Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Velazquez, Gustavo; Santacruz, Concepcion; Hernandez, Pedro M; Chavez, Raul; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Mayra; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite success of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergy diseases, more research is needed related to ocular allergy. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze the ocular microenvironment provided by tear cytokines in allergic conjunctivitis (AC) patients treated with SLIT and to correlate tear and serum cytokines with ocular findings. Methods 19 AC-patients were included in this study. AC diagnosis was based on a clinical history and full ophthalmologic exami...

  19. [New food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  20. Evaluation of the fulfillment grade and clinical management of the treatment with immunotherapy in allergic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela L. Pérez Pacaréu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunotherapy efficacy in the control of patients affected by allergic diseases has been quite proved since 1911, it is of great importance for their betterment. Objectives: To determine the adherence to the treatment and patient´s satisfaction with control immunotherapy. Methods: A study made in the ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguia Lima¨ Hospital, where 100 patients from the external allergy consulter were evaluated for a year. Authorized personnel checked out the level of fulfilment of the security rules, clinical betterment was evaluated with a daily control of symptoms correlated with clinical history of allergy, and satisfaction was evaluated through a questionaire.Results: The 82% fits correctly with the treatment program, the 94% presented clinical betterment, and the 90% has an excellent satisfaction level.

  1. Immunotherapy for tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyberg, Jerod A

    2013-11-15

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Francisella is highly infectious via the respiratory route (~10 CFUs) and pulmonary infections due to type A strains of F. tularensis are highly lethal in untreated patients (> 30%). In addition, no vaccines are licensed to prevent tularemia in humans. Due to the high infectivity and mortality of pulmonary tularemia, F. tularensis has been weaponized, including via the introduction of antibiotic resistance, by several countries. Because of the lack of efficacious vaccines, and concerns about F. tularensis acquiring resistance to antibiotics via natural or illicit means, augmentation of host immunity, and humoral immunotherapy have been investigated as countermeasures against tularemia. This manuscript will review advances made and challenges in the field of immunotherapy against tularemia.

  2. Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Wang; Liangfeng Fan; De'en Xu; Zhongmin Wen; Rong Yu; Quanhong Ma

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques consisted primarily of aggregated Aβ proteins and neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein.Both Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau are toxic both in vivo and in vitro.Immunotherapy targeting Aβ seems to provide a promising approach to reduce the toxic species in the brain.However,there is little evidence from clinical trials so far indicating the efficacy of Aβ immunotherapy in cognitive improvement.Immunization with tau peptides or anti-tau antibodies could remove the tau aggregates and improve the cognitive function in preclinical study,which provides a novel strategy of AD therapy.In this article,we will summarize the immunotherapeutic strategies targeting either Aβ or tau.

  3. Cancer immunotherapy with surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orita,Kunzo

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in the immunological surveillance system, an understanding of the role of host immunity has become essential to the management of carcinogenesis, tumor proliferation, recurrence and metastasis. Although it is important to continue chemical and surgical treatment of cancer, support of the anti-tumor immune system of the host should also be considered. Long term remission has been reported in leukemia by treating with BCG after chemotherapy whereas surgical treatment is usually more effective in preventing cancer recurrence in digestive organ cancer. The first step is extirpating the tumor as thoroughly as possible and the second step is chemo-immunotherapy. Cancer immunity, however weak, constitutes the basis for other treatments in selectively attacking cancer cells remaining after surgery, chemotherapy or irradiation. Immunotherapy should thus not replace chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but these methods should be employed in combination to attain more favorable results.

  4. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  5. Current developments for improving efficacy of allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Alessandra; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases are prevalent worldwide. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a current treatment for allergy, leading to modification of the natural course of disease. Mechanisms of efficacy include Treg through release of IL-10 and TGF-β and specific IgG4 blocking antibodies. Subcutaneous and sublingual routes are popular, but uptake is limited by inconvenience and safety concerns. Inclusion criteria limit application to a small proportion of allergic patients. New forms of immunotherapy are being investigated for more efficacious, convenient and safer options with promising advances in recent years. The rationale of reducing vaccine allergenicity to increase safety while improving immunogenicity led to investigation of T-cell epitope-based peptides and recombinant allergen derivatives. Additionally, different routes of administration and adjuvants and adjunct therapies are being explored. This review discusses the current status of AIT and recent advances to improve clinical efficacy, safety and long-term immune tolerance.

  6. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emily F. Goode; Smyth, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell...

  7. Adverse reactions and tolerability of high-dose sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angel Moral,1 Victoria Moreno,2 Francisco Girón,3 David El-Qutob,4 José D Moure,5 Manuel Alcántara,6 Antonia Padial,7 Alberto G Oehling,8 Carmen Millán,9 Fernando de la Torre10 1Allergy Service, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, 2Allergy Service, Hospital Blanca Paloma, Huelva, 3Consulta Privada, Granada, 4Allergy Service, Clínica Atenea, Castellón, 5Pediatric Department, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, A Coruña, 6Allergy Service, Complejo Hospitalario de Jaén, Jaén, 7Allergy Service, Hospital Infanta Sofía, Madrid, 8Centro de Alergia y Asma Balear, Mallorca, 9Consulta Privada, Cádiz, 10ALK-Abelló, SA, Madrid, Spain Background: Sublingual allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment against allergic respiratory disease. Many studies have shown the safety of this type of therapy, although the factors that might affect the tolerability of high-dose sublingual immunotherapy have not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that affect the tolerability of sublingual allergen immunotherapy.Patients and methods: A total of 183 subjects aged ≥5 years, diagnosed with allergic rhinitis with/without mild to moderate asthma due to sensitization to grass, olive pollen, or mites, were included in this open, retrospective, multicentric, noninterventional study. Sublingual immunotherapy was administered for at least 3 months.Results: The most frequent adverse reaction was oral pruritus (13.7% of the patients. Most of the reactions were local (84.7% and immediate (93.5% and occurred during the initiation phase (60.6%. All reactions were mild to moderate in severity. No serious adverse reactions were registered. When comparing factors with potential influence on the occurrence of adverse reactions, the results between the groups of subjects with and without adverse reactions showed no statistically significant differences in sex (P=0.6417, age (P=0.1801, years since the disease was first

  8. Immunotherapy of cancer in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, John M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Zarour, Hassane; Kalinski, Pawel; Ferrone, Soldano

    2012-01-01

    The immunotherapy of cancer has made significant strides in the past few years due to improved understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology. These principles have been critical in the development of immunotherapy in the laboratory and in the implementation of immunotherapy in the clinic. This improved understanding of immunotherapy, enhanced by increased insights into the mechanism of tumor immune response and its evasion by tumors, now permits manipulation of this interaction and elucidates the therapeutic role of immunity in cancer. Also important, this improved understanding of immunotherapy and the mechanisms underlying immunity in cancer has fueled an expanding array of new therapeutic agents for a variety of cancers. Pegylated interferon-α2b as an adjuvant therapy and ipilimumab as therapy for advanced disease, both of which were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for melanoma in March 2011, are 2 prime examples of how an increased understanding of the principles of tumor biology and immunology have been translated successfully from the laboratory to the clinical setting. Principles that guide the development and application of immunotherapy include antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and cellular therapies. The identification and further elucidation of the role of immunotherapy in different tumor types, and the development of strategies for combining immunotherapy with cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents for future multimodal therapy for cancer will enable even greater progress and ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Keefe AW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew W O'Keefe,1,2 Sarah De Schryver,1 Jennifer Mill,3 Christopher Mill,3 Alizee Dery,1 Moshe Ben-Shoshan1 1Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada; 3Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. Keywords: skin prick testing, oral challenge, specific IgE, component testing, oral immunotherapy, epinephrine

  10. Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy against Allergic Rhinitis: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent type I allergy in industrialized countries. Pollen scattering from trees or grasses often induces seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is known as pollinosis or hay fever. The causative pollen differs across different areas and times of the year. Impaired performance due to pollinosis and/or medication used for treating pollinosis is considered to be an important reason for the loss of concentration and productivity in the workplace. Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an only available curative treatment against allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous injection of allergens with or without adjuvant has been commonly used as an immunotherapy; however, recently, sublingual administration has come to be considered a safer and convenient alternative administration route of allergens. In this review, we focus on the safety and protocol of subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy against seasonal allergic rhinitis. We also describe an approach to selecting allergens for the vaccine so as to avoid secondary sensitization and adverse events. The biomarkers and therapeutic mechanisms for immunotherapy are not fully understood. We discuss the therapeutic biomarkers that are correlated with the improvement of clinical symptoms brought about by immunotherapy as well as the involvement of Tr1 and regulatory T cells in the therapeutic mechanisms. Finally, we focus on the current immunotherapeutic approach to treating Japanese cedar pollinosis, the most prevalent pollinosis in Japan, including sublingual immunotherapy with standardized extract, a transgenic rice-based edible vaccine, and an immunoregulatory liposome encapsulating recombinant fusion protein.

  11. Mechanisms underlying allergy vaccination with recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-19

    Hundred years ago therapeutic vaccination with allergen-containing extracts has been introduced as a clinically effective, disease-modifying, allergen-specific and long-lasting form of therapy for allergy, a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Today, the structures of most of the disease-causing allergens have been elucidated and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with reduced allergenic activity have been engineered to reduce side effects during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). These recombinant hypoallergens have been characterized in vitro, in experimental animal models and in clinical trials in allergic patients. This review provides a summary of the molecular, immunological and preclinical evaluation criteria applied for this new generation of allergy vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms underlying SIT with recombinant hypoallergens which are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect.

  12. Acute and long-term management of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September...... management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended...... helpful, but allergen-specific immunotherapy may be disease modifying and therefore warrants further exploration. CONCLUSIONS: Food allergy can be debilitating and affects a significant number of people. However, the evidence base about acute and longer-term management is weak and needs to be strengthened...

  13. Food allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother’s milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of nonselective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/ or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible. The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient’s complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  14. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant.

  15. New vaccines for Mammalian allergy using molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hage, Marianne; Pauli, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) offers a disease specific causative treatment by modifying the allergen-specific immune response allowing tolerance to higher doses of allergen and preventing progression of allergic diseases. It may be considered in patients allergic to furry animals. Current mammalian allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts and may induce immediate and late phase side effects. Although the mechanisms of SIT are still not fully understood, the more recent approaches report different strategies to reduce both allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. The availability of recombinant allergens and synthetic peptides from the mammalian species has contributed to formulating new allergy vaccines to improve SIT for furry animal allergy. The majority of studies have focused on the major cat allergen Fel d 1 due to its extensive characterization in terms of IgE and T cell epitopes and to its dominant role in cat allergy. Here we review the most recent approaches, e.g., synthetic peptides, recombinant allergen derivatives, different hypoallergenic molecules, and recombinant allergens coupled to virus-like particles or immunomodulatory substances as well as strategies targeting the allergen to Fcγ receptors and the MHC class II pathway using a new route for administration. Many of the new vaccines hold promise but only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials which will be the gold standard for evaluation of safety and efficacy in allergic patients.

  16. New vaccines for mammalian allergy using molecular approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne evan Hage

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT offers a disease specific causative treatment by inducing tolerance to the allergen and preventing progression of allergic diseases. It may be considered in patients allergic to furry animals. Current mammalian allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts and may induce immediate and late phase side effects. Although the mechanisms of SIT are still not fully understood, the more recent approaches report different strategies to reduce both allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. The availability of recombinant allergens and synthetic peptides from mammalian species has contributed to formulating new allergy vaccines to improve SIT for furry animal allergy. The majority of studies have focused on the major cat allergen Fel d 1 due to it’s extensively characterization in terms of IgE and T-cell epitopes and to its dominant role in cat allergy. Here we review the most recent approaches, e.g. synthetic peptides, recombinant allergen derivatives, different hypoallergenic molecules, recombinant allergens coupled to virus-like particles or immunomodulatory substances as well as strategies targeting the allergen to Fc receptors and the MHC class II pathway using a new route for administration. Many of the new vaccines hold promise but only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials which will be the gold standard for evaluation of safety and efficacy in allergic patients.

  17. The effect of a new communication template on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A patient's knowledge of his/her allergic condition and treatment is a key factor in adherence and effectiveness. METHODS: To assess patients' understanding of allergy and acceptance of allergen immunotherapy on the basis of (i) information given by their physician at the time...... of prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end...... of the prescribed course) or "non-starters" (having decided not to initiate a course of allergen immunotherapy recommended by their physician). All participants completed an on-line questionnaire immediately before and immediately after viewing the new communication template. The study's main objectives were...

  18. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... and run the air conditioner. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

  19. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  20. Quality of life in patients with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Manso, Luis; Caminati, Marco; de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Barbarroja-Escudero, José; Sánchez-González, María José; Huertas-Barbudo, Beatriz; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Promising approaches such as specific oral or epicutaneous immunotherapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies are progressively being investigated worldwide. However, even that an increasing number of centers fulfill those approaches, they are not fully implemented enough in clinical practice. The mean annual cost of health care has been estimated in international dollars (I$) 2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95 % confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and interestingly, it was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. The constant threat of exposure, need for vigilance and expectation of outcome can have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Several studies have analyzed the impact of food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children in different countries. There have been described different factors that could modify HRQL in food allergic patients, the most important of them are perceived disease severity, age of the patient, peanut or soy allergy, country of origin and having allergy to two or more foods. Over the last few years, several different specific Quality of Life questionnaires for food allergic patients have been developed and translated to different

  1. Allergy and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  2. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  3. Rush immunotherapy in an experimental model of feline allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol R; Byerly, Jenni R; Berghaus, Roy D; Berghaus, Londa J; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2006-03-15

    Specific allergen immunotherapy represents the only curative treatment of allergy. No studies have evaluated its efficacy in feline allergic asthma. We hypothesized that an abbreviated course of immunotherapy (rush immunotherapy, RIT) would blunt eosinophilic airways inflammation in experimental feline asthma induced with Bermuda grass allergen (BGA). The 6-month study included asthmatic-RIT treated cats; asthmatic-no RIT treated cats; and non-asthmatic cats. RIT involved increasing parenteral doses (20-200 microg) of BGA over 2 days. Numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and BALF immunoglobulins, lymphocyte blastogenesis assays, and cytokines in blood and BALF were evaluated. BALF eosinophils decreased (P=0.048) only in asthmatic-RIT treated cats (baseline 1.1 x 10(6); Month 6, 2.4 x 10(5)). Serum BGA-specific IgG was higher (Peosinophilic airways inflammation in cats with experimental asthma. The mechanism of RIT may involve changes in allergen-specific immunoglobulins, induction of hyporesponsive lymphocytes, or alteration of cytokine profiles.

  4. Regulatory T cells as immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin David Singer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs suppress exuberant immune system activation and promote immunologic tolerance. Because Tregs modulate both innate and adaptive immunity, the biomedical community has developed intense interest in using Tregs for immunotherapy. Conditions that require clinical tolerance to improve outcomes—autoimmune disease, solid organ transplantation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation—may benefit from Treg immunotherapy. Investigators have designed ex vivo strategies to isolate, preserve, expand, and infuse Tregs. Protocols to manipulate Treg populations in vivo have also been considered. Barriers to clinically feasible Treg immunotherapy include Treg stability, off-cell effects, and demonstration of cell preparation purity and potency. Clinical trials involving Treg adoptive transfer to treat graft versus host disease preliminarily demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Treg immunotherapy in humans. Future work will need to confirm the safety of Treg immunotherapy and establish the efficacy of specific Treg subsets for the treatment of immune-mediated disease.

  5. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed......% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80%. The basic treatment of CMPA is avoidance of CMP. In early childhood a milk substitute is needed. Documented extensively hydrolysed formulas are recommended, whereas partially hydrolysed formulas should not be used because of a high degree of antigenicity...... and allergenicity associated with adverse reactions. In case of intolerance to extensively hydrolysed formulas and multiple food allergies a formula based on aminoacids is recommended. Alternative milk substitutes such as sheep's and goat's milk should not be used because of a high degree of cross reactivity...

  6. CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuan, E-mail: yuanlin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sharma, Sherven [Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Veterans’ Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073 (United States); John, Maie St. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer.

  7. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  8. Technical report on the development of egg allergy vaccine using novel technology fused with radiation technology and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-15

    Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy.

  9. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...... on the role of polarized T-lymphocyte responses in the development of allergic contact dermatitis and occupational asthma in humans. The implications for understanding of chemical allergy in humans are explored in this Commentary....

  10. Food Allergy Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...

  11. Immunotherapy for Lung Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yi Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although treatment methods in surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy have improved, prognosis remains unsatisfactory and developing new therapeutic strategies is still an urgent demand. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach wherein activated immune cells can specifically kill tumor cells by recognition of tumor-associated antigens without damage to normal cells. Several lung cancer vaccines have demonstrated prolonged survival time in phase II and phase III trials, and several clinical trials are under investigation. However, many clinical trials involving cancer vaccination with defined tumor antigens work in only a small number of patients. Cancer immunotherapy is not completely effective in eradicating tumor cells because tumor cells escape from host immune scrutiny. Understanding of the mechanism of immune evasion regulated by tumor cells is required for the development of more effective immunotherapeutic approaches against lung cancer. This paper discusses the identification of tumor antigens in lung cancer, tumor immune escape mechanisms, and clinical vaccine trials in lung cancer.

  12. Tablet Technologies and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi L. Schnackenberg

    2013-01-01

    Recently, tablet technologies have grown tremendously in popularity. They lend themselves to a myriad of learning modalities and therefore may be well suited to use in schools and universities. While teachers work to find useful applications for tablets, students have already begun using them at home and, in secondary and higher education, in classes. Unfortunately, sometimes when students use tablets for courses they play with “apps,” rather than using the technology as a useful and powerful...

  13. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  14. Allergy and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This review of the major milestones in the history of ocular allergy and immunology shows how significantly this subdiscipline has contributed to the tremendous progress in the understanding of mechanisms of allergic and immunologic diseases, as well as in their better management. It also indicates unmet needs and priority areas for future research.

  15. Kiwifruit allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value. Commercial plantings of kiwifruit started a few decades ago and in the last 30 years, it has become a widely consumed fruit. Nowadays, it is one of the most common causes of food allergy. Symptoms vary between mild symptoms in the oral cavity to sever

  16. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  17. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Perez-Riverol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA and specific immunotherapy (SIT have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  18. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  19. [Allergen immunotherapy: Mechanisms of action, and therapeutic and socioeconomic impact Consensus of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Cardona, Ricardo; Caraballo, Luis; Serrano, Carlos; Ramírez, Ruth; Díez, Susana; García, Elizabeth; Segura, Ana María; Cepeda, Alfonso; Minotas, María

    2016-09-01

    Allergies comprise a set of highly prevalent diseases. When allergic processes are not controlled, they can endanger patients' health and lives, and have an important economic and social impact. The aim of this paper is to present a practical consensus of the scientific evidence on the use of immunotherapy in allergic diseases. A collaborative review made by various institutes and universities in Colombia was carried out upon request of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología, led by general practitioners, allergists, immunologists, internists and paediatricians with experience in the field of allergies. As a result, based on current national and international scientific evidence, we describe in detail what immunotherapy is about, its indications, contraindications and its economic and health benefits. Conclusions show immunotherapy as a clinically effective and safe treatment, which can substantially reduce the cost of the overall treatment of allergic patients.

  20. Rush allergen specific immunotherapy protocol in feline atopic dermatitis: a pilot study of four cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Ann M; Griffin, Craig E; Boord, Mona J; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2005-10-01

    Rush immunotherapy has been shown to be as safe as conventional immunotherapy in canine atopic patients. Rush immunotherapy has not been reported in the feline atopic patient. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine a safe protocol for rush immunotherapy in feline atopic patients. Four atopic cats diagnosed by history, physical examination and exclusion of appropriate differential diagnoses were included in the study. Allergens were identified via liquid phase immunoenzymatic testing (VARL: Veterinary Allergy Reference Labs, Pasadena, CA). Cats were premedicated with 1.5 mg triamcinolone orally 24 and 2 h prior to first injection and 10 mg hydroxyzine PO 24, 12 and 2 h prior to first injection. An intravenous catheter was placed prior to first injection. Allergen extracts (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, North Carolina) were all administered subcutaneously at increasing protein nitrogen units (pnu) every 30 minutes for 5 h to maintenance dose of 15,000 pnus ml-1. Vital signs were assessed every 15 minutes. Two cats developed mild pruritus and the subsequent injection was delayed 30 minutes. No changes in either cat's vital signs were noted, nor was there any further pruritus. All four cats successfully completed rush immunotherapy. Two cats developed a dermal swelling on the dorsal neck one week later. In these four cats, this protocol appeared to be a safe regimen to reach maintenance therapy. A larger sample of feline patients is needed to determine the incidence of adverse reactions and to follow the success of ASIT based upon this method of induction.

  1. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  2. Genomic determinants of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Diana; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer immunotherapies - including therapeutic vaccines, adoptive cell transfer, oncolytic viruses, and immune checkpoint blockade - yield durable responses in many cancer types, but understanding of predictors of response is incomplete. Genomic characterization of human cancers has already contributed to the success of targeted therapies; in cancer immunotherapy, identification of tumor-specific antigens through whole-exome sequencing may be key to designing individualized, highly immunogenic therapeutic vaccines. Additionally, pre-treatment tumor mutational and gene expression signatures can predict which patients are most likely to benefit from cancer immunotherapy. Continued work in harnessing genomic, transcriptomic, and immunological data from clinical cohorts of immunotherapy-treated patients will bring the promises of precision medicine to immuno-oncology.

  3. Importance of basophil activation testing in insect venom allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosnik Mitja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT is the only effective treatment for prevention of serious allergic reactions to bee and wasp stings in sensitized individuals. However, there are still many questions and controversies regarding immunotherapy, like selection of the appropriate allergen, safety and long term efficacy. Methods Literature review was performed to address the role of basophil activation test (BAT in diagnosis of venom allergy. Results In patients with positive skin tests or specific IgE to both honeybee and wasp venom, IgE inhibition test can identify sensitizing allergen only in around 15% and basophil activation test increases the identification rate to around one third of double positive patients. BAT is also diagnostic in majority of patients with systemic reactions after insect stings and no detectable IgE. High basophil sensitivity to allergen is associated with a risk of side effects during VIT. Persistence of high basophil sensitivity also predicts a treatment failure of VIT. Conclusion BAT is a useful tool for better selection of allergen for immunotherapy, for identification of patients prone to side effects and patients who might be treatment failures. However, long term studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy of the test.

  4. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  5. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  6. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  7. 6.1.Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930238 Preliminary observation on tubercu-lous allergy and cross reaction with atypical my-cobacteria PPD in BCG immunized babies.XUDaoan (徐道安),et al.Hangzhou Tubere Con-trol Clinic,Zhejiang,310014.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(6):328—330.In order to know the cross reaction betweenBCG and Atypical Myeobaeteria (AM) anti-.genieity,1150 BCG immunized babies aged 12—24 weeks,undertook a bilateral arm control testwith H-PPD type 11 AM-PPD and BCG-PPD.The results show that all the AM—PPDtested can bring about a delayed allergy in thesebabies,but the total positive rate (42.87%)and mean reactive diameter (3.87mm) are thelowest and smallest among the above mentionedthree types of PPD.The BCG—PPD derived al-

  8. [Occupational allergies to xylanases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2004-02-01

    The exposure against enzyme dusts have long been known to cause occupational allergies. In the 1960s an increasing number of occupational allergies in the detergent industry were observed. In this context the high sensitization potential of enzyme dusts attracted attention. The present evaluation of literature data confirms that this is also true for xylanases. These frequently used industrial enzymes belong to the hemicellulases and are mostly of fungal origin. Several cases of specific airway sensitization caused by xylanases or other hemicellulases are verified by a number of case reports and cross sectional studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  9. Allergy to cypress pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Lahoz, C; Pichot, C; Waisel, Y

    2005-03-01

    Although Cupressus sempervirens has been spread over southern Europe since antiquity, cypress pollen allergy has not been reported until 1945. In France, the very first case reports were published in 1962. Since then, the prevalence of cypress pollinosis seems to demonstrate an upward trend, concomitantly with the increased use of cypress trees as ornamental plants, as wind breaks and as hedges. Hyposensitization, using improved pollen extracts, is increasingly prescribed. Besides, prevention measures begin to be implemented. Such measures include avoidance of planting new cypress trees, especially near human populations' centres, trimming of cypress hedges before the pollination season and agronomical research for hypoallergenic trees. Altogether, such new developments in cypress allergy deserve an update review.

  10. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Are tree nut allergies diagnosed too ...

  11. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cookbooks and food allergy awareness materials, FARE's online store has a variety of resources to help you live well with food allergies. Start Shopping True Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina ...

  12. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  13. Food Allergies: The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic ...

  14. [Stress and allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  15. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  16. Probiotics and food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2013-07-29

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  17. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: towards combination vaccines for allergic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an antigen-specific and disease-modifying form of treatment. It is based on the therapeutic administration of the disease-causing allergens to allergic patients. However, the fact that only allergen extracts of insufficient quality are currently available and the possible occurrence of side effects during treatment limit the broad use of SIT and prophylactic vaccination is has not yet been performed. In the last 20 years the DNA sequences of the most common allergens have been isolated and the corresponding allergens have been produced as recombinant allergens. Based on the progress made in the field of allergen characterization it is possible to improve the quality and safety of allergy vaccines and to develop new, more effective strategies for a broad application of SIT and even for prophylactic treatment. Here we discuss the development of combination vaccines for allergy and infectious diseases. This approach is based on the selection of allergen-derived peptides with reduced IgE- and T cell reactivity in order to minimize IgE- and T cell-mediated side effects as well as the potential of the vaccine to induce allergic sensitization. These peptides are fused by recombinant technology onto a viral carrier protein to obtain a combination vaccine which induces protective immunity against allergy and viral infections. The application of such combination vaccines for therapy and prophylaxis of allergy and infectious diseases is discussed.

  18. Globalisation and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  19. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  20. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  1. Gastrointestinal Food Allergy in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Morita

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation.

  2. Occupational allergies caused by latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Debra D Fett; Sobczak, Steven C; Yunginger, John W

    2003-05-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important cause of occupational allergy in healthcare workers. Disposable medical gloves are the major reservoir of latex allergens, particularly powdered gloves, in healthcare delivery settings. Diagnosis of latex allergy requires a history of exacerbation of cutaneous, respiratory, ocular, or systemic signs and symptoms after exposure to natural rubber latex products; and evidence of sensitization by patch testing, skin testing, measurement of latex-specific IgE antibodies, or challenge testing. Optimal management of latex allergy involves education concerning cross-reacting allergens, reduction of cutaneous or mucosal contact with dipped rubber products, and minimization of exposure to latex aeroallergens in work environments.

  3. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Bernardini, Roberto; Peroni, Diego; Arasi, Stefania; Martelli, Alberto; Landi, Massimo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Muraro, Antonella; La Grutta, Stefania; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Comberiati, Pasquale; Duse, Marzia

    2017-01-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one century ago, and performed in the early years with allergenic extracts of poor quality and definition. After the mechanism of allergic reaction were recognized, the practice of AIT was refined, leading to remarkable improvement in the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. Currently AIT is accepted and routinely prescribed worldwide for respiratory allergies and hymenoptera venom allergy. Both the subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) routes of administration are used in the pediatric population.AIT is recommended in allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma, with an evidence of specific IgE-sensitization towards clinically relevant inhalant allergens. Long-term studies provided evidence that AIT can also prevent the onset of asthma and of new sensitizations. The favorable response to AIT is strictly linked to adherence to treatment, that lasts 3-5 years. Therefore, several factors should be carefully evaluated before starting this intervention, including the severity of symptoms, pharmacotherapy requirements and children and caregivers' preference and compliance.In recent years, there have been increasing interest in the role of AIT for the treatment of IgE-associated food allergy and extrinsic atopic dermatitis. A growing body of evidence shows that oral immunotherapy represents a promising treatment option for IgE-associated food allergy. On the contrary, there are still controversies on the effectiveness of AIT for patients with atopic dermatitis.This consensus document was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) to provide evidence-based recommendations on AIT in order to implement and optimize current prescription practices of this treatment for allergic children.

  4. Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goals of treating patients with cancer are to cure the disease, prolong survival, and improve quality of life. Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Therefore, stimulating immune reactions to tumors can be an attractive therapeutic and prevention strategy. CONTENT: During immune surveillance, the host provides defense against foreign antigens, while ensuring it limits activation against self antigens. By targeting surface antigens expressed on tumor cells, monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated efficacy as cancer therapeutics. Recent successful antibody-based strategies have focused on enhancing antitumor immune responses by targeting immune cells, irrespective of tumor antigens. The use of antibodies to block pathways inhibiting the endogenous immune response to cancer, known as checkpoint blockade therapy, has stirred up a great deal of excitement among scientists, physicians, and patients alike. Clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of antibodies that block the T cell inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 have reported success in treating subsets of patients. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT is a highly personalized cancer therapy that involve administration to the cancer-bearing host of immune cells with direct anticancer activity. In addition, the ability to genetically engineer lymphocytes to express conventional T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors has further extended the successful application of ACT for cancer treatment. SUMMARY: For cancer treatment, 2011 marked the beginning of a new era. The underlying basis of cancer immunotherapy is to activate a patient’s own T cells so that they can kill their tumors. Reports of amazing recoveries abound, where patients remain cancer-free many years after receiving the therapy. The idea of harnessing immune cells to fight cancer is

  5. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology: World Allergy Organization Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Kowalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing, deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided. However, adverse reactions can be minimized or even avoided if a physician is fully aware of potential risk and is prepared to appropriately handle the situation. Information on the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic diseases has been accumulated in the medical literature for decades; however, except for allergen specific immunotherapy, it has never been presented in a systematic fashion. Up to now no single document addressed the risk of the most commonly used medical procedures in the allergy office nor attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO, representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established

  6. Calcification prevention tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  7. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy: to mix or not to mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nony, Emmanuel; Martelet, Armelle; Jain, Karine; Moingeon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is established as a curative treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, as well as insect venom allergy. AIT is based on the administration of natural allergen extracts via the subcutaneous or sublingual routes to reorient the immune system towards tolerogenic mechanisms. In this regard, since many patients are poly-allergic, mixtures of allergen extracts are often used with a potential risk to cause allergen degradation, thereby affecting treatment efficacy. Herein, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of mixing homologous (i.e., related) or heterogeneous (i.e., unrelated) allergen extracts. We provide evidence for incompatibilities between mixes of grass pollen and house dust mite extracts containing bodies and feces, and summarize critical points to consider when mixing allergen extracts for AIT.

  8. Android tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Learn all you need to know about your Android tablet in one quick and easy reference! It's not a computer and it's not a smartphone-so what in the world is it? Whether you're new to Android or new to tablets altogether, you're about to experience mobile computing like never before with this fun, full-color guide! Inside, longtime and bestselling author Dan Gookin walks you through setting up your Android tablet, navigating the interface, browsing the web, setting up email, connecting to social media, finding plenty of apps, music, books, and movies to indulge your interests-and so much more.

  9. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  10. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  11. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  12. Immunotherapy for malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter M Suryadevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas (MG are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Most patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM, the most common and malignant glial tumor, die within 12-15 months. Moreover, conventional treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy, can be highly toxic by causing nonspecific damage to healthy brain and other tissues. The shortcomings of standard-of-care have thus created a stimulus for the development of novel therapies that can target central nervous system (CNS-based tumors specifically and efficiently, while minimizing off-target collateral damage to normal brain. Immunotherapy represents an investigational avenue with the promise of meeting this need, already having demonstrated its potential against B-cell malignancy and solid tumors in clinical trials. T-cell engineering with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is one proven approach that aims to redirect autologous patient T-cells to sites of tumor. This platform has evolved dramatically over the past two decades to include an improved construct design, and these modern CARs have only recently been translated into the clinic for brain tumors. We review here emerging immunotherapeutic platforms for the treatment of MG, focusing on the development and application of a CAR-based strategy against GBM.

  13. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0223 TITLE: Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy ...studies (2). A promising approach in cancer treatment is adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells to redirect...multiple tissues. DISCUSSION Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer , and observations from preclinical and

  14. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  15. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  16. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  17. Allergy to tartrazine in alprazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S

    1996-08-01

    Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.

  18. Grasp interaction with tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.

  19. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  20. Latex allergy: a health care problem of epidemic proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjay; Gawkrodger, David J

    2002-01-01

    Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns of the decade. The induction of latex allergy commonly occurs after exposure of skin or mucous membrane to natural rubber latex. It is usually a type I, immediate hypersensitivity reaction mediated by IgE which can range from mild skin erythema to anaphylaxis and death. To manage latex allergy appropriately, prompt and correct diagnosis is essential. This depends primarily on clinical history, latex specific IgE RAST (in vitro) and skin prick test (in vivo). It affects people who are frequently exposed to products made of natural rubber latex, such as, health care workers, workers in the rubber industry and those who have had multiple surgical operations. The prevalence in the general population was estimated at 0.7% in a population study in France, but this can be higher in health care workers (up to 17%) and in patients with spina bifida to almost 65%. Prevention strategies should therefore target at risk population, rather than the population as a whole. At present this primarily involves providing non-powdered latex gloves in hospitals and primary health care centres. However, once latex allergy has been established, the situation becomes more complicated. Health care workers either have to be moved to a latex free environment or in extreme circumstances may have to give up their occupation. For patients undergoing operations most hospitals have adopted a latex free protocol. It is important that this is understood and followed by every member of the staff. Those who have had serious adverse reactions should wear Medi-Alert bracelets and in exceptional circumstances may need to keep epinephrine injections on their person. Future strategies focus on the reduction of allergens during latex manufacture, development of suitable non latex gloves and immunotherapy including desensitisation of latex allergic individuals and development of candidate vaccine.

  1. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  2. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field.

  3. Immunotherapy of distant metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadendorf, D; Algarra, S M; Bastholt, L

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated with signif......Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated...... antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA-4) or CD137 are discussed. Recent advances of intratumour gene transfer technologies and adoptive immunotherapy, which represents a promising although technically challenging direction, are also discussed....

  4. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Adult-onset food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  6. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  7. Clinical contraindications to allergen immunotherapy: an EAACI position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsios, C; Demoly, P; Bilò, M B; Gerth van Wijk, R; Pfaar, O; Sturm, G J; Rodriguez del Rio, P; Tsoumani, M; Gawlik, R; Paraskevopoulos, G; Ruëff, F; Valovirta, E; Papadopoulos, N G; Calderón, M A

    2015-08-01

    Clinical indications for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in respiratory and Hymenoptera venom allergy are well established; however, clinical contraindications to AIT are not always well documented. There are some discrepancies when classifying clinical contraindications for different forms of AIT as 'absolute' or 'relative'. EAACI Task Force on 'Contraindications to AIT' was created to evaluate and review current literature on clinical contraindications, and to update recommendations for both sublingual and subcutaneous AIT for respiratory and venom immunotherapy. An extensive review of the literature was performed on the use of AIT in asthma, autoimmune disorders, malignant neoplasias, cardiovascular diseases, acquired immunodeficiencies and other chronic diseases (including mental disorders), in patients treated with β-blockers, ACE inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors, in children under 5 years of age, during pregnancy and in patients with poor compliance. Each topic was addressed by the following three questions: (1) Are there any negative effects of AIT on this concomitant condition/disease? (2) Are more frequent or more severe AIT-related side-effects expected? and (3) Is AIT expected to be less efficacious? The evidence, for the evaluation of these clinical conditions as contraindications, was limited, and most of the conclusions were based on case reports. Based on an extended literature research, recommendations for each medical condition assessed are provided. The final decision on the administration of AIT should be based on individual evaluation of any medical condition and a risk/benefit assessment for each patient.

  8. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  9. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  10. [Occupational allergies to bromelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2007-03-01

    The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed.

  11. Food allergies in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  12. Cancer immunotherapy using tumor cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Cryoablation is increasingly being used as a primary treatment for localized cancers and as a salvage therapy for metastatic cancers. Anecdotal clinical reports and animal experiments have confirmed an induction of systemic antitumor immune response by tumor cryoablation. To capitalize on the stimulatory effects of cryoablation for cancer immunotherapy, this response must be intensified using other immunomodulatory agents. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical evidence and discusses the mechanism of the antitumor immune response generated by cryoablation. The rationale and evidence behind several immunotherapy approaches that can be combined with cryoablation to devise a cryoimmunotherapeutic strategy with a potential to impact the progression of metastatic disease are described.

  13. 过敏哮喘鼻炎患者尘螨变应原皮下免疫治疗后不良反应234例分析及处理%Analysis of adverse reactions induced by subcutaneous immunotherapy against dust mite allergy in 234 cases with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孟荣; 王晓宁; 姜晗丹; 王琼艳; 李迎春; 林剑; 金可; 张海邻; 李昌崇

    2012-01-01

    续治疗SRs的再次发生.%Objective To investigate the incidence of local reactions (LRs) and systemic reactions (SRs) of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and to analyze the potential risk factors of such reactions in Chinese population.Method This is a retrospective study on 234 dust mite sensitized patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma who received allergen immunotherapy in our hospital from 2003 to 2010.Chart review was conducted to capture clinical data of reactions to immunotherapy.Parameters included signs and symptoms,the onset of reaction,and interventions in treating such reactions,particularly,the administration of epinephrine (EPI) and adjustment of vaccine dosage due to LRs and SRs.Result The 234 patients received a total of 7679 injections.Among them,4973 LRs (64.8%) and 235 SRs (3.1%) were observed in 67 patients (28.6% of all patients).SRs included respiratory symptoms (205 events,88.4%) and cutaneous symptoms (31.5%).Of the total of 235 SR events,212 (90.2%) were presented as mild SRs and 23 (9.8%) were in severe SR category (grade Ⅲ and grade Ⅳ,EAACI grading system).Overall,severe SRs accounted for 0.3% of total injections.Seventeen of the 23 SR events required epinephrine treatment (0.2% of total injections).Of the 67 patients,61 completed the course of treatment after dose adjustment ; 36 patients had their doses decreased prior to further advancing to target dose.Nineteen subjects tolerated splitting two injections at 30 minutes interval.Six patients advanced the dose based on protocol and another 6 had to stop immunotherapy.Most of the SRs (77.4%) occurred during the maintenance phase of immunotherapy.The levels of TIgE,SIgE D1 and SIgE D2 were found to be significantly higher in patients with SRs comparing to patients without SRs (P < 0.05).SRs more commonly occurred in patients with age less than 14 years than their older counterparts (95.5% vs.85.6%,OR =3.58,95% CI =1.040-12.322,P <0.01).The incidence of SRs were significantly higher in

  14. Stress and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  15. Hydrolyzed Proteins in Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides. One whey pHF has been shown to reduce atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants who are not exclusively breastfed. More studies are needed to determine the benefit of these formulas in the prevention of CM allergy (CMA) and in the general population. eHFs represent up to now the treatment of choice for most infants with CMA. However, new developments, such as an extensively hydrolyzed rice protein-based formula, could become alternative options if safety and nutritional and therapeutic efficacy are confirmed as this type of formula is less expensive. In some countries, an extensive soy hydrolysate is available.

  16. Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic asthma: Current evidence and needs to meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorvaia Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy is aimed at modifying the natural history of allergy by inducing tolerance to the causative allergen. In its traditional, subcutaneous form, immunotherapy has complete evidence of efficacy in allergic asthma. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT has a major flaw in side effects, and especially in possible anaphylactic reactions, and this prompted the search for safer ways of administration of allergen extracts. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has met such need while maintaining a clinical efficacy comparable to SCIT. In fact, the safety profile, as outlined by a systematic revision of the available literature, was substantially free from serious systemic reactions. A number of meta-analyses clearly showed that SLIT is effective in allergic rhinitis by significantly reducing the clinical symptoms and the use of anti-allergic drugs, while the efficacy in allergic asthma is still debated, with some meta-analyses showing clear effectiveness but other giving contrasting results. Besides the efficacy on symptoms, the preventive activity and the cost-effectiveness are important outcomes of SLIT in asthma. The needs to meet include more data on efficacy in house dust mite asthma, optimal techniques of administration and, as previously done with SCIT, introduction of adjuvants able to enhance the immunologic response and use of recombinant allergens.

  17. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  18. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  19. Analysis of Outpatient Cases in Center of Allergy and Immunotherapy, The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Comonand between 2001 and 2010%2001-2010年沈阳军区总医院变态反应门诊病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇薇; 林小平; 柴若楠; 仲欢欢; 吕智慧; 冯晓娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究沈阳地区2001-2010年变态反应门诊常见病种及发病特征,为当地过敏性疾病的防治提供科学依据.方法 应用本科信息数据库系统,对2001年-2010年本院变态反应门诊就诊的病例进行回顾性统计分析.结果 就诊病种占第一位的为哮喘(44492例,占43%),其次为鼻炎(28070例,占27%)、荨麻疹(12065例,占12%),其他常见病种有花粉症(4652例,占4.5%)、皮炎(3515例,占3.4%)、湿疹(3411例,占3.3%)、紫癜(1964例,占1.9%).引起过敏性疾病的主要过敏原依次为屋尘螨(77.8%)、粉尘螨(75.1%)、蒿草(40.5%)、豚草(22.3%)、狗毛(10.9%)、猫毛(8.5%)、树木(4.1%)、向日葵(3.2%)、葎草(1.95%).7-9月份是过敏性疾病的高发季节.结论 沈阳地区变态反应门诊最常见的病种为哮喘、鼻炎、荨麻疹.尘螨是引起过敏性疾病的主要过敏原,过敏性疾病的患病人数有明显的季节性波动特征.%Objective To investigate the spectrum and characteristics of common allergic diseases in clinic of allergy department in Shenyang, forming the scientific basis of management and prevention of allergic diseases in this area Methods The data of patients were retrospectively analyzed, who attended clinic of allergy department in our hospital since 2001 to 2010, based on the database of hospital information system. Results The most common allergic disease was allergic asthma ( 44 492 cases, 43 % ), followed by rhinitis ( 28 070 cases, 27% ) and urticaria (12 065 cases, 12% ), and the other common diseases were hay fever (4 652 cases, 4.5% ), dermatitis ( 3 515 cases, 3.4% ), eczema ( 3 411 cases, 3.3% ), purpura (l 964 cases, 1.9% ). The major allergens induced allergic diseases according to priority were Dermatophagoid.es pteronyssinus ( 77.8% ), Dermatophagoid.es farina ( 75. 1% ), mugwort pollen ( 40. 5% ), ragweed pollen ( 22. 3% ), dog hairs ( 10. 9% ), cat hairs ( 8. 5% ), tree pollens ( 4. 1% ), sunflower pollen ( 3. 2% ) and

  20. Immunotherapy and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    The Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy meeting of the Academy of Medical Sciences reviewed the state-of-the-art and translational prospects for therapeutic interventions aimed at killing tumor cells, correcting genetic defects and developing vaccines for chronic infections. Crucial basic science concepts and information about dendritic cells, the structure and function of T-cell receptors, and manipulation of the immune response by cytokine antagonists and peptides were presented. This information underpins vaccine design and delivery, as well as attempts to immunomodulate autoimmune disease. Results from studies using anticancer DNA vaccines, which include appropriate signals for both the innate and adaptive immune response, were presented in several talks. The vaccines incorporated helper epitopes and cancer target epitopes such as immunoglobulin idiotypes (for lymphomas and myelomas), melanoma-associated antigens (for melanoma and other solid tumors) and minor histocompatibility antigens (for leukemia). The results of using vaccines employing similar principles and designed to reduce viral load in HIV/AIDS patients were also presented. The introduction of suicide genes incorporating the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase gene (ntr) targeted at tumor cells prior to administration of the prodrug CB-1954, converted by ntr into a toxic alkylating agent, was discussed against the background of clinical trials and improved suicide gene design. The introduction into hematopoietic stem cells of missing genes for the common gamma-chain, deficiency of which causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), used similar retroviral transduction. The outcome of treating six SCID patients in the UK, and ten in France was successful immune reconstitution in the majority of patients, but in two of the French cases a complication of lymphoproliferative disease due to insertional mutagenesis was observed. The adoptive transfer of T-cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (for

  1. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  2. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. METHODS: HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified...

  3. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    CSF. J Clin Invest 117, 1902 (Jul, 2007). 32. H. Yamaguchi et al., Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Leukoc Biol 83, 1300 (May, 2008). ...comprehensive and systematic manner is the underlying principle of my goal to develop ’rational combination immunotherapy’ for breast cancer, one

  4. Engineering opportunities in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanbart, Laura; Swartz, Melody A

    2015-11-24

    Immunotherapy has great potential to treat cancer and prevent future relapse by activating the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. A variety of strategies are continuing to evolve in the laboratory and in the clinic, including therapeutic noncellular (vector-based or subunit) cancer vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint blockade. Despite their promise, much more research is needed to understand how and why certain cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy and to predict which therapeutic strategies, or combinations thereof, are most appropriate for each patient. Underlying these challenges are technological needs, including methods to rapidly and thoroughly characterize the immune microenvironment of tumors, predictive tools to screen potential therapies in patient-specific ways, and sensitive, information-rich assays that allow patient monitoring of immune responses, tumor regression, and tumor dissemination during and after therapy. The newly emerging field of immunoengineering is addressing some of these challenges, and there is ample opportunity for engineers to contribute their approaches and tools to further facilitate the clinical translation of immunotherapy. Here we highlight recent technological advances in the diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring of cancer in the context of immunotherapy, as well as ongoing challenges.

  5. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  6. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... the epidemiology of food allergy, assessing allergen thresholds and risk, specifics of gluten management and celiac disease, and much more. The practical advice on factory risk management, catering industry practices, allergen detection and measurement and regulatory controls is key for food industry professionals...

  7. Diagnosis and management of rhinitis: complete guidelines of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykewicz, M S; Fineman, S; Skoner, D P; Nicklas, R; Lee, R; Blessing-Moore, J; Li, J T; Bernstein, I L; Berger, W; Spector, S; Schuller, D

    1998-11-01

    This document contains complete guidelines for diagnosis and management of rhinitis developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the Joint Council on Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The guidelines are comprehensive and begin with statements on clinical characteristics and diagnosis of different forms of rhinitis (allergic, non-allergic, occupational rhinitis, hormonal rhinitis [pregnancy and hypothyroidism], drug-induced rhinitis, rhinitis from food ingestion), and other conditions that may be confused with rhinitis. Recommendations on patient evaluation discuss appropriate use of history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing, as well as unproven or inappropriate techniques that should not be used. Parameters on management include use of environmental control measures, pharmacologic therapy including recently introduced therapies and allergen immunotherapy. Because of the risks to patients and society from sedation and performance impairment caused by first generation antihistamines, second generation antihistamines that reduce or eliminate these side effects should usually be considered before first generation antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The document emphasizes the importance of rhinitis management for comorbid conditions (asthma, sinusitis, otitis media). Guidelines are also presented on special considerations in patients subsets (children, the elderly, pregnancy, athletes and patients with rhinitis medicamentosa); and when consultation with an allergist-immunologist should be considered.

  8. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  9. [Occupational allergies to phytase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2008-12-01

    Phytases are phosphatases that can break down the undigestible phytic acid (phytate). They are frequently used as an animal feed supplement - often in poultry and swine - to enhance the nutritive value of plant material by liberation of inorganic phosphate from phytate. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to phytases. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by phytases could be shown clearly by the presented studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific challenge tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  10. Immunology of metal allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metal allergens is a common health concern worldwide, greatly impacting affected individuals with regard to both quality of life and their ability to work. With an estimated 15-20 % of the Western population hypersensitive to at least one metal allergen, sensitization rates for metallic haptens by far outnumber those reported for other common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis such as fragrances and rubber. Unfortunately, the prevalence of metal-induced hypersensitivity remains high despite extensive legislative efforts to ban/reduce the content of allergy-causing metals in recreational and occupational products. Recently, much progress has been made regarding the perception mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses to this unique group of contact allergens. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of this enigmatic disease. Particular emphasis is put on the mechanisms of innate immune activation and T cell activation by common metal allergens such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, and chromate.

  11. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts, soy, and wheat. Cow's milk (or cow's milk protein). Between 2% and 3% of children younger than ... on the market are cow's milk-based. Cow's milk protein allergy means that someone has an abnormal immune ...

  12. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... food group . Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  13. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGY IN VIEW OF MOLECULAR ALLERGOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Korovkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Incidence of allergic diseases is increased over last years. House dust is considered a major risk factor of allergic sensitization which plays an important role in development of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis. Dust mites in the home comprise a large part of domestic allergens. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Blomia tropicalis are most important in this respect. Der p 1 and Der p 2 are regarded as major house dust mite allergens. Recent studies concerned induction of IgE responses against mite tropomyosin (Der p 10, an allergen occurring in mites which exhibits high cross-reactivity with tropomyosins from a variety of sea foods (e.g. shrimps, as well as human tropomyosins. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT represents the only causative approach to allergy treatment in such cases. From this viewpoint, a quantitation of specific IgЕ against major house dust mite allergens would be necessary to predict ASIT efficiency. Treatment by house dust mites allergen extracts is effective in management of allergic rhinitis and mild asthma. A component-resolved diagnostic (CRD with purified house-dust mites allergens allows to discriminate patients who were mostly sensitized to the major house dust mites allergens (e.g. Der p 10, tropomyosin. The component-resolved diagnostics could be performed before starting the allergen-specific immunotherapy by mite allergens, in order to avoid unresponsiveness to this mode of therapy.

  14. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  15. Anaphylaxis after hymenoptera sting: is it venom allergy, a clonal disorder, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Mariana C; Hornick, Jason L; Akin, Cem

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with loss of consciousness 5 minutes after being stung by a yellow jacket in his backyard. Epinephrine and fluids were required for resuscitation. Allergy evaluation revealed specific IgE to yellow jacket and honeybee, and the patient was started on venom immunotherapy. He had systemic reactions during buildup and a severe anaphylactic episode requiring 3 doses of intramuscular epinephrine at maintenance doses. Immunotherapy was discontinued. Serum tryptase level after 1 such episode was 29 ng/mL, with a baseline level of 25 ng/mL 4 weeks later. The physical examination was unremarkable including no skin lesions of cutaneous mastocytosis. Because of elevated baseline tryptase level, a bone marrow biopsy was performed, which revealed multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells. A diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was made. The patient was treated with omalizumab and was able to tolerate immunotherapy and is currently maintained on lifelong immunotherapy. He was restung in the field and has not had anaphylaxis.

  16. Experimental studies of tumor immunotherapy. II. Tumor immunotherapy following tumor extirpation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi,Shigeo

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to approach human cancer immunotherapy, the author carried out the immunotherapy with BCG on mice having homotransplanted cancer, observed the posttransplantation results with lapse of time, conduced daily macrophage inhibition test (MI test and found the immunotherapy to be effective. At the same time the MI test proved to be a useful criterion in determining the course of cancer progress and effectiveness of the immunotherapy.

  17. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  18. Is there a role for telemedicine in adult allergy services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M T; Knibb, R C; Huissoon, A P

    2016-05-01

    Telemedicine refers to the application of telecommunication and information technology (IT) in the delivery of health and clinical care at a distance or remotely and can be broadly considered in two modalities: store-and-forward and real-time interactive services. Preliminary studies have shown promising results in radiology, dermatology, intensive care, diabetes, rheumatology and primary care. However, the evidence is limited and hampered by small sample sizes, paucity of randomized control studies and lack of data relating to cost-effectiveness, health-related quality of life and patient and clinician satisfaction. This review appraises the evidence from studies that have employed telemedicine tools in other disciplines and makes suggestions for its potential applications in specific clinical scenarios in adult allergy services. Possible examples include: triaging patients to determine the need for allergy tests; pre-assessment for specialized treatments such as allergen immunotherapy, follow-up to assess treatment response and side effects; and education in self-management plan including training updates for self-injectable adrenaline and nasal spray use. This approach might improve access for those with limited mobility or living far away from regional centres, as well as bringing convenience and cost savings for the patient and service provider. These potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against evidence of service safety and quality. Keys to success include delineation of appropriate clinical scenarios, patient selection, training, IT support and robust information governance framework. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to evaluate its role.

  19. Recent advances in component resolved diagnosis in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borres, Magnus P; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-10-01

    Due to the high prevalence of food allergic diseases globally there are increasing demands in clinical practice for managing IgE-mediated conditions. During the last decade, component resolved diagnostics has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Component resolved data facilitate more precise diagnosis of allergic diseases and identify sensitizations attributable to cross-reactivity. Furthermore it assists risk assessment in clinical practice as sensitization to some allergenic molecules is related to persistence of clinical symptoms and systemic rather than local reactions. The information may also aid the clinician in prescription of oral immunotherapy (OIT) in patients with severe symptoms, and in giving advice on food allergen avoidance or on the need to perform food challenges. The use of allergen components is rapidly evolving and increases our possibility to treat food allergic patients with a more individual approach. Using molecular allergology, we can already now better diagnose, prognose and grade the food allergy. In summary, daily routine molecular allergy diagnostics offers a number of benefits that give us a higher diagnostic precision and allow for better management of the patient.

  20. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Heat shock proteins and immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinZHAO; XueMeiXU; GuoxingSONG

    2005-01-01

    Being one of the most abundant intracellular proteins,heat shock proteins(HSPs) have many housekeeping functions which are crucial for the survival of organisms.In addition,some HSPs are new immunoactive molecules which play important roles in both adaptive and innate immunity.They could activate CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes,induce innate immune response including natural killer(NK) cell activation and cytokine secretion,and induce maturation of dendritic cells(DCs).These characteristics have been used for immunotherapy of various types of cancers and infectious disenses.This review focuses on the main HSP families——HSP70 and 90 families.The mechanism of HSPs’ function in eliciting immune response are elucidated and various forms of HSPs used in immunotherapy are discussed in details.At the end of this review,authors summarize clinical trials related to HSPs and evaluate their clinical efficacy.

  2. Vitamin D and allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafvelin Guro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence has established that the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, possesses immunoregulatory properties. Vitamin D exerts its effects through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR, which is expressed by cells of the immune system. Most of the immunological effects mediated by vitamin D-VDR are regulatory, inhibiting adaptive immune responses. It has become apparent that the incidence of vitamin D insufficiency is surprisingly high in the general population. A link between low vitamin D serum levels and the increased prevalence of allergic diseases has been proposed. This possible connection has been investigated in numerous studies on associations between vitamin D serum concentrations and different allergic conditions, as well as studies on the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Although there is some evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in asthma, no consensus on the role of vitamin D in allergic disease has yet been reached. Still, treatment strategies involving vitamin D supplementation to risk groups, combinatorial corticosteroid and vitamin D treatment in asthma and vitamin D as an immunomodulator in allergen specific immunotherapy show promise for the future.

  3. The Nebusarsekim Tablet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, H.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2007 an internet hype was unleashed by the breaking news that an Old Testament name of some importance, figuring in the Book of Jeremiah Ch. 39, had been positively identified on a cuneiform clay tablet, viz. a bill of receipt from the time of this prophet's floruit. Many a scho

  4. Melanoma immunotherapy: dendritic cell vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Laboratorios de Inmunología #108, Laboratorio de investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencieas y Filosofía, Universidad Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú Empresa de Investigación y Desarrollo en Cáncer (EMINDES) SAC. Lima, Perú.; Núñez, César; Empresa de Investigación y Desarrollo en Cáncer (EMINDES) SAC. Lima, Perú.; Aguilar, José Luis; Laboratorios de Inmunología #108, Laboratorio de investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencieas y Filosofía, Universidad Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    This is a narrative review that shows accessible information to the scientific community about melanoma and immunotherapy.Dendritic cells have the ability to participate in innate and adaptive immunity, but are not unfamiliar to the immune evasion oftumors. Knowing the biology and role has led to generate in vitro several prospects of autologous cell vaccines against diversetypes of cancer in humans and animal models. However, given the low efficiency they have shown, we must implementstrateg...

  5. Advances in personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Karasaki, Takahiro; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Sugie, Tomoharu

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three major approaches to T cell-based cancer immunotherapy, namely, active vaccination, adoptive cell transfer therapy and immune checkpoint blockade. Recently, this latter approach has demonstrated remarkable clinical benefits, putting cancer immunotherapy under the spotlight. Better understanding of the dynamics of anti-tumor immune responses (the "Cancer-Immunity Cycle") is crucial for the further development of this form of treatment. Tumors employ multiple strategies to escape from anti-tumor immunity, some of which result from the selection of cancer cells with immunosuppressive activity by the process of cancer immunoediting. Apart from this selective process, anti-tumor immune responses can also be inhibited in multiple different ways which vary from patient to patient. This implies that cancer immunotherapy must be personalized to (1) identify the rate-limiting steps in any given patient, (2) identify and combine strategies to overcome these hurdles, and (3) proceed with the next round of the "Cancer-Immunity Cycle". Cancer cells have genetic alterations which can provide the immune system with targets by which to recognize and eradicate the tumor. Mutated proteins expressed exclusively in cancer cells and recognizable by the immune system are known as neoantigens. The development of next-generation sequencing technology has made it possible to determine the genetic landscape of human cancer and facilitated the utilization of genomic information to identify such candidate neoantigens in individual cancers. Future immunotherapies will need to be personalized in terms of the identification of both patient-specific immunosuppressive mechanisms and target neoantigens.

  6. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along......Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...

  7. [Allergy to cypress pollen: preparation of a reference and standardization extract in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, V; Charpin, D; Aparicio, C; Veber, C; Guérin, L

    2000-03-01

    Development of Cypress allergy frequency led to the standardization of commercial cypress extract used for diagnosis and immunotherapy. Previous in vitro studies on two cypress pollen species (Cupressus sempervirens and Cupressus arizonica) allowed us to produce an allergenic solution composed by a mixture of both extracts for in vivo standardization. Dilutions of this allergenic solution were tested by prick-test on 44 patients with clinical allergy to cypress pollen to define the dilution that corresponds to a 6 mm wheal conformed to the definition of 100 IR. The mixture of the two major species found in France is justified by the in vitro study results. Extracts revealed complementary allergenic composition: Cup sempervirens showed a wider diversity of allergens whereas Cup arizonica showed a higher content of the major 43 kDa allergen. Thus, according to in vivo analysis, we are able to produce a standardized extract of Cypress pollen expressed in IR.

  8. [Current Approaches in Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otáhal, P; Trněný, M

    2015-01-01

    Methods of cancer immunotherapy have finally entered clinical medicine after years of preclinical research. Currently, there are several methods, which have proven to be very effective even in cases of incurable cancer. Antitumor monoclonal antibodies are among major therapeutic anti-cancer drugs and have been successfully used for many ears. Novel group of antibodies are immunomodulatory antibodies which can break tumor -specific immune tolerance and induce regression of tumors by nonspecific activation of immune system. Bispecific antibodies represent a novel class of anticancer agents which can induce expansion of T cells in vivo, blinatumomab is an example of such agents and is currently available for the treatment of acute B -cell leukemia. Cellular immunotherapy is also very effective, especially the use of Chimeric receptor modified T-cells for the therapy of B- cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Although it is a very complicated and expensive method, it is highly effective approach which can induce remission even in previously hopeless conditions. The goal of this article is to explain the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy and summarize the newest findings in this field.

  9. Food allergies: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.

  10. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  11. Immunological parameters in the sera of patients with atopic dermatitis and airborne allergy treated with allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Patients with atopic disorders present an increased production of IgE, which is usually limited to specific antibodies against various environmental allergens. It has also been suggested that the production of these antibodies may be influenced by effective specific immunotherapy (SIT). Of course, a decline of serum antigen specific IgE in the course of such a treatment cannot explain the clinical efficacy of SIT and is probably not a key mechanism. However, SIT may at least participate in the final clinical result. In this study, 37 patients with atopic dermatitis were treated with allergy vaccines (Novo-Helisen Depot) for a time period of 48 months. The control group consisted of 29 patients with atopic dermatitis who were treated with classical methods. The clinical score (W-AZS), total IgE and antigen specific IgE (asIgE) in the sera of patients were assessed before treatment and after 24 and 48 months of therapy (FEIA CAP System, Pharmacia). There was a significant difference between the two investigated groups from both the clinical and immunological standpoints after 2 and 4 years of observation. There was a significant decrease of serum total IgE and asIgE (directed against airborne allergens) in the course of specific immunotherapy. In the control group, the total IgE level tended to increase, and this tendency was also recorded in case of asIgE measurements. We also evaluated the influence of specific immunotherapy on the serum level of IFN-G, sIL-2R, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 before treatment and after 4 years of therapy with the quantitative 2-step colorimetric sandwich ELISA method (R and D Systems). In the group of patients treated with allergy vaccines, a significant decrease of the serum sIL-2R level was observed after 48 months of therapy (p<0.01). In the control group, a significant increase of serum IL-4 (p<0.01) as well as IL-5 (p<0.05) was registered at the end of the observation period. There was no significant correlation between the clinical

  12. FOOD ALLERGY AND ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME. Part I. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy and intolerance are wide spread nowadays. However, the problem existed and was registered and described still by the ancients. It was fully understood and scientifically depicted in the 20th century after IgE and anaphylaxis were discovered, new diagnostic tests were initiated and the term “allergy” was introduced. There are some interesting aspects of the problem. Epidemiology is the first one – in the last two decades the number of people suffering from food allergy increased significantly and reached 4% of the population. Food allergy covers all ages, both sexes; atopic people and these with other allergic or digestive diseases are in the risk group also. There is certain influence of the eating habits as well. Etiology is rich and varied. It includes all foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, spices, honey, medicinal products - milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, etc. Pathogenesis is complex.

  13. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  14. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  15. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  16. Allergen-specific immunotherapy provides immediate, long-term and preventive clinical effects in children and adults: the effects of immunotherapy can be categorised by level of benefit -the centenary of allergen specific subcutaneous immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Lars

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (SIT for respiratory allergic diseases is able to significantly improve symptoms as well as reduce the need for symptomatic medication, but SIT also has the capacity for long-term clinical effects and plays a protective role against the development of further allergies and symptoms. The treatment acts on basic immunological mechanisms, and has the potential to change the pathological allergic immune response. In this paper we discuss some of the most important achievements in the documentation of the benefits of immunotherapy, over the last 2 decades, which have marked a period of extensive research on the clinical effects and immunological background of the mechanisms involved. The outcome of immunotherapy is described as different levels of benefit from early reduction in symptoms over progressive clinical effects during treatment to long-term effects after discontinuation of the treatment and prevention of asthma. The efficacy of SIT increases the longer it is continued and immunological changes lead to potential long-term benefits. SIT alone and not the symptomatic treatment nor other avoidance measures has so far been documented as the therapy with long-term or preventive potential. The allergic condition is driven by a subset of T-helper lymphocytes (Th2, which are characterised by the production of cytokines like IL-4, and IL-5. Immunological changes following SIT lead to potential curative effects. One mechanism whereby immunotherapy suppresses the allergic response is through increased production of IgG4 antibodies. Induction of specific IgG4 is able to influence the allergic response in different ways and is related to immunological effector mechanisms, also responsible for the reduced late phase hyperreactivity and ongoing allergic inflammation. SIT is the only treatment which interferes with the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the allergic disease, thereby creating the potential for

  17. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio

  18. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  19. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  20. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T;

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  1. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L;

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  2. The diagnosis of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. METHODS: Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven...... databases were searched and international experts were contacted. Two reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and used QUADAS-2 to assess risk of bias. Where possible, meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Twenty-four (2831 participants) studies were included. For cows' milk allergy...... is limited and weak and is therefore difficult to interpret. Overall, SPT and sIgE appear sensitive although not specific for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergy....

  3. Tableting and tablet properties of alginates: characterisation and potential for Soft Tableting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of alginates for Soft Tableting. For this purpose the compaction properties of alginates, varying in molecular weight, guluronic acid/mannuronic acid ratio and salt, were investigated and compared to MCC. Based on the mechanical properties, the suitability of the tested excipients for Soft Tableting was predicted. In order to test the prediction the tested materials were used to tablet enteric coated pellets, which served as a pressure sensitive material. The tableting behaviour was analysed by the 3-D modeling technique. The tablet properties were analysed by determining the elastic recovery and the compactibility. Alginates in general deformed elastically. The compression behaviour depended on the chemical composition of the alginates with sodium alginates being more elastic than potassium alginates. Tablets containing alginates with low guluronic acid content exhibited higher elasticity than tablets with alginates having a low mannuronic acid content. The plasticity of potassium alginates was higher than for sodium alginates. However, the plasticity of all tested alginates was lower than the plasticity of MCC. The compactibility of the tested alginates was sufficient. The proposed prediction, which states that tableting excipients with higher elasticity are more suitable for tableting sensitive materials than plastic excipients, was valid for the tested materials. The elastic alginates inflicted less damage on the pellets than the plastic MCC. Thus, all alginates were more appropriate for tableting pressure sensitive materials than MCC.

  4. Polymeric particulate systems for immunotherapy of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been established as a groundbreaking approach to treat cancer. It involves modulation of the host’s immune response to fight cancer. This is achieved by either enhancing tumor-specific T cell responses or inhibition of the tumor-induced immune suppression. Immunotherapy, however fa

  5. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  6. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....

  7. Olaparib tablet formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plummer, Ruth; Swaisland, Helen; Leunen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The oral PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown efficacy in patients with BRCA-mutated cancer. This Phase I, open-label, three-part study (Parts A-C) in patients with advanced solid tumours evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of olaparib when administered in tablet...... in the presence of food (t max delayed by 2.5 h), resulting in a statistically significant ~21 % decrease in peak plasma exposure (C max) [ratio of geometric means (90 % CI), 0.79 (0.72, 0.86)] but only a marginal increase in olaparib absorption (AUC0-∞) [ratio of geometric means (90 % CI), 1.08 (1.01, 1...... exposure to olaparib 300 mg tablets, although in the absence of an effect on the extent of olaparib absorption....

  8. Allergenic Characterization of New Mutant Forms of Pru p 3 as New Immunotherapy Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gómez-Casado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3.01, Pru p 3.02, and Pru p 3.03. Pru p 3.01 showed very similar allergenic activity as the wild type by in vitro assays. However, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 presented reduced IgE binding with respect to the native form, by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. In addition, Pru p 3.03 had affected the IgG4 binding capacity and presented a random circular dichroism, which was reflected in the nonrecognition by specific antibodies anti-Pru p 3. Nevertheless, both Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 maintained the binding to IgG1 and their ability to activate T lymphocytes. Thus, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 could be good candidates for potential immunotherapy in peach-allergic patients.

  9. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    . Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  10. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  11. Tablets i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2012-01-01

    Denne rapport afslutter CELMS undersøgelse af Odder Kommunes projekt med indførelse af iPads på alle kommunens skoler. Undersøgelsen har til formål at belyse om der er pædagogiske og læringsmæssige fordele forbundet med brugen af tablets i undervisningen i grundskolen og i givet fald hvilke...

  12. Ranking in importance of allergen extract characteristics for sublingual immunotherapy by Italian specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Cadario, Gianni; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossi, Oliviero; Romano, Antonino; Scala, Enrico; Romano, Catello; Ingrassia, Antonino; Zambito, Marcello; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Frati, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is well supported by evidence from trials and meta-analyses. However, its actual performance in daily practice may be diminished by several pitfalls, including inappropriate patient selection, and, especially, the use of allergen extracts of insufficient quality. We performed a survey, the Allergen Immunotherapy Decision Analysis, to evaluate which criteria specialists use to choose products for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in adult patients suffering from allergic respiratory disease. We surveyed a total of 169 Italian allergists randomly chosen from a database belonging to a market research company (Lexis Ricerche, Milan, Italy). The survey was performed between October and November 2012 under the aegis of the European Center for Allergy Research Foundation and consisted of a questionnaire-based electronic survey prepared by a scientific board of 12 AIT experts. The questionnaire comprised two parts, the first of which contained 14 items to be ranked by each participant according to the importance assigned to each when choosing SLIT products. The physicians' rankings assigned major importance to the level of evidence-based validation of efficacy and safety, standardization of the product, efficacy based on personal experience, and defined content(s) of the major allergen(s) in micrograms. The results of this survey show that Italian allergists rank the quality-related characteristics of allergen extracts as highly important when choosing products for AIT. The allergists' preference for high-quality products should be addressed by regulatory agencies and by producers.

  13. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  14. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  15. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...

  16. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  17. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it until you check with your doctor. Although gluten intolerance is different from a food allergy, it can cause serious health problems in people who have celiac disease, a chronic digestive disorder. Gluten is a protein that occurs in grains such ...

  18. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nickel is widely used in coins; nickel may cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in those who handle them. Objectives. To investigate alloy use, coin composition and nickel and cobalt release for a worldwide selection of currently circulating coins. Materials and methods...

  19. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dano, D.; Remington, B.C.; Astier, C.; Baumert, J.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Bihain, B.E.; Taylor, S.L.; Kanny, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge metho

  20. Dutch guideline on food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, M. S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy is established in cases where an immediate allergic reaction has occurred in the last year to a clearly identifiable allergenic food combined with sensitisation to this allergenic food. In all other cases, a food challenge test is required to establish or reject the dia

  1. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  2. Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Shamir; Bilodeau, Marc; Vincent, Catherine; Lapierre, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent. Lifelong immunosuppression is not without risks, especially in the pediatric population; 4% of patient with type 1 AIH will eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma with a 2.9% probability after 10 years of treatment. Therefore, future treatments should aim to restore tolerance to hepatic autoantigens and induce long-term remission. Promising new immunotherapies have been tested in experimental models of AIH including T and B cell depletion and regulatory CD4(+) T cells infusion. Clinical studies on limited numbers of patients have also shown encouraging results using B-cell-depleting (rituximab) and anti-TNF-α (infliximab) antibodies. A better understanding of key molecular targets in AIH combined with effective site-specific immunotherapies could lead to long-term remission without blanket immunosuppression and with minimal deleterious side effects.

  3. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

      Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Shamir; Bilodeau, Marc; Vincent, Catherine; Lapierre, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent. Lifelong immunosuppression is not without risks, especially in the pediatric population; 4% of patient with type 1 AIH will eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma with a 2.9% probability after 10 years of treatment. Therefore, future treatments should aim to restore tolerance to hepatic autoantigens and induce long-term remission. Promising new immunotherapies have been tested in experimental models of AIH including T and B cell depletion and regulatory CD4+ T cells infusion. Clinical studies on limited numbers of patients have also shown encouraging results using B-cell-depleting (rituximab) and anti-TNF-α (infliximab) antibodies. A better understanding of key molecular targets in AIH combined with effective site-specific immunotherapies could lead to long-term remission without blanket immunosuppression and with minimal deleterious side effects. PMID:28184367

  5. Novel Approaches to Pediatric Cancer: Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal A. Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the early 20th century, immunotherapy has been studied as a treatment modality for cancers, including in children. Since then, developments in monoclonal antibodies and vaccine therapies have helped to usher in a new era of cancer immunotherapeutics. However, efficacy of these types of therapies has been limited, mostly in part due to low tumor immunogenicity, cancer escape pathways, and toxicities. As researchers investigate the cellular and molecular components of immunotherapies, mechanisms to improve tumor specificity and overcome immune escape have been identified. The goal of immunotherapy now has been to modulate tumor escape pathways while amplifying the immune response by combining innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Although several limiting factors have been identified, these recent advances in immunotherapy remain at the forefront of pediatric oncologic therapeutic trials. Immunotherapy is now coming to the forefront of precision treatment for a variety of cancers, with evidence that agents targeting immunosuppressive mechanisms for cancer progression can be effective therapy [1-3]. In this review, we review various types of immunotherapy, including the cellular biology, limitations, recent novel therapeutics, and the application of immunotherapy to pediatric oncology.

  6. From "magic bullets" to specific cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riether, Carsten; Schürch, Christian; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

    2013-01-23

    The immune system is able to specifically target antigen-expressing cancer cells. The promise of immunotherapy was to eliminate cancer cells without harming normal tissue and, therefore, with no or very few side effects. Immunotherapy approaches have, for several decades, been tested against several tumours, most often against malignant melanoma. However, although detectable immune responses have regularly been induced, the clinical outcome has often been disappointing. The development of molecular methods and an improved understanding of tumour immunosurveillance led to novel immunotherapy approaches in the last few years. First randomised phase III trials proved that immunotherapy can prolong survival of patients with metastatic melanoma or prostate cancer. The development in the field is very rapid and various molecules (mainly monoclonal antibodies) that activate the immune system are currently being tested in clinical trials and will possibly change our treatment of cancer. The ultimate goal of any cancer therapy and also immunotherapy is to cure cancer. However, this depends on the elimination of the disease originating cancer stem cells. Unfortunately, cancer stem cells seem resistant to most available treatment options. Recent developments in immunotherapy may allow targeting these cancer stem cells specifically in the future. In this review, we summarise the current state of immunotherapy in clinical routine and the expected developments in the near future.

  7. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…

  8. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  9. Lung-derived innate cytokines: new epigenetic targets of allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Pishdadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy is a safe and effective method for treatment of IgE-mediated respiratory allergies; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study was planned to test whether sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT can exert epigenetic mechanisms through which the airway allergic responses can be extinguished. Materials and Methods:BALB/c mice were sensitized intraperitoneally and challenged intranasally. Then, they received sublingual treatment with recombinant Che a 2 (rChe a 2, a major allergen of Chenopodium album. After SLIT, allergen-specific antibodies in sera, cytokine profiles of spleen cell cultures, mRNA and protein expression of lung-derived IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and histone modifications of these three genes were assessed. Results:Following Immunotherapy, systemic immune responses shifted from Th2 to Th1 profile as demonstrated by significant decrease in IgE and IL-4 and substantial increase in IgG2a and IFN-γ. At local site, mRNA and protein levels of lung-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-33 and TSLP were markedly down-regulated following SLIT that was associated with marked enrichment of trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 at promoter regions of these two cytokines. Conclusion:In our study, sublingual immunotherapy with recombinant allergen effectively attenuated allergic immune responses, at least partly, by induction of distinct histone modifications at specific loci. Additionally, the lung-derived pro-allergic cytokines IL-33 and TSLP could be promising mucosal candidates for either monitoring allergic conditions or therapeutic approaches.

  10. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  11. Interleukin-33 in tumorigenesis, tumor immune evasion, and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Binfeng; Yang, Min; Wang, Qingqing

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 gene family and mainly expressed in the nucleus of tissue lining cells, stromal cells, and activated myeloid cells. IL-33 is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings such as tissue repair, allergy, autoimmune disease, infectious disease, and cancer. The biological functions of IL-33 include maintaining tissue homeostasis, enhancing type 1 and 2 cellular immune responses, and mediating fibrosis during chronic inflammation. IL-33 exerts diverse functions through signaling via its receptor ST2, which is expressed in many types of cells including regulatory T cells (Treg), group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), myeloid cells, cytotoxic NK cells, Th2 cells, Th1 cells, and CD8(+) T cells. Tumor development results in downregulation of IL-33 in epithelial cells but upregulation of IL-33 in the tumor stroma and serum. The current data suggest that IL-33 expression in tumor cells increases immunogenicity and promotes type 1 antitumor immune responses through CD8(+) T cells and NK cells, whereas IL-33 in tumor stroma and serum facilitates immune suppression via Treg and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC). Understanding the role of IL-33 in cancer immunobiology sheds lights on targeting this cytokine for cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Seed-based oral vaccines as allergen-specific immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-based vaccines have advantages over conventional vaccines in terms of scalability, lack of requirement for cold chain logistics, stability, safety, cost-effectiveness and needle-free administration. In particular, when antigen is expressed in seeds, high production is possible and immunogenicity is not lost even if stocked at ambient temperature for several years. Induction of immune tolerance (desensitization) to allergen is a principle strategy for controlling allergic diseases, and is generally carried out by subcutaneous injection. Seed-based oral administration offers a straightforward and inexpensive alternative approach to deliver vaccines effectively to the GALT without loss of activity. Consumption of transgenic seeds containing modified hypo-allergenic tolerogen or T-cell epitope peptides derived from allergens has no or very few severe side effects and can induce immune tolerance leading to reduction of allergen-specific IgE production, T-cell proliferation and release of histamine. Suppression of allergen-specific clinical symptoms results. Thus, seed-based allergy vaccines offer an innovative and convenient allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approach as an alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  13. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of immune response to cancer have been studied extensively and great effort has been invested into harnessing the therapeutic potential of the immune system. Immunotherapies have seen significant advances in the past 20 years, but the full potential of protective and therapeutic...... cancer immunotherapies has yet to be fulfilled. The insufficient efficacy of existing treatments can be attributed to a number of biological and technical issues. In this review, we detail the current limitations of immunotherapy target selection and design, and review computational methods to streamline...

  14. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  15. Bioequivalency of ranitidine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaysi, H N; Salem, M A; Gharaibeh, A M; el-Sayed, Y M; Ali-Gharaibeh, K I; Badwan, A A

    1989-04-01

    The bioavailability of two brands of ranitidine tablets was studied in 10 healthy volunteers. Formulation factors were compared by performing disintegration, dissolution and content uniformity tests. Plasma concentrations of ranitidine were measured using a sensitive and precise high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both formulations and included: Cmax, AUCt, AUC infinity, tmax, t1/2 and the terminal rate of elimination (k). Statistical analysis revealed that differences between the brands were not significant. The two formulations can be considered to be bioequivalent.

  16. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care.

  17. The impact of food allergy on asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kewalramani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anupama Kewalramani, Mary E BollingerDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy/Pulmonology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.Keywords: food allergy, diagnosis, treatment, asthma

  18. Adverse Events During Immunotherapy Against Grass Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis - Differences Between Subcutaneous and Sublingual Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass pollen is a common disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment consists of symptom-alleviating drugs, such as topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Another option is potentially curative immunotherapy, currently available as sublingual and subcutaneous treatment. We investigated the potential differences in the prevalence and severity of adverse events related to subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen-induced AR. A thorough literature search was performed with PubMed and EMBASE. The findings were compared with the available summaries of product characteristics (SPC) and with commercial pharmacology databases (Micromedex). The majority of available safety data originate from registered products of standardized allergens. A surprisingly large percentage of drugs, especially those used in the United States, have no systematically collected safety data. No sufficiently powered randomized trials comparing sublingual and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) were available, but general safety assessments indicate that sublingual tablet treatment is safer than subcutaneous treatment. Not all commonly used immunotherapy drugs are officially registered, and not all have systematically collected safety data. This is especially true for older drugs used in the United States. In contrast, newer drugs that have undergone extensive clinical testing have better documentation, but unified collection of safety data is still lacking. Considering the evidence available, most drugs elicit similar side effects from the same organ systems, and symptoms from the sublingual drug classes are probably less severe. However, a head-to-head comparison of safety and efficacy is lacking.

  19. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  20. Innovation in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, H Barton; Lamm, Donald L; Kamat, Ashish M; Keefe, Stephen; Taylor, John A; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer is understudied despite its high prevalence and its remarkable response to immunotherapy. Indeed, funding for studies to explore mechanisms of tumor immunity and novel new therapeutics is disproportionately lower for bladder cancer in comparison with malignancies of the breast, prostate, or lung. However, the recent successes of checkpoint blockade therapy suggest that new therapeutic strategies are on the horizon for bladder cancer. Here, we give a perspective into the evolution of bladder cancer therapy, focusing on strategies to treat high-risk nonmuscle invasive disease, followed by a discussion of recent advances in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and their potential applicability to lower stage disease. Finally, we explore immunotherapeutic strategies, which have been demonstrated to be successful in the treatment of other malignancies, for their potential to treat and cure patients with nonmuscle and muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  1. Targeting neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-07-01

    Studies first carried out in the 1980s have demonstrated murine T cells can recognize mutated gene products, known as neoantigens, and that these T cells are capable of mediating tumor rejection. The first human tumor antigens isolated in the early 1990s were the products of non-mutated genes expressed in a tissue-specific manner; subsequent studies have indicated that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes that are cultured in vitro frequently recognize mutated gene products. In addition, correlative studies indicate that clinical responses to therapies involving the use of antibodies directed against checkpoint inhibitors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 may be associated with mutational burden, providing indirect evidence that these responses may primarily be mediated by neoantigen-reactive T cells. The importance of neoantigen-reactive T cells may be elucidated by the results of ongoing and future studies aimed at leveraging information gained from mutational profiling to enhance the potency of immunotherapies.

  2. IMUNODIAGNOSTIC AND IMMUNOTHERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Infantile autism is one of the most disabling illnesses of neurological, emotional and intellectual development. The cause of autism remains unknown. However, recent investigations suggest that this disorder shares several features of established autoimmune disorders.The aim of this article is to describe the news of imunodiagnostic and immunotherapy in autism. Interpretation of data is made by conceptual and methodological differences between studies. The autoimmune response is most likely directed against the brain myelin, perhaps secondary to a viral infection. The idea that autism is an autoimmune disorder is further strengthened by the fact that autistic patients respond well to treatment with immune modulating drugs. Immune interventions can produce immune modulation-state of suppression or stimulation. Immune therapy should always be done in consultation with physicians.

  3. New Horizons in Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    of active SLITcomparedwith placebo,with hazard ratios of0.69 (95%CI,0.49-0.96) for the 6 SQ-HDM group and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.47 -0.93) for the 12 SQHDM group. The absolute risk for first exacerbation was 26% (n = 62) for the 6 SQ-HDM group, 24% (n = 59) for the 12 SQHDM group, and 32% (n = 83) for the placebo...... is this outcome.Canthese results truly benefit similar patients encountered in clinical practice? Addressing these questions requires consideration ofnotjust theprimaryendpointbut alsothesecondaryoutcomesandpotentialstudylimitations.With regardtosecondaryoutcomes,thereweresignificantdifferences favoring...... treatmentwith ICS. The authors’ choice of a primary end point based on exacerbations during ICS reduction is also unique to immunotherapy trials,with previous trials ofHDMimmunotherapy focusing onmedication requirements, symptomsscores, or lung function as primary end points. Furthermore, the inclusion...

  4. Local Nasal Specific Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passalacqua Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The possibility of producing local hyposensitization by administering allergens via mucosal routes was envisaged at the beginning of 1900, and local nasal immunotherapy has been extensively studied since the 1970s. Presently, there are 21 randomized controlled trials being conducted with the most common allergens, consistently showing the clinical efficacy of local nasal immunotherapy for rhinitis. Other advantages are that it has an optimal safety profile and can be self-administered at home by the patient. Moreover, there are several data from animal models and from humans that confirm the immunomodulatory effect of intranasally administered antigens. On the other hand, local nasal immunotherapy seems to be effective only on rhinitis symptoms and requires a particular technique of administration. For these reasons, its clinical use is progressively declining in favour of the sublingual route although nasal immunotherapy is validated in official documents and remains a viable alternative to injection.

  5. New visions in specific immunotherapy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Lau, Susanne; Valovirta, Erkka

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy is indicated for confirmed immunoglobulin E-mediated airway diseases using standardized allergen products with documented clinical efficacy and safety. For decades the subcutaneous route of administration (SCIT) has been the gold standard. Recently, the sublingual...

  6. New types of immunotherapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Noel; Penagos, Martin; Portnoy, Jay M

    2008-11-01

    Injection immunotherapy has been shown to be particularly beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis, mild to moderate asthma, and anaphylaxis caused by bee and wasp venom. It also produces a long-term, antigen-specific, protective immune effect and is the only treatment that offers the possibility of reducing the risk of asthma development in children with allergic rhinitis. Nonetheless, the potentially severe side effects associated with this form of immunotherapy limit its widespread use. Diverse preparations are being developed to increase its safety and improve its efficacy. These include alternative routes of administration, particularly the sublingual route; use of novel adjuvants, such as CpG oligonucleotides and mycobacterial vaccines; and other approaches, such as peptide immunotherapy, recombinant allergens, DNA vaccination, and combined therapy. Some of these immunotherapy forms have been evaluated in children.

  7. Who Will Benefit from Cancer Immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a “genetic signature” in the tumors of patients with advanced melanoma who responded to a form of immunotherapy called checkpoint blockade. The results could be the basis for a test that identifies likely responders.

  8. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  9. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  10. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  11. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    to compare the estimates of soy and wheat allergy between the age groups. Allergy to most foods, except soy and peanut, appeared to be more common in Northern Europe. In summary, the lifetime self-reported prevalence of allergy to common foods in Europe ranged from 0.1 to 6.0%. The heterogeneity between......Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published...... synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence...

  12. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to wheat can present clinically in different forms: Sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may...... lead to occupational rhinitis and/or asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of 156 patients (age 0.7 - 73.3 years) with a case history of wheat allergy. The population was divided into three groups, 1: Wheat allergy elicited by ingestion, 2: By inhalation and 3: WDEIA. All patients......). All children had atopic dermatitis, and most (13/15) outgrew their wheat allergy. Most children (13/15) had other food allergies. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels of sIgE to wheat and significantly more were SPT positive than challenge negative. Group 2: Eleven out of 13...

  13. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building...... on previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists......, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management...

  14. MAGE-A Antigens and Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Paul; Schultz-Thater, Elke; Tornillo, Luigi; Sadowski, Charlotte; Trella, Emanuele; Mengus, Chantal; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Spagnoli, Giulio C.

    2017-01-01

    MAGE-A antigens are expressed in a variety of cancers of diverse histological origin and germinal cells. Due to their relatively high tumor specificity, they represent attractive targets for active specific and adoptive cancer immunotherapies. Here, we (i) review past and ongoing clinical studies targeting these antigens, (ii) analyze advantages and disadvantages of different therapeutic approaches, and (iii) discuss possible improvements in MAGE-A-specific immunotherapies. PMID:28337438

  15. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  16. Titanium allergy: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium.

  17. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  18. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S. D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mouth dissolving Tablets disintegrate and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva extremely fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Mouth or Fast dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients and in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms because of hand tremors and dysphagia. The technologies used for manufacturing fast-dissolving tablets are freeze-drying, spray-drying, molding, sublimation, sugar-based excipients, compression, and disintegration addition. As a result of increased life expectancy, the elderly constitute a large portion of the worldwide population today. These people eventually will experience deterioration of their physiological and physical abilities.

  19. Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  20. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking...

  1. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento; SALES,Danielle Cavalcanti; URBANO,Stela Antas; GALVÃO JÚNIOR,José Geraldo Bezerra; ANDRADE NETO,Júlio César de; MACÊDO,Cláudia de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). Th...

  2. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  3. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  4. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and...

  5. AllergoOncology - the impact of allergy in oncology: EAACI position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Bax, H J; Bianchini, R; Capron, M; Corrigan, C; Castells, M; Dombrowicz, D; Daniels-Wells, T R; Fazekas, J; Fiebiger, E; Gatault, S; Gould, H J; Janda, J; Josephs, D H; Karagiannis, P; Levi-Schaffer, F; Meshcheryakova, A; Mechtcheriakova, D; Mekori, Y; Mungenast, F; Nigro, E A; Penichet, M L; Redegeld, F; Saul, L; Singer, J; Spicer, J F; Siccardi, A G; Spillner, E; Turner, M C; Untersmayr, E; Vangelista, L; Karagiannis, S N

    2016-12-29

    Th2 immunity and allergic immune surveillance play critical roles in host responses to pathogens, parasites and allergens. Numerous studies have reported significant links between Th2 responses and cancer, including insights into the functions of IgE antibodies and associated effector cells in both antitumour immune surveillance and therapy. The interdisciplinary field of AllergoOncology was given Task Force status by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2014. Affiliated expert groups focus on the interface between allergic responses and cancer, applied to immune surveillance, immunomodulation and the functions of IgE-mediated immune responses against cancer, to derive novel insights into more effective treatments. Coincident with rapid expansion in clinical application of cancer immunotherapies, here we review the current state-of-the-art and future translational opportunities, as well as challenges in this relatively new field. Recent developments include improved understanding of Th2 antibodies, intratumoral innate allergy effector cells and mediators, IgE-mediated tumour antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells, as well as immunotherapeutic strategies such as vaccines and recombinant antibodies, and finally, the management of allergy in daily clinical oncology. Shedding light on the crosstalk between allergic response and cancer is paving the way for new avenues of treatment.

  6. La alergia alimentaria en el siglo XXI Food allergy in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. García

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La alergia alimentaria es una situación clínica de alta prevalencia y posible riesgo vital. En este artículo se revisan los alimentos más frecuentemente responsables de las reacciones graves, incluyendo datos de la Comunidad Autónoma de Navarra. Puesto que la dieta de eliminación constituye el punto primordial del tratamiento a largo plazo de la alergia alimentaria, se analizan sus dificultades, limitaciones y riesgos. Por último se exponen las nuevas perspectivas que ofrece la tecnología en el campo de la alergia a alimentos, tanto en la producción de alimentos hipoalergénicos como en el desarrollo de nuevas formas de inmunoterapia.Food allergy is a clinical state of high frequency and possible risk to life. This article reviews the foodstuffs most often responsible for serious reactions, including data from the Autonomous Community of Navarre. Given that dietetic elimination is the primordial long term treatment for food allergy, its difficulties, limitations and risks are analyzed. Finally, we set out the new perspectives offered by technology in the field of food allergy, both in the production of hypoallergens and in the development of new forms of immunotherapy.

  7. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  8. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  9. Toxocariasis Resulting in Seeming Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Qualizza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode affecting dogs and cats that causes human infestations by ingestion of embryonated eggs excreted in dogs' faeces. Humans are transport hosts, in whom the larvae do not develop to adult worms, but may migrate to various tissues and organs, and survive for several years, giving rise to several clinical symptoms, which include allergy-like presentations. We report three cases presenting as dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis which were diagnosed and unsuccessfully treated as allergy. The correct diagnosis was established after detecting anti-Toxocara antibodies by Western blotting. All clinical symptoms showed improvement after starting treatment with mebendazole and subsequent courses of the antiparasitic drug resulted in full recovery. This suggests the possible role of Toxocara canis in inducing chronic symptoms of allergic type. This is particularly important for asthma, where it has been demonstrated that Toxocara canis infection causes allergic inflammation in the lungs associated with bronchial hyperreactivity. On the other hand, in our patients with asthma and with dermatitis the positive results from allergy tests were a confounding factor in delaying the correct diagnosis, which was finally obtained by the detection of antibodies to Toxocara canis.

  10. [Pharmaceutical technology of Cordaflex tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdös, S

    1996-01-01

    First the possibilities of solubilization and the photosensibility of nifedipine (the active ingredient of Cordaflex tablets) were investigated. The technology of retard tablet involves the preparation of a coprecipitate through spraying a solution containing nifedipine, a hydrotropic and a reardizing substance on carrier. After drying the produced granulated material was blended with common auxiliary ingredients, compressed into tablet and coated. The ratio of the two types of coprecipitating substances has a direct effect on the dissolution, so it proved predictable. The reproducibility of technology was good.

  11. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  12. 食物过敏的诊断方法%Diagnostic methods for food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洢祎; 王学民; 王婷婷; 孙丽囡

    2015-01-01

    食物过敏是指免疫介导的食物不良反应,是婴幼儿常见的过敏性疾病,患儿家长对食物过敏的错误认识及诊断的不明确,导致一系列的喂养和健康问题.IgE介导的食物过敏机制是多因素的,主要受遗传体质和环境的相互作用;非IgE介导的食物过敏的机制尚不清楚.目前认为,其主要由T细胞介导,可引起亚急性或慢性胃肠道或皮肤反应.因此,了解食物过敏诊断相关的临床检查方法,结合临床病史、饮食排除试验、食物激发试验等方法正确诊断食物过敏,对减少食物过敏反应的发生以及指导正确的规避饮食和相应的免疫治疗具有重要意义.%Food allergy,as an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food,is a common allergic problem in infants.The misunderstanding of food allergy in children's parents and indefinite diagnosis have leaded to a series of feeding and health problems.The mechanism of IgE-mediated food allergy is multifactorial,and is mainly associated with the interaction between genetic predisposition and environment,while the mechanism of non-IgE mediated food allergy is unclear,and it is considered to be mediated mainly by T cells,and can cause subacute or chronic gastrointestinal or skin reactions.Therefore,it is of great significance to expand knowledge on clinical diagnostic methods for food allergy,and to correctly diagnose food allergy by combining medical history,elimination diet trials and oral food challenge results for reducing the occurrence of food allergy,guiding elimination diet and corresponding immunotherapy.

  13. Five-grass pollen 300IR SLIT tablets: efficacy and safety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Agertoft, Lone; Seidenberg, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of five-grass pollen 300IR sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes SA, France) have previously been demonstrated in paediatric patients. This report presents additional data concerning efficacy at pollen peak, efficacy and safety according to age, nasal...... and ocular symptoms, use of rescue medication, satisfaction with treatment and compliance. Children (5-11 yr) and adolescents (12-17 yr) with grass pollen-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were included in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received either a 300IR five......-grass pollen tablet or placebo daily in a pre- (4 months) and co-seasonal protocol. The severity of six symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, nasal and ocular pruritis, and tearing) was scored, and rescue medication use was recorded daily during the pollen season. Patient satisfaction was recorded...

  14. Ash pollen allergy: reliable detection of sensitization on the basis of IgE to Ole e 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Konrad; Probst, Elisabeth; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regenass, Stephan; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    Background: Alongside hazel, alder and birch pollen allergies, ash pollen allergy is a relevant cause of hay fever during spring in the European region. For some considerable time, ash pollen allergy was not routinely investigated and its clinical relevance may well have been underestimated, particularly since ash and birch tree pollination times are largely the same. Ash pollen extracts are not yet well standardized and diagnosis is therefore sometimes unreliable. Olive pollen, on the other hand, is strongly cross-reactive with ash pollen and is apparently better standardized. Therefore, the main allergen of olive pollen, Ole e 1, has been postulated as a reliable alternative for the detection of ash pollen sensitization. Methods: To determine to what extent specific IgE against Ole e 1 in patients with ash pollen allergy is relevant, we included 183 subjects with ash pollen allergy displaying typical symptoms in March/April and positive skin prick test specific IgE against Ole e 1 (t224) and ash pollen (t25) and various birch allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2/v 4) in a retrospective study. Results: A significant correlation was seen between specific IgE against Ole e 1 and ash pollen, but also to a slightly lesser extent between IgE against Ole e 1 and skin prick test with ash pollen, the latter being even higher than IgE and skin prick test both with ash pollen. No relevant correlation was found with birch pollen allergens, demonstrating the very limited cross-reactivity between ash and birch pollen. Conclusion: It appears appropriate to determine specific IgE against Ole e 1 instead of IgE against ash pollen to detect persons with ash pollen allergy. Our findings may also support the idea of using possibly better standardized or more widely available olive pollen extracts instead of ash pollen extract for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  15. Cancer immunotherapy out of the gate: the 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute International Immunotherapy Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontonoz, Matthew; Gee, Connie E

    2015-05-01

    The 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute (CRI) International Immunotherapy Symposium was held from October 5-8, 2014, in New York City. Titled "Cancer Immunotherapy: Out of the Gate," the symposium began with a Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium satellite meeting focused on issues in immunotherapy drug development, followed by five speaker sessions and a poster session devoted to basic and clinical cancer immunology research. The second annual William B. Coley lecture was delivered by Lieping Chen, one of the four recipients of the 2014 William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Tumor Immunology; the other three recipients were Gordon Freeman, Tasuku Honjo, and Arlene Sharpe. Prominent themes of the conference were the use of genomic technologies to identify neoantigens and the emergence of new immune modulatory molecules, beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, as new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy.

  16. Allergy Risk Finder: Hypothesis Generation System for Allergy Risks via Web Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Eiji; Shikata, Shuko; Watabe, Eriko; Miyabe, Mai; Usuda, Yasuyuki; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to build a web service that automatically collects and tests hypotheses for possible allergy risks. We crowdsourced for unknown allergy risks, and obtained odds ratios. By using the collected hypotheses, we built a web service that estimates allergy risks from a questionnaire (consisting of 10 questions that we gathered from the crowdsourcing task), and at the end, we asked the users their new hypotheses on possible allergy risks. The web service also asked the users to send their original hypotheses to contribute to find the cause of allergy. In the near future, clinical trials to validate the hypotheses found in this study are desired.

  17. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  18. Specific immunotherapy has long-term preventive effect of seasonal and perennial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L; Niggemann, B; Dreborg, S;

    2007-01-01

    evaluated the long-term clinical effect and the preventive effect of developing asthma 7-years after termination of SIT. METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven subjects, aged 16-25 years with grass and/or birch pollen allergy was investigated 10 years after initiation of a 3-year course of SIT......BACKGROUND: 3-year subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SIT) in children with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis reduced the risk of developing asthma during treatment and 2 years after discontinuation of SIT (5-year follow-up) indicating long-term preventive effect of SIT. OBJECTIVE: We...... with standardized allergen extracts of grass and/or birch or no SIT respectively. Conjunctival provocations were performed outside the season and methacholine bronchial provocations were performed during the season and winter. Asthma was assessed by clinical evaluation. RESULTS: The significant improvements...

  19. Research on Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells that suppress immune responses. These advances in cancer immunotherapy are the result of long-term investments in ... Engineering Patients’ Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers Cancer immunotherapy in children: How does it differ from approaches ...

  20. Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Alan J.; Peggs, Karl S.; Allison, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The progression of a productive immune response requires that a number of immunological checkpoints be passed. Passage may require the presence of excitatory costimulatory signals or the avoidance of negative or coinhibitory signals, which act to dampen or terminate immune activity. The immunoglobulin superfamily occupies a central importance in this coordination of immune responses, and the CD28/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4):B7.1/B7.2 receptor/ligand grouping represents the archetypal example of these immune regulators. In part the role of these checkpoints is to guard against the possibility of unwanted and harmful self-directed activities. While this is a necessary function, aiding in the prevention of autoimmunity, it may act as a barrier to successful immunotherapies aimed at targeting malignant self-cells that largely display the same array of surface molecules as the cells from which they derive. Therapies aimed at overcoming these mechanisms of peripheral tolerance, in particular by blocking the inhibitory checkpoints, offer the potential to generate antitumor activity, either as monotherapies or in synergism with other therapies that directly or indirectly enhance presentation of tumor epitopes to the immune system. Such immunological molecular adjuvants are showing promise in early clinical trials. This review focuses on the results of the archetypal example of checkpoint blockade, anti-CTLA-4, in preclinical tumor models and clinical trials, while also highlighting other possible targets for immunological checkpoint blockade. PMID:16730267

  1. [Contact allergy for Alstrumeria (inca lily)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, A C; Meijer, P; van Joost, T; Hausen, B M

    1990-06-30

    We report 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to Alstroemeria cultivars. Four of them presented with the clinical picture of 'tulip fingers'. They all reacted to parts of fresh plants and to tuliposide A. The literature on Alstroemeria allergy is reviewed.

  2. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  3. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  4. Fragrance allergy and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...

  5. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Point ( HACCP ) program, and use of the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) decision-making tree (Australian Food and Grocery Council...to cow’s milk and beef meat proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89 61-64. Emmett, S. E., et al. (1999) Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in

  6. ["Allergy testing" with "Dr. Voll electroacupuncture"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, H

    1993-06-01

    Electroacupuncture according to Dr. Voll (EAV) is one of the numerous unconventional methods propagated for allergy testing in Germany. From an experimental examination for "drug testing" of this method, it can be concluded that EAV is unsuitable for any form of allergy testing.

  7. Diagnosing food allergy in children, peanuts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, F.C. van

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Although food allergic patients usually do not experience daily symptoms, they are faced with dietary restrictions and the risk for a severe reaction every day. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is important to presc

  8. Developmental trajectories in food allergy: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.

  9. Latex allergy in dentistry: clinical cases report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also severe

  10. Advances in the understanding of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2015-09-01

    The principal role of the immune system is to prevent and eradicate pathogens and infections. The key characteristics or features of an effective immune response include specificity, trafficking, antigen spread and durability (memory). The immune system is recognised to have a critical role in controlling cancer through a dynamic relationship with tumour cells. Normally, at the early stages of tumour development, the immune system is capable of eliminating tumour cells or keeping tumour growth abated; however, tumour cells may evolve multiple pathways over time to evade immune control. Immunotherapy may be viewed as a treatment designed to boost or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer, infections and other diseases. Immunotherapy manifests differently from traditional cancer treatments, eliciting delayed response kinetics and thus may be more effective in patients with lower tumour burden, in whom disease progression may be less rapid, thereby allowing ample time for the immunotherapy to evolve. Because immunotherapies may have a different mechanism of action from traditional cytotoxic or targeted biological agents, immunotherapy techniques have the potential to combine synergistically with traditional therapies.

  11. A WAO - ARIA - GA²LEN consensus document on molecular-based allergy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Pawankar, Ruby; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; van Hage, Marianne; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Melioli, Giovanni; Nunes, Carlos; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Sampson, Hugh; Sastre, Joaquin; Bousquet, Jean; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2013-10-03

    Molecular-based allergy (MA) diagnostics is an approach used to map the allergen sensitization of a patient at a molecular level, using purified natural or recombinant allergenic molecules (allergen components) instead of allergen extracts. Since its introduction, MA diagnostics has increasingly entered routine care, with currently more than 130 allergenic molecules commercially available for in vitro specific IgE (sIgE) testing.MA diagnostics allows for an increased accuracy in allergy diagnosis and prognosis and plays an important role in three key aspects of allergy diagnosis: (1) resolving genuine versus cross-reactive sensitization in poly-sensitized patients, thereby improving the understanding of triggering allergens; (2) assessing, in selected cases, the risk of severe, systemic versus mild, local reactions in food allergy, thereby reducing unnecessary anxiety for the patient and the need for food challenge testing; and (3) identifying patients and triggering allergens for specific immunotherapy (SIT).Singleplex and multiplex measurement platforms are available for MA diagnostics. The Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC) is the most comprehensive platform currently available, which involves a biochip technology to measure sIgE antibodies against more than one hundred allergenic molecules in a single assay. As the field of MA diagnostics advances, future work needs to focus on large-scale, population-based studies involving practical applications, elucidation and expansion of additional allergenic molecules, and support for appropriate test interpretation. With the rapidly expanding evidence-base for MA diagnosis, there is a need for allergists to keep abreast of the latest information. The aim of this consensus document is to provide a practical guide for the indications, determination, and interpretation of MA diagnostics for clinicians trained in allergology.

  12. Pollen Allergies in Humans and their Dogs, Cats and Horses: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Einhorn, Lukas; Herrmann, Ina; Thalhammer, Johann G; Panakova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients. Dogs, cats and horses may spontaneously and to different extents develop immediate type symptoms to pollen allergens. The skin, nasal and bronchial reactions, as well as chronic skin lesions due to pollen are in principle comparable to human patients. Pollen of various species most often causes allergic rhinitis in human patients, whereas in dogs it elicits predominantly eczematous lesions (canine atopic dermatitis), in horses recurrent airway obstruction or hives as well as pruritic dermatitis, and in cats bronchial asthma and so-called cutaneous reactive patterns (eosinophilic granuloma complex, head and neck pruritus, symmetric self-induced alopecia). In human allergy-specific IgE detection, skin tests or other allergen provocation tests should be completed. In contrast, in animals IgE and dermal tests are regarded as equally important and may even replace each other. However, for practical and economic reasons intradermal tests are most commonly performed in a specialized practice. As in humans, in dogs, cats and horses allergen immunotherapy leads to significant improvement of the clinical symptoms. The collected evidence suggests that canines, felines and equines, with their spontaneous allergies, are attractive model patients for translational studies.

  13. Prophylaxis and therapy of allergy by mucosal tolerance induction with recombinant allergens or allergen constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula

    2005-10-01

    The mucosal immune system, present along the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, has to discriminate between harmful pathogens and innocuous antigens, such as food, airborne antigens or the commensal bacterial flora. Therefore the mucosal immune system has acquired two opposing immunological functions, i.e. the induction of immunity and defence of mucosal pathogens, and the induction and maintenance of tolerance to environmental antigens and bacterial flora. As described for autoimmunity a breakdown or failure of tolerance induction is believed to lead also to allergies and food enteropathies. Based on the physiological role to prevent hypersensitivity reactions, tolerance induction via the mucosa has been proposed as a treatment strategy against inflammatory diseases, such as allergies. The aim of our research is to develop mucosal allergy vaccines based on the induction of mucosal tolerance and/or the induction of counter-regulatory immune responses with or without the use of certain mucosal antigen delivery systems, such as lactic acid bacteria. The use of recombinant allergens instead of allergen extracts with varying allergen content and composition may be essential for improvement of the treatment efficacy. In the present review we give examples of different animal models of type I allergy/asthma. Using these models we demonstrate that recombinant allergens or hypoallergenic variants thereof can be successfully used to induce mucosal tolerance in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic treatment regime. That the concept of mucosal tolerance induction/mucosal vaccine delivery may in principal also function in humans is supported by recent clinical trials with locally (sublingual) applied immunotherapy.

  14. Advances in Shellfish Allergy%甲壳类过敏的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 王涛; 崔瑜; 高顺强(综述); 朱敬先(审校)

    2015-01-01

    甲壳类过敏无论在成人还是儿童发病率均较高。其临床表现可由单纯的口腔症状至过敏性休克不等,甚至在同一个体也可出现不同反应。由于过敏原氨基酸序列同源性的存在,导致出现不同程度的交叉反应。目前研究发现,实验室检查与临床表现有时并不相符,并且有学者提出,脱敏治疗可能会导致其他物质的过敏反应。另一方面,水产品加工所导致的职业性过敏也日益受到重视。该文就近期有关甲壳类过敏相关的研究进展予以综述。%Shellfish is one of the most common causes of food allergy in the world in both adults and children.Its clinical manifestations can range from isolated oral allergic symptoms to allergic shock , and sometimes even within the same individual.Because there is high molecular(amino acid) homology between the allergens,cross-reactivity across the molluscan and crustacean is well established.The recent findings showed that IgE cross-reactivity may not translate to overt clinical allergy,and the patients,receiving some immunotherapy,developed IgE against other substances.On the other hand,occupational allergy,affecting seafood-processing workers is drawing more attention as well.Here is to make a review of the research on shellfish allergy.

  15. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  16. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine......) articles on cow's milk allergy (CMPA) for the years 1967 through 2001 was performed. In addition, references from other review articles have been included. This review represents a synthesis of these sources and the expert opinion of the author. STUDY SELECTION: The expert opinion of the author was used...... in up to 50% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80% before puberty. CONCLUSIONS: CMPA is the most common food allergy in early childhood with an incidence of 2 to 3% in the first year of life. The overall prognosis of CMPA in infancy is good with a remission rate of approximately 85 to 90...

  17. Peanut allergy as a family project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: to explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut...... with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analyzed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. RESULTS: The consequences of peanut allergy...... appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence...

  18. Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...... to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental assistants......, occupationally exposed to latex, were genotyped for filaggrin null mutations R501X and 2282del4. Latex allergy was determined by a positive reaction or a historical positive reaction to a skin prick test with NRL. Results 41 individuals were successfully genotyped. Three individuals were filaggrin mutation...

  19. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  20. Peanut allergy as a family project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Nielsen, D

    2016-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: to explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut...... with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analyzed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. RESULTS: The consequences of peanut allergy...... appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence...