WorldWideScience

Sample records for allergy and immunology

  1. ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    4.1 Autoimmune Disease2007019 The clinical significance of epitopes of SmB and SmD in systemic lupus erythemotosus. XUE Jing(薛静), et al. Dept Rheumotol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Sch Med, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310008. Chin J Lab Med 2006;29(11):996-1000. Objective To assess the presence of autoantibodies directed against the epitopes of Stub and SmD in systemic lupus erythemotosus (SLE) as well as other different connective tissue diseases (CTDs) and analyze their clinical significance .

  2. Allergy and Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010176 Interactions between susceptible genes and risk environmental factors in Chinese females with systemic lupus erythematosus.PENG Chunlin(彭春林),et al.Dept Epidemiol,Sch Public Health,Fudan Univ,Shanghai 200032.Chin J Prev Med 2010;44(2):144-149.

  3. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail. PMID:27177897

  4. Intrauterine immunology in allergy and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rindsjö, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy is interesting from an immunological point of view. The maternal immune system has to tolerate the fetus and at the same time also protect against infection. The placenta is not a completely tight barrier: in fact, cells can pass through in both directions. Allergy often starts early in life and intrauterine factors have been proposed to play a role in development of allergy. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the innate response to infection and the p...

  5. Radioassay in allergy and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovering of IgE and the development of RIA to measure the amount of total IgE and assay IgE to specific allergens opened up a new dimension in the study of allergy. PRIST and RAST have been helpful in diagnosis as well as definition of new diseases and quality control of allergen extracts. A clinical diagnosis should not be based on an in vitro measurement alone, but must be combined with a clinical history, physical exam, and other diagnostic tests, such as skin tests. This combination of examinations is probably sufficient to make a diagnosis in the majority of cases, thus obviating the need for provocation testing, except where there are discrepancies in the data or no definitive results. Since provocation testing is time-consuming, uncomfortable, and potentially hazardous for the patient, any decrease in its frequency of use is significant. The standardization, purification, and separation of active fractions of allergens is essential to the further understanding and treatment of allergy and RAST is instrumental in this effort. It must always be kept in mind that the RAST is only as accurate and significant as the antigen that is linked to the disc. In cases where a purified, well-tested antigen is used, the results are excellent as with the codfish study. When the antigen is more variable and contains several proteins, results with RAST will be variable also. As more allergens are studied and purified, RAST will become a more important tool in allergy management

  6. Immunological and genetic aspects of asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Madore

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics

  7. Immunological and radioimmunological studies in food allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in order to induce food allergy were carried out in guinea pigs. The sensitization with egg albumin, pasteurized cow milk and bovine serum albumin provoked anaphylactic shock. The passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, serum antibodies, liver cytochrome P-450 concentration and the anaphylactic shock were determined. Some correlation between the mortality, anaphylactic antibodies and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system was established. The morphology of the jejunal mucosa, the activities of 5 disaccharidases, the number of immunoglobulin secreting cells (Ig SC) and the mastocytes were investigated in 35 patients with food allergy. Normal mucosa was found in 28 cases as well as a significant decrease of the lactase, sucrase and trehalase activities. An increase of IgM and IgG secreting cells and of mastocytes, different electron microscopic changes in the enterocytes (an increased number of lysosomes, appearance of vesicles in cytoplasma, shortening, enlargement and uneven distribution of microvilli) as well as symptoms of functional activity in the plasmocytes and some others were also revealed. The experimental model obtained is similar to that one in humans according to the enteral way of sensitization the high selectivity of the allergic reaction which is of reagin type as the immunoglobulin changes are involved. (author)

  8. 6.ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 6.1 Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920044 Experimental and clinical study ofactivated platelet in allergic asthma.YUHuapeng (于化鹏),et al.Changhai Hosp,2ndMilit Meal Coil,200433.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30(9):546-549.Twenty-five asthmatic Guinea pigs and four-teen asthmatic patients were included in this

  9. Skin manifestations and immunological parameters in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L

    1997-01-01

    According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we

  10. [Allergy to drugs and contrast media--recommendations of the Israeli Allergy and Clinical Immunology Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Tal, Yuval; Broides, Arnon; Asher, Ilan; Hersheko, Alon; Staubers, Tali; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2013-09-01

    Drug hypersensitivity is an adverse reaction that was brought about by a specific immunologic response, not related to the pharmacological components of the drug. Additionally, drug related pseudoallergic and anaphylactoid reactions have been encompassed under the umbrella of hypersensitivity. Some of these reactions are linked with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, the hypersensitivity reactions of most drugs can be well defined and recurrence risk following exposure to the culprit drug and/or related drugs can be assessed. Medical history skin, blood and challenge tests, conducted in an allergy clinic, enable prediction and prevention of repeated events as well as unnecessary avoidance of certain compounds. For instance, most patients who report a prior reaction to penicillin are not allergic to beta-lactams upon allergic evaluation, while avoidance of penicillin based on self-reporting alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. On the other hand, for patients who previously exhibited hypersensitivity to a compound which is currently required, premedication or a desensitization protocol can be recommended to allow the use of this compound. Drug hypersensitivity is most commonly attributed to beta-lactams antibiotics, contrast media reagents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Hence, in the current review the recommendations of the Israeli Association for Allergy and Clinical Immunology for the evaluation and treatment of patients suspected to have hypersensitivity to beta-lactams and contrast media reagents are detailed. Recommendations regarding the evaluation of NSAID hypersensitivity will be published on the IMA website, together with those explicated herein. PMID:24364087

  11. Utilizing social networks, blogging and YouTube in allergy and immunology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Ves; Eidelman, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks are used to connect with friends and family members, and increasingly, to stay up-to-date with the latest news and developments in allergy and immunology. As communication is a central part of healthcare delivery, the utilization of such networking channels in allergy and immunology will continue to grow. There are inherent risks to online social networks related to breaches of patient confidentiality, professionalism and privacy. Malpractice and liability risks should also be considered. There is a paucity of information in the literature on how social network interventions affect patient outcomes. The allergy and immunology community should direct future studies towards investigating how the use of social networks and other technology tools and services can improve patient care. PMID:26163316

  12. Anaphylaxis : Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Roberts, G.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Brockow, K.; Fernandez Rivas, M.; Santos, A. F.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Bellou, A.; Beyer, K.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Cardona, V.; Clark, A. T.; Demoly, P.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Halken, S.; Harada, L.; Lack, G.; Jutel, M.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Timmermans, F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Werfel, T.; Dhami, S.; Panesar, S.; Akdis, C. A.; Sheikh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidenc

  13. Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    residual allergenicity in some hypoallergenic formulae controlled clinical testing is necessary in each case before use. Goat's milk proteins share identity with CMP Raw untreated cow's milk and unhomogenized cow's milk is as allergenic as normal pasteurized and homogenized milk products. The prognosis of......Reproducible clinically abnormal reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP) may be due to the interaction between one or more milk proteins and one or more immune mechanisms, possibly any of the four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions. At present, evidence for type I, III and IV reactions against...... CMP has been demonstrated. Immunologically mediated reactions, mainly immediate IgE-mediated reactions are defined as cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Non immunologically reactions against CMP are defined as cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Many studies on "cow's milk allergy'" have not...

  14. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet, with the...

  15. Cow's milk allergy in infancy and childhood: immunological and clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Schade, Rogier Paul

    2002-01-01

    Allergy is an important disease that affects a substantial proportion of the general population, and which has seen an increasing incidence during the past three decades. Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the major food-allergies during infancy and early childhood. This thesis focuses on patients with CMA and atopic dermatitis (AD), which is the major presentation of CMA in the majority of patients during childhood. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of antigen-specific T cell...

  16. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana

    2016-05-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine. PMID:27155030

  17. Food allergies and intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Klepáčková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies and intolerance Summary It is rather necessary to distinguish between food allergy and food intolerance. While the nature of allergy is based on the immunological response, intolerance may be mostly caused by the lack of an enzyme that is needed to digest certain foods seamlessly. Clinical manifestations may be varied. These may be a more serious case of anaphylactic reaction, oral allergy syndrome, dermatological symptoms, gastrointestinal reactions or as respirato...

  18. mTOR plays an important role in cow's milk allergy-associated behavioral and immunological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; van der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutations in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway are associated with the development of ASD and enhanced mTOR signaling plays a central role in directing immune responses towards allergy as well. Therefore, the mTOR pathway may be a pivotal link between the immune disturbances and behavioral deficits observed in ASD. In this study it was investigated whether the mTOR pathway plays a role in food allergy-induced behavioral and immunological deficits. Mice were orally sensitized and challenged with whey protein. Meanwhile, cow's milk allergic (CMA) mice received daily treatment of rapamycin. The validity of the CMA model was confirmed by showing increased allergic immune responses. CMA mice showed reduced social interaction and increased repetitive self-grooming behavior. Enhanced mTORC1 activity was found in the brain and ileum of CMA mice. Inhibition of mTORC1 activity by rapamycin improved the behavioral and immunological deficits of CMA mice. This effect was associated with increase of Treg associated transcription factors in the ileum of CMA mice. These findings indicate that mTOR activation may be central to both the intestinal, immunological, and psychiatric ASD-like symptoms seen in CMA mice. It remains to be investigated whether mTOR can be seen as a therapeutic target in cow's milk allergic children suffering from ASD-like symptoms. PMID:26027949

  19. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  20. Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M; Bilò, M B; Brockow, K; Fernández Rivas, M; Santos, A F; Zolkipli, Z Q; Bellou, A; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Cardona, V; Clark, A T; Demoly, P; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Eigenmann, P; Halken, S; Harada, L; Lack, G; Jutel, M; Niggemann, B; Ruëff, F; Timmermans, F; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Werfel, T; Dhami, S; Panesar, S; Akdis, C A; Sheikh, A

    2014-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis. While the primary audience is allergists, these guidelines are also relevant to all other healthcare professionals. The development of these guidelines has been underpinned by two systematic reviews of the literature, both on the epidemiology and on clinical management of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening condition whose clinical diagnosis is based on recognition of a constellation of presenting features. First-line treatment for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Useful second-line interventions may include removing the trigger where possible, calling for help, correct positioning of the patient, high-flow oxygen, intravenous fluids, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and nebulized adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use the device should be provided. Specialist follow-up is essential to investigate possible triggers, to perform a comprehensive risk assessment, and to prevent future episodes by developing personalized risk reduction strategies including, where possible, commencing allergen immunotherapy. Training for the patient and all caregivers is essential. There are still many gaps in the evidence base for anaphylaxis. PMID:24909803

  1. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which members work toward the common goals of patient care, education, advocacy and research. Ask the Allergist Contact dermatitis from epoxy? Breathing trouble caused by renovation dust? Options for a dog-allergic child? Hives and Hepatitis B? Cleaning carpets to reduce allergies? View All ...

  2. Endotypes and phenotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis: a PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Bachert, Claus; Cingi, Cemal; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hellings, Peter W; Naclerio, Robert M; Schleimer, Robert P; Ledford, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex disease consisting of several disease variants with different underlying pathophysiologies. Limited knowledge of the mechanisms of these disease subgroups is possibly the greatest obstacle in understanding the causes of CRS and improving treatment. It is generally agreed that there are clinically relevant CRS phenotypes defined by an observable characteristic or trait, such as the presence or absence of nasal polyps. Defining the phenotype of the patient is useful in making therapeutic decisions. However, clinical phenotypes do not provide full insight into all underlying cellular and molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms of CRS. Recognition of the heterogeneity of CRS has promoted the concept that CRS consists of multiple groups of biological subtypes, or "endotypes," which are defined by distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms that might be identified by corresponding biomarkers. Different CRS endotypes can be characterized by differences in responsiveness to different treatments, including topical intranasal corticosteroids and biological agents, such as anti-IL-5 and anti-IgE mAb, and can be based on different biomarkers that are linked to underlying mechanisms. CRS has been regarded as a single disease entity in clinical and genetic studies in the past, which can explain the failure to identify consistent genetic and environmental correlations. In addition, better identification of endotypes might permit individualization of therapy that can be targeted against the pathophysiologic processes of a patient's endotype, with potential for more effective treatment and better patient outcomes. PMID:23587334

  3. Food allergy: system immunologic and main food involved Alergia alimentar: sistema imunológico e principais alimentos envolvidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beltrão Lessa Constant

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy can be defined as an adverse reaction to a food antigen mediated by fundamentally immunological mechanisms. It is a nutritional problem that has shown an increase in the last decades probably due to the population’s exposure to a higher number of available food allergens. It has become a health problem worldwide being associated to a significant negative impact on life quality. The foods most cited as those which cause food allergy are: milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, shrimps, fish and soy bean. The main food allergens are protein-nature ones. There must be investment in research in order to reduce the damage caused by foods containing allergens. Biotechnology studies can be considered an efficient and safe alternative. The purpose of this research is to present an updated review on food allergies focusing on its action mechanism in the body, main food involved and alternatives that have been used to minimize this problem. A alergia alimentar pode ser definida como uma reação adversa a um antígeno alimentar mediada por mecanismos fundamentalmente imunológicos. É um problema nutricional que apresentou um crescimento nas ultimas décadas, provavelmente devido à maior exposição da população a um número maior de alérgenos alimentares disponíveis. Ele vem se tornando um problema de saúde em todo o mundo e está associado a um impacto negativo significativo na qualidade de vida. Os alimentos mais citados como causadores de alergias alimentares são: leite, ovos, amendoim, castanhas, camarão, peixe e soja, e os principais alérgenos alimentares identificados são de natureza protéica. É importante que haja investimento em pesquisas no sentido de reduzir os danos causados por alimentos que contém alérgenos. Estudos com a biotecnologia podem apresentar-se como uma alternativa eficiente e segura. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão atualizada das alergias alimentares, com foco principal no seu mecanismo de

  4. Immunological approaches for tolerance induction in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Melanie L; Renz, Harald; Blaser, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Allergy is the consequence of an inappropriate inflammatory immune response generated against harmless environmental antigens. In allergic disorders such as asthma and rhinitis, the Th2 mediated phenotype is a result of loss of peripheral tolerance mechanisms. In cases such as these, approaches such as immunotherapy attempt to treat the underlying cause of allergic disease by restoring tolerance. Immunotherapy initiates many complex mechanisms within the immune system that result in initiation of innate immunity, activation of both cellular and humoral B cell immunity, as well as triggering T regulatory subsets which are major players in the establishment of peripheral tolerance. Though studies clearly demonstrate immunotherapy to be efficacious, research to improve this treatment is ongoing. Investigation of allergenicity versus immunogenicity, native versus modified allergens, and the use of adjuvant and modality of dosing are all current strategies for immunotherapy advancement that will be reviewed in this article. PMID:21598104

  5. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  6. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient ... life more enjoyable. Why does the body develop allergies? Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts ...

  7. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  8. Allergy and Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011182 Modulation of RhoA/ROCK pathway on TLR-2 ligand-induced chemokine secretion in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. LIANG Liuqin(梁柳琴),et al. Dept Rheumatol,1st Affil Hosp

  9. ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    4.1 Autoimmune disease2003169 Investigation of signaling pathway by LFA-1 costimulation in PBMC of active lupus nephritis.WANG Jianqin(王俭勤),et al.Dept Nephrol, 1st Affili Hosp, Sun Yat-sen Univ, Guangzhou 510080. Chin J

  10. ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    3.1 Autoimmune disease2003266 Using GST-tag to capture protein interaction of an interferon-inducible systemic lupus associated gene, IFIT1. YE Shuang(叶霜), et al. Dept Rheumatol, Renji Hosp, Clin Center Rheum Dis, Shanghai 2nd Med

  11. Can fish oil in pregnancy and lactation alter maternal and infant immunological responses and prevent allergy in the offspring?

    OpenAIRE

    Furuhjelm, Catrin

    2010-01-01

    Background: A connection has been proposed between the increase of allergic disease and the altered composition of fatty acids in the diet in the westernised world. Less oily fish and more vegetable oil are consumed today compared to 50-100 years ago. Programming of the immune responses takes place very early in life and environmental factors, such as fish in the diet, have been suggested to protect from infant allergy. Aim: The general aim of this thesis was to assess the effects of maternal...

  12. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a sy

  13. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  14. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: Consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. To address this unmet need, an international task force involving experts from different organizations (including the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) met several times between 2010 and 2014 to discuss the classification and criteria for diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. This article provides the major outcomes of these meetings and a proposal for a revised definition and criteria. In particular, we recommend that the typical maculopapular cutaneous lesions (urticaria pigmentosa) should be subdivided into 2 variants, namely a monomorphic variant with small maculopapular lesions, which is typically seen in adult patients, and a polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, which is typically seen in pediatric patients. Clinical observations suggest that the monomorphic variant, if it develops in children, often persists into adulthood, whereas the polymorphic variant may resolve around puberty. This delineation might have important prognostic implications, and its implementation in diagnostic algorithms and future mastocytosis classifications is recommended. Refinements are also suggested for the diagnostic criteria of CM, removal of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans from the current classification of CM, and removal of the adjunct solitary from the term solitary mastocytoma. PMID:26476479

  15. 78 FR 7793 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  16. 77 FR 21789 - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  17. 78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  18. History of the World Allergy Organization: 1989 to 2006, the XVIII World Allergy Congress, Journal Development, Reorganization, and New Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Allen P.

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Al...

  19. Immunologic therapeutic approaches in the management of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie; Sicherer, Scott H

    2009-05-01

    Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 3-4% of adults in Westernized countries, and is the most common cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most studies. The mainstay of treatment is strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding the use of emergency medication in cases of accidental ingestions or exposures. While these approaches are generally effective, there are no definitive treatments that cure or provide long-term remission from food allergy. However, with recent advances in characterizing food allergens and understanding humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy, several therapeutic strategies are being investigated. Potential treatments include allergen-specific immunotherapy as well as allergen-nonspecific approaches to downregulate the overall allergic response in food-allergic individuals. PMID:20477008

  20. Literature review: the best new articles in the specialty of allergy, asthma, and immunology, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanti, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    rhinosinusitis caused by fungi. Intranasal Amphotericin B was shown to reduce inflammatory mucosal thickening on both CT scan and nasal endoscopy and decreased the levels of intranasal markers for eosinophilic inflammation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. The last two articles reviewed two papers dealing with the role that gastrointestinal immune responses play in maintaining protective immunity in health and a critical role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of clinical disorders associated with food allergy as well as the suspected pivotal role of oral tolerance to dietary proteins for the prevention of food allergy. The mode of antigen uptake in the gut and different regulatory immune cells appear to play critical roles in maintenance of oral tolerance as shown in many animal model systems. PMID:16913260

  1. Allergy Shots and Allergy Drops for Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Children" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 22, 2013 Allergy Shots and Allergy Drops for Adults and Children Formats View PDF ( ... this Web page . Understanding Your Condition What are allergies? An allergy is a reaction your body has ...

  2. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  3. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K;

    2014-01-01

    previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists, this......Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on...... document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management of...

  5. Novel foods and food allergies : an exploratory study of novel foods as allergy management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Putten, van, T.

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy represents an increasing concern to society. It is defined as an inappropriate immunological reaction to normally harmless food components and affects 5-8% of children and 1-2% of adults. Since at the time of writing no cure for food allergy exists, food allergic consumers need to avoid all problematic foods and ingredients, which may have a negative impact on the quality of life and economic functioning of food allergic consumers and their families. Food allergies may also resul...

  6. Novel foods and food allergies : an exploratory study of novel foods as allergy management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy represents an increasing concern to society. It is defined as an inappropriate immunological reaction to normally harmless food components and affects 5-8% of children and 1-2% of adults. Since at the time of writing no cure for food allergy exists, food allergic consumers need to avoid

  7. Anti-acids lead to immunological and morphological changes in the intestine of BALB/c mice similar to human food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Yildirim, Ali O; Ackermann, Ute; Knauer, Tanja; Becker, Christoph; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2008-08-01

    We have shown that anti-acid medication for treating dyspeptic disorders can block protein digestion and induce a higher risk for food sensitization. This mechanism was confirmed in human and animal studies on the humoral as well as the cellular level. Here we aimed to investigate the outcome of the treatment with the anti-acid drug sucralfate on the intestine in our murine model, assuming that morphological and immunological changes will occur. BALB/c mice were fed codfish extract plus sucralfate. Antibodies were examined in ELISA, RBL assay and Western blot. Quantitative morphological analysis of the intestine was performed by design-based stereology, focussing on epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscle, eosinophils and CD3(+) cells. Histological analyses were performed after H&E-, PAS- and Congo red-staining, while immune histochemistry was done for detection of CD3(+) cells. Codfish-specific IgE and its activity in RBL assay confirmed the Th2-response after treatment with sucralfate. The reactivity pattern of murine IgE in Western blot was similar to allergic patients' IgE. Histological examination showed more slender villi in the duodenum, and increased goblet cell mucus in the cecum after sucralfate treatment. Stereological analyses of the intestine revealed higher eosinophil/CD3(+) ratios, decreased mean thickness of the epithelium of duodenum and cecum, and thinner smooth muscle cell layer in the colon of food allergic mice. Anti-acid treatment with sucralfate induces changes in the structure of epithelium and villi, and an increase in eosinophils and mucus-producing cells in the intestine. Therefore, this medication leads to sensitization against food with changes typical for food allergy also in the intestine. PMID:18524557

  8. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  9. 77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, International Centers of Excellence for Malaria... Emphasis Panel, NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  10. Allergy and orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied a...

  11. Allergy, Rhinitis and Migraine Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Allergy, Rhinitis, and Migraine Headache Print Email Allergy, Rhinitis, and Migraine Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Allergy, Rhinitis, and Migraine Headache Vincent Martin, MD Key ...

  12. Hereditary angioedema: beyond international consensus - circa December 2010 - The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Dr. David McCourtie Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2010 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema was published earlier this year in this Journal (Bowen et al. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2010, 6:24 - http://www.aacijournal.com/content/6/1/24. Since that publication, there have been multiple phase III clinical trials published on either prophylaxis or therapy of hereditary angioedema and some of these products have changed approval status in various countries. This manuscript was prepared to review and update the management of hereditary angioedema. Objective To review approaches for the diagnosis and management of hereditary angioedema (HAE circa December 2010 and present thoughts on moving from HAE management from international evidence-based consensus to facilitate more local health unit considerations balancing costs, efficacies of treatments, and risk benefits. Thoughts will reflect Canadian and international experiences. Methods PubMed searches including hereditary angioedema and diagnosis, therapy, management and consensus were reviewed as well as press releases from various pharmaceutical companies to early December 2010. Results The 2010 International Consensus Algorithms for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema is reviewed in light of the newly published phase III Clinical trials for prevention and therapy of HAE. Management approaches and models are discussed. Conclusions Consensus approach and double-blind placebo controlled trials are only interim guides to a complex disorder such as HAE and should be replaced as soon as possible with large phase IV clinical trials, meta analyses, data base registry validation of approaches including quality of life and cost benefit analyses, safety, and head-to-head clinical trials investigating superiority or non-inferiority comparisons of available approaches. Since not all therapeutic products are available in all jurisdictions

  13. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... video about: Allergies Common allergens include: Drugs Dust Food Insect venom Mold Pet and other animal dander Pollen ... effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used to treat food allergies because of the danger of a severe ...

  14. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H;

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared...... by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal......, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The...

  15. Hereditary angioedema. Long-term follow-up of 88 patients. Experience of the Argentine Allergy and Immunology Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, J E; Avigliano, A; Dupont, J C; Fabiana, J E

    2000-01-01

    Since the detection of the first patient with hereditary angioedema (HA) in 1978, 88 new patients belonging to 16 families have been referred to our clinic. Eighty patients had Type I disease, 5 Type II, and 3 Type III (secondary). We describe the clinical onset, frequent complications, diagnostic tests of the complement system, and abnormalities of the coagulation pathway linked to complement activation. Particular attention was paid to family members who could present succedaneum symptoms. The results of danazole and other therapies and protective and preventive treatment for surgery also are discussed. PMID:11270087

  16. Air filters and air cleaners: Rostrum by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergen Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Sublett, James L.; Seltzer, James; Burkhead, Robert; Williams, P. Brock; Wedner, H. James; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    The allergist is generally recognized as possessing the greatest expertise in relating airborne contaminants to respiratory health, both atopic and nonatopic. Consequently, allergists are most often asked for their professional opinions regarding the appropriate use of air-cleaning equipment. This rostrum serves as a resource for the allergist and other health care professionals seeking a better understanding of air filtration.

  17. Educational clinical case series for pediatric allergy and immunology: allergic proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis with protein-losing gastroenteropathy as manifestations of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jennifer; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common food allergy in infants and young children. It is estimated that up to 50% of pediatric cow's milk allergy is non-IgE-mediated. Allergic proctocolitis is a benign disorder manifesting with blood-streaked stools in otherwise healthy-appearing infants who are breast- or formula-fed. Symptoms resolve within 48-72 h following elimination of dietary cow's milk protein. Most infants tolerate cow's milk by their first birthday. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome presents in young formula-fed infants with chronic emesis, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Reintroduction of cow's milk protein following a period of avoidance results in profuse, repetitive emesis within 2-3 h following ingestion; 20% of acute exposures may be associated with hypovolemic shock. Treatment of acute reactions is with vigorous hydration. Most children become tolerant with age; attempts of re-introduction of milk must be done under physician supervision and with secure i.v. access. Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis affects infants as well as older children and adolescents. Abdominal pain, emesis, diarrhea, failure to thrive, or weight loss are the most common symptoms. A subset of patients may develop protein-losing enteropathy. Fifty percent of affected children are atopic and have evidence of food-specific IgE antibody but skin prick tests and serum food-IgE levels correlate with response to elimination diet poorly. Elemental diet based on the amino-acid formula leads to resolutions of gastrointestinal eosinophilic inflammation typically within 6 wk. PMID:17584315

  18. Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little swelling that looks and feels like a mosquito bite will occur where the allergen(s) to which ... of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) believes are not useful, effective or may lead to inappropriate diagnosis and ...

  19. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies. PMID:25326106

  20. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  1. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Symptoms Anaphylaxis / Severe Allergic Reaction Eye Allergies Rhinitis Sinusitis Skin Allergies Eczema Contact Dermatitis Hives Swelling ... Partners Media Donate Subscribe Learn how to better control asthma and allergies, and live a life without ...

  2. 78 FR 735 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  3. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  4.  Gene and environmental interactions of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pałgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Food allergy is now looming as a major health issue with significant implications. In westernized countries, recent reports show a rise in allergic diseases, in particular food allergy. It affects approximately 5–8�0of children and 1–5�0of adults. Despite this, our current understanding of the immunological and biological mechanisms of food allergy is still incomplete. It is generally believed that food allergy is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. There is some evidence that epigenetic modifications may affect the prevalence of food allergies. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors of food allergy.

  5. History and conclusions of the project „Pollen and food allergies know no borders! Joint research and education“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana

    Wroclaw: Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Science, 2015. s. 20. ISBN 978-83-928488-4-4. [Polish-Czech Probiotics Conference Microbiology, Immunology &Allergy /2./. 24.05.2015-26.05.2015, Bielawa] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  6. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This medicine comes in an easy-to-carry container that looks like a pen. Epinephrine is available ... allergens. People with environmental allergies should keep their house clean of dust and pet dander and watch ...

  7. Follow-Up of the Wheat Allergy in Children; Consequences and Outgrowing the Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Mansouri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergy to wheat is a common food allergy. In spite of this fact, there is not enough literature regarding the features and outgrowing of this allergy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manifestations of this allergy and to follow the patients to evaluate whether outgrowing allergy happens again and when it occurs.Eight wheat allergic patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2001 were re-evaluated together  with 13 other  new cases of  wheat allergy referred to  the  Immunology and Allergy Pediatric  Department   from  June  2004  to  March  2006.  For  all  cases,  the demographic data along with a complete history regarding allergy to wheat and other types of allergy were collected in questionnaires. The specific IgE measurements (in vivo and in vitro and oral food challenge (in the absence of a relevant history related to allergy to wheat were performed.Severe anaphylaxis was seen after wheat ingestion in more than 90% of the patients. Oral tolerance to wheat developed in three patients (37.5% out of 8 known previous cases who had been followed for eight years, the mean age of oral tolerance to wheat was 68±6.36 (range; 36 months to 108 months.Clinical reactions in our wheat-allergic patients were more severe than those reported before. These patients were at risk for developing chronic allergic symptoms such as asthma. We also found that oral tolerance to wheat was happening in a minority of our patients.

  8. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Babu, Bheemanapalli N; Yeldur P Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature ...

  9. ICON: food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653

  10. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep;

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  11. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2016-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on 14 October 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the...... most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach, embracing 4 key features...

  12. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...

  13. Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with

  14. Food intolerance and allergy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessof, M H

    1983-01-01

    Specific food intolerance needs to be distinguished from obsessional states in which those who are affected have an aversion to numerous foods. Even in cases where specific food intolerance can be demonstrated, the diagnosis of food allergy depends on additional evidence that the patient's reaction is based on an abnormal immunological response. In food allergy, skin and laboratory tests may detect the presence of an IgE-mediated reaction, particularly in patients with asthma or eczema and especially where the foods involved are highly allergenic--such as egg, fish, nuts and milk. However, many patients with proven food intolerance have negative tests, suggesting that other immunological or non-immunological mechanisms are responsible. Laboratory tests for non-IgE reactions are unreliable. Where it is difficult to show a connection between individual foods and an allergic response--as in patients with urticaria provoked by food additives--one of the reasons for diagnostic difficulty is that the offending substances may be present in a wide range of common foods. If the diagnosis is to be firmly established in such cases, it is necessary to show that symptoms remit on an elimination diet and recur after a placebo-controlled challenge. PMID:6351151

  15. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  16. Milk and Soy Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical tha...

  17. Triggers of IgE class switching and allergy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hummelshoj, Lone

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases has been increasing for the last four decades. In this review determinants for an increased IgE synthesis are discussed on both an epidemiological and on an immunological level with special emphasis on the differentiation of the ...... the need for more knowledge on preventable causes of IgE- and allergy development....

  18. Drug Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi

    2016-09-01

    An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730

  19. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  20. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  1. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 8, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  2. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  3. [Food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  4. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  5. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  6. Hematology and immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated series of experiments were conducted to evaluate immunologic and hemotologic system responses of Skylab crewmen to prolonged space flights. A reduced PHA responsiveness was observed on recovery, together with a reduced number of T-cells, with both values returning to normal 3 to 5 days postflight. Subnormal red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values also returned gradually to preflight limits. Most pronounced changes were found in the shape of red blood cells during extended space missions with a rapid reversal of these changes upon reentry into a normal gravitational environment.

  7. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R.; Robert G Hamilton; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advise...

  8. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  9. Gesundheit! Patrick Holt smothers allergies and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Maxmen, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Drop the mop and play with Fido is Patrick Holt's recommendation for raising an allergy-free child. Although a tangled web of factors underlies allergies and asthma, Holt believes that preventing lifelong affliction could be simple.

  10. Gardening and Your Health. Plant Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Predny, Mary Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Allergic reactions are caused by an overactive immune system response to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust, or molds. This publication goes over the common plants that cause allergies and ways to prevent allergies while gardening.

  11. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...

  12. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that can relieve the symptoms of ... important to treat allergies. If you have allergies, antihistamines are likely to help. It is important to ...

  13. [Food Allergy and Intolerance : Distinction, Definitions and Delimitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general. PMID:27215624

  14. FOOD ALLERGY AND ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME. Part I. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy and intolerance are wide spread nowadays. However, the problem existed and was registered and described still by the ancients. It was fully understood and scientifically depicted in the 20th century after IgE and anaphylaxis were discovered, new diagnostic tests were initiated and the term “allergy” was introduced. There are some interesting aspects of the problem. Epidemiology is the first one – in the last two decades the number of people suffering from food allergy increased significantly and reached 4% of the population. Food allergy covers all ages, both sexes; atopic people and these with other allergic or digestive diseases are in the risk group also. There is certain influence of the eating habits as well. Etiology is rich and varied. It includes all foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, spices, honey, medicinal products - milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, etc. Pathogenesis is complex.

  15. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  16. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leniszewski Stefanie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  17. Cockroach Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergies Disabilities? Allergies Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Latex Allergy ... Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Latex Allergy Mold Allergy Pet Allergy Pollen ...

  18. Immunopathological mechanisms of food allergy and celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tučková, Ludmila; Šotkovský, Petr; Cinová, Jana; Sánchez, Daniel; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Goliáš, Jaroslav; Schwarzer, Martin; Drašarová, Hana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    Praha: Carolinum, 2012. s. 55-55. ISBN 978-80-7395-456-7. [International Nutrition and Diagnostics Conference /12./. 27.08.2012-30.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200801; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA TA ČR TA01010737; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Food allergy * immune system * celiac disease Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  19. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépfalusi, Z

    2012-12-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672

  20. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  1. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    OpenAIRE

    van Nunen, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this a...

  2. Immunology and Homeopathy. 4. Clinical Studies—Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Conforti; Giovanni Benato; Valeria Piasere; Francesco Pontarollo; Riccardo Ortolani; Paolo Bellavite

    2006-01-01

    The clinical studies on the effectiveness of homeopathy in respiratory allergy (18 randomized trials and 9 observational studies) are described. The literature of common immunologic disorders including also upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and otorhinolaryngology (reported in part 1), is evaluated and discussed. Most of initial evidence-based research was addressed to the question of whether homeopathic high dilutions are placebos or possess specific effects, but this question has be...

  3. Indoor air quality and allergy. Mechanism of allergy; Shitsunai kukishitsu to allergy. Arerugi no mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yata, J. [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the mechanism of allergy. Allergy is defined as the immune reaction which causes tissue damage instead of its original role for body defense. Usually, antibodies of IgE (immunoglobulin E) class are formed against some substances, to remove antigens through one-to-one reaction (specific reaction) with antigens. However, it is improper for bodies hurriedly to exhaust harmless substances such as pollens by a large amount of snivel and sneezes, which is called allergy. Genetic and environmental factors relate to allergy. In addition, the response of nerve and the sensitivity of tissue are related to the development of symptoms, which makes things complicated. There are allergic reactions caused by the immune complex formed by antigens and antibodies of IgE class or by the cytokine production from T lymphocytes responding to the antigen. In the living environment, allergic reactions are caused by allergens which are antigens causing allergy, such as ticks and mold particles in houses, stimulating and sensitive substances for bronchus, such as formalin from building materials, and antibody production inducing substances. 7 figs.

  4. The history of pediatric allergy in Europe - from a working group to ESPACI and SP-EAACI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreborg, Sten; Roberts, Graham; Lau, Susanne; Santos, Alexandra F; Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne

    2013-01-01

    A Working Group on Pediatric Allergology was formed in 1984, which rapidly developed to become the European Society on Pediatric Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) in 1988 with its own journal, Pediatric Allergology and Immunology. ESPACI worked together with the European Academy of All...... Europe, focusing on postgraduate education, facilitating the research agenda and advocating for children and adolescents with allergies....

  5. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; Deleanu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosi...

  6. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the...

  7. Drug allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington Richard; Silviu-Dan Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR) not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis a...

  8. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Leniszewski; Richard Mauseth

    2009-01-01

    Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for t...

  9. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Leniszewski Stefanie; Mauseth Richard

    2009-01-01

    Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for ...

  10. Psychological burden of food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic react...

  11. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL; Danielle Cavalcanti SALES; Urbano, Stela Antas; José Geraldo Bezerra GALVÃO JÚNIOR; Júlio César de ANDRADE NETO; Cláudia de Souza MACÊDO

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). Th...

  12. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  13. 391 Description of Drug Allergy Study Conducted in a Teaching Hospital between October 2007 and March 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martínez, Consuelo Fernanda; Rubio, Alicia Sciaraffia

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Allergy Organization (WAO) in 2003 defined ‘drug allergy’ as an immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of drug allergy may be either IgE or non-IgE mediated. The true incidence of drug allergy is not known. There are only few studies/datasets using standardized clinical questionnaires and validated in vivo or in vitro tests to confirm the diagnosis of drug allergy. Here we have analyzed the obtained results of in vivo test in suspected drug...

  14. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Food Allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, V.J.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, food allergy is a major health problem with an estimated prevalence of about 5% in young children and 3-4% in adults and the prevalence is increasing. However, no cure or approved treatment is available, despite the increased knowledge of mechanisms playing a role in food allergy. The ary

  15. Allergy to pizza: an uncommon and multifaceted allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantani, A

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of the Italian "pizza" in the wide and variegate field of food allergy is certainly uncommon. This simple Italian dish consists of a breadlike crust covered by a spiced preparation of cheese and tomatoes and baked. Italian pizza found its origin in Napoli and only in recent years has become a very popular food in the rest of Italy and elsewhere. In the beginning, it was the food of the poor, but was made with natural foods, but nowadays has been enriched by a number of ingredients and flavourings, thus multiplying the risk of allergic reactions. PMID:11075625

  16. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate and...... adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes. The...... overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  17. Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...... to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental...... assistants, occupationally exposed to latex, were genotyped for filaggrin null mutations R501X and 2282del4. Latex allergy was determined by a positive reaction or a historical positive reaction to a skin prick test with NRL. Results 41 individuals were successfully genotyped. Three individuals were...

  18. The double helix and immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, Gustav J. V.

    2003-01-01

    The immune system can recognize and produce antibodies to virtually any molecule in the Universe. This enormous diversity arises from the ingenious reshuffling of DNA sequences encoding components of the immune system. Immunology is an example of a field completely transformed during the past 50 years by the discovery of the structure of DNA and the emergence of DNA technologies that followed.

  19. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

  20. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ... Food Allergy Mom Gretchen Food Allergy Mom Managing Food Allergies Learn more about managing food allergies in ...

  1. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Luncheons Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, ... texture you are trying to achieve. Differences between Wheat Allergy and Celiac Disease or Gluten Intolerance A ...

  2. Probiotics and Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

    The atopic diseases include atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma. The prevalence of atopic diseases has been on the rise for several decades, particularly in high-income industrialized nations (ISAAC, 1998; Sibbald et al., 1990). As potential explanations for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases the so-called hygiene hypothesis has been suggested. The hypothesis suggests that the continuously increased hygiene in the environment and the food supply results to reduced exposure to a variety of microbes and consequently to a less diverse intestinal microbiota from early life onwards and/or to changes in the gut microbiota from early life. Such changes reflect the exposure to microbes in industrially processed foods and the improved hygiene of the living environment of the mother and infant.

  3. Stress, Sleep, and Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Jernelöv, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Allergic diseases have recently increased dramatically in the western world, now affecting about 30% of the Swedish population. The reasons for this increase are unclear, but some of the suspects are behavioral factors, such as stress and sleep. Problems with stress are also common today, and stress may change the set-points for the functioning of the body, for instance in the immune system. Sleep, on the other hand, is important for recuperation, and disturbed sleep acts a ...

  4. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest and most effective to take throughout pregnancy. Make an appointment with an allergist soon after you discover you are pregnant to develop or review your personal treatment plan and to give you peace of mind. In the meantime, here are answers ...

  5. Allergies and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be controversial. Many patients with migraine headache attribute their reactions to certain foods as being an ... in Headache Medicine. Benefits include a recognition of skills and the possibility of referrals. Healthcare professionals: Learn ...

  6. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these foods. Sauces. Many cooks use peanuts or peanut butter to thicken chili and other sauces. Always proceed ... the knife another family member used to make peanut butter sandwiches is not used to butter your bread ...

  7. Environmental Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information on enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Environmental Allergies ​​ Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to diagnose, treat, and prevent environmental allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated ...

  8. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & ...

  9. Allergy and Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    4.1.Autoimmune disease2005303 Peripheral blood mRNA and interferongene expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.TANG Jianping(汤建平),et al.Dept Rheumatol,RenjiHosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ Shanghai 200001.Chin JIntern Med 2005;44(2):106-110.

  10. Foodborne anisakiasis and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Fiona J; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    Human anisakiasis, a disease caused by Anisakis spp. (Nematoda), is often associated with clinical signs that are similar to those associated with bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. With the globalisation of the seafood industry, the risk of humans acquiring anisakiasis in developed countries appears to be underestimated. The importance of this disease is not only in its initial manifestation, which can often become chronic if the immune response does not eliminate the worm, but, importantly, in its subsequent sensitisation of the human patient. This sensitisation to Anisakis-derived allergens can put the patient at risk of an allergic exacerbation upon secondary exposure. This article reviews some aspects of this food-borne disease and explains its link to chronic, allergic conditions in humans. PMID:24583228

  11. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence of probable food allergy, defined by suggestive history and positive IgE for priority food, was much lower: 2.3% for children and 4.1% for adults. In adults, the prevalence of true food allergy conf...

  12. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  13. Modulation of allergy development by probiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Wiedermann, U.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    Praha: Carolinum, 2012. s. 24-24. ISBN 978-80-7395-456-7. [International Nutrition and Diagnostics Conference /12./. 27.08.2012-30.08.2012, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : probiotics * allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  14. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with th...

  15. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Infant Allergies ...

  16. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in...... the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  17. Debates in allergy medicine: food intolerance does not exist

    OpenAIRE

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The term "intolerance" is not mentioned in the World Allergy Organization (WAO) document on allergy nomenclature. "Intolerance" has been used to describe some non-immunological diseases. However, pediatric gastroenterologists mix allergy and intolerance, e.g. by using the term "cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/I)", lumping together all types of mechanisms for not tolerating cow's milk. The basis for this mix is the fact that double-blind oral food challenges are time-c...

  18. Developments in the field of allergy in 2010 through the eyes of Clinical and Experimental Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katelaris, C H; Linneberg, A; Magnan, A;

    2011-01-01

    there is steady flow of papers describing patterns of drug allergy with renewed interest in reactions to contrast media, but food allergy is the major area of interest in this section of the journal. Lastly in the field of allergens there is a growing interest in the role of component resolved diagnosis......In 2010 over 200 articles were published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy including editorials, reviews, opinion articles, letters, book reviews and of course at the heart of the journal, papers containing original data which have moved the field of allergy forward on a number of fronts...... for the development of allergic disease with a view to refining and debating the reasons for the allergy epidemic. There is continued interest in the relationship between helminthic disease and allergy with a new twist in 2010 involving studies using infection with helminths as a potential treatment. The genetics...

  19. 8. Occupational asthma and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2003-02-01

    A diversity of airborne dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors can cause dose-related symptoms in individuals exposed in the workplace. More than 250 chemicals have been incriminated as a cause of occupational asthma (OA). The prevalence of OA ranges from 2% to 6% of the asthmatic population. Predisposing factors facilitating the development of OA include the work environment, climatic conditions, genetic proclivities, tobacco and recreational drug use, respiratory infection, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Pathogenetically, new-onset OA may be immunologic or nonimmunologic in origin. The immunologic variants are usually caused by high molecular-weight allergens such as grain dust and animal or fish protein. Symptoms ensue after a latent period of months to years. Nonimmunologic OA can be precipitated by a brief, high-level exposure to a potent irritant. Symptoms occur immediately or within a few hours of the exposure. In either instance, once the diagnosis is established, the worker should be removed from the workplace. If the diagnosis is made in a timely fashion, most workers experience improvement. Prevention is the best therapeutic intervention. PMID:12592299

  20. Molecular Approach to Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fatima; Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use ...

  1. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...

  2. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review. PMID:25102573

  3. [Food allergy in dog and cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, M W

    1994-10-15

    Food allergy in the dog or cat can only be described as non-seasonal dermatitis accompanied by scratching. When the term 'food allergy' is used, an immune-mediated reaction is not always meant, although the term would suggest that it is. The frequency of occurrence of food allergy is unknown, with the literature giving widely differing percentages. Type I and type IV hypersensitivity reactions probably play a role in the pathogenesis, although a type III reaction is also thought to be involved. Gastrointestinal disturbances and skin complaints are symptoms of food allergy, and scratching is nearly always mentioned as the most common sign. The diagnosis can only be made by feeding the animal on a hypoallergic diet, which must be given for several weeks. Diagnostic tests are unreliable. The patient should not have been previously exposed to the ingredients of the hypoallergic diet. As 'home-made' diets may be deficient in minerals, vitamins, and essential amino acids, these ingredients must be supplemented if the diet is to be maintained for a long time. The prognosis of food allergy is good if the causative ingredient is identified. It is important the animals' owner is given through instruction. Medicines have little effect on food allergy. PMID:7974444

  4. Microbiome and immunological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke E

    2012-08-01

    The healthy human gut supports a complex and diverse microbiota, dominated by bacterial phylotypes belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In the inflamed gut, overall diversity decreases, coincident with a greater representation of Proteobacteria. There is growing evidence supporting an important role for human gut bacteria in mucosal immunity; interactions at the level of both intestinal and colonic epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and T and B immune cells have been documented. These interactions influence gut barrier and defense mechanisms that include antimicrobial peptide and secretory IgA synthesis. The functional effects of commensal bacteria on T helper cell differentiation have led to the emerging concept that microbiota composition determines T effector- and T regulatory-cell balance, immune responsiveness, and homeostasis. The importance of this biology in relation to immune homeostasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and the rising incidence of autoimmune diseases will be discussed. The detailed description of the human gut microbiota, integrated with evidence-based mechanisms of immune modulation, provides an exciting platform for the identification of next-generation probiotics and related pharmaceutical products. PMID:22861803

  5. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. PMID:26695127

  6. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwak, Tong-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respo...

  7. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    logistic regression analysis. Results An inverse association between contact allergy and non-melanoma skin- and breast cancer, respectively, was identified in both sexes, and an inverse trend for brain cancer was found in women with contact allergy. Additionally, a positive association between contact...... metabolites in the bladder. The authors' findings add to the limited knowledge about contact allergy and the risk of cancer....... cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact allergy and cancer. Methods Record linkage of two different registers was performed: (1) a tertiary...

  9. Allergy Tests: When You Need Them and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Videos Lists Search Patient Resources Allergy Tests Allergy Tests When you need them and when you ... ADVICE FROM CONSUMER REPORTS How should you manage allergies and hives? Food allergies. The only treatment for ...

  10. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. PMID:26434966

  11. Shared genetic origins of allergy and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....

  12. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    O’Keefe AW; De Schryver S; Mill J; Mill C; Dery A; Ben-Shoshan M

    2014-01-01

    Andrew W O'Keefe,1,2 Sarah De Schryver,1 Jennifer Mill,3 Christopher Mill,3 Alizee Dery,1 Moshe Ben-Shoshan1 1Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada; 3Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Cent...

  13. Food Allergies: Being Aware and Planning for Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…

  14. Egg and cows' milk allergy in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R. P.; Fergusson, D M

    1980-01-01

    The relationships between a history of egg or cows' milk allergy, positive skin tests to these allergens, and atopic illness were examined in a sample of 126 children. Positive skin tests were found more often in children with a history of egg or cows' milk allergy than in children with no such history. 40 children suspected of being allergic to egg or milk, by history or by positive skin tests, were tested by double-blind food challenge. 54 challenges were given to these children, and 26 (49...

  15. The epidemiology of contact allergy. Allergen exposure and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergy is frequent among dermatitis patients and subjects in the general population. This review aims to update the reader on the epidemiology of contact allergy epidemics. It presents recent epidemiological data on metals, fragrances, hair dyes, preservatives and thiurams. It concludes that the prevalence of nickel allergy is decreasing among young women whereas the prevalence of cobalt allergy remains stable. The prevalence of chromium allergy is currently increasing significantly in both sexes, mainly as a result of leather exposure. The epidemiology of fragrance allergy is changing as the prevalence of fragrance mix I and myroxylon pereirae allergy has decreased significantly in recent years and as the prevalence of fragrance mix II allergy has increased. The prevalence of p-phenylenediamine allergy seems stable in Europe but remains high. The prevalence of isothiazolinone allergy remains high whereas the prevalence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile allergy has decreased following regulatory intervention. Finally, the prevalence of thiuram allergy is decreasing as a result of improved rubber glove production. PMID:19834429

  16. The human microbiome, asthma, and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, Amund

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can be defined as the microorganisms that reside within and on our bodies and how they interact with the environment. Recent research suggests that numerous mutually beneficial interactions occur between a human and their microbiome, including those that are essential for good health. Modern microbiological detection techniques have contributed to new knowledge about microorganisms in their human environment. These findings reveal that the microbiomes of the lung and gut contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. For example, evidence indicates that the microbiome of the gut regulates the activities of helper T cell subsets (Th1 and Th2) that affect the development of immune tolerance. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate differences between the lung microbiomes of healthy and asthmatic subjects. The hygiene and biodiversity hypotheses explain how exposure to microorganisms is associated with asthma and allergy. Although those living in developed countries are exposed to fewer and less diverse microorganisms compared with the inhabitants of developing countries, they are experiencing an increase in the incidence of asthma and allergies. Detailed analyses of the human microbiome, as are being conducted under the auspices of the Human Microbiome Project initiated in 2007, promise to contribute insights into the mechanisms and factors that cause asthma and allergy that may lead to the development of strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. PMID:26664362

  17. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence o

  18. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  19. Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided info...

  20. [Latex allergy and cross-reactions: a new threat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, W

    2000-01-01

    Allergy to latex proteins has become an important problem, especially in the medical profession, but also in people who have regularly contact with latex products. The responsible antigens are proteins, which are present in the natural rubber latex (NRL), extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. These proteins are important in the synthesis of rubber and in the defence of the plant against external noxes (pathogenesis related proteins). Life threathening reactions occur more frequently in the operating theatre. Sensitisation can occur via different routes (aerogen, skin, parenteral, ...) but aerogenic sensitisation seems to be very important. Starch particles are important vectors of the antigens. Diagnosis is made via history, confirmed by demonstration of specific IgE via skin test (in vivo) or via an in vitro method (e.g. CAP, ELISA). Immunological cross reactions are very frequent with other plant or fruit allergens but cross allergy is less frequent (sensitivity and specificity of the in vitro test varies considerably depending on the nature of the fruit or vegetable investigated). There is also a cross reactivity with Ficus. Prevention with latex allergens becomes primordial in hospital settings. The industry is aware of the problem and produces more and more synthetic latex products. PMID:10818822

  1. 421 Cow's Milk Allergy and Persistent Changes in a Multiple Food Allergy, A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zañartu, Pia; Carla, Bastías

    2012-01-01

    Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy. Clinical manifestations are mediated immediate hypersensitivity and delayed. The allergy study include: specific IgE, prick and patch test. Regarding treatment, this is based on the exclusion diet and the replacement of cow's milk hydrolysates extensive. Virtually all infants who have cow's milk allergy develop this condition in the first year of life, with clinical tolerance developing in about 80 percent by their fifth bir...

  2. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  3. Spring Allergies? Don't Assume It's Only Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mask rated by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and take appropriate medication beforehand. ... itchy, watery eyes. SOURCE: American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, news release HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . ...

  4. [Food allergies. III. Therapy: elimination diet, symptomatic drug prophylaxis and specific hyposensitization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Hofer, T

    1986-10-11

    The treatment of food allergies is logically based on strict elimination of causative allergens. While it is easy to eliminate food which is infrequently consumed, it is more difficult to manage an allergy involving regularly consumed foods, especially where patients have to eat away from home for professional reasons. The creation of elimination diets for milk, eggs, and mould and yeast allergies is discussed. In raw food and vegetable allergy the act of cooking is often sufficient to denature the allergen as it is unstable to heat. Follow-up investigations show that some 50% of children achieve cure spontaneously by strict elimination diet, especially in regard to milk allergy. In our own 173 (mainly adult) patients with food allergy, some 2/3 reported after 3-5 years that a strict elimination diet had to be followed, since otherwise prompt relapse of allergic symptoms was noted. About 1/3 of patients, mainly with milk, cheese or egg allergy, can hope for spontaneous desensitization by appropriate diet. This is demonstrated by a case history with disappearance of IgE antibodies. Should this fail to occur, oral desensitization with milk or egg-white extracts offers an effective therapy. The practice of hyposensitization with foodstuffs is illustrated by examples and tabulation of immunologic parameters. In raw food or vegetable allergy, which is often associated with birch or mugwort pollinosis, improvement or even complete cure can be expected in about 1/3 of cases by systematic desensitization of pollinosis. On the other hand, the therapy and prognosis of food allergy involving extreme and polyvalent sensitivities, especially to spices, or with multifactorially induced symptoms, is more problematic. In these cases a strict elimination diet should be followed by continuous prophylactic/symptomatic treatment with antianaphylactic substances such as cromoglicinic acid (Nalcrom) - especially in gastrointestinal food allergies - or with ketotifen (Zaditen) or

  5. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases: Report of the European Union Parliament Symposium (October 14, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2016-05-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli, and with active participation of the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis, MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socioeconomic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the epidemic of allergies and chronic airways diseases. Participants underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient empowerment, and cost-effective treatment strategies. PMID:26660289

  6. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth gr...

  7. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Autoimmune disease2004022 BL-2, IL-6 and their receptors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. QIAN Qihong (钱齐宏), et al. Dept Dermatol & Venereol, 1st Affili Hosp, Suzhou Univ, Suzhou 215006. Chin J Dermatol 2003; 36 (12): 696-698.

  8. Ocular diseases: immunological and molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Huang, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Yu-Mian

    2016-01-01

    Many factors, such as environmental, microbial and endogenous stress, antigen localization, can trigger the immunological events that affect the ending of the diverse spectrum of ocular disorders. Significant advances in understanding of immunological and molecular mechanisms have been researched to improve the diagnosis and therapy for patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Some kinds of ocular diseases are inadequately responsive to current medications; therefore, immunotherapy may be a potential choice as an alternative or adjunctive treatment, even in the prophylactic setting. This article first provides an overview of the immunological and molecular mechanisms concerning several typical and common ocular diseases; second, the functions of immunological roles in some of systemic autoimmunity will be discussed; third, we will provide a summary of the mechanisms that dictate immune cell trafficking to ocular local microenvironment in response to inflammation.

  9. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvilla, S. A.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine; Panesar, S. S.; Worth, A.; Patel, S.; Muraro, A.; Halken, S.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Regent, L.; de Jong, N. W.; Roberts, G.; Sheikh, A.

    2014-01-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are

  10. Preventing food allergy: protocol for a rapid systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S.; Thusu, Sundeep; Rader, Tamara; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention,...

  11. Immunological memory and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, A; Rosenzweig, M; Johnson, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus results in profound perturbations in immunological memory, ultimately resulting in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We have used rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model to understand better the effects of AIDS virus infection on immunological memory. Acute infection with SIV resulted in significant deficits in CD4+ helper responses to cyto...

  12. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:26442851

  13. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME AND DENTAL ALLERGOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity to food proteins is specific, but in certain patients cross reactions are observed between food proteins of plant or animal origin and non-food ones. The most common clinical manifestation of this cross reactivity is oral allergy syndrome (OAS. It develops mainly in patients with pollen allergy after fresh fruit and vegetables consumption. The symptoms are oro-pharyngeal pruritus, papules and vesicles which resemble mouth ulcers on the labial mucosa and labial, palatal and lingual swelling. There may also be a sensation of pharyngeal swelling. The symptoms appear very quickly and may be followed by urticaria or contiguous facial erythema. The progress of this syndrome is due to homology of structural proteins in foods of plant origin and in pollens.

  14. Asthma, allergy, mood disorders, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...

  15. Debates in allergy medicine: baked milk and egg ingestion accelerates resolution of milk and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Cow's milk and hen's egg are ubiquitous in diets around the world and can be important sources of protein in young children. Unfortunately, milk and egg allergies are also some of the most common food allergies in childhood. Less allergenic forms of milk and egg due to heating and interactions with a food matrix, as in baked goods, are tolerated by a majority of milk- and egg-allergic patients. Adding baked milk and egg into the diets of milk- and egg-allergic children can broaden diets, increase nutrition, and improve quality of life. Most important, regular ingestion of baked milk and egg can help children outgrow their allergies to milk and egg. This article will review our current understanding of baked milk and egg tolerance and outline how these baked forms accelerates tolerance to regular milk and egg. PMID:26839628

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. PMID:26722671

  17. Identifying and managing Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2016-05-25

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630

  18. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    logistic regression analysis. Results An inverse association between contact allergy and non-melanoma skin- and breast cancer, respectively, was identified in both sexes, and an inverse trend for brain cancer was found in women with contact allergy. Additionally, a positive association between contact...... cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact allergy and cancer. Methods Record linkage of two different registers was performed: (1) a tertiary...... hospital register of dermatitis patients patch tested for contact allergy and (2) a nationwide cancer register (the Danish Cancer Register). After linking the two registers, only cancer subtypes with 40 or more patients registered were included in the analysis. The final associations were evaluated by...

  19. Clinical presentations of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Darlene K; Sharma, Hemant P

    2011-04-01

    Food allergies are immune-mediated responses to food proteins. Because of differences in the underlying immunologic mechanisms, there are varying clinical presentations of food allergy. This article discusses the manifestations of IgE-mediated disorders, including urticaria and angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, gastrointestinal anaphylaxis, generalized anaphylaxis, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and oral allergy syndrome. It also reviews the presentations of mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, including atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, the manifestations of cell-mediated food allergies are discussed, including dietary protein-induced proctitis and proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, celiac disease, and food-induced pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21453804

  20. Hypersensitivity and the working environment for allergy nurses in sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Pia Kalm-Stephens; Therese Sterner; Kerstin Kronholm Diab; Greta Smedje

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association ...

  1. The association between metal allergy, total hip arthroplasty, and revision

    OpenAIRE

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Engkilde, Kåre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Søballe, Kjeld; Menné, Torkil

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose It has been speculated that the prevalence of metal allergy may be higher in patients with implant failure. We compared the prevalence and cause of revisions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dermatitis patients suspected to have contact allergy and in patients in general with THA. Furthermore, we compared the prevalence of metal allergy in dermatitis patients with and without THA. Materials and methods The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHAR) contained detai...

  2. β-lactam allergy: clinical implications and costs

    OpenAIRE

    Satta, Giovanni; Hill, Victoria; Lanzman, Marisa; Balakrishnan, Indran

    2013-01-01

    Background β-lactam allergy is the most commonly reported medication allergy and it remains a key issue in antibiotic prescribing. A detailed and accurate history taking play a key role in preventing potentially serious clinical incidents and it may contribute in reducing costs. Methods Data were collected for patients with a documented penicillin allergy on their drug chart during a six month period. Sources included the inpatient drug charts and medical notes. Adherence to hospital guidelin...

  3. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...

  4. Allergy Test: Seasonal Allergens and Performance in School

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotte, Dave E.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal pollen allergies affect approximately 1 in 5 school age children. Clinical research has established that these allergies result in large and consistent decrements in cognitive functioning, problem solving ability and speed, focus and energy. However, the impact of seasonal allergies on achievement in schools has received no attention at all from economists. Here, I use data on daily pollen counts merged with school district data to assess whether variation in the airborne pollen that...

  5. Skin Prick Testing and Immunotherapy in Nasobronchial Allergy: Our Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Amrith; Sunaina Waghray, Sunaina; Nand Kishore, N. N.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study of 331 patients suffering from signs/symptoms of nasal allergy, 9 nasal polyps, allergic conjunctivitis and allergic asthma, who were referred by clinician, were taken up for diagnosis of allergy with skin prick test (Ten et al. Mayo Clin Proc 70(8):783–784, 1995) and subjective improvement of patients by immunotherapy. Out of 331 patients tested 321 patients showed significant positive results and rest of them tested negative for allergy. High incidences of positive resu...

  6. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2015-01-01

    David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory...... Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control...

  7. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contact allergy is a prevalent disorder. It is estimated that about 20% of the general population are allergic to one or more of the chemicals that constitute the European baseline patch test panel. While many studies have investigated associations between type I allergic disorders and cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact...

  8. 77 FR 20645 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

  9. 78 FR 26644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units...

  10. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  11. The peanut allergy epidemic: allergen molecular characterisation and prospects for specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria P; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2007-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, with increasing prevalence worldwide. To date, there is no cure for peanut allergy, and, unlike many other food allergies, it usually persists through to adulthood. Prevention of exposure to peanuts is managed through strict avoidance, which can be compromised by the frequent use of peanuts and peanut products in food preparations. Conventional subcutaneous-injection allergen immunotherapy using crude peanut extract is not a recommended treatment because of the risk of severe side effects, largely as a result of specific IgE antibodies. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a suitable peanut allergen preparation that can induce specific clinical and immunological tolerance to peanuts in allergic individuals without adverse side effects. This requires detailed molecular and immunological characterisation of the allergenic components of peanut. This article reviews current knowledge on clinically relevant peanut allergens, in particular Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, together with options for T-cell-reactive but non-IgE-binding allergen variants for specific immunotherapeutic strategies. These include T-cell-epitope peptide and hypoallergenic mutant vaccines. Alternative routes of administration such as sublingual are also considered, and appropriate adjuvants for delivering effective treatments at these sites examined. PMID:17210088

  12. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  13. New insights into diagnosis and treatment of peanut food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laurie A; Burks, A Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Peanut and/or tree nut allergy is a major health concern affecting over 1% of Americans. Although food allergy in general is the most common cause of anaphylaxis treated in emergency departments, reactions to nuts account for a disproportionate amount of deaths from food allergy. Peanut allergy is a Type I hypersensitivity (IgE mediated) immune response. Eight peanut allergens have been identified that are termed as Ara h 1 through Ara h 8. The diagnosis of peanut allergy can often be made or eliminated with a focused history and specific diagnostic testing. There is no effective method to cure peanut allergy. Therefore, the management of patients with peanut allergy focuses on 1) preventing inadvertent ingestions of peanut, 2) recognizing early signs of allergic reactions, and 3) properly treating peanut-induced symptoms should they occur. Epinephrine is clearly indicated for patients experiencing respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic compromise. Because inadvertent ingestion of peanut often leads to life threatening reactions and peanut allergy is often long-lived, many investigators are focusing on decreasing clinical reactivity after peanut allergy is established. PMID:19273280

  14. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Spring ... treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments available ...

  15. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  16. A prospective study of cow milk allergy in Danish infants during the first 3 years of life. Clinical course in relation to clinical and immunological type of hypersensitivity reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Halken, S

    1990-01-01

    than or equal to 2 organ systems. Based on a positive skin prick test (greater than or equal to 2+) and/or AL-RAST class greater than or equal to 2 to CM 16 infants at the time of diagnosis, and at reinvestigation at 1 year, a further five infants giving a total of 21, were classified as having Ig......E-mediated CMA, 19 infants showed "immediate reactions" to CM (within 1 h after intake of 2.3 g milk protein) and 20 infants were "late reactors". No significant correlation between IgE-mediated CMA and "immediate reactions" to CM was demonstrated. The overall prognosis of CMA was good with a total recovery of...

  17. Chemicals in food and allergy: fact and fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    influence allergic sensitization and elicitation in different ways: (i) they may directly cause allergy because they are allergens or haptens; (ii) they may act as adjuvants facilitating allergy to other (dietary) components; (iii) they may modulate the immune system by direct immunotoxicity and in theory...

  18. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  19. Role of cellular immunity in cow's milk allergy : pathogenesis, tolerance induction, and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Juandy; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Leon; Sandalova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow's milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow's milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow's milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune res...

  20. Cohort Profile: The HealthNuts Study: Population prevalence and environmental/genetic predictors of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Jennifer J; Wake, Melissa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Matheson, Melanie; Tang, Mimi L K; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dwyer, Terry; Peters, Rachel L; Prescott, Susan; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-08-01

    HealthNuts is a single-centre, multi-wave, population-based longitudinal study designed to assess prevalence, determinants, natural history and burden of allergy (particularly food allergy) in the early years of life. It is novel in the use of serial food challenge measures within its population frame to confirm food allergy. The cohort comprises 5276 children initially recruited at age 12 months from council-run immunization sessions across Melbourne, Australia. As well as parent-completed questionnaires and researcher-observed eczema status, all infants underwent skin-prick testing to egg, peanut, sesame and either cow's milk or shellfish, and those with detectable wheals underwent food challenges to determine clinical allergy. In wave 2, conducted at age 4 years, validated questionnaires collected data on asthma, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), eczema and food allergies. Food challenges were repeated in children previously identified as food allergic to determine resolution. In wave 3, all children (irrespective of food allergy status) were invited for clinical assessment at age 6 years, including lung function, physical measurements, skin-prick testing to foods and aeroallergens and food challenges if food sensitized. Biological specimens (blood, cheek swabs) were collected at each wave for ancillary immunological, genetic and epigenetic studies. Applications to access data and/or samples can be submitted to [katrina.allen@mcri.edu.au]. PMID:25613427

  1. Technical report on the development of egg allergy vaccine using novel technology fused with radiation technology and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy

  2. Technical report on the development of egg allergy vaccine using novel technology fused with radiation technology and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-15

    Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy.

  3. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  4. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T; Cauwenberge, P V; Akdis, C A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Fokkens, W J; Kauffmann, F; Kowalski, M L; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Toskala, E; Wickman, M; Anto, J; Auvergne, N; Bachert, C; Bousquet, P J; Brunekreef, B; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Gjomarkaj, M; Haahtela, T; Howarth, P; Lenzen, G; Lotvall, J; Radon, K; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Schünemann, H J; Szczecklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Valovirta, E; von Mutius, E; Zock, J P

    2009-01-01

    who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out...

  5. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2015-01-01

    David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory...... prevention, patient empowerment and cost-effective treatment strategies leading to a better health status of European citizens....

  6. The epidemiology of contact allergy. Allergen exposure and recent trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P

    2009-01-01

    Contact allergy is frequent among dermatitis patients and subjects in the general population. This review aims to update the reader on the epidemiology of contact allergy epidemics. It presents recent epidemiological data on metals, fragrances, hair dyes, preservatives and thiurams. It concludes...

  7. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered. PMID:26549334

  8. Food Allergy Symptoms and Diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Food allergy symptoms and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics) Author Wesley ... 2016. | This topic last updated: Oct 01, 2015. FOOD ALLERGY OVERVIEW — Reactions to food are common and can ...

  9. Managing Food Allergies at School: Teachers and Paraeducators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  10. The Porcine Immunology and Nutrition Resource Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse genomics-based databases have been developed to facilitate research with human and rodent models. Current porcine gene databases, however, lack the nutritional and immunological orientation and robust annotation to design effective molecular tools to study relevant pig models. To address t...

  11. Immunological Effects of Silica and Asbestos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takemi Otsuki; Fuminori Hyodoh; Ayako Ueki; Yasumitsu Nishimura; Megumi Maeda; Shuko Murakami; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yoshie Miura; Masayasu Kusaka; Takashi Nakano; Kazuya Fukuoka; Takumi Kishimoto

    2007-01-01

    Silicosis patients (SILs) and patients who have been exposed to asbestos develop not only respiratory diseases but also certain immunological disorders. In particular, SIL sometimes complicates autoimmune diseases such as systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (known as Caplan syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematoses. In addition, malignant complications such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma often occurr in patients exposed to asbestos, and may be involved in the reduction of tumor immunity. Although silica-induced disorders of autoimmunity have been explained as adjuvant-type effects of silica, more precise analyses are needed and should reflect the recent progress in immunomolecular findings. A brief summary of our investigations related to the immunological effects of silica/asbestos is presented. Recent advances in immunomolecular studies led to detailed analyses of the immunological effects of asbestos and silica. Both affect immuno-competent cells and these effects may be associated with the pathophysiological development of complications in silicosis and asbestos-exposed patients such as the occurrence of autoimmune disorders and malignant tumors, respectively. In addition,immunological analyses may lead to the development of new clinical tools for the modification of the pathophysiological aspects of diseases such as the regulation of autoimmunity or tumor immunity using cellmediated therapies, various cytokines, and molecule-targeting therapies. In particular, as the incidence of asbestosrelated malignancies is increasing and such malignancies have been a medical and social problem since the summer of 2005 in Japan, efforts should be focused on developing a cure for these diseases to eliminate nationwide anxiety.

  12. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen...... (SLIT), and 8 (placebo) patients after treatment compared to 10, 4, and 10 patients, respectively, before SIT. The symptom scores to apple during challenges decreased in all groups, but only significantly in the placebo group (p = 0.03). As evaluated by the questionnaire, the severity of food allergy in......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...

  13. Immunology of Paratuberculosis Infection and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

  14. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...

  15. Environmental biodiversity, human microbiota, and allergy are interrelated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; von Hertzen, Leena; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Torppa, Kaisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Karisola, Piia; Auvinen, Petri; Paulin, Lars; Mäkelä, Mika J; Vartiainen, Erkki; Kosunen, Timo U; Alenius, Harri; Haahtela, Tari

    2012-05-22

    Rapidly declining biodiversity may be a contributing factor to another global megatrend--the rapidly increasing prevalence of allergies and other chronic inflammatory diseases among urban populations worldwide. According to the "biodiversity hypothesis," reduced contact of people with natural environmental features and biodiversity may adversely affect the human commensal microbiota and its immunomodulatory capacity. Analyzing atopic sensitization (i.e., allergic disposition) in a random sample of adolescents living in a heterogeneous region of 100 × 150 km, we show that environmental biodiversity in the surroundings of the study subjects' homes influenced the composition of the bacterial classes on their skin. Compared with healthy individuals, atopic individuals had lower environmental biodiversity in the surroundings of their homes and significantly lower generic diversity of gammaproteobacteria on their skin. The functional role of the gram-negative gammaproteobacteria is supported by in vitro measurements of expression of IL-10, a key anti-inflammatory cytokine in immunologic tolerance, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In healthy, but not in atopic, individuals, IL-10 expression was positively correlated with the abundance of the gammaproteobacterial genus Acinetobacter on the skin. These results raise fundamental questions about the consequences of biodiversity loss for both allergic conditions and public health in general. PMID:22566627

  16. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  17. Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in allergic asthma: immunologic mechanisms and improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a disease characterized by persistent allergen-driven airway inflammation, remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. CD4+ T-cells, especially T-helper type 2 cells, play a critical role in orchestrating the disease process through the release of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is currently the only treatment with a long-term effect via modifying the natural course of allergy by interfering with the underlying immunological mechanisms. However, although SIT is effective in allergic rhinitis and insect venom allergy, in allergic asthma it seldom results in complete alleviation of the symptoms. Improvement of SIT is needed to enhance its efficacy in asthmatic patients. Herein, the immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SIT are discussed with the ultimate aim to improve its treatment efficacy.

  18. Fragrance allergy and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...

  19. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also used as a sweetener in some soft drinks and fruit drinks. When the body doesn’t ... is present in high concentrations in non-diet soft drinks and most fruit juices. To confirm fructose intolerance, ...

  20. Hypersensitivity and the working environment for allergy nurses in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Sterner, Therese; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Smedje, Greta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results. PMID:24803940

  1. Hypersensitivity and the Working Environment for Allergy Nurses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kalm-Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.

  2. Atopic cough and fungal allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of “idiopathic cough” in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as “a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT),” which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  3. [Allergy, pollen and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor

    2009-01-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants. PMID:19685827

  4. Molecular and immunological characterisation of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2006-01-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) bind a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analysed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognise a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with p...

  5. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort. PMID:26739411

  6. Comparative Anatomy of Phagocytic and immunological Synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Niedergang, Florence; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all ...

  7. Clinical presentation, allergens, and management of wheat allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins can be caused by exposure through ingestion, inhalation, or skin/mucosal contact, and can affect various populations and age groups. Respiratory allergy to wheat proteins is commonly observed in adult patients occupationally exposed to flour, whereas wheat food allergy is more common in children. Wheat allergy is of growing importance for patients with recurrent anaphylaxis, especially when exercise related. The diagnosis of wheat allergy relies on a consistent clinical history, skin prick testing with well-characterized extracts and specific IgE tests. The accuracy of wheat allergy diagnosis may be improved by measuring IgE responses to several wheat components. However, a high degree of heterogeneity has been found in the recognition pattern of allergens among patient groups with different clinical profiles, as well as within each group. Thus, oral provocation with wheat or the implicated cereal is the reference test for the definitive diagnosis of ingested wheat/cereal allergy. PMID:26800201

  8. Comorbidity, distress, coping and social support in asthma and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and allergies are some of the most common illnesses worldwide that almost everybody will come in contact with. This thesis studied persons with allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in a population-based sample. At an early stage, these illnesses were regarded as psychosomatic. Over time, as knowledge about asthma/allergy has increased more of a biomedical perspective was taken by the research field. In considering early documentations well as co...

  9. Novel immunotherapeutic approaches for allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mubeccel; Crameri, Reto; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-11-01

    The immune response is a tightly regulated process, which normally results in protection from infection and tolerance of innocuous environmental antigens. However, in allergic disease, the activated immune response results in a chronic pro-inflammatory state characterized by antibody secretion (IgE) and T cell activation to normally well-tolerated antigens. Currently, the treatment of allergic disease is focused on the suppression of key inflammatory mediators or inflammatory cell populations and include anti-histamines, anti-leukotrienes, β2 adrenergic receptor agonists and corticosteroids. However, these approaches only provide a temporary suppression of disease symptoms. Successful long-term treatment can only be provided by allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT), which restores normal immunity against allergens. This review will discuss novel approaches to the management of allergy and asthma by targeting the T regulatory cell via modulation of the commensal microbiota and allergen-SIT. PMID:20380589

  10. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Developing from Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Mohammed Morad; Joav Merrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how consciousness-based holistic medicine can be used in the case of asthma, allergy, and eczema. We have many fine drugs to relieve patients from the worst of these symptoms, where many children and adults suffer health problems related to hyper-reactivity of the immune system. Many symptoms remain throughout life because the drugs do not cure the allergy and allergy today is the sixth leading cause of chronic illness. The etiology of the immune disturbances is mostly unknow...

  11. Delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media. Second expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials of the second expert meeting of medical radiologists of USA, Germany, and Japan concerning delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media (XRCM) are briefly considered. Attention is paid to the experimental and clinical data on the application of nonionic dimers, pathophysiological and immunological aspects of the reaction to XRCM, certain models and hypotheses, allergy to XRCM

  12. CUTANEOUS DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY: IMMUNOLOGICAL AND GENETIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Kisalay Ghosh; Gautam Banerjee; Asok Kumar Ghosal; Jayoti Nandi

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and ph...

  13. Contact allergy and depigmentation from alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkner, B E

    1982-05-01

    Alstroemeria plants have increased in popularity in recent years, but surprisingly few cases of contact allergy have been reported. Observations of combined sensitivity between Alstroemeria and Tulipa have given support to the assumption that they contain identical sensitizing agents. A patient working as a gardner developed a dermatitis from Alstroemeria. Patch tests with Alstroemeria were positive, but patch tests with Tulipa were negative. 2 months after test application, the patient showed depigmented areas at the test sites and at the sites of a previous dermatitis. The depigmented test areas remained unchanged at least a year after test application. Whether the depigmentation was due to some unique character of the molecular structure of the unknown Alstroemeria allergen, or to a unique biological characteristic of the patient, remains to be determined. PMID:6212185

  14. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models. PMID:27011048

  15. Allergies And Asthma : Employing Principles Of Social Justice As A Guide In Public Health Policy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Behrmann

    2010-01-01

    The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a ste...

  16. Prevention of Allergies and Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already exhibit allergic symptoms of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis or asthma. Restricting a mother's diet of specific ... allergies, there are steps you can take to control dust mites. Use zippered, "allergen-impermeable" covers on ...

  17. Food allergy: an enigmatic epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-08-01

    Food allergy is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Current research efforts are focused on understanding the immune basis of food allergy, identifying environmental factors that may contribute to its rising prevalence, and developing immunotherapeutic approaches to establish immune tolerance to foods. Technological advances such as peptide microarray and MHC class II tetramers have begun to provide a comprehensive profile of the immune response to foods. The burgeoning field of mucosal immunology has provided intriguing clues to the role of the diet and the microbiota as risk factors in the development of food allergy. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge that need answers to stem the progression of this disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:23648309

  18. Lanolin allergy: history, epidemiology, responsible allergens, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bailey; Warshaw, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to lanolin has been recognized by dermatologists for decades. This review summarizes the history, epidemiology, and allergenicity of lanolin and its derivatives. "The lanolin paradox" and the safety of pharmaceutical-grade lanolin products are also discussed. PMID:18413106

  19. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  20. Interfacing computers and the internet with your allergy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2004-10-01

    Computers and the internet have begun to play a prominent role in the medical profession and, in particular, the allergy specialty. Computer technology is being used more frequently for patient and physician education, asthma management in children and adults, including environmental control, generating patient databases for research and clinical practice and in marketing and e-commerce. This article will review how computers and the internet have begun to interface with the allergy subspecialty practice in these various areas. PMID:15576895

  1. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  2. Communication needs and food allergy : an analysis of stakeholder views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Crevel, R.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.; Grimshaw, K.; Guidonet Riera, A.; Gowland, H.; Knibb, R.; Koch, P.; Madson, C.; Mills, C.; Palkonen, S.; Pfaff, S.; Roccaldo, R.; Scholderer, J.; Ueland, O.; Valovirta, E.; Verbeke, W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers, manu

  3. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.;

    2007-01-01

    food allergies. New instruments to assess the socioeconomic impact of food allergy are being developed in the project and their application in the clinical cohorts will allow, for the first time, an assessment to be made of the burden this disease places on allergy sufferers and their communities.......The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...... diagnostics make food challenges the only reliable means of diagnosis in many instances. The EuroPrevall project brings together a multidisciplinary partnership to address these issues. Cohorts spanning the main climatic regions of Europe are being developed in infants through a birth cohort, community...

  4. Food allergy: Definitions,prevalence,diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk;

    2015-01-01

    to dietary habits. Molecular allergology and biotechnology now offer the possibility to combat the increasing burden of food allergy by developing safe immunotherapies for food allergy, using hypoallergenic mutant recombinant molecules. The first clinical trials to evaluate such approaches are underway. Last......Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune...... disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac...

  5. Food allergy:definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K.; Wong, Gary WK; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the th...

  6. Subsets of regulatory T cells and their roles in allergy

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HUIYUN; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Guo, Lianyi; Sun, Xiaoyun; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it is recognized that acquired immunity is controlled by regulatory T cell (Treg). Since fundamental pathophysiological changes of allergy are mainly caused by hyperresponsiveness of immune system to allergens that acquires after birth, Tregs likely play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, particularly during the sensitization phase. However, accumulated information indicate that there are several distinctive subtypes of Tregs in man, and each of them seems to play diff...

  7. ALIMENTARY ALLERGY AND HYPERSENSIVITY TO SOYA BEAN PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Gervazieva; V. V. Sveranovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In connection with the increasing number of allergic diseases in Russia and in the world, the exogenic factor responsible for the development of food allergy in children have been discussed. The main types of alimentary allergens have been determined; their biochemical features, as well as aggravation of the food allergy clinical symptoms to the extent of anaphylaxis, have been reported. With the development of genetic engineering food products, the special attention has been paid t...

  8. Signs and Symptoms of Food Allergy and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hemant P; Bansil, Shweta; Uygungil, Burcin

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence. In order for pediatric clinicians to appropriately diagnose and manage food allergies, the characteristic signs and symptoms of these potentially severe reactions must be recognized. Unlike nonimmunologic adverse food reactions (such as lactose intolerance and food poisoning), food allergies by definition are immune-mediated responses that occur reproducibly on food ingestion. The varying clinical presentations of food allergy include IgE-mediated disorders, mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, and cell-mediated food allergies. This review describes the clinical manifestations of each of these categories of food allergy, with special emphasis on recognition of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:26456438

  9. Immunology and Genetic of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C. Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the third trimester of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality, and fetal death, especially in developing countries, but its aetiology remains unclear. Key findings support a causal role of superficial placentation driven by immune mal maladaptation, which then lead to reduced concentrations of angiogenic growth factors and to an increase in placental debris in the maternal circulation resulting in a maternal inflammatory response. Epidemiological research has consistently demonstrated a substantial familial predisposition to preeclampsia. Unfortunately, the conquest of the genes explaining such a individual susceptibility has been proved to be a hard task. However, genetics will also inform us about causality of environmental factors, and then serve as a tool to prioritize therapeutic targets for preventive strategies.

  10. B cells and immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez-Orduño, Nataly; Quách, Tâm D; Sanz, Iñaki

    2009-02-01

    Work from multiple groups continues to provide additional evidence for the powerful and highly diverse roles, both protective and pathogenic, that B cells play in autoimmune diseases. Similarly, it has become abundantly clear that antibody-independent functions may account for the opposing influences that B cells exercise over other arms of the immune response and ultimately over autoimmunity itself. Finally, it is becoming apparent that the clinical impact of B-cell depletion therapy may be, to a large extent, determined by the functional balance between different B-cell subsets that may be generated by this therapeutic intervention. In this review, we postulate that our perspective of B-cell tolerance and our experimental approach to its understanding are fundamentally changed by this view of B cells. Accordingly, we first discuss current knowledge of B-cell tolerance conventionally defined as the censoring of autoantibody-producing B cells (with an emphasis on human B cells). Therefore, we discuss a different model that contemplates B cells not only as targets of tolerance but also as mediators of tolerance. This model is based on the notion that the onset of clinical autoimmune disease may require a B-cell gain-of-pathogenic function (or a B-cell loss-of-regulatory-function) and that accordingly, disease remission may depend on the restoration of the physiological balance between B-cell pathogenic and protective functions. PMID:19148217

  11. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy. PMID:26595763

  12. Food allergy and Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Feei eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy.Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusions: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy.

  13. How accurate and safe is diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, de S.C.; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, van R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions. D

  14. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, S. de; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions. D

  15. 550 The Impact of Nasal Allergies: Results from the Allergies Surveys in America, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Blaiss, Michael S; Katelaris, Connie; Neffen, Hugo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Allergies surveys have been conducted in several regions of the world, and provide the first worldwide comparative data on the prevalence and impact of nasal allergies. Here we report specifically on the impact of nasal allergies on daily life and work productivity in America (AIA), Asia Pacific (AIAP), Latin America (AILA) and Middle East (AIME) surveys. Methods Patients who were previously diagnosed by a health care professional with nasal allergies (hay fever, allergic rhini...

  16. Immunology and immunity against infection: General rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2005-12-01

    Simplified and generalizable rules of immune responses against infections or vaccines have been summarized into 20 statements previously (Scand. J. Immunol. 60 (2004) 9-13) and are restated in a slightly different form here. The key terms of immunology (e.g. specificity, tolerance and memory) are explained in terms of their co-evolutionary importance in the equilibrium between infectious agents and diseases with higher vertebrate hosts. Specificity is best defined by protective antibodies or protective activated T cells; e.g. serotype specific neutralizing antibodies against polio viruses represent the discriminatory power of an immune response very well indeed. Tolerance is reviewed in terms of reactivity rather than self-nonself discrimination. Immune respones are deleted against antigens expressed at sufficient levels within the lymphoheamopoetic system, but may well exist at both, the T and the B cell level against antigens strictly outside of secondary lymphatic organs. In this respect the immune system behaves identically against virus infections and against self antigens. Persistent virus infections delete responsive T cells, once eliminated immune T cell responses wane, if a virus keeps outside of secondary lymphatic tissues no immune response is induced. Immunological memory is usually defined as earlier and greater responses but this does not correlate with protective immunity stringently. It is summarized here that pre-existing titers of protective neutralizing antibodies or pre-existence of activated T cells are the correlates of protection acute cytopathic lethal infections and toxins or against intracellular parasites. It is concluded that many discrepancies and uncertainties in immunological research derive from model situations and experimental results that are correctly measured but cannot be related to co-evolutionary contexts, i.e. survival.

  17. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  18. Studies on Immunological Effect and Immunological Mechanism Avian Encephalomyelitis Oil Emulsion Inactivated Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zi-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-hua; RI Mudema

    2002-01-01

    Oil emulsion inactivated vaccine was prepared by susceptible embryos, with different strains of AEV. Four groups of normal chickens of 2 - 7 days of age were given injections for immunization, respectively. Another group was used as control. This study was expected to evaluate the immunological effect and discuss the immunological mechanism by means of five different experiments, i.e. the agar-gel precipitin test,the isolation of lymphokine, the isolation, purification and analysis of blood serum IgG, embryo-susceptibility test, and clinical and pathological examination. The results of these experiments indicated that oil emulsion inactivated vaccine is safe and effective. The chickens were normal when inoculated with AE strong virus after immunity at 4 and 37 weeks. Immunological mechanism is that the humoral immunity played an important role and celluar immunity exists, but it is not important in the process of the resistance to AEV.

  19. Formaldehyde exposure and patterns of concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Johansen, Jeanne D; Carlsen, Berit C;

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are widely used in consumer products and may often cause contact allergy.......Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are widely used in consumer products and may often cause contact allergy....

  20. Selected Topics on Mathematical Models in Immunology and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, R.R.; Asachenkov, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988 the new IIASA project on System Immunology was inaugurated. The new activity focuses theoretical and experimental research in immunology and system mathematics to experimental planning and prediction for relevant disease applications and systematic understanding of immunology. IIASA analysis and simulation should lead to an effective plan of successive experiments to identify and to quantify particularly sensitive parameters in this most complex system of information processing, decis...

  1. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental microbiology does not deal with all aspects of immunology or the immune responses per se, but instead adapts immunology-based research technologies or immunoassays for the study of microorganisms and chemical contaminants in association with the environment. The primary immunologic-bas...

  3. Sesame seed allergy: Clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollahi MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.

  4. Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  5. Interleukin-23: immunological roles and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zi Yan; Bealgey, Kenneth W; Fang, Yong; Gong, Yang Ming; Bao, Shisan

    2009-04-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed the importance of IL-23, which closely resembles IL-12 both structurally and immunologically, in linking innate and adaptive immunity. IL-23, produced by activated type 1 macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), possesses unique roles in the differentiation and expansion of memory T cells. IL-23 has been associated with several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis, mainly due to its capacity to induce a strong Th1 type immune response. IL-23 is also associated with Th17 responses and the cytokine produced by the antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e. IL-12 vs IL-23 determines in part if a response is Th1 or Th17. Recent studies have also associated chronic inflammatory diseases such as IBD, psoriasis and myocardial infarction with polymorphisms of the IL-23 receptor complex. The current review focuses on the immunological role of IL-23 and possible therapeutic avenues for inflammatory diseases. PMID:18725317

  6. Mechanisms of immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Herman

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in establishing diagnostic markers of immunological tolerance applicable to efforts to minimize drug immunosuppression in transplantation and chronic immunological diseases. It is hoped that an understanding of the diverse mechanisms that can contribute to tolerance will guide efforts to establish diagnostic tolerance biomarkers. Not only would these be valuable for management of autoimmune diseases, transplants and allergies, but they might also guide efforts to override tolerance processes in cancer and vaccine development. Where tolerance is generated by deletion or inactivation of antigen reactive lymphocytes, it is unlikely that any long-term-valid blood biomarkers might be found. Where tolerance is mediated by active regulatory mechanisms, indicators that can be usefully measured may emerge, but these would likely show significant heterogeneity reflecting the diversity of active tolerance processes operating in different individuals. Given this, the most useful "kits" might be those "smart" enough to detect this diversity of tolerance players. PMID:26036868

  7. Chemicals in food and allergy: fact and fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of the atopic diseases asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema has increased in the past two to three decades. It is not unusual to read the statement that food additives and other chemicals in food increase the risk of allergy. From a theoretical standpoint chemicals in the diet may...... influence allergic sensitization and elicitation in different ways: (i) they may directly cause allergy because they are allergens or haptens; (ii) they may act as adjuvants facilitating allergy to other (dietary) components; (iii) they may modulate the immune system by direct immunotoxicity and in theory...... be able ta change the balance from tolerance to IgE production; and (iv) they may trigger non-allergic intolerance reactions. With the present knowledge of chemicals in foods, the human exposure to these chemicals, and the described trends in this exposure, there is no supportive evidence confirming...

  8. Role of Cellular Immunity in Cow’s Milk Allergy: Pathogenesis, Tolerance Induction, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Juandy Jo; Johan Garssen; Leon Knippels; Elena Sandalova

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow’s milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow’s milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow’s milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow’s milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune res...

  9. Vaccines for allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based o...

  10. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    OpenAIRE

    Barnathan Julia A; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Amsden Laura B; Tummala Lakshmi S; Holl Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus gro...

  11. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Muhammad; Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Roohi, Nabila; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Shahid; Ismail, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of food allergy in the adult allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad , Pakistan, based on self-report, skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge test (OFC). SPT was used for the estimation of sensitization to wheat, egg, milk, beef, chicken, mutton, fish, corn, lentils, rice, soya, peanut and banana. Among 689 patients, 39.19 % showed sensitivity to one or more foods, where, sensitization to wheat (156; 22.6 %) was highest, followed by egg (148; 21.48 %) and milk (138; 20.03 %). Sensitization to various proteins ranged between 15.53-15.97 %, while lentils, corn, rice, soya and peanut sensitization was 15.4, 16, 12.5, 12 and 11.5 % respectively. Only 7.1 % patients were SPT positive for banana allergen. SPT was performed in patients with self-reported food allergy (341/689) and also with no self-reported history of food allergy (348/689). SPT results were positive in 69.8 % of the self-report group, whereas, in the patients with no self-reported food allergy 9.2 % were found sensitized to one or more tested food allergens. 101 patients were recruited for OFC, 61 % of these were confirmed of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy in the study population was 9 %. Food specific OFC results show that wheat allergy is affecting 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.9-2.84 %) of the total allergy patients, followed by egg allergy 1.31 % (95 % CI 0.70-2.47 %). Furthermore, corn allergy, rice allergy and peanut allergy were 1.02, 0.87 and 0.73 %, respectively. In conclusion, wheat allergy is the most prevalent, followed by egg, chicken, beef and fish allergy, respectively. PMID:27563525

  12. Subsets of regulatory T cells and their roles in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyun; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Guo, Lianyi; Sun, Xiaoyun; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it is recognized that acquired immunity is controlled by regulatory T cell (Treg). Since fundamental pathophysiological changes of allergy are mainly caused by hyperresponsiveness of immune system to allergens that acquires after birth, Tregs likely play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, particularly during the sensitization phase. However, accumulated information indicate that there are several distinctive subtypes of Tregs in man, and each of them seems to play different role in controlling immune system, which complicates the involvement of Tregs in allergy. The aim of the present study is to attempt to classify subtypes of Tregs and summarize their roles in allergy. Tregs should include natural Tregs (nTreg) including inducible costimulator (ICOS)(+) Tregs, inducible/adaptive Tregs (iTreg), interleukin (IL)-10-producing type 1 Tregs (Tr1 cells), CD8(+) Tregs and IL-17-producing Tregs. These cells share some common features including expression of Foxp3 (except for Tr1 cells), and secretion of inhibitory cytokine IL-10 and/or TGF-β. Furthermore, it is noticeable that Tregs likely contribute to allergic disorders such as dermatitis and airway inflammation, and play a crucial role in the treatment of allergy through their actions on suppression of effector T cells and inhibition of activation of mast cells and basophils. Modulation of functions of Tregs may provide a novel strategy to prevent and treat allergic diseases. PMID:24886492

  13. Symptoms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O

    1985-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357

  14. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

  15. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  16. 78 FR 20933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications...

  17. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most severe complications of cirrhosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Liver fibrosis and liver insufficiency, portal hypertension, systemic vasodilation, and a subsequent hyperdynamic circulation undermine the renal and cardiac...... function, making cirrhotic patients more susceptible to hemodynamic incidents. In addition, the immune system is impaired in cirrhosis, leading to an exaggerated production of vasoactive mediators, and the adrenal cortisol response is insufficient, which causes further impairment of the vascular tonus...... dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...

  18. Developments in the field of allergy in 2014 through the eyes of Clinical and Experimental Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, B J; Hizawa, N; Jenmalm, M; Sverremark-Ekström, E; Wardlaw, A J

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma continues to be a major topic of interest to our authors with reviews and original papers on the role of viruses, mechanisms of inflammation, biomarkers, and phenotypes of asthma being major topics. A number of papers described new treatments for asthma focusing on blocking the Th2 response reflecting the fact that two decades of work in this area is finally bearing fruit. The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis is a growing area of interest, but there has been less on the genetics of airways disease than in previous years possibly reflecting the degree of rigour (and therefore a smaller body of work), with which these sorts of studies are now being undertaken. There continues to be a wide range of papers dealing with mechanisms of allergic disease ranging from clinical-based studies to basic research and the use of in vivo animal models especially mice. As before, mechanisms and new approaches to immunotherapy are common themes. Several were published in the allergens section investigating modification of allergens to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of adverse events. Risk factors for allergic disease was a common theme in the epidemiology section and food allergy a common theme in clinical allergy with papers on the development of protocols to induce tolerance and attempts to find biomarkers to distinguish sensitization from allergic disease. This was another exciting year for the editors, and we hope the readers of the journal. PMID:26492197

  19. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. Symptoms ...

  20. Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and ... Four out of every 100 children have a food allergy. In 2007, an estimated 3 million children ...

  1. Evaluation of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Allergy and Asthma in an African American Urban Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Asthma and allergy represent complex phenotypes, which disproportionately burden ethnic minorities in the United States. Strong evidence for genomic factors predisposing subjects to asthma/allergy is available. However, methods to utilize this information to identify ...

  2. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  3. The association between metal allergy, total knee arthroplasty, and revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Henrik J; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Olesen, Jens T; Menné, Torkil; Søballe, Kjeld; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - It is unclear whether delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions against implanted metals play a role in the etiopathogenesis of malfunctioning total knee arthroplasties. We therefore evaluated the association between metal allergy, defined as a positive patch test reaction to...... common metal allergens, and revision surgery in patients who underwent knee arthroplasty. Patients and methods - The nationwide Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register, including all knee-implanted patients and revisions in Denmark after 1997 (n = 46,407), was crosslinked with a contact allergy patch test...... database from the greater Copenhagen area (n = 27,020). Results - 327 patients were registered in both databases. The prevalence of contact allergy to nickel, chromium, and cobalt was comparable in patients with and without revision surgery. However, in patients with 2 or more episodes of revision surgery...

  4. Concurrent exposure to microbial products and food antigens triggers initiation of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chang Yang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that as much as 6-8% population suffers from food allergy or food antigen-related disorders. The prevalence keeps rising. So far we do not have identified remedy to treat food allergy. Avoidance of the offending food is the only effective method currently. Skewed T helper 2 polarization is one of the major feature in the pathogenesis of food allergy. However, the causative mechanism in the initiation of food allergy remains to be further understood. Research in food allergy has got giant advance in recent years. Several animal models have been established and used in food allergy study. One of the common features of these food allergy animal models is that most of them require using microbial products as adjuvant to sensitize animals. This review documents the recent advance in the mechanistic study on concurrent use of microbial products and food antigens to study food allergy.

  5. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fight the Cause of Allergies CIU & You Get Smart About Asthma Know Your Count Tackle Asthma Tackle ... leaks. Promote ground water drainage away from a house. Remove leaves and dead vegetation near the foundation ...

  6. Latex Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... requires immediate medical attention. The thin, stretchy latex rubber in gloves, condoms and balloons is high in this protein. ... Latex is a rubber product. Am I at risk for other rubber allergies? What products contain latex? How do I ...

  7. Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce the severity of pollen allergy symptoms. Antihistamines Antihistamines, which are taken by mouth or as a ... to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness. Some older antihistamines can cause side effects such as drowsiness and ...

  8. Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-04-01

    The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(4):e150-e156.]. PMID:27064473

  9. Cow’s-milk protein allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğba Koca; Mustafa Akçam

    2015-01-01

    Cow's Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood. It affects between 2% and 3% of infants. Symptoms and signs related to CMPA which IgE-mediated or non IgE-mediated may involve many different organ systems. The first and most important step in diagnosis is a thorough medical history. Results of laboratory tests alone are not sufficient to make diagnosis, always need to be considered together with the clinical features. CMPA can occur with multiple immunolog...

  10. Pharmacologic options for the treatment and management of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224

  11. 78 FR 70065 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

  12. 77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., lr228v@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

  13. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  14. Early Life Eczema, Food Introduction, and Risk of Food Allergy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajesh; Caruso, Deanna M.; Arguelles, Lester; Kim, Jennifer S; Schroeder, Angela; Rowland, Brooke; Meyer, Katie E.; Schwarz, Kristin E.; Birne, Jennafer S.; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-01-01

    The effect of food introduction timing on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We sought to examine whether the presence of childhood eczema changes the relationship between timing of food introduction and food allergy. The analysis includes 960 children recruited as part of a family-based food allergy cohort. Food allergy was determined by objective symptoms developing within 2 hours of ingestion, corroborated by skin prick testing/specific IgE. Physician diagnosis of eczem...

  15. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  16. Alcohol and immunology: Summary of the 2012 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year’s meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immu...

  17. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca

    -, č. 3 (2011), s. 1421-1431. ISSN 1945-0524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammation * tumor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01


    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe all

  19. Chromium allergy and dermatitis: prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    The history of chromium as an allergen goes back more than a century, and includesan interventional success with national legislation that led to significant changes inthe epidemiology of chromium allergy in construction workers. The 2015 EU Leather Regulation once again put a focus on chromium...

  20. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Shellfish Allergy Print A A ... Home en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  1. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  2. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  3. Infant feeding, wheezing, and allergy: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, M. L.; Limb, E S; Maguire, M J; Amarah, L; Eldridge, B. A.; Layzell, J C; Merrett, T G

    1993-01-01

    The determinants of wheezing and allergy were investigated in 453 children with a family history of allergic disease. A randomised controlled trial examined the effects of withholding cows' milk protein during the first three months of life and replacing cows' milk with soya milk. The children were followed up to the age of 7 years. Withholding cows' milk did not reduce the incidence of allergy or wheezing. Children who had ever been breast fed had a lower incidence of wheeze than those who h...

  4. Quality of life in food allergy : valid scales for children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to give an overview of how health-related quality of life (HRQL) can be measured in food allergy and to explore recent findings on how food allergy might impact HRQL. Recent findings In addition to the more familiar burdens of having a food allergy, th

  5. Development and validation of a self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Child Form

  6. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo

  7. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo

  8. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies in such disorders as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Inner-City Asthma Consortium: Since 1991, the NIAID ... reactions. Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies / Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment / Seasonal ...

  9. Immunological network signatures of cancer progression and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavelle Timothy J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune contribution to cancer progression is complex and difficult to characterize. For example in tumors, immune gene expression is detected from the combination of normal, tumor and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Profiling the immune component of tumors may facilitate the characterization of the poorly understood roles immunity plays in cancer progression. However, the current approaches to analyze the immune component of a tumor rely on incomplete identification of immune factors. Methods To facilitate a more comprehensive approach, we created a ranked immunological relevance score for all human genes, developed using a novel strategy that combines text mining and information theory. We used this score to assign an immunological grade to gene expression profiles, and thereby quantify the immunological component of tumors. This immunological relevance score was benchmarked against existing manually curated immune resources as well as high-throughput studies. To further characterize immunological relevance for genes, the relevance score was charted against both the human interactome and cancer information, forming an expanded interactome landscape of tumor immunity. We applied this approach to expression profiles in melanomas, thus identifying and grading their immunological components, followed by identification of their associated protein interactions. Results The power of this strategy was demonstrated by the observation of early activation of the adaptive immune response and the diversity of the immune component during melanoma progression. Furthermore, the genome-wide immunological relevance score classified melanoma patient groups, whose immunological grade correlated with clinical features, such as immune phenotypes and survival. Conclusions The assignment of a ranked immunological relevance score to all human genes extends the content of existing immune gene resources and enriches our understanding

  10. Characterisation of equine macrophage-derived chemokine and its expression in the skin of horses with recurrent urticaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Jozef; Roosje, P.; Marti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, S1 (2013), s. 341-341. ISSN 0105-4538. [World Allergy and Asthma Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and World Allergy Organization. 22.07.2013-26.07.2013, Milan] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : recurrent urticaria Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... proteins that cause allergic reactions. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins ...

  12. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells and acquired (Th2 cells allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.

  13. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T;

    2014-01-01

    set up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns......Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practice life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and...... expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to...

  14. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Kazufumi Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells) and acquired (Th2 cells) allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy',...

  15. Reducing the incidence of allergy and intolerance to cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, allergies and certain food intolerances have shown a worldwide gradual increase in prevalence, concomitantly with economic growth, urbanization, and changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns. They are triggered in humans with an unbalanced immune system and intestinal micro-fl

  16. Communication needs and food allergy : an analysis of stakeholder views

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, S.; van Crevel, R.; Chryssochoidis, G; Frewer, L.J.; Grimshaw, K.; Guidonet Riera, A.; Gowland, H.; Knibb, R.; Koch, P.; Madson, C.; C. Mills; Palkonen, S; Pfaff, S.; Roccaldo, R.; Scholderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers, manufacturers, caterers and the general public. Communication needs are reviewed both generally and specifically from the perspectives of different stakeholders. A stakeholder consultation was conducte...

  17. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  18. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  19. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Developing from Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how consciousness-based holistic medicine can be used in the case of asthma, allergy, and eczema. We have many fine drugs to relieve patients from the worst of these symptoms, where many children and adults suffer health problems related to hyper-reactivity of the immune system. Many symptoms remain throughout life because the drugs do not cure the allergy and allergy today is the sixth leading cause of chronic illness. The etiology of the immune disturbances is mostly unknown from a biomedical perspective. Consciousness-based holistic medicine could therefore be used to treat these diseases if the patient is willing to confront hidden existential pain, is motivated to work hard, and is dedicated to improve quality of life, quality of working life, and personal relationships. Improving quality of life is not always an easy job for the patient, but it can be done with coaching from the physician. An increased physical health is often observed after only a few sessions with a physician skilled in using holistic medical tools and able to coach the patient successfully through a few weeks of dedicated homework. Children with allergy and asthma can also be helped if their parents are able to do work on personal development, to improve the general quality of life in the family and their relationship with the child.

  20. Communication needs and food allergy: a summary of stakeholder views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Valovirta, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to elicit information about the specific information needs of different stakeholders and end-users. An essential part of food allergy prevention includes the development of effective communication strategies to all stakeholders and end-users of this information

  1. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.; Beyer, K.; Frewer, L.J.; Madsen, C.; Botjes, E.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Ree, van R.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vi

  2. Self‐reported food and drug allergy in Maputo, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Lunet, N; Falcão, H; Sousa, M; Bay, N.; Barros, H.

    2005-01-01

    Public Health. 2005 Jul;119(7):587-9. Self-reported food and drug allergy in Maputo, Mozambique. Lunet N, Falcão H, Sousa M, Bay N, Barros H. SourceDepartment of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Portugal. PMID: 15925673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

  3. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  4. Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)

  5. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efifcacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  6. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  7. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  8. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies. In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  9. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed......In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial......, whether the active agents from apples and potatoes were extremely labile allergens, plant lectins, or low molecular weight substances with a direct or indirect histamine release effect....

  10. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amato Gennaro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  11. β‐Glucan supplementation, allergy symptoms, and quality of life in self‐described ragweed allergy sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Talbott, Tracy L; Dingler, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared the effects of daily supplementation for 4 week with 250 mg Wellmune WGP® β-1,3/1,6-Glucan (WGP) with placebo 250 mg/day (rice flour) on physical and psychological health attributes of self-described “moderate” ragweed allergy sufferers. Study participants (mean age = 36 ± 9 year; range 18–53 year) were recruited before the beginning of ragweed season (September) in Northeastern Ohio. Serum IgE concentration, allergy symptoms [v...

  12. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  13. Antihistamines for allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on ... as pills, chewable tablets, capsules, and liquids. How antihistamines help Antihistamines treat these allergy symptoms: Congestion, runny ...

  14. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  15. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    OpenAIRE

    Koplin, Jennifer J.; Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of toleran...

  16. MICROSPORIDIAN TAXONOMY: APPLICATION OF ELECTROPHORETIC AND IMMUNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of investigations utilizing electrophoretic and immunological methods for identification and classification of microsporidians, the group to which the first protozoan microbial pesticide belongs, indicate that these methods can be successfully used to classify strains an...

  17. The role of RAST in allergy diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a suitable planning of the RAST and a correct evaluation of RAST findings, some allergological knowledge is required; also, our knowledge as to the possibilities and limitations of this method of investigation is probably still incomplete. Still, the RAST surely is an important practical application of the immunological experience gained during the last few years - it may well be called a milestone in allergy diagnostics. (orig.)

  18. A molecular insight of CTLA-4 in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is an immune provocation induced by certain food in susceptible individuals. Most of the food allergic manifestations are evident in the individual having impaired oral tolerance. In spite of worldwide prevalence, there is no permanent cure of food allergy. Food allergic reactions are complex immunological events that comprises of several immune molecules like IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and T-cells, therefore, researchers are trying to pick the correct molecule to find out pivotal therapeutic solutions. Being a key regulatory molecule in suppressing T-cells functional activities, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or cluster of differentiation-152 (CD-152) has contributed a novel and revolutionary dimension toward therapeutic research of several diseases. This review focuses on different immunological and mechanistic perspectives of CTLA-4 in correlation with food allergy. PMID:23254121

  19. Immune regulation and modulation of allergy and inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Grundström, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is evoked in defence against invading pathogens entering the body. Sometimes inflammation is started against harmless antigens, which leads to allergic diseases, or against selfantigens or commensal microbiota as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This thesis addresses treatment of allergic disease and IBD and how immune cells are affected by the treatment. To date, the only curative treatment available for allergy is allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), whi...

  20. Steroid-responsive and nephrotic syndrome and allergy: clinical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, S R; Sarsfield, J K

    1981-01-01

    Eighty-four children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome who had been shown to have, or were believed to have, minimal change histology were investigated to study the relationship between steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome and allergy. They were found to have a greater incidence of the standard atopic disorders--asthma, eczema, recurrent urticaria, and hay fever. Their 1st-degree relatives had an increased incidence of these atopic disorders too. A nasal discharge was a frequent pre...

  1. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  2. FOXP3 and CTLA-4 : how isoforms regulate immunological tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sang

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of immunological tolerance is vital for preventing the immune system to damage normal tissues and physiological function of the body. CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells can suppress immune responses in a dominant manner and are essential for immunological tolerance. Although many pathways and molecules have been attributed to the suppressive function of Treg cells, the exact nature of the Treg cell-mediated suppression program is still elusive. In this ...

  3. Immunology teaching by incorporating knowledge from theater and music

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Elisa Ferreira de Almeida; Virgínia Souza Santos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunology knowledge is important to therapeutic prevention of several diseases. The aim of this study was present a teaching methodology of Immunology and verify its efficacy as the knowledge acquisition by the participants of an event. To assess the progress of knowledge by the participants as well the use of the play and sung music, each participant fill a questionnaire, containing ten questions, before and after the presentation. The results were evaluated by paired T test at 5%. In b...

  4. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy. PMID:26598816

  5. Acne: a review of immunologic and microbiologic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhart, C.; P. Lehmann

    1999-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a self-limiting skin disorder seen primarily in adolescents, whose aetiology appears to be multifactorial. The four main aetiological factors are hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct, increased sebum production, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, and subsequently the production of inflammation. Considerable investigation has addressed the immunologic reaction to extracellular products produced by the acne-causing organism, P acnes. The immunologic response inv...

  6. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  7. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy: current progress and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Timothy P.; Vickery, Brian P.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence and present an emerging epidemic for westernized countries. Strict dietary avoidance is the only approved management for food allergy, but accidental exposures regularly occur, leading to significant patient anxiety and decreased quality of life. Over the past decade, oral and sublingual immunotherapies have emerged as potential treatments for food allergy. While several small clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can desensitize food...

  8. The Development of Immune Responses and Allergy in Children from Farming and Non-farming Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Orivuori, Laura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Allergies have become a major public health problem in recent decades. Approximately 60 million people in Europe, and one billion worldwide, are affected by allergies. In Europe, approximately 30% of the population suffers from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, approximately 20% from asthma, and 15% from allergic skin conditions. The farming environment has been shown to protect against allergies. In the present thesis, we studied the development of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitizat...

  9. Aubergine and Potato Sensitivity with Latex Sensitisation and Oral Allergy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubergine allergy is rare outside of India and the far east, and very few cases have been reported. We describe a case of aubergine allergy in a 9-year-old girl of Anglo-Indian descent who also had sensitivity to potato, coincidental oral allergy syndrome, and latex sensitisation with mild oral symptoms on consuming kiwi fruit. Specific IgE to aubergine was negative, but skin testing was positive to both raw and cooked aubergine. With early and increased consumption of exotic vegetables in western countries, more cases of aubergine allergy can be expected and negative blood tests do not exclude type 1 sensitivity.

  10. Assessing eczema and food allergy in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Devenney, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Background: Atopic disease is an increasing problem. Eczema affects 10-20% of young children, and 33-37% of children with eczema are food allergic. Among other factors, nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a role in eczema and food allergy. Following the atopic march, pproximately 80% of children with atopic eczema will become sensitized to aeroallergens and develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. Skin prick test is used for investigating sensitization and is considered a safe method. Howeve...

  11. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776

  12. Food allergy and food sensitization in early childhood:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Kjaer, H F; Høst, A;

    2009-01-01

    . Children with AD were neither more IgE-sensitized nor had higher levels of IgE when compared with healthy children but they were more persistently sensitized. Conclusions: Sensitization to foods in young children without food allergy seems to be a normal phenomenon. The discrepancy between sensitization...... from birth to 18 months of age with previous published results from 3 and 6 years. The Danish Allergy Research Centre cohort, including 562 children, is a unique, population-based, prospective birth cohort, with clinical examinations at all follow-ups. All children were examined for the development of...... AD using Hanifin-Rajka criteria and for FHS using interviews, skin prick test (SPT), specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and food challenge according to EAACI guidelines. Results: Twenty children were confirmed with FHS to milk, egg, and peanut. FHS peaked at 18 months (3.6%) and then decreased to 1...

  13. Development of the clinic of pulmonology and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokic, D

    2013-01-01

    University Pulmology and Allergy Clinic was founded in 1975 when the Depertment of Internal Medicine, directed by Prof. Dr. Dimitar Arsov, later member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciencies and Arts, was divided into eight separate and independent clinics. The first head of the Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic was Prof. Dr. Ljubomir Kotevski. He had a very difficult goal: to establish and further develop the newly formed clinic. The Clinic flourished and became one of the leading Clinics in the Clinical Centre during the directorship of Prof. dr. Dejan Dokic.. He completely rebuilt and refurbished the Clinic, which became a modern Clinic providing excellent working conditions for the employees and, most importantly, provided a first class service to the patients. During his mandate he obtained a grant from the Japanese Government worth $1,000,000 which was used to obtain a new, modern and sophisticated medical equipment. Since the establishment of the clinic, many national and international scientific projects were carried out and many scientific papers were published as well as many monographs, and chapters in scientific books. As a result of continuous education, of the total number of 24 doctors there are 16 subspecialists in respiratory medicine and 4 specialists in internal medicine. There are 9 professors in internal medicine at the University of Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic lecturing at the Medical Faculty in Skopje. The University Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic has an international reputation due to many contacts with famous European Institutions. All these international interrelations have resulted in honouring 3 professors: Prof. Dr. Gert Kunkel from Berlin, Germany, Prof. Dr. Robert Loddenkemper from Berlin, Germany and Prof. Dr. Peter Howard from Southampton, UK. PMID:23921480

  14. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on asthma and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    D'Elios, Mario Milco

    2010-01-01

    Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially eli...

  15. Association between cobalt allergy and dermatitis caused by leather articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from...... exposure to leather. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study was performed: the case group consisted of 183 dermatitis patients with a positive patch test reaction to cobalt chloride and a negative patch test reaction to potassium dichromate; the control group consisted of 621 dermatitis patients who...... did not react to either cobalt or chromium in patch testing. Comparisons were made by use of a χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact, and the Mann-Whitney test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations while taking confounding factors into consideration. RESULTS: Leather was observed as...

  16. Environmental biodiversity, human microbiota, and allergy are interrelated

    OpenAIRE

    HANSKI, I.; von Hertzen, L.; Fyhrquist, N.; Koskinen, K.; Torppa, K; Laatikainen, T.; Karisola, P.; Auvinen, P.; Paulin, L.; Makela, M. J.; Vartiainen, E.; Kosunen, T U; Alenius, H; Haahtela, T.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly declining biodiversity may be a contributing factor to another global megatrend—the rapidly increasing prevalence of allergies and other chronic inflammatory diseases among urban populations worldwide. According to the “biodiversity hypothesis,” reduced contact of people with natural environmental features and biodiversity may adversely affect the human commensal microbiota and its immunomodulatory capacity. Analyzing atopic sensitization (i.e., allergic disposition) in a random sampl...

  17. Primary prevention of food allergy in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Halken, S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food allergies can have serious physical, social, and financial consequences. This systematic review examined ways to prevent the development of food allergy in children and adults. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2012, for...... restrictions. Two reviewers appraised the studies using appropriate tools. Data were not suitable for meta-analysis due to heterogeneity, so were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Seventy-four studies were included, one-third of which were of high quality. There was no good evidence to recommend that pregnant...... substituting with extensively or partially hydrolyzed whey or casein formulas for infants at high risk for the first 4 months. Soy milk and delaying the introduction of solid foods beyond 4 months did not have preventive benefits in those at high or normal risk. There was very little evidence about strategies...

  18. ALIMENTARY ALLERGY AND HYPERSENSIVITY TO SOYA BEAN PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Gervazieva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In connection with the increasing number of allergic diseases in Russia and in the world, the exogenic factor responsible for the development of food allergy in children have been discussed. The main types of alimentary allergens have been determined; their biochemical features, as well as aggravation of the food allergy clinical symptoms to the extent of anaphylaxis, have been reported. With the development of genetic engineering food products, the special attention has been paid to hypersensitivity to soya bean proteins. The major and minor allergens of soya beans, their homologues in other vegetable allergens, e.g. birch pollen allergens, have been described. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 15520

  19. Allergies and major depression: a longitudinal community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lavorato Dina H; Williams Jeanne VA; Patten Scott B; Eliasziw Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cross-sectional studies have reported associations between allergies and major depression but in the absence of longitudinal data, the implications of this association remain unclear. Our goal was to examine this association from a longitudinal perspective. Methods The data source was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). This study included a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) to assess major depression and al...

  20. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Badía, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán Soldevilla, Carmen; García Mozo, H.

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the infl uence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The aver...

  1. Gut microbiota and allergy: the importance of the pregnancy period

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Thomas; You Wu, Richard; Jenmalm, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Limited microbial exposure is suggested to underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent countries, and bacterial diversity seems to be more important than specific bacteria taxa. Prospective studies indicate that the gut microbiota composition during the first months of life influences allergy development, and support the theory that factors influencing the early maturation of the immune system might be important for subsequent allergic disease. However, recent research indicates th...

  2. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...

  3. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492

  4. Caution: Reptile pets shuttle grasshopper allergy and asthma into homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A F; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best known from occupational insect breeder allergies. Exposure in homes thus introduces a new form of domestic allergy to grasshoppers and related insects. Accordingly, an 8-year old boy developed severe bronchial hypersensitivity and asthma within 4 months after purchase of a bearded dragon. The reptile was held in the living room and regularly fed with living grasshoppers. In the absence of a serological allergy diagnosis test, an IgE immunoblot on grasshopper extract and prick-to-prick test confirmed specific sensitization to grasshoppers. After 4 years of allergen avoidance, a single respiratory exposure was sufficient to trigger a severe asthma attack again in the patient. Based on literature review and the clinical example we conclude that reptile keeping is associated with introducing potent insect allergens into home environments. Patient interviews during diagnostic procedure should therefore by default include the question about reptile pets in homes. PMID:26322151

  5. Contact allergy to formaldehyde. Diagnosis and clinical relevance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnika, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biologically active substances mainly used in water-based products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Most people are exposed to them on a daily basis. Formaldehyde is one of the oldest and most commonly used preservatives. However, it is a well-known contact sensitiser in dermatitis patients. The aims of this work were: i) to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to formaldehyde using the baseline patch test series; ii) to determine the optimal pat...

  6. Natural rubber latex allergy after 12 years: recommendations and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charous, B Lauren; Blanco, Carlos; Tarlo, Susan; Hamilton, Robert G; Baur, Xaver; Beezhold, Donald; Sussman, Gordon; Yunginger, John W

    2002-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is a "new" illness whose prevalence reached epidemic proportions in highly exposed populations during the last decade. In children with spina bifida and in patients exposed to NRL during radiologic procedures, institution of prophylactic safety measures has had demonstrable effects in preventing allergic reactions. The risk of NRL allergy appears to be largely linked to occupational exposure, and NRL-associated occupational asthma is due almost solely to powdered latex glove use. Prevalence of NRL-allergic sensitization in the general population is quite low; several studies of young adults demonstrate rates of positive skin test results that are less than 1%. After occupational exposure, rates of sensitization and NRL-induced asthma rise dramatically in individuals using powdered NRL gloves but not in individuals using powder-free gloves. Airborne NRL is dependent on the use of powdered NRL gloves; conversion to non-NRL or nonpowdered NRL substitutes results in predictable rapid disappearance of detectable levels of aeroallergen. For these reasons, adoption of the following institutional policies designed to prevent new cases of NRL allergy and maximize safety is recommended: (1) NRL gloves should be used only as mandated by accepted Standard Precautions; (2) only nonpowdered, nonsterile NRL gloves should be used; and (3) nonpowdered, sterile NRL gloves are preferred for use. Low-protein powdered, sterile gloves may be used, but only in conjunction with an ongoing assessment for development of allergic reactions. PMID:11799362

  7. Proposed Model for Iranian National System of Registration of Allergy and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdanian, Azade; Safdari, Reza; Mahsoori, Niloofar; Siamian, Hasan; Bagheri Nesami, Mahsoomeh; Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Ghafari, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma and allergies in addition to demanding social costs–the economic community, one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world is considered. In the last decade in Iran despite the positive developments in many areas of health records into categories based asthma and allergy international standards, less attention has been paid. Improving the quality of care system, identifying groups at risk of asthma and allergies, control plan, prevention and assessment of...

  8. Food Allergy: Our Evolving Understanding of Its Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweala, Onyinye I; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is defined as an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response to ingested food with allergic symptoms ranging from urticaria to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Food allergy is thought to develop because of (1) failed induction of tolerance upon initial exposure to food antigen or (2) breakdown of established tolerance to food antigen. We review current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and natural history of food allergy, including the unconventional IgE-mediated food allergy to mammalian meat known as alpha-gal food allergy. We highlight emerging data on food allergy treatment and prevention, emphasizing the growing appeal of manipulating the gut microenvironment using probiotics and helminth products to blunt systemic allergic responses to food. PMID:27041704

  9. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Hourihane, J O; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J O

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine rates of other atopic manifestations in people with peanut allergy and the prevalence of such allergy in their families. DESIGN: A survey of people with self reported peanut allergy and people referred by their general practitioner for suspected peanut allergy; survey and skin testing of 50 children with reported peanut allergy and their available first degree relatives. SUBJECTS: 622 adults and children with reported, suspected, or known peanut allergy. MAIN OUTCOME ...

  10. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer...... by the absence of regulation. The prevalence of chromium allergy is increasing in the United States, Singapore, and Denmark among dermatitis patients. This increase is significantly associated with leather exposure in Denmark. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and systemic...

  11. Allergy and inflammatory transcriptome is predominantly negatively correlated with CD133 expression in glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Huang, Kun; Lawler, Sean; Ding, Bo; Yu, Jianhua; Chiocca, E. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Allergies and the use of anti-inflammatory medication appear to be associated with reduced glioblastoma risk. However, these observations may merely reflect systemic immunosuppression induced by the tumor. To better understand the effect of this tumor on allergies and inflammation, we used CD133 mRNA expression as an indicator of tumor aggressiveness and systematically examined its relation to mRNA expression levels of 919 allergy- and inflammation-related genes in 142 glioblastoma tissue sam...

  12. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe allergic reactions. Peanuts are often consumed after thermal processing (e.g. boiling, roasting) which can alter the protein structure and change its immunoreactivity and allergenicity. In vitro diagnostic ...

  13. Frequency of atopy, allergy, and previous general anaesthesia in surgical specialties.

    OpenAIRE

    Fee, J P; McDonald, J. R.; Dundee, J W

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports part of a large survey of atopy, allergy, and previous anaesthesia in 10 000 preanaesthetic patients. The occurrence of these risk factors in the various surgical specialties has been assessed. Obstetric patients have a significantly higher frequency of atopy and allergy than the total female population studied. Among males cardiothoracic patients are the only group to have a significantly higher frequency of atopy and allergy than the overall figure for their sex.

  14. Successful Management of Insulin Allergy and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 4 with Desensitization Therapy and Glucocorticoid Treatment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselyn Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insulin allergy is a rare complication of insulin therapy, especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Key manifestations are hypersensitivity-related symptoms and poor metabolic control. T1DM, as well as insulin allergy, may develop in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, further complicating management. Case Report. A 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed with T1DM, was treated with various insulin therapy schemes over several months, which resulted in recurrent anaphylactoid reactions and poor glycemic control, after which he was referred to our Endocrinology and Immunology Department. A prick test was carried out for all commercially available insulin presentations and another insulin scheme was designed but proved unsuccessful. A desensitization protocol was started with Glargine alongside administration of Prednisone, which successfully induced tolerance. Observation of skin lesions typical of vitiligo prompted laboratory workup for other autoimmune disorders, which returned positive for autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia. These findings are compatible with APS type 4. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of insulin allergy in type 4 APS, as well as this particular combination in APS. Etiopathogenic components shared by insulin allergy and APS beg for further research in immunogenetics to further comprehend pathophysiologic aspects of these diseases.

  15. Successful management of insulin allergy and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 4 with desensitization therapy and glucocorticoid treatment: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Joselyn; Villalobos, Marjorie; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Torres, Wheeler; Mejías, José Carlos; Miquilena, Edgar; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Insulin allergy is a rare complication of insulin therapy, especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Key manifestations are hypersensitivity-related symptoms and poor metabolic control. T1DM, as well as insulin allergy, may develop in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), further complicating management. Case Report. A 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed with T1DM, was treated with various insulin therapy schemes over several months, which resulted in recurrent anaphylactoid reactions and poor glycemic control, after which he was referred to our Endocrinology and Immunology Department. A prick test was carried out for all commercially available insulin presentations and another insulin scheme was designed but proved unsuccessful. A desensitization protocol was started with Glargine alongside administration of Prednisone, which successfully induced tolerance. Observation of skin lesions typical of vitiligo prompted laboratory workup for other autoimmune disorders, which returned positive for autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia. These findings are compatible with APS type 4. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of insulin allergy in type 4 APS, as well as this particular combination in APS. Etiopathogenic components shared by insulin allergy and APS beg for further research in immunogenetics to further comprehend pathophysiologic aspects of these diseases. PMID:25548690

  16. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  17. Food allergy in gastroenterologic diseases: Review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasquale Mansueto; Giuseppe Montalto; Maria Luisa Pacor; Maria Esposito-Pellitteri; Vito Ditta; Claudia Lo Bianco; Stefania Maria Leto-Barone; Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy is a common and increasing problem worldwide. The newly-found knowledge might provide novel experimental strategies, especially for laboratory diagnosis. Approximately 20% of the population alters their diet for a perceived adverse reaction to food, but the application of double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the "gold standard" for diagnosis of food allergy, shows that questionnaire-based studies overestimate the prevalence of food allergies. The clinical disorders determined by adverse reactions to food can be classified on the basis of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms and the organ system or systems affected. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin prick tests, and laboratory tests to detect serum-food specific IgE, elimination diets and challenges. The primary therapy for food allergy is to avoid the responsible food. Antihistamines might partially relieve oral allergy syndrome and IgE-mediated skin symptoms,but they do not block systemic reactions. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in treating chronic IgE-mediated disorders. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylaxis. Experimental therapies for IgE-mecliated food allergy have been evaluated, such as humanized IgG anti-IgE antibodies and allergen specific immunotherapy.

  18. Allergy and Uterine Leiomyomas: Cooperative Interaction with ACP1 Genetic Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Ammendola, Maria; Saccucci, Patrizia; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Neri, Anna; Magrini, Andrea; Bottini, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The possible association between allergy and neoplastic disorders has been the subject of many investigations but no general relationship has been determined. Little attention, however, has been paid to the possible role of allergy in the clinical manifestations of these diseases. In this study, the role of allergy in the susceptibility to uterine leiomyomas and in their growth was investigated. Interaction with ACP1 , a genetic polymorphism associated with the growth of leiomyoma...

  19. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Moisés

    2008-01-01

    Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available t...

  20. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument

  1. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  2. Predictive value of the sulfidoleukotriene release assay in oral allergy syndrome to celery, hazelnut, and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Weber, J M; Vieths, S; Wüthrich, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients sensitized to birch pollen frequently suffer from a food allergy to plant foods such as celery, carrots, or hazelnut. One of the main manifestations of birch pollen-related food allergy is the oral allergy syndrome. Skin tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations are poor predictors of such reactions when assessed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a cellular test based on leukotriene release...

  3. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...

  4. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  5. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Voskresensky Baricic; Marija Catipovic; Erina L. Cetinic; Vlado Krmek; Ivona Horvat

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5%) parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT) and/or an open provocation test...

  6. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...

  7. IMMUNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CANCER: A LINK BETWEEN INFLAMMATION AND IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jacob Victorino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide issue and one of the most relevant death causes in child and adults. There are several causes that can lead to cancer development. It is well known that inflammation is one known hallmark of cancer and it favors tumor cells growth. Several alterations in immunological and inflammatory processes are caused in response to tumor presence and both innate and adaptive immunity have effective mechanism to destroy tumor cells. Nevertheless, distinct tumor types developed mechanisms to evade anti-tumor immunological responses. Here, we revise researches regarding inflammation and immune response during cancer development, as well as cancer signaling pathways and immunotherapy that have been performed in Brazil. The better understanding of the mechanisms regarding cancer and immunological processes is of huge importance and it may support the development of new cancer targets.

  8. Concurrent exposure to microbial products and food antigens triggers initiation of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that as much as 6-8% population suffers from food allergy or food antigen-related disorders. The prevalence keeps rising. So far we do not have identified remedy to treat food allergy. Avoidance of the offending food is the only effective method currently. Skewed T helper 2 polarization is one of the major feature in the pathogenesis of food allergy. However, the causative mechanism in the initiation of food allergy remains to be further understood. Research in food allergy has got giant advance in recent years. Several animal models have been established and used in food allergy study. One of the common features of these food allergy animal models is that most of them require using microbial products as adjuvant to sensitize animals. This review documents the recent advance in the mechanistic study on concurrent use of microbial products and food antigens to study food allergy. (Chen X, Yang PC. Concurrent exposure to microbial products and food antigens triggers initiation of food allergy.

  9. Infant Recurrent Asthma and Allergy%婴儿反复喘息与过敏原检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕懿群; 姚金祥; 严霞; 朱雯; 侯秋英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between infants repeated asthma and allergy and to explore the effectiveness of food - avoiding treatment in milk powder - fed infants with frequent asthma. Methods Allergy - specific IgE was measured. Food - elimination challenge tests were conducted to confirm allergy in infants. Food - avoiding treatment was carried out in mild powder - fed infants with frequent asthma. Results Twelve out of 89 infants with repeated asthma had positive milk specific IgE. Another 7 were diagnosed with milk allergy by food - elimination challenge test. Food - avoiding treatment showed notable effects in treating milk powder - fed infants with frequent asthma. Conclusion The incidence rate of milk allergy is high among infants with repeated asthma. Food - elimination challenge test can be an alternative way for the diagnosis of food allergy, since the immunologic mechanism is complicated. Food - avoiding treatment delivers outstanding effects in managing milk powder - fed infants with frequent asthma.%目的 探讨婴儿反复喘息与过敏反应之间的关系以及食物回避疗法治疗奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作婴儿的疗效.方法 通过测定过敏原特异性IgE及食物回避、食物激发试验诊断食物过敏,对奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作婴儿进行食物回避疗法治疗.结果 89例反复喘息的婴儿中,过敏原特异性IgE检测牛奶阳性12例,食物回避、食物激发试验发现牛奶过敏7例.对奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作婴儿,食物回避疗法治疗效果明显.结论 反复喘息发作的婴儿中,牛奶过敏发生率高;机体内免疫机制复杂,食物回避、食物激发试验可作为食物过敏的诊断手段;对奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作的婴儿,食物回避疗法可取得明显疗效.

  10. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Egg Allergy Diagnosis Treatment Getting the Flu Vaccine Food Labels: What ...

  11. Peanut allergy as a trigger for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis and precursor of staphylococcal and herpetic associated infections - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Dennis; Abad, Eliane Dios; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Dos Santos, Fabiana Monteiro; Saintive, Simone; Goudoris, Ekaterini; do Prado, Evandro Alves; Ribeiro, Marcia; Soares Rosado, Alexandre; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL) genes) and herpetic (Herpes Simplex - HSV) infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient's quality of life. PMID:26403117

  12. Peanut allergy as a trigger for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis and precursor of staphylococcal and herpetic associated infections – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive [i]Staphylococcus aureus[/i], carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL genes and herpetic (Herpes Simplex – HSV infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient’s quality of life.

  13. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    OpenAIRE

    Pongracic Jacqueline A; Springston Elizabeth E; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Wang Xiaobin; Holl Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of f...

  14. British Society for Immunology: vaccines and mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E

    2001-03-01

    The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384

  15. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu;

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention of...

  16. Food Consumption and Prevalence of Asthma & Allergies Symptoms in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased significantly over the last 30 years. Genetic factors cannot explain this prevalence and a number of studies have been performed to determine the Environmental factors especially dietary factors which are effective in the incidence of these diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the food consumption and the subsequent development of asthma and other allergic disorder symptoms in 2003 of children in yazd. Methods: We performed a Descriptive cross-sectional study of selected children in primary and secondary schools in Yazd. Standardized questionnaire(ISAAC that was developed based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were distributed to parents of 2768 children aged 6-7 years and 3201 children aged 13-14 years which randomly selected. The data was analyzed by Epi6.04 and SPSS softwares. Results: The prevalence of asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema symptoms in children 6-7 years old was 10.9%, 15.5% and 7.3% and in children 13-14 years old was 20.3 %, 42.7% and 14.8% respectively. High intake of butter-fat, chocolate, sweet and Sausage were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in children 6-7 years old. High intake of chocolate, Chips, egg were associated with an increased risk of wheeze and in children 13-14 years old. Conclusion: Dietary factors are associated with asthma and allergies symptoms. Fast foods, chocolates, junk foods & sausage may increase wheezing and allergic rhinitis & eczema symptoms in childhood

  17. Allergy Enhances Neurogenesis and Modulates Microglial Activation in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barbara; Mrowetz, Heike; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Weiss, Richard; Aigner, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Allergies and their characteristic TH2-polarized inflammatory reactions affect a substantial part of the population. Since there is increasing evidence that the immune system modulates plasticity and function of the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the effects of allergic lung inflammation on the hippocampus—a region of cellular plasticity in the adult brain. The focus of the present study was on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, and on hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of new neurons. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with a clinically relevant allergen derived from timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5). As expected, allergic sensitization induced high serum levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE) and of TH2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). Surprisingly, fewer Iba1+ microglia were found in the granular layer (GL) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and also the number of Iba1+MHCII+ cells was lower, indicating a reduced microglial surveillance and activation in the hippocampus of allergic mice. Neurogenesis was analyzed by labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and determining their fate 4 weeks later, and by quantitative analysis of young immature neurons, i.e., cells expressing doublecortin (DCX). The number of DCX+ cells was clearly increased in the allergy animals. Moreover, there were more BrdU+ cells present in the hippocampus of allergic mice, and these newly born cells had differentiated into neurons as indicated by a higher number of BrdU+NeuN+ cells. In summary, allergy led to a reduced microglia presence and activity and to an elevated level of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect was apparently specific to the hippocampus, as we did not observe these alterations in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/olfactory bulb (OB) system, also a region of high cellular plasticity and adult neurogenesis.

  18. Objective allergy markers and risk of cancer mortality and hospitalization in a large population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Vonk, Judith M; Hospers, Jeannette J; Postma, Dirkje S; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schouten, Jan P; Boezen, H Marike

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There are indications that a history of allergy may offer some protection against cancer. We studied the relation of three objectively determined allergy markers with cancer mortality and hospitalization risk. METHODS: Associations between three allergy markers (number of peripheral blood e

  19. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.; Beyer, K.; Frewer, L.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Botjes, E.; Crevel, R.W.R.; van Ree, R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...... surveys in school-age children and adults and an outpatient clinic study. Confirmatory double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge diagnosis is being undertaken using foods as they are eaten with titrated doses to allow no-effect and lowest-observable effect levels for allergenic foods to be determined...

  20. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Molloy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  1. 78 FR 65343 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  2. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  3. 77 FR 45644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  4. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  5. 76 FR 10384 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council,...

  6. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  7. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  8. Clinical and Laboratory Investigation of Oral Allergy Syndrome to Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Falak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is occasionally observed following consumption  of raw fruits  in  allergic adults. Since this  phenomenon  was  commonly  reported  in  Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common  diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The patients underwent skin prick test (SPT with common allergic pollen extracts as well as grape extract. The specific IgE  level to grape proteins was determined by an indirect ELISA. The correlation of SPT results with ELISA and western blotting patterns was checked by statistical methods.The results showed a significant correlation of grape SPT diameters with grape specific IgE levels. Furthermore,  a significant association of grape SPT results with IgE immunoreactivity of a 10 kDa  grape protein,  probably lipid transfer protein  (LTP was prominent. Immunoreactivity of other proteins was linked with mild clinical symptoms.The study showed a significant correlation of grape SPT results with grape total extract, as well as its 10 kDa component’s IgE reactivity. The results suggested that OAS to grape should not be considered as a main criterion in diagnosis of grape allergy and a combination of grape SPT results with evaluation of IgE reactivity to grape 10 kDa allergen should be considered to achieve a more reliable grape allergy diagnosis.

  9. Clinical and Laboratory Investigation of Oral Allergy Syndrome to Grape

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is occasionally observed following consumption  of raw fruits  in  allergic adults. Since this  phenomenon  was  commonly  reported  in  Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common  diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The p...

  10. Acceptable risk of contact allergy in the general population assessed by CE-DUR--a method to detect and categorize contact allergy epidemics based on patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Schnuch, Axel;

    2009-01-01

    population by using a new epidemiological tool. The clinical epidemiology (CE) and drug utilization research (DUR) method recently estimated the 10-year contact allergy prevalence in the general population in Germany and Denmark based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number...... of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on patch test sales data. A reverse CE-DUR was performed to make delineations between the 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and the corresponding theoretical prevalences of contact allergy observed among patients with...

  11. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    particular. Methods Epidemiological genetic association studies were performed on a general Danish population. Participants were patch tested, answered a questionnaire on general health and were genotyped for GST, CLDN1 and FLG polymorphisms. Filaggrin’s nickel binding potential was evaluated biochemically......, when ear piercing status was regarded. Nickel patch test readings indicated that proportionally more mutation carriers than wild types had stronger reactions. Epidermally derived filaggrin binds nickel. The GST gene polymorphisms did not associate with contact allergy among adult Danes. The CLDN1...

  12. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the disorder and, in turn, experience a better quality of life. Why You Need To Know About the Food Allergy Guidelines Approximately 1 in ... of the panel members. Make sure your doctor knows that the guidelines are ... that can help your doctor determine whether you have food allergy and if you ...

  13. 77 FR 28396 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 8, 2012. Anna P. Snouffer,...

  14. 78 FR 64964 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 23, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 24, 2013... 20814 which was published in the Federal Register on October 01, 2013, 78 FR 60294. The meeting...

  15. 78 FR 64962 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 21, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 22, 2013, 4... which was published in the Federal Register on September 27, 2013, 78 FR 59707. The meeting is...

  16. Role of Cellular Immunity in Cow’s Milk Allergy: Pathogenesis, Tolerance Induction, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juandy Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow’s milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow’s milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow’s milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow’s milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow’s milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization, development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow’s milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow’s milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases is discussed.

  17. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Coping with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Allergic ... the timing and location of the reaction. How Food Allergies Develop Food allergies are more common in children ...

  18. Development and validation of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Adult Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Meulen, G. N.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg - Boerstra, Berber; Oude Elberink, Hanneke; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) may be affected by food allergy. Presently, no disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for food allergic adults. Therefore, we developed and validated the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) in the Dutch language. Me

  19. Irradiated foods and allergy. From a perspective of irradiation chemistry of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A change of protein in irradiated food has been known. There are a few reports on change of allergy of irradiated foods. Two kinds of allergy such as the immediate allergy (I type) and delayed allergy (IV type) are taken ill by foods. I type is related to irradiated foods. Allergen enters body through digestive tract. Anti body (IgE) is protein with from 10,000 to 100,000 molecular weight. Allergic disease is originated mainly by egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut and shrimp. When food is irradiated, the proteins are decomposed and produced higher and lower molecular compounds at the same time. Change of the viscosity and the sedimentation coefficient and deactivation of enzymes of β-lactoglobulin, cow albumin, egg albumin and casein were investigated. There is no report of increasing allergy by irradiation. However, some paper indicated that immunogenicity of protein was decreased by irradiation. (S.Y.)

  20. Understanding the Structure and Function of the Immunological Synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Dustin, Michael L.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Shaw, Andrey S

    2010-01-01

    The immunological synapse has been an area of very active scientific interest over the last decade. Surprisingly, much about the synapse remains unknown or is controversial.  Here we review some of these current issues in the field:  how the synapse is defined, its potential role in T-cell function, and our current understanding about how the synapse is formed.

  1. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jacob Eli; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Suspected penicillin allergy is common among hospitalised patients, but the quality of the information given by the patient is often doubtful. Alleged penicillin allergic are likely to be treated with more toxic, broad-spectrum, and more expensive antibiotics, with effects on microbial resistance...... patterns and public economy as a consequence. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study with two visits to all clinical departments of a large university hospital in order to find in-patients with medical files labelled "penicillin allergy" or who reported penicillin allergy upon admission. Patient...... histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated. In a...

  2. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  3. Role of regulatory dendritic cells in allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omid; Umetsu, Dale T

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient inducers of all immune responses, and are capable of either inducing productive immunity or maintaining the state of tolerance to self antigens and allergens. In this review, we summarize the emerging literature on DCs, with emphasis on the regulatory function of DCs in allergy and asthma. In particular, we summarize recent data regarding the relationship between DC subsets and TH1, TH2, and regulatory T (TReg) cells. The diverse functions of DCs have been attributed to distinct lineages of DCs, which arise from common immature precursor cells that differentiate in response to specific maturation-inducing or local microenvironment conditions. These subsets of DCs induce different lineages of T cells, such as TH1, TH2, and TReg cells, including Th1Reg and Th2Reg cells, which regulate allergic diseases and asthma. Subsets of DCs regulate the induction of a variety of T-cell subtypes, which suppress the development of allergy and asthma, thus providing anti-inflammatory responses and protective immunity. PMID:15659264

  4. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Amedei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially elicits a T helper (Th-1 response. Many H. pylori factors, such as the neutrophil-activating factor of H. pylori (HP-NAP, are able to drive Th-1 polarization and to display a powerful inhibition of allergic Th-2 response. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about the effects of H. pylori on asthma and allergy. Special attention has been drawn to HP-NAP as a potential novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of asthma and atopy.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating factor, protein, Th-1/Th-2, Treg, asthma

  5. [Latex allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Susický, P

    2000-04-01

    The authors describe a case of an allergic affection in a patient with occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, revealed by the method CAP Phadiatop. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. The authors emphasize the high incidence of latex allergy, the manifestations of which may be encountered also in clinical ophthalmology. PMID:10874793

  6. The management of food allergy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Munasir, Zakiudin; Muktiarti, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, including food allergy. It is different between countries because food allergy can vary by culture and population. Prevalence of food allergy in Indonesia is unknown; therefore it is not known yet the burden and impact of food allergy in our population. However, we already start to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy, especially cow's milk allergy.

  7. Autoimmune diseases and fungal infections: immunological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.

  8. Egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  9. Associations of high-grade glioma with glioma risk alleles and histories of allergy and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Daniel H; Yang, Ping; Johnson, Derek R; Decker, Paul A; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ali-Osman, Francis; Wang, Frances; Stoddard, Shawn M; Sprau, Debra J; Kosel, Matthew L; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joseph L; Patoka, Joseph S; Davis, Faith; McCarthy, Bridget; Rynearson, Amanda L; Worra, Joel B; Fridley, Brooke L; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Buckner, Jan C; Il'yasova, Dora; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2011-09-01

    Glioma risk has consistently been inversely associated with allergy history but not with smoking history despite putative biologic plausibility. Data from 855 high-grade glioma cases and 1,160 controls from 4 geographic regions of the United States during 1997-2008 were analyzed for interactions between allergy and smoking histories and inherited variants in 5 established glioma risk regions: 5p15.3 (TERT), 8q24.21 (CCDC26/MLZE), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1/DDX6), and 20q13.3 (RTEL1). The inverse relation between allergy and glioma was stronger among those who did not (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.58) versus those who did (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97; P(interaction) = 0.02) carry the 9p21.3 risk allele. However, the inverse association with allergy was stronger among those who carried (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.68) versus those who did not carry (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.86) the 20q13.3 glioma risk allele, but this interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). No relation was observed between glioma risk and smoking (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 1.10; P = 0.37), and there were no interactions for glioma risk of smoking history with any of the risk alleles. The authors' observations are consistent with a recent report that the inherited glioma risk variants in chromosome regions 9p21.3 and 20q13.3 may modify the inverse association of allergy and glioma. PMID:21742680

  10. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  11. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a skin test. A doctor or nurse will scratch the skin (usually on the forearm or back) ... Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Celiac Disease Egg Allergy Allergy Testing Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  12. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  13. Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese, soy fiber, soy flour, soy grits, soy ice cream, soy milk, soy nuts, soy sprouts, soy yogurt) ... Kaeding AJ, Matsui EC, Wood RA. The natural history of soy allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2010; ...

  14. Molecular and immunological characterization of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B H

    2007-02-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) binds a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analyzed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognize a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing beta1,2-xylose and core alpha1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with patients' sera, thus underlining the critical role of glycosylation in the recognition of this protein by patients' IgE and extending previous data showing that deglycosylated Cit s 1 does not possess IgE epitopes. In parallel, we examined the peptide sequence and glycan structure of Cit s 1, using mass spectrometric techniques. Indeed, we achieved complete sequence coverage of the mature protein compared with the translation of an expressed sequence tag cDNA clone and demonstrated that the single N-glycosylation site of this protein carries oligosaccharides with xylose and fucose residues. Owing to the presumed requirement for multivalency for in vivo allergenicity, our molecular data showing that Cit s 1 is monovalent as regards glycosylation and that the single N-glycan is the target of the IgE response to this protein explain the immunological cross-reactive properties of Cit s 1 as well as its equivocal nature as a clinically relevant allergen. PMID:17095532

  15. 21 CFR 866.5510 - Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological... Test Systems § 866.5510 Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  16. Aubergine and Potato Sensitivity with Latex Sensitisation and Oral Allergy Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, A S

    2013-01-01

    Aubergine allergy is rare outside of India and the far east, and very few cases have been reported. We describe a case of aubergine allergy in a 9-year-old girl of Anglo-Indian descent who also had sensitivity to potato, coincidental oral allergy syndrome, and latex sensitisation with mild oral symptoms on consuming kiwi fruit. Specific IgE to aubergine was negative, but skin testing was positive to both raw and cooked aubergine. With early and increased consumption of exotic vegetables in we...

  17. Immunomagnetic capture and preconcentration of Lactobacillus cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rittich, B.; Turková, K.; Trachtová, Š.; Vaňásek, J.; Horák, D.; Kozáková, Hana; Španová, A.

    Wroclaw: Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Science, 2015. s. 64. ISBN 978-83-928488-4-4. [Polish-Czech Probiotics Conference Microbiology, Immunology &Allergy /2./. 24.05.2015-26.05.2015, Bielawa] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. Strain and species dependent immunomodulatory properties of selected lactobacillus and bifidobacterium strains: In vitro study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanová, Petra; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana

    Wroclaw: Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Science, 2015. s. 52. ISBN 978-83-928488-4-4. [Polish-Czech Probiotics Conference Microbiology, Immunology &Allergy /2./. 24.05.2015-26.05.2015, Bielawa] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  19. Food allergy: from diagnosis to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, E; Tack, J

    2012-01-01

    Adverse food reactions, an adverse health effect arising from an immune or nonimmune response that occurs reproducibly on the exposure to a given food, can be divided into toxic and hypersensitivity reactions. When an immunologic mechanism has been shown, hypersensitivity food reactions should be referred to as food allergy that may be IgE- or non-IgE-mediated. Food allergy diagnosis is mainly guided by a correct and accurate history and physical examination, thus leading to prick test and elimination diets. The treatment gold standard is still represented by an elimination diet together with antihistamines and corticosteroid usage in order to reduce the gastrointestinal and potentially life-threatening systemic symptoms. Other treatments are currently under investigation with promising results. PMID:22722444

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-01-01

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson’s disease. These effects of BV are known to be mediated by modulating immune cells in the periphery, and glial cells and neurons in the central nervous system. This review will introduce the scientific evidence of the therapeutic effects of BV and its components on several immunological and neurological diseases, and describe their detailed mechanisms involved in regulating various immune responses and pathological changes in glia and neurons. PMID:26131770

  1. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  2. Crisis management during anaesthesia: anaphylaxis and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, M.; Kerridge, R; BACON, A; J. Williamson

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during anaesthesia are a major cause for concern for anaesthetists. However, as individual practitioners encounter such events so rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and appropriate management instituted varies considerably.

  3. ILC2s and fungal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Kita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s, a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4+ T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients.

  4. ILC2s and fungal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2015-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4(+) T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26117252

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients (ID 960, 961, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 960, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), and stimulation of immunological responses (ID 962, 968, 970, 972, 976, 984, 986, 995, 997, 999, 1007, 1015) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    030802, Lactobacillus salivarius THT 031001 and Streptococcus thermophilus THT 070102, are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, stimulation of immunological responses, is a beneficial physiological effect. The references provided...

  6. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions. PMID:26714690

  7. Cow’s-milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Koca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cow's Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA is the most common food allergy in early childhood. It affects between 2% and 3% of infants. Symptoms and signs related to CMPA which IgE-mediated or non IgE-mediated may involve many different organ systems. The first and most important step in diagnosis is a thorough medical history. Results of laboratory tests alone are not sufficient to make diagnosis, always need to be considered together with the clinical features. CMPA can occur with multiple immunological mechanisms, therefore the diagnosis chance increases with use of numerous tests together. However, the negative test does not exclude the diagnosis. The gold standards in diagnosis are food elimination and challenge tests. Cow's milk and avoiding the use of its products, it is still considered as the first choice in the treatment of all children with CMPA.

  8. A retrospective chart review to identify perinatal factors associated with food allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpa Kelly

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut flora are important immunomodulators that may be disrupted in individuals with atopic conditions. Probiotic bacteria have been suggested as therapeutic modalities to mitigate or prevent food allergic manifestations. We wished to investigate whether perinatal factors known to disrupt gut flora increase the risk of IgE-mediated food allergies. Methods Birth records obtained from 192 healthy children and 99 children diagnosed with food allergies were reviewed retrospectively. Data pertaining to delivery method, perinatal antibiotic exposure, neonatal nursery environment, and maternal variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between variables of interest and subsequent food allergy diagnosis. Results Retrospective investigation did not find perinatal antibiotics, NICU admission, or cesarean section to be associated with increased risk of food allergy diagnosis. However, associations between food allergy diagnosis and male gender (66 vs. 33; p=0.02 were apparent in this cohort. Additionally, increasing maternal age at delivery was significantly associated with food allergy diagnosis during childhood (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.105; p=0.005. Conclusions Gut flora are potent immunomodulators, but their overall contribution to immune maturation remains to be elucidated. Additional understanding of the interplay between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors underlying food allergy development need to be clarified before probiotic therapeutic interventions can routinely be recommended for prevention or mitigation of food allergies. Such interventions may be well-suited in male infants and in infants born to older mothers.

  9. Food allergy. Part 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, H A

    1999-06-01

    Patients with food-induced allergic disorders may be first seen with a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and/or cardiovascular system. The skin and respiratory tract are most often affected by IgE-mediated food-induced allergic reactions, whereas isolated gastrointestinal disorders are most often caused by non-IgE-mediated reactions. When evaluating possible food-induced allergic disorders, it is often useful to categorize disorders into IgE- and non-IgE-mediated syndromes. The initial history and physical examination are essentially identical for IgE- and non-IgE-mediated disorders, but the subsequent evaluation differs substantially. Proper diagnoses often require screening tests for evidence of food-specific IgE and proof of reactivity through elimination diets and oral food challenges. Once properly diagnosed, strict avoidance of the implicated food or foods is the only proven form of treatment. Clinical tolerance to food allergens will develop in many patients over time, and therefore follow-up food challenges are often indicated. However, a number of novel immunomodulatory strategies are in the developmental stage and should provide more definitive treatment for some of these food-induced allergic disorders in the next several years. PMID:10359874

  10. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cases...

  11. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cas...

  12. Probiotics and allergies: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonini, Enzo R

    2014-11-01

    During the last years, along with the growing knowledge about the role and importance of the intestinal flora, interest remarkably increased in probiotic bacteria supplementation. It has indeed been demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is very important in the regulation of several functions of the organism, even those far from the gastro-enteric system. Among them, great interest was stimulated by the proven capability of the intestinal microbiota to regulate the immune system, in particular to rebalance the TH1/Th2 ratio. Consequence thereof is the assumption that the administration of probiotic bacteria may induce clinical benefits in allergic pathologies. Many clinical studies have been carried out that considered the possibility of preventing allergic sensitizations, and preventing and treating atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Many studies demonstrated that the administration of probiotics is able to prevent the onset of allergic sensitizations and improve the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis; however, studies were published, too, that achieved negative outcomes. The overall evaluation of results is, however, difficult, as the strains used and the study design are markedly heterogeneous. Future investigations with a better standardization will be able to better explain the role of the intestinal flora in atopy, and the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:25398162

  13. Corticosteroid and Fragrance Allergy Exacerbating Scalp Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Sharon E.; Butler, Dan; Herro, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that allergic contact dermatitis can worsen pre-existing psoriasis. The authors highlight a delayed-hypersensitivity reaction to a common psoriasis medication and discuss therapeutic interventions.

  14. An aerobiological perspective in allergy and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anand Bahadur; Mathur, Chandni

    2012-01-01

    Allergic diseases are amongst the most common chronic disorders worldwide. Today, more than 300 million of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailments affecting the socio-economic quality of life. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the world to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fu...

  15. METHACRYLATE AND ACRYLATE ALLERGY IN DENTAL STUDENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming to evaluate the incidence of sensitization in students of dental medicineThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to some (meth acrylates in students of dental medicine at the time of their education, in dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants and in patients, the manifestation of co-reactivity.A total of 139 participants were included in the study, divided into four groups: occupationally exposed to (methacrylates and acrylic monomers dental professionals, 3-4 year-of-education students of dental medicine, 6th year–of-education students of dental medicine and patients with suspected or established sensitization to acrylates, without occupational exposure. All of them were patch-tested with methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl]propane (bis-GMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA, and tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate. The overall sensitization rates to methacrylates in the studied population are comparative high – from 25.9% for MMA to 31.7% for TREGDMA. Significantly higher incidence of sensitization in the group of 3-4 course students compared to the one in the group of dental professionals for MMA and TREGDMA was observed. Highest was the incidence of sensitization to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, BIS-GMA, 2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate in the group of patients, with

  16. Management of acute and chronic ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Nishiwaki-Dantas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressure to practice evidence-based medicine is increasing and has the potential to reduce malpractice claims. Sometimes the evidence may prove a specific therapy to be ineffective, but practice says it is effective. In Medicine, however, if you do not trust the evidence, you may expose yourself and your patients to untoward consequences. When we face a complex problem, most of the time it is better to rely on scientific evidence rather than on expert personal opinion. Key words:  ocular

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Deok-Sang Hwang; Sun Kwang Kim; Hyunsu Bae

    2015-01-01

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson’s disease. T...

  18. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease

  19. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E;

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  20. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  1. Allergies And Asthma : Employing Principles Of Social Justice As A Guide In Public Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Behrmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of social jus- tice is presented. This protocol can serve as a tool to aid in prioritizing public health initiatives and identifying ethically problematic policies that necessitate reform. Criteria for policy assess- ment include: 1 whether a tentative public health intervention would provide equal health ben- efit to a range of allergy and asthma sufferers, 2 whether targeting initiatives towards particu- lar societal groups is merited based on the notion of ‘worst-off status’ of certain population seg- ments, and 3 whether targeted policies have the potential for stigmatization. The article con- cludes by analyzing three examples of policies used in reducing allergy and asthma triggers in order to convey the general thought process underlying the use of the assessment protocol, which public health officials could replicate as a guide in actual, region-specific policy development.

  2. Influenza and diabetes ; immunological and epidemiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza may jeopardize the health of patients with diabetes mellitus in several ways. In the first place influenza infection may inbalance a carefully established metabolic control, and in some cases trigger a process of metabolic deterioration which eventually may lead to ketoacidosis

  3. Evaluation of TLR4 expression and chosen parameters of oxidative-antioxidative balance in young children with food allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kamer-Bartosińska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated mRNA TLR4 expression on neutrophils and the chosen parameters of oxidative-antioxidative balance in blood of 35 children with food allergy (17 of them with IgE-dependent allergy and 18 with IgE-independent allergy and 15 healthy children without any allergy. The age of these children ranged from 1 to 36 months. Children with food allergy in comparison with healthy children were found to have lower mRNA TLR4 expression, higher average value of chemiluminescence (CL and its increase after stimulation by fMLP, PMA and OZ as well as lower TAS values. Disturbances of oxidative-antioxidative balance were found in children with food allergy. We suggest that natural immunity is involved in the development of food allergy mechanisms. Moreover, chemiluminescence can be used as an additional diagnostic test.

  4. Immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms that drive asthma progression to remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Broide, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Although histologic features of airway remodeling have been well characterized in asthma, the immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms that drive progression of asthma to remodeling are still incompletely understood. Conceptually, airway remodeling may be due to persistent inflammation and/or aberrant tissue repair mechanisms. It is likely that several immune and inflammatory cell types and mediators are involved in mediating airway remodeling. In addition, different features of airway remodel...

  5. Immunology and Homeopathy. 4. Clinical Studies—Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Benato; Valeria Piasere; Francesco Pontarollo; Riccardo Ortolani; Paolo Bellavite; Anita Conforti

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based research of the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines in common immunologic disorders is reviewed. In part 1, we introduce methodological issues of clinical research in homeopathy, and criteria utilized to evaluate the literature. Then 24 studies (12 randomized and 12 non-randomized) on common upper respiratory tract infections and otorhinolaryngologic complaints are described. In part 2, the focus will be on allergic diseases and the effectiveness of homeopathy will be gl...

  6. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV, chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads, and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation.

  7. Demographic Predictors of Peanut, Tree Nut, Fish, Shellfish, and Sesame Allergy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ben-Shoshan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68, and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87, resp. while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72 and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61. Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83 and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91. Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31. There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04 and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95, but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.

  8. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W;

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...

  9. Functional modulation of non-transformed IEC-18 intestinal epithelial cells by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínská, Jiřina; Zákostelecká, Marie; Zemanová, Zdeňka; Lisá, Věra; Goliáš, Jaroslav; Kozáková, Hana; Dvořák, B.

    Wroclaw: Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Science, 2015. s. 39. ISBN 978-83-928488-4-4. [Polish-Czech Probiotics Conference Microbiology, Immunology &Allergy /2./. 24.05.2015-26.05.2015, Bielawa] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Association between filaggrin null mutations and concomitant atopic dermatitis and contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Thyssen, J P; Menné, T;

    2011-01-01

    The phenotypic traits of people with the filaggrin mutation (FLG) genotype and atopic dermatitis (AD) are still under elucidation, and the association with concomitant AD and contact allergy (CA) has not previously been examined.......The phenotypic traits of people with the filaggrin mutation (FLG) genotype and atopic dermatitis (AD) are still under elucidation, and the association with concomitant AD and contact allergy (CA) has not previously been examined....

  11. Devic's syndrome and primary APS: a new immunological overlap

    OpenAIRE

    Squatrito D; Colagrande S; Emmi L

    2010-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic’s syndrome) is a rare autoimmune disease, previously considered a multiple sclerosis variant. The most important laboratory and clinical features are optic myelitis and transverse myelitis, associated with neuromyelitis optica-IgG antibody (NMO-IgG) positivity. Subsequent to this immunological test being available, different groups have described the not-so-rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica with other systemic autoimmune diseases, syste...

  12. Stem Cell Niche, the Microenvironment and Immunological Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Law Sujata; S. Chaudhuri

    2008-01-01

    The concept of stem cells, their physiological existence, the intricate anatomical localization, the known and the unknown functions, and their exclusive utility for the purpose of regenerative medicine, are all now encompassed within an emergent question, 'how compatible these cells are immunologically?'Indeed, the medical aspects of stem cells are dependent on a large number of queries based on the basic properties of the cells. It has greatly been emphasized to probe into the basic research on stem cells before any successful therapeutic attempts are made. One of the intricate aspects of the adult stem cells is its immunological behavior in relation to the microenvironmental associates, the stromal ceils in the presence of a suitable target.

  13. Long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and mucosal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gee J Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inflammatory insult following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO is associated with a predisposition to develop a deleterious autoimmune response to the brain antigen myelin basic protein (MBP. Induction of immunologic tolerance to brain antigens prior to MCAO prevents this deleterious autoimmune response and is associated with better functional outcome early after stroke. In this study, we sought to determine the long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and induction of mucosal tolerance. Methods Male Lewis rats were tolerized to MBP or ovalbumin (OVA by intranasal administration prior to MCAO and administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Neurological outcome was assessed at set points after MCAO and animals sacrificed at 3 months; the immune response to MBP in brain and spleen was determined using ELISPOT assay and degree of cellular inflammatory brain infiltrate assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results Animals that developed a pro-inflammatory (TH1 response to MBP experienced worse outcome, while those that developed a regulatory response (TREG experienced better outcome. A TREG response in spleen was also associated with decreased inflammation and an increase in the number of FoxP3 positive cells in brain. In this study, tolerization to MBP prior to MCAO was associated with a tendency to develop a TH1 response to MBP by 3 months after MCAO. Conclusion These data show that induction of immunological tolerance to MBP is associated with improved outcome after stroke. This study, however, raises concern about the potential for inadvertent induction of detrimental autoimmunity through mucosal administration of antigen.

  14. Allergy and sensitization during childhood associated with prenatal and lactational exposure to marine pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Poulsen, Lars K; Heilmann, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region.......Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region....

  15. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J;

    2014-01-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are...... significantly more sensitive than generic ones in measuring the response to interventions or future treatments, as well as estimating the general burden of food allergy. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify which disease-specific, validated instruments can be employed to enable assessment...... of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to Ig...

  16. Immunological Changes in Mesothelioma Patients and Their Experimental Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that asbestos exposure causes asbestos-related diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma (MM not only in people who have handled asbestos in the work environment, but also in residents living near factories that handle asbestos. These facts have been an enormous medical and social problem in Japan since the summer of 2005. We focused on the immunological effects of asbestos and silica on the human immune system. In this brief review, we present immunological changes in patients with MM and outline their experimental detection. For example, there is over-expression of bcl-2 in CD4+ peripheral T-cells, high plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-ß, and multiple over-representation of T cell receptor (TcR-Vß in peripheral CD3+ T-cells found in MM patients. We also detail an experimental long-term exposure T-cell model. Analysis of the immunological effects of asbestos may help our understanding of the biological effects of asbestos.

  17. Proteomic and immunologic analyses of brain tumor exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Graner, Michael W.; Alzate, Oscar; Dechkovskaia, Angelika M.; Keene, Jack D.; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A; Bigner, Darell D.

    2009-01-01

    Brain tumors are horrific diseases with almost universally fatal outcomes; new therapeutics are desperately needed and will come from improved understandings of glioma biology. Exosomes are endosomally derived 30–100 nm membranous vesicles released from many cell types into the extracellular milieu; surprisingly, exosomes are virtually unstudied in neuro-oncology. These microvesicles were used as vaccines in other tumor settings, but their immunological significance is unevaluated in brain tu...

  18. Infectious and Immunologic Phenotype of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michael; Kölsch, Uwe; Krüger, Renate; Unterwalder, Nadine; Hameister, Karin; Kaiser, Fabian Marc; Vignoli, Aglaia; Rossi, Rainer; Botella, Maria Pilar; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Rosello, Monica; Orellana, Carmen; Tejada, Maria Isabel; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Patat, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) duplication causes syndromic intellectual disability. Patients often suffer from life-threatening infections, suggesting an additional immunodeficiency. We describe for the first time the detailed infectious and immunological phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome. 17/27 analyzed patients suffered from pneumonia, 5/27 from at least one episode of sepsis. Encapsulated bacteria (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae) were frequently isolated. T-cell immunity showed no...

  19. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  20. Lifestyle and allergy : in relation to viral infections and gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Marell Hesla, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Allergy-related diseases such as food allergy, eczema, asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis affect nearly half of Swedish children before twelve years of age and are more prevalent in populations with westernized lifestyle. Reduced microbial exposure very early in life is believed to play a crucial role for this increased risk. Children of families with an anthroposophic lifestyle are less commonly affected. The aim of this thesis was to study associations between this lifestyle and development of ...

  1. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking. PMID:24925380

  2. [The interrelationships of allergy, infection and the psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicioğlu, B

    1993-10-01

    In this review, we would attempt to discuss the interrelationships of allergy, infection, and the psyche. The interplay of these forces is expressed diagrammatically in Fig. 1.1, the interrelationship indicated there, suggests a dynamic interaction between three complex forces, each in itself capable of producing disease. In addition, since each affects the other, each may be able to initiate vicious cycles or chain-type reactions. On the other hand, we would attempt to discuss also, some specific and non-specific mechanisms involved in immunity as well as hypersensitivity reactions against to infectious agents. Fig. 1.2, presents a simplification of the response of allergic patient to microorganisms. Immunity, hypersensitivity and unresponsiveness to different antigens of the same infectious agents can occur simultaneously. PMID:8264451

  3. The immunopathogenesis of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Vitaliti; Carla Cimino; Alfina Coco; Domenico Praticò; Elena Lionetti

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) are gastrointestinal. CMPA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells and production of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Nevertheless, recent studies have been focused on the description of other forms of CMPA, not-mediated by IgE reactions, mostly involving the T lymphocite immune system. Thus, in this field it is important to note how different kind of cells...

  4. Frontiers in Clinical Immunology and Immunoregulation 2010: The Highlight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiming Fan; Song Guo Zheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 10th meeting of the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) was held in Boston during 23-27 June 2010. As usual, this conference hightights the greatest advancements in the field of clinical immunology over the previous year.

  5. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  6. Fighting Allergies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  7. Acute and long-term management of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September...... reviewers critically appraised the studies using the appropriate tools. Data were not suitable for meta-analysis due to heterogeneity so were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Eighty-four studies were included, but two-thirds were at high risk of potential bias. There was little evidence about acute...... management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended, but...

  8. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  9. Married...with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Married...with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Photo: ... married life together and a common problem—severe food allergies. NIH MedlinePlus magazine’s Naomi Miller caught up with ...

  10. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  11. 77 FR 76058 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  12. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  13. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26,...

  14. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  15. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  16. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showin

  17. Is there a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Husum, B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, chlorhexidine is the standard disinfectant in most hospitals and health care workers are repeatedly exposed to it. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine from this type of exposure. METHODS: Two hundred...... and forty-eight doctors, nurses and auxiliary staff were invited to participate in the study. One hundred and four individuals took part in the full study including skin tests and a questionnaire and a further 74 individuals filled in the questionnaire giving a total of 178 questionnaires (72%). Patch tests...... to examine the risk of type I and type IV allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers with daily exposure to chlorhexidine, we did not identify allergies to chlorhexidine in any of the 104 individuals tested or in the additional 74 individuals who completed the questionnaire. We conclude that an allergy...

  18. The pediatrician's role in the diagnosis and management of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Claudia H; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2013-07-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize the signs and symptoms of food allergy versus food intolerance. 2. Review currently available diagnostic testing modalities for food allergy and their applicability in the pediatric outpatient setting. 3. Review appropriate management practices for pediatricians, including prescription of medications, counseling of families, and referrals to keep children safe. Food allergy is a rapidly increasing and potentially life-threatening health concern in the United States. Given the ubiquity of food in our society and the absence of a cure, it is crucial that families receive proper guidance and medication to keep children safe. The pediatrician plays a key role to this end as he or she is often the first, and sometimes the only physician, these children can access. Accordingly, pediatricians must be equipped to recognize, manage, and evaluate food allergies over time while preventing unnecessary avoidance. This review provides practical translation of guidelines into recommended practices that are most pertinent to pediatricians. PMID:23805958

  19. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer...

  20. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. David Clary,...