4.1 Autoimmune Disease2007019 The clinical significance of epitopes of SmB and SmD in systemic lupus erythemotosus. XUE Jing(薛静), et al. Dept Rheumotol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Sch Med, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310008. Chin J Lab Med 2006;29(11):996-1000. Objective To assess the presence of autoantibodies directed against the epitopes of Stub and SmD in systemic lupus erythemotosus (SLE) as well as other different connective tissue diseases (CTDs) and analyze their clinical significance .
2010176 Interactions between susceptible genes and risk environmental factors in Chinese females with systemic lupus erythematosus.PENG Chunlin(彭春林),et al.Dept Epidemiol,Sch Public Health,Fudan Univ,Shanghai 200032.Chin J Prev Med 2010;44(2):144-149.
Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer
Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.
Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos
After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.
Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan
Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail. PMID:27177897
Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S
The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.
Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis
The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and
Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana
In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in
Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi
The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune
von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D
In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field.
Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics
Clark, A T; Skypala, I; Leech, S C; Ewan, P W; Dugué, P; Brathwaite, N; Huber, P A J; Nasser, S M
This guideline advises on the management of patients with egg allergy. Most commonly, egg allergy presents in infancy, with a prevalence of approximately 2% in children and 0.1% in adults. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay) will confirm the diagnosis in most cases. Egg avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Egg allergy often resolves and re-introduction can be achieved at home if reactions have been mild and there is no asthma. Patients with a history of severe reactions or asthma should have reintroduction guided by a specialist. All children with egg allergy should receive measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. Influenza and yellow fever vaccines should only be considered in egg-allergic patients under the guidance of an allergy specialist. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. The recommendations are evidence-based but where evidence was lacking consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and co-morbid associations.
920044 Experimental and clinical study ofactivated platelet in allergic asthma.YUHuapeng (于化鹏),et al.Changhai Hosp,2ndMilit Meal Coil,200433.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30(9):546-549.Twenty-five asthmatic Guinea pigs and four-teen asthmatic patients were included in this
... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... and other information. Access member only materials Latest Research Inhaler adherence by new electronic technology (INCA) satisfactory ...
Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric
Integrative medicine is a relatively new discipline which attempts to combine allopathic medicine with alternative or complementary medicine, to reap the benefits of both forms of medicine in optimizing the care of patients. Integrative medicine concentrates on treating the patient as a whole, both in body and mind. While the scientific method and "evidence-based" clinical research drives the management and treatment of diseases in conventional Western medicine, alternative or complementary medicine is based on unproven yet potentially beneficial techniques that have been developed throughout history, dating back to the ancient cultures in the Middle East, Africa, and China. In spite of the lack of evidence of most alternative medicine techniques, these methodologies have been practiced for centuries with great acceptance in many countries. It is in the Western world, where "modern" medicine is dictated by the scientific method, that the most controversy in the use of these alternative modes of therapy exists. Since the science behind alternative medicine is incomplete or non-existent, it is difficult for those trained in Western medicine to accept or adopt this approach. But perhaps it is the failure of Western medicine to adequately guarantee our well being and good health that have led to the ongoing debate between the medical profession and the general public as to the benefits of these alternative treatments. In one sense, integrative medicine may be a futile attempt to coin a new term in the hope of legitimizing alternative medicine. On the other hand, there is a wealth of historical experience in the use of the techniques. Studies to evaluate the scientific basis behind ancient medical techniques are ongoing, and it is to be expected that the results will neither be uniformly positive nor negative. Of particular interest is the effect of traditional medicine, herbal formulations, and manipulative techniques on the immune system, and its application in the
Boyce, Joshua A; Bochner, Bruce; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E
2011 was marked by rapid progress in the identification of basic mechanisms of allergic disease and the translation of these mechanisms into human cell systems. Studies published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology this year provided new insights into the molecular determinants of allergenicity, as well as the environmental, cellular, and genetic factors involved in sensitization to allergens. Several articles focused on mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy and the development of novel strategies to achieve tolerance to allergens. Additional studies identified substantial contributions from T(H)17-type cells and cytokines to human disease pathogenesis. Finally, new therapeutic applications of anti-IgE were identified. The highlights of these studies and their potential clinical implications are summarized in this review.
Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L
According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we
Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Tal, Yuval; Broides, Arnon; Asher, Ilan; Hersheko, Alon; Staubers, Tali; Confino-Cohen, Ronit
Drug hypersensitivity is an adverse reaction that was brought about by a specific immunologic response, not related to the pharmacological components of the drug. Additionally, drug related pseudoallergic and anaphylactoid reactions have been encompassed under the umbrella of hypersensitivity. Some of these reactions are linked with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, the hypersensitivity reactions of most drugs can be well defined and recurrence risk following exposure to the culprit drug and/or related drugs can be assessed. Medical history skin, blood and challenge tests, conducted in an allergy clinic, enable prediction and prevention of repeated events as well as unnecessary avoidance of certain compounds. For instance, most patients who report a prior reaction to penicillin are not allergic to beta-lactams upon allergic evaluation, while avoidance of penicillin based on self-reporting alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. On the other hand, for patients who previously exhibited hypersensitivity to a compound which is currently required, premedication or a desensitization protocol can be recommended to allow the use of this compound. Drug hypersensitivity is most commonly attributed to beta-lactams antibiotics, contrast media reagents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Hence, in the current review the recommendations of the Israeli Association for Allergy and Clinical Immunology for the evaluation and treatment of patients suspected to have hypersensitivity to beta-lactams and contrast media reagents are detailed. Recommendations regarding the evaluation of NSAID hypersensitivity will be published on the IMA website, together with those explicated herein. PMID:24364087
Dimov, Ves; Eidelman, Frank
Online social networks are used to connect with friends and family members, and increasingly, to stay up-to-date with the latest news and developments in allergy and immunology. As communication is a central part of healthcare delivery, the utilization of such networking channels in allergy and immunology will continue to grow. There are inherent risks to online social networks related to breaches of patient confidentiality, professionalism and privacy. Malpractice and liability risks should also be considered. There is a paucity of information in the literature on how social network interventions affect patient outcomes. The allergy and immunology community should direct future studies towards investigating how the use of social networks and other technology tools and services can improve patient care.
Selmi, Carlo; Crotti, Chiara; Meroni, Pier Luigi
Allergy and clinical immunology are examples of areas of knowledge in which working hypotheses are dominant over mechanistic understanding. As such, sometimes scientific efforts follow major streams and overlook some epidemiologically prevalent conditions that thus become underestimated by the research community. For this reason, we welcome the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology that is dedicated to uncommon themes in clinical immunology and allergy. First, comprehensive discussions are provided for allergy phenomena of large potential impact in clinical practice such as reactions to cephalosporins or aspirin-induced asthma and in everyday life such as allergies to food additives or legumes. Further, the issue addresses other uncommon themes such as urticaria and angioedema, cercarial dermatitis, or late-onset inflammation to soft tissue fillers. Last, there will be discussion on transversal issues such as olfactory defects in autoimmunity, interleukin 1 beta pathway, and the search for new serological markers in chronic inflammation. As a result, we are convinced that this issue will be of help to clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as to allergists and clinical immunologists. More importantly, we are convinced that these discussions will be of interest also to basic scientists for the numerous translational implications.
Muraro, A.; Roberts, G.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Brockow, K.; Fernandez Rivas, M.; Santos, A. F.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Bellou, A.; Beyer, K.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Cardona, V.; Clark, A. T.; Demoly, P.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Halken, S.; Harada, L.; Lack, G.; Jutel, M.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Timmermans, F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Werfel, T.; Dhami, S.; Panesar, S.; Akdis, C. A.; Sheikh, A.
Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidenc
Wu, Jiangbo; De Theije, Caroline M G; Da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Van Der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M.; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutation
Shah, Rachna; Greenberger, Paul A
Unproved methods and controversial theories in the diagnosis and management of allergy-immunology are those that lack scientific credibility. Some definitions are provided for perspective because in chronic medical conditions, frequently, nonscientifically based treatments are developed that can have a very positive psychological effect on the patients in the absence of objective physical benefit. Standard practice can be described as "the methods of diagnosis and treatment used by reputable physicians in a particular subspecialty or primary care practice" with the understanding that diagnosis and treatment options are consistent with established mechanisms of conditions or diseases.(3) Conventional medicine (Western or allopathic medicine) is that which is practiced by the majority of MDs, DOs, psychologists, RNs, and physical therapists. Complementary medicine uses the practice of conventional medicine with complementary and alternative medicine such as using acupuncture for pain relief in addition to opioids. Alternative medicine implies use of complementary and alternative practices in place of conventional medicine. Unproved and controversial methods and theories do not have supporting data, validation, and sufficient scientific scrutiny, and they should not be used in the practice of allergy-immunology. Some examples of unproven theories about allergic immunologic conditions include allergic toxemia, idiopathic environmental intolerance, association with childhood vaccinations, and adrenal fatigue. Unconventional (unproved) diagnostic methods for allergic-immunologic conditions include cytotoxic tests, provocation-neutralization, electrodermal diagnosis, applied kinesiology assessments, and serum IgG or IgG(4) testing. Unproven treatments and intervention methods for allergic-immunologic conditions include acupuncture, homeopathy ("likes cure likes"), halotherapy, and autologous urine injections.
Pomés, Anna; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Gustchina, Alla; Minor, Wladek; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Pedersen, Lars C; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D
Current knowledge of molecules involved in immunology and allergic disease results from the significant contributions of x-ray crystallography, a discipline that just celebrated its 100th anniversary. The histories of allergens and x-ray crystallography are intimately intertwined. The first enzyme structure to be determined was lysozyme, also known as the chicken food allergen Gal d 4. Crystallography determines the exact 3-dimensional positions of atoms in molecules. Structures of molecular complexes in the disciplines of immunology and allergy have revealed the atoms involved in molecular interactions and mechanisms of disease. These complexes include peptides presented by MHC class II molecules, cytokines bound to their receptors, allergen-antibody complexes, and innate immune receptors with their ligands. The information derived from crystallographic studies provides insights into the function of molecules. Allergen function is one of the determinants of environmental exposure, which is essential for IgE sensitization. Proteolytic activity of allergens or their capacity to bind LPSs can also contribute to allergenicity. The atomic positions define the molecular surface that is accessible to antibodies. In turn, this surface determines antibody specificity and cross-reactivity, which are important factors for the selection of allergen panels used for molecular diagnosis and the interpretation of clinical symptoms. This review celebrates the contributions of x-ray crystallography to clinical immunology and allergy, focusing on new molecular perspectives that influence the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.
Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech
Patients with atopic disorders present an increased production of IgE, which is usually limited to specific antibodies against various environmental allergens. It has also been suggested that the production of these antibodies may be influenced by effective specific immunotherapy (SIT). Of course, a decline of serum antigen specific IgE in the course of such a treatment cannot explain the clinical efficacy of SIT and is probably not a key mechanism. However, SIT may at least participate in the final clinical result. In this study, 37 patients with atopic dermatitis were treated with allergy vaccines (Novo-Helisen Depot) for a time period of 48 months. The control group consisted of 29 patients with atopic dermatitis who were treated with classical methods. The clinical score (W-AZS), total IgE and antigen specific IgE (asIgE) in the sera of patients were assessed before treatment and after 24 and 48 months of therapy (FEIA CAP System, Pharmacia). There was a significant difference between the two investigated groups from both the clinical and immunological standpoints after 2 and 4 years of observation. There was a significant decrease of serum total IgE and asIgE (directed against airborne allergens) in the course of specific immunotherapy. In the control group, the total IgE level tended to increase, and this tendency was also recorded in case of asIgE measurements. We also evaluated the influence of specific immunotherapy on the serum level of IFN-G, sIL-2R, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 before treatment and after 4 years of therapy with the quantitative 2-step colorimetric sandwich ELISA method (R and D Systems). In the group of patients treated with allergy vaccines, a significant decrease of the serum sIL-2R level was observed after 48 months of therapy (p<0.01). In the control group, a significant increase of serum IL-4 (p<0.01) as well as IL-5 (p<0.05) was registered at the end of the observation period. There was no significant correlation between the clinical
Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana
In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine.
Food allergies and intolerance Summary It is rather necessary to distinguish between food allergy and food intolerance. While the nature of allergy is based on the immunological response, intolerance may be mostly caused by the lack of an enzyme that is needed to digest certain foods seamlessly. Clinical manifestations may be varied. These may be a more serious case of anaphylactic reaction, oral allergy syndrome, dermatological symptoms, gastrointestinal reactions or as respirato...
... have latex allergy you should limit or avoid future exposure to latex products. Mold Allergy Molds live everywhere—on logs and on fallen leaves, and in moist places like bathrooms and kitchens. Sinus Information Sinus disease is a major health ...
Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M; Bilò, M B; Brockow, K; Fernández Rivas, M; Santos, A F; Zolkipli, Z Q; Bellou, A; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Cardona, V; Clark, A T; Demoly, P; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Eigenmann, P; Halken, S; Harada, L; Lack, G; Jutel, M; Niggemann, B; Ruëff, F; Timmermans, F; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Werfel, T; Dhami, S; Panesar, S; Akdis, C A; Sheikh, A
Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis. While the primary audience is allergists, these guidelines are also relevant to all other healthcare professionals. The development of these guidelines has been underpinned by two systematic reviews of the literature, both on the epidemiology and on clinical management of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening condition whose clinical diagnosis is based on recognition of a constellation of presenting features. First-line treatment for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Useful second-line interventions may include removing the trigger where possible, calling for help, correct positioning of the patient, high-flow oxygen, intravenous fluids, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and nebulized adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use the device should be provided. Specialist follow-up is essential to investigate possible triggers, to perform a comprehensive risk assessment, and to prevent future episodes by developing personalized risk reduction strategies including, where possible, commencing allergen immunotherapy. Training for the patient and all caregivers is essential. There are still many gaps in the evidence base for anaphylaxis. PMID:24909803
Malbrán, Eloisa; Fernández Romero, Diego; Juri, Maria Cecilia; Larrauri, Blas J; Malbrán, Alejandro
We describe the diagnostic epidemiology, the clinical course, the family history and the response to treatment of patients with angioedema without wheals (AWW) at an Allergy and Immunology Clinical Center. We reviewed the case records of all patients at our office from January 1997 to April 2013. We recorded sex, age, age at onset of symptoms, family history of angioedema, number of visits to the office, type of angioedema, and response to treatment from those patients with angioedema without wheals. We classified angioedema according to its pathophysiology. We also describe those patients with angioedema mimics. From a total of 17,823 new patients, 303 had a presumptive diagnosis of angioedema without wheals. Twenty-three patients had an angioedema mimic. Forty percent were male and 60% were female. Average age at first visit was 40.6. Average number of visits was 2.4. Fifty-seven patients referred a family history. We attributed idiopathic angioedema to 55.7% of patients, 24.3% were drug related, 15.7% were due to C1 inhibitor deficiency, 2.1% were drug related+idiopathic angioedema, 1.4% were type III and 0.7% had exercise-induced angioedema. Ninety six percent of 53 evaluable idiopathic angioedema patients referred a benefit with anti-histamine therapy. AWW was a rare cause of consultation. Most of our patients had anti H1 responsive idiopathic angioedema and none had allergic angioedema. Women cases prevailed over men's. Family history and average age of onset of symptoms were different among the different types of angioedema.
An allergy is commonly understood to be an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances that are misrecognised as foreign. This concept of allergy as an abnormal, misdirected immune response-a biological fault-stems from the idea that the immune system is an inherently defensive operation designed to protect the individual through an innate capacity to discriminate between the benign and toxic, or self and nonself. However, this definition of allergy represents a radical departure from its original formulation. Literally meaning 'altered reactivity', the term was coined in 1906 by Austrian paediatrician Clemens von Pirquet, to describe the fundamentally mutable nature of the immune response. This paper argues that the conventional interpretation of allergy-as-pathology derives from specific concepts of 'organism', 'response', and 'normal' immune function that have-for over a century-governed the perception and study of immune phenomena within immunology. Through an examination of Louis Pasteur's conceptualisation of the host body/microorganism relationship, I argue that immunology is founded on a view of the organism as a discrete, autonomous entity, and on a concomitant notion of the immune response as essentially reactive. Revisiting the concept of 'altered reactivity', this paper points to the fact that allergy was initially posited as a general theory of immune responsiveness and, importantly, one that poses a significant challenge to orthodox notions of immunopathology. It suggests that Pirquet's unique view of immune responsiveness presents an account of organismic or biological identity that encapsulates, rather than reduces, its ecological complexity.
symptoms. In exclusively breast-fed infants with CMPA/CMPI severe atopic eczema is a predominant symptom. Debut of CMPA/CMPI after 12 months is extremely rare. The basic treatment is complete avoidance of CMP. In infancy a proven hypoallergenic CM substitute is needed. Due to clinically important residual...... allergenicity in some hypoallergenic formulae controlled clinical testing is necessary in each case before use. Goat's milk proteins share identity with CMP Raw untreated cow's milk and unhomogenized cow's milk is as allergenic as normal pasteurized and homogenized milk products. The prognosis of CMPA....../CMPI is good with a remission rate about 45-50% at one year, 60-75% at two years, and 85-90% at three years. Associated adverse reactions to other foods develop in about 50%, and allergy against inhalants in 50-80% before puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...
Ridolo, E; Incorvaia, C; Senna, G E; Montagni, M; Olivieri, E; Canonica, G W
We performed a survey, based on a questionnaire including 20 items, submitted anonymously to Italian trainees in Allergology and Clinical Immunology, in order to obtain information about their specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) practices. The questionnaire was sent to 40 trainees, who had attended the last two years of the training course. Thirty-four subjects (mean age: 27 years, 65% females) adequately completed the survey. The answers to the questionnaire showed that only 60% of the training programs included lectures on AIT. Among the trainees using AIT, only 40% declared being able to prescribe it independently, while 60% were guided by a tutor. Of the trainees who were able to prescribe AIT autonomously, 60% were familiar with both routes of administration, i.e. subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), while 25% of these used only SLIT. In 80% of the training institutions involved, the trainees could attend a dedicated AIT outpatient ward for SCIT administration; only 40% administered AIT personally, and in half of these cases, they were guided by a tutor. Only 70% of trainees had experience in the follow-up of patients still under treatment and of patients who had completed treatment. Analysis of the answers obtained for questions on venom immunotherapy (VIT) showed that, in 90% of cases, the trainees attended a dedicated outpatients ward where VIT is administered, but with a role limited to observation/cooperation. Only 30% were involved in the follow-up of patients who were under treatment or who had completed VIT. Only 20% of the trainees felt confident enough about VIT to prescribe this treatment independently, 80% knew there were several administration protocols, and the majority prescribed products from three different manufacturers. These findings suggest that there is significant room for improving the instructions provided regarding allergology and clinical immunology to trainees in Italy with respect to AIT.
Akdis, Cezmi A; Bachert, Claus; Cingi, Cemal; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hellings, Peter W; Naclerio, Robert M; Schleimer, Robert P; Ledford, Dennis
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex disease consisting of several disease variants with different underlying pathophysiologies. Limited knowledge of the mechanisms of these disease subgroups is possibly the greatest obstacle in understanding the causes of CRS and improving treatment. It is generally agreed that there are clinically relevant CRS phenotypes defined by an observable characteristic or trait, such as the presence or absence of nasal polyps. Defining the phenotype of the patient is useful in making therapeutic decisions. However, clinical phenotypes do not provide full insight into all underlying cellular and molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms of CRS. Recognition of the heterogeneity of CRS has promoted the concept that CRS consists of multiple groups of biological subtypes, or "endotypes," which are defined by distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms that might be identified by corresponding biomarkers. Different CRS endotypes can be characterized by differences in responsiveness to different treatments, including topical intranasal corticosteroids and biological agents, such as anti-IL-5 and anti-IgE mAb, and can be based on different biomarkers that are linked to underlying mechanisms. CRS has been regarded as a single disease entity in clinical and genetic studies in the past, which can explain the failure to identify consistent genetic and environmental correlations. In addition, better identification of endotypes might permit individualization of therapy that can be targeted against the pathophysiologic processes of a patient's endotype, with potential for more effective treatment and better patient outcomes. PMID:23587334
Patrícia Beltrão Lessa Constant
Full Text Available Food allergy can be defined as an adverse reaction to a food antigen mediated by fundamentally immunological mechanisms. It is a nutritional problem that has shown an increase in the last decades probably due to the population’s exposure to a higher number of available food allergens. It has become a health problem worldwide being associated to a significant negative impact on life quality. The foods most cited as those which cause food allergy are: milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, shrimps, fish and soy bean. The main food allergens are protein-nature ones. There must be investment in research in order to reduce the damage caused by foods containing allergens. Biotechnology studies can be considered an efficient and safe alternative. The purpose of this research is to present an updated review on food allergies focusing on its action mechanism in the body, main food involved and alternatives that have been used to minimize this problem. A alergia alimentar pode ser definida como uma reação adversa a um antígeno alimentar mediada por mecanismos fundamentalmente imunológicos. É um problema nutricional que apresentou um crescimento nas ultimas décadas, provavelmente devido à maior exposição da população a um número maior de alérgenos alimentares disponíveis. Ele vem se tornando um problema de saúde em todo o mundo e está associado a um impacto negativo significativo na qualidade de vida. Os alimentos mais citados como causadores de alergias alimentares são: leite, ovos, amendoim, castanhas, camarão, peixe e soja, e os principais alérgenos alimentares identificados são de natureza protéica. É importante que haja investimento em pesquisas no sentido de reduzir os danos causados por alimentos que contém alérgenos. Estudos com a biotecnologia podem apresentar-se como uma alternativa eficiente e segura. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão atualizada das alergias alimentares, com foco principal no seu mecanismo de
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...
Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...
Krop, Esmeralda J M; Heederik, Dick J J; Lutter, René; de Meer, Gea; Aalberse, Rob C; Jansen, Henk M; van der Zee, Jaring S
BACKGROUND: Sensitization to occupational allergens is frequently found in laboratory animal workers (LAWs) and can cause serious health problems. Atopy is a major risk factor for sensitization, but it is considered insufficient to advise against working with animals. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whet
Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;
Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....
Calderón, M A; Larenas, D; Kleine-Tebbe, J;
For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen prod...
Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G;
with the length of treatment, especially for FAP inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Both SCIT and SLIT tablet induce significant changes in specific antibodies (IgE and IgG4) and competition assays (IgE-blocking factor, FAP, and BAT). Overall, SCIT induced larger (two- to threefold) changes than SLIT tablet...
4.1 Autoimmune disease2004321 Predictors at the nadir of severity in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. PENG Mao( 彭茂),et al. Dept Neurol, Xuanwu Hosp,Capit Univ Med Sci,Beijing 100053. Chin J Neurol 2004;37(2): 154 - 157.
4.1 Autoimmune disease2003169 Investigation of signaling pathway by LFA-1 costimulation in PBMC of active lupus nephritis.WANG Jianqin(王俭勤),et al.Dept Nephrol, 1st Affili Hosp, Sun Yat-sen Univ, Guangzhou 510080. Chin J
3.1 Autoimmune disease2003266 Using GST-tag to capture protein interaction of an interferon-inducible systemic lupus associated gene, IFIT1. YE Shuang(叶霜), et al. Dept Rheumatol, Renji Hosp, Clin Center Rheum Dis, Shanghai 2nd Med
2011182 Modulation of RhoA/ROCK pathway on TLR-2 ligand-induced chemokine secretion in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. LIANG Liuqin(梁柳琴),et al. Dept Rheumatol,1st Affil Hosp
Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.
Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a sy
Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: Consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.
Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter
Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. To address this unmet need, an international task force involving experts from different organizations (including the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) met several times between 2010 and 2014 to discuss the classification and criteria for diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. This article provides the major outcomes of these meetings and a proposal for a revised definition and criteria. In particular, we recommend that the typical maculopapular cutaneous lesions (urticaria pigmentosa) should be subdivided into 2 variants, namely a monomorphic variant with small maculopapular lesions, which is typically seen in adult patients, and a polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, which is typically seen in pediatric patients. Clinical observations suggest that the monomorphic variant, if it develops in children, often persists into adulthood, whereas the polymorphic variant may resolve around puberty. This delineation might have important prognostic implications, and its implementation in diagnostic algorithms and future mastocytosis classifications is recommended. Refinements are also suggested for the diagnostic criteria of CM, removal of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans from the current classification of CM, and removal of the adjunct solitary from the term solitary mastocytoma.
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...
Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement
Giovannini, M.; E. D'Auria; Caffarelli, C.; Verduci, E; S. Barberi; L. Indinnimeo; I.D. Iacono; A. Martell; Riva, E.; Bernardini, R
Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional inter...
Kaplan, Allen P.
History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Al...
Wang, Julie; Sicherer, Scott H
Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 3-4% of adults in Westernized countries, and is the most common cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most studies. The mainstay of treatment is strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding the use of emergency medication in cases of accidental ingestions or exposures. While these approaches are generally effective, there are no definitive treatments that cure or provide long-term remission from food allergy. However, with recent advances in characterizing food allergens and understanding humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy, several therapeutic strategies are being investigated. Potential treatments include allergen-specific immunotherapy as well as allergen-nonspecific approaches to downregulate the overall allergic response in food-allergic individuals. PMID:20477008
Bellanti, Joseph A
rhinosinusitis caused by fungi. Intranasal Amphotericin B was shown to reduce inflammatory mucosal thickening on both CT scan and nasal endoscopy and decreased the levels of intranasal markers for eosinophilic inflammation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. The last two articles reviewed two papers dealing with the role that gastrointestinal immune responses play in maintaining protective immunity in health and a critical role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of clinical disorders associated with food allergy as well as the suspected pivotal role of oral tolerance to dietary proteins for the prevention of food allergy. The mode of antigen uptake in the gut and different regulatory immune cells appear to play critical roles in maintenance of oral tolerance as shown in many animal model systems. PMID:16913260
Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.
Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto
Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.
Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.
Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto
Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...
Putten, van, T.
Food allergy represents an increasing concern to society. It is defined as an inappropriate immunological reaction to normally harmless food components and affects 5-8% of children and 1-2% of adults. Since at the time of writing no cure for food allergy exists, food allergic consumers need to avoid all problematic foods and ingredients, which may have a negative impact on the quality of life and economic functioning of food allergic consumers and their families. Food allergies may also resul...
Putten, van M.C.
Food allergy represents an increasing concern to society. It is defined as an inappropriate immunological reaction to normally harmless food components and affects 5-8% of children and 1-2% of adults. Since at the time of writing no cure for food allergy exists, food allergic consumers need to avoid
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...
Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B
The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2010 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema was published earlier this year in this Journal (Bowen et al. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2010, 6:24 - http://www.aacijournal.com/content/6/1/24. Since that publication, there have been multiple phase III clinical trials published on either prophylaxis or therapy of hereditary angioedema and some of these products have changed approval status in various countries. This manuscript was prepared to review and update the management of hereditary angioedema. Objective To review approaches for the diagnosis and management of hereditary angioedema (HAE circa December 2010 and present thoughts on moving from HAE management from international evidence-based consensus to facilitate more local health unit considerations balancing costs, efficacies of treatments, and risk benefits. Thoughts will reflect Canadian and international experiences. Methods PubMed searches including hereditary angioedema and diagnosis, therapy, management and consensus were reviewed as well as press releases from various pharmaceutical companies to early December 2010. Results The 2010 International Consensus Algorithms for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema is reviewed in light of the newly published phase III Clinical trials for prevention and therapy of HAE. Management approaches and models are discussed. Conclusions Consensus approach and double-blind placebo controlled trials are only interim guides to a complex disorder such as HAE and should be replaced as soon as possible with large phase IV clinical trials, meta analyses, data base registry validation of approaches including quality of life and cost benefit analyses, safety, and head-to-head clinical trials investigating superiority or non-inferiority comparisons of available approaches. Since not all therapeutic products are available in all jurisdictions
Siracusa, A.; Blay, F. de; Folletti, I.; Moscato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Quirce, S.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Sastra, J.; Tarlo, S.M.; Walusiak-Skorupa, J.; Zock, J.P.
Professional and domestic cleaning is associated with work-related asthma (WRA). This position paper reviews the literature linking exposure to cleaning products and the risk of asthma and focuses on prevention. Increased risk of asthma has been shown in many epidemiological and surveillance studies
... video about: Allergies Common allergens include: Drugs Dust Food Insect venom Mold Pet and other animal dander Pollen ... effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used to treat food allergies because of the danger of a severe ...
Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H;
Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared...... by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood...... strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers...
... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...
Sublett, James L.; Seltzer, James; Burkhead, Robert; Williams, P. Brock; Wedner, H. James; Phipatanakul, Wanda
The allergist is generally recognized as possessing the greatest expertise in relating airborne contaminants to respiratory health, both atopic and nonatopic. Consequently, allergists are most often asked for their professional opinions regarding the appropriate use of air-cleaning equipment. This rostrum serves as a resource for the allergist and other health care professionals seeking a better understanding of air filtration.
Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;
The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim......, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....
Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;
The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim......; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....
Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;
The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim......; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....
Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.
... little swelling that looks and feels like a mosquito bite will occur where the allergen(s) to which ... of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) believes are not useful, effective or may lead to inappropriate diagnosis and ...
Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876
Montalto, Massimo; Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Curigliano, Valentina; Gallo, Antonella; Visca, Dina; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni
All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as 'adverse reactions to food'. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into 'food allergies' when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and 'food intolerances' when there are no immunological implications. The diagnostic approach to adverse reactions to food is based on accurate clinical history and objective examination, and further execution of specific tests when allergy or intolerance is suspected. The therapy for food allergies is the elimination of the food to which hypersensibility has been found; this strategy can lead, especially in pediatric age, to tolerance. If elimination diets cannot be completely performed, or if it is not possible to identify the food to eliminate, some drugs (e.g. antihistaminics, steroids, etc.) can be administered. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been recently introduced. Fundamental is food allergy prevention, especially in high-risk subjects. The therapeutic approach to secondary food intolerances is based principally on primitive disease resolution; on the other hand, some specific treatments (e.g. beta-galactosidases in lactose malabsorption) are available in case of primary intolerance. PMID:18431058
... Researchers & Academics Sponsors & Supporters Donate Contact AAFA Asthma Asthma Triggers Allergens and Allergic Asthma Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution ... Feed Subscribe Asthma Capitals Asthma Facts Asthma Research Asthma Triggers Allergy Capitals Allergy Facts Allergy Research Allergy Treatment ...
Full Text Available Food allergy is now looming as a major health issue with significant implications. In westernized countries, recent reports show a rise in allergic diseases, in particular food allergy. It affects approximately 5–8�0of children and 1–5�0of adults. Despite this, our current understanding of the immunological and biological mechanisms of food allergy is still incomplete. It is generally believed that food allergy is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. There is some evidence that epigenetic modifications may affect the prevalence of food allergies. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors of food allergy.
Potter, Paul C; Warner, John O; Pawankar, Ruby; Kaliner, Michael A; Del Giacco, Sergio; Rosenwasser, Lanny
The Council acknowledges specific comments from: The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) (Amal H Assa'ad); The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) (Mark Dykewicz, D. Betty Lew, Bryan L. Martin); The Argentine Association of Allergy and Immunology (Ledit RF Ardusso); The Argentine Society of Allergy and Immunopathology (Estrella Asayag); The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) (Jill Smith); The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Stephen Durham); The Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunopathology (Nelson Rosario); The Bulgarian Society of Allergology (Vasil Dimitrov); The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) (Richard Warrington); The Chilean Society of Allergy and Immunology (Jessica Salinas); The Chinese Society of Allergology (Zhang Hongyu, Yin Jia); The Czech Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Jiri Litzman); The Danish Society of Allergology (Lone Winther, Peter Plaschke); The Egyptian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Kamal Maurice Hanna); The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (Yehia El-Gamal); The German Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Thilo Jakob, Claus Bachert, Bernhard Przybilla); The Hungarian Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Kristof Nekam); The Icelandic Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Björn R. Lúđvíksson); The Italian Association of Territorial and Hospital Allergists (Riccardo Asero); The Italian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Luigi Fontana); The Japanese Society of Allergology (Sankei Nishima); The Korean Academy of Asthma Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Joon Sung Lee, Hae-Sim Park); The Latvian Association of Allergists (Ieva Cirule); The Lebanese Society of Allergy & Immunology (Fares Zaitoun); The Mongolian Society of Allergology (S. Munkhbayarlakh); The Allergy and Clinical Immunology Society (Singapore) (Chng Hiok Hee); The Allergy
... This medicine comes in an easy-to-carry container that looks like a pen. Epinephrine is available ... allergens. People with environmental allergies should keep their house clean of dust and pet dander and watch ...
Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;
On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... suffering from allergies and asthma, more than half of these patients are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach in medicine, embracing 4 key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease......, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and taking into account predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the Epidemic of Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases...
Harish Babu, Bheemanapalli N; Yeldur P Venkatesh
Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature ...
Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653
de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep;
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....
Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana
Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.
Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.
Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...
Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...
... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...
Kozłowska, Renata; Bożek, Andrzej; Jarząb, Jerzy
Background The prevalence of allergies and the incidence of cancer are both increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that atopy may affect the risk of some cancers. Methods In this study, 1525 patients (754 women and 771 men with a mean age of 52.7 ± 11.9 years) with different types of cancer were examined for the presence of allergies. Allergies were confirmed based on retrospective analysis of allergy diagnostic procedures in patients previously diagnosed with cancer. All patients wer...
930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...
Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B
The diagnosis and immunotherapy currently applied to allergic diseases involve the use of crude extracts of the allergen source without defining the allergy-eliciting molecule(s). Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made identification, cloning, expression and epitope mapping of clinically significant allergens possible. Recombinant allergens that retain the immunological features of natural allergens form the basis of accurate protein-chip-based methods for diagnosing allergic conditions. The ability to produce rationally designed hypoallergenic forms of allergens is leading to the development of novel and safe forms of allergy vaccines with improved efficacy. The initial clinical tests on recombinant-allergen-based vaccine preparations have provided positive results, and ongoing developments in areas such as alternative routes of vaccine delivery will enhance patient compliance.
Grant, E C
60 migraine patients completed elimination diets after a 5-day period of withdrawal from their normal diet. 52 (87%) of these patients had been using oral contraceptive steroids, tobacco, and/or ergotamine for an average of 3 years, 22 years, and 7.4 years respectively. The commonest foods causing reactions were wheat (78%), orange (65%), eggs (45%), tea and coffee (40% each), chocolate and milk (37%) each), beef (35%), and corn, cane sugar, and yeast (33% each). When an average of ten common foods were avoided there was a dramatic fall in the number of headaches per month, 85% of patients becoming headache-free. The 25% of patients with hypertension became normotensive. Chemicals in the home environment can make this testing difficult for outpatients. Both immunological and non-immunological mechanisms may play a part in the pathogenesis of migraine caused by food intolerance.
Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung
With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.
Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features......: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice...
Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A
In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.
Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi
An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730
Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.
Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.
Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar
, dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...
V. M. Shubik
Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 8, 2013. David Clary, Program...
Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A E J; Du Toit, G; Eigenmann, P A; Grimshaw, K E C; Hoest, A; Lack, G; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Panesar, S; Prescott, S; Roberts, G; de Silva, D; Venter, C; Verhasselt, V; Akdis, A C; Sheikh, A
Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers includes a normal diet without restrictions during pregnancy and lactation. For all infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 4-6 months of life. If breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible, infants at high-risk can be recommended a hypoallergenic formula with a documented preventive effect for the first 4 months. There is no need to avoid introducing complementary foods beyond 4 months, and currently, the evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic foods after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. There is no evidence to support the use of prebiotics or probiotics for food allergy prevention.
Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;
On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control....... This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The Commissioner underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient...
Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna
Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…
Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...
In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...
Rijkers, Ger T; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Hooijkaas, Herbert
Medical immunology in The Netherlands is a laboratory specialism dealing with immunological analyses as well as pre- and post-analytical consultation to clinicians (clinical immunologists and other specialists) involved in patients with immune mediated diseases. The scope of medical immunology includes immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, allergy, transfusion and transplantation immunology, and lymphoproliferative disorders plus the monitoring of these patients. The training, professional criteria, quality control of procedures and laboratories is well organized. As examples of the bridge function of medical immunology between laboratory (bench) and patient (bedside) the contribution of medical immunologists to diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases (in particular: humoral immunodeficiencies) as well as autoantibodies (anti-citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis) are given.
Full Text Available Introduction Food allergy is a form of adverse food reaction to different nutritive agents caused by immunological mechanisms. This condition is frequent in individuals with genetic predisposition. Frequency of food allergies in childhood varies in general population from 0.3 - 7.5 %. Characteristics of neonatal and infant gastrointestinal tracts are described as well as the role of gastrointestinal tract’s immunological immaturity in development of food sensitivity. Pathogenesis Features of physical and immunological barriers of gastrointestinal tract are described as well as their role in physiological conditions, in digestion and absorption of foreign proteins and prevention of foreign agents penetration and potentially dangerous proteins into the systemic circulation. Gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the basic part of immunological barrier. Its first role is to induce oral tolerance. In normal conditions cytokines induce T cells towards Th2 response and also promote synthesis of IgA antibodies Pathogenic mechanisms in evolution of reaginic hypersensibility in cases of chronic inflammation are also described. Pathological status of gamma/delta T cells plays an important role in this process, resulting in loss of oral tolerance and development of sensibilitivity. Conclusion Diagnostic procedures are multiple and complex. They consist of detailed history taking clinical findings, in vitro and in vivo tests, endoscopy, elimination diets and oral provocation tests. Food allergy in childhood is often transient and resolves spontaneously.
Muraro, A; Agache, I; Clark, A; Sheikh, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Borrego, L M; Higgs, J; Hourihane, J O'B; Jorgensen, P; Mazon, A; Parmigiani, D; Said, M; Schnadt, S; van Os-Medendorp, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wickman, M
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early-childhood and school settings as well as providers of non-prepackaged food (e.g., restaurants, bakeries, takeaway, deli counters, and fast-food outlets) and targets the audience of individuals with FA, their families, patient organizations, the general public, policymakers, and allergists. Food allergy is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community. Providing children and caregivers with comprehensive information on food allergen avoidance and prompt recognition and management of allergic reactions are of the utmost importance. Provision of adrenaline auto-injector devices and education on how and when to use these are essential components of a comprehensive management plan. Managing patients at risk of anaphylaxis raises many challenges, which are specific to the community. This includes the need to interact with third parties providing food (e.g., school teachers and restaurant staff) to avoid accidental exposure and to help individuals with FA to make safe and appropriate food choices. Education of individuals at risk and their families, their peers, school nurses and teachers as well as restaurant and other food retail staff can reduce the risk of severe/fatal reactions. Increased awareness among policymakers may improve decision-making on legislation at local and national level. PMID:24905609
Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R.; Robert G Hamilton; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A.
Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advise...
Kimzey, S. L.
A coordinated series of experiments were conducted to evaluate immunologic and hemotologic system responses of Skylab crewmen to prolonged space flights. A reduced PHA responsiveness was observed on recovery, together with a reduced number of T-cells, with both values returning to normal 3 to 5 days postflight. Subnormal red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values also returned gradually to preflight limits. Most pronounced changes were found in the shape of red blood cells during extended space missions with a rapid reversal of these changes upon reentry into a normal gravitational environment.
... Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that can relieve the symptoms of ... important to treat allergies. If you have allergies, antihistamines are likely to help. It is important to ...
Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert
Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general.
Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert
Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general. PMID:27215624
Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.
Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.
... Allergies Disabilities? Allergies Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Latex Allergy ... Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Latex Allergy Mold Allergy Pet Allergy Pollen ...
Kosoy, Roman; Agashe, Charuta; Grishin, Alexander; Leung, Donald Y.; Wood, Robert A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Davidson, Wendy F.; Lindblad, Robert W.; Dawson, Peter; Merad, Miriam; Kidd, Brian A.; Dudley, Joel T.; Sampson, Hugh A.
Background Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE. Objective To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER) or tolerant (BET) to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC) who were egg non-allergic. PBMCs were stimulated with egg white protein. Gene transcription was measured by microarray after 24 h, and cytokine secretion by multiplex assay after 5 days. Results The transcriptional response of PBMCs to egg protein differed between BER and BET versus AC subjects. Compared to the AC group, the BER group displayed increased expression of genes associated with allergic inflammation as well as corresponding increased secretion of IL-5, IL-9 and TNF-α. A similar pattern was observed for the BET group. Further similarities in gene expression patterns between BER and BET groups, as well as some important differences, were revealed using a novel Immune Annotation resource developed for this project. This approach identified several novel processes not previously associated with egg allergy, including positive associations with TLR4-stimulated myeloid cells and activated NK cells, and negative associations with an induced Treg signature. Further pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes comparing BER to BET subjects showed significant enrichment of IFN-α and IFN-γ response genes, as well as genes associated with virally-infected DCs. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling identified several novel pathways and processes that differed when comparing the response to egg allergen in BET, BER, and AC groups. We conclude that this approach is a useful hypothesis-generating mechanism to identify novel immune processes associated
Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672
Anita Conforti; Giovanni Benato; Valeria Piasere; Francesco Pontarollo; Riccardo Ortolani; Paolo Bellavite
The clinical studies on the effectiveness of homeopathy in respiratory allergy (18 randomized trials and 9 observational studies) are described. The literature of common immunologic disorders including also upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and otorhinolaryngology (reported in part 1), is evaluated and discussed. Most of initial evidence-based research was addressed to the question of whether homeopathic high dilutions are placebos or possess specific effects, but this question has be...
Dreborg, Sten; Roberts, Graham; Lau, Susanne;
A Working Group on Pediatric Allergology was formed in 1984, which rapidly developed to become the European Society on Pediatric Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) in 1988 with its own journal, Pediatric Allergology and Immunology. ESPACI worked together with the European Academy of All...... Europe, focusing on postgraduate education, facilitating the research agenda and advocating for children and adolescents with allergies....
MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; Deleanu, Diana
Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosi...
Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;
Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...
Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan
One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic react...
Luyt, D; Ball, H; Makwana, N; Green, M R; Bravin, K; Nasser, S M; Clark, A T
This guideline advises on the management of patients with cow's milk allergy. Cow's milk allergy presents in the first year of life with estimated population prevalence between 2% and 3%. The clinical manifestations of cow's milk allergy are very variable in type and severity making it the most difficult food allergy to diagnose. A careful age- and disease-specific history with relevant allergy tests including detection of milk-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay), diagnostic elimination diet, and oral challenge will aid in diagnosis in most cases. Treatment is advice on cow's milk avoidance and suitable substitute milks. Cow's milk allergy often resolves. Reintroduction can be achieved by the graded exposure, either at home or supervised in hospital depending on severity, using a milk ladder. Where cow's milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral tolerance induction, although most authors do not currently recommend it for routine clinical practice. Cow's milk allergy must be distinguished from primary lactose intolerance. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for clinicians in secondary and tertiary care. The recommendations are evidence based, but where evidence is lacking the panel of experts in the committee reached consensus. Grades of recommendation are shown throughout. The document encompasses epidemiology, natural history, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL; Danielle Cavalcanti SALES; Urbano, Stela Antas; José Geraldo Bezerra GALVÃO JÚNIOR; Júlio César de ANDRADE NETO; Cláudia de Souza MACÊDO
Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). Th...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...
Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S
Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy. PMID:13679965
A rise in food allergy, accompanied by heightened public awareness, guarantees that clinicians will increasingly be consulted to accurately distinguish adverse reactions to foods from other disorders. The potential impact of inaccurately labeling a food as a cause of symptoms includes delaying appropriate treatment for another disorder or needlessly removing a food from the diet, with potential adverse nutritional and social consequences. When symptoms are triggered by food ingestion, determining the type of adverse reaction to the food responsible is important because of the implications regarding the mechanism involved, reproducibility, and the prognosis.
Currently, food allergy is a major health problem with an estimated prevalence of about 5% in young children and 3-4% in adults and the prevalence is increasing. However, no cure or approved treatment is available, despite the increased knowledge of mechanisms playing a role in food allergy. The ary
The involvement of the Italian "pizza" in the wide and variegate field of food allergy is certainly uncommon. This simple Italian dish consists of a breadlike crust covered by a spiced preparation of cheese and tomatoes and baked. Italian pizza found its origin in Napoli and only in recent years has become a very popular food in the rest of Italy and elsewhere. In the beginning, it was the food of the poor, but was made with natural foods, but nowadays has been enriched by a number of ingredients and flavourings, thus multiplying the risk of allergic reactions. PMID:11075625
Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan;
Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...... to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental assistants......, occupationally exposed to latex, were genotyped for filaggrin null mutations R501X and 2282del4. Latex allergy was determined by a positive reaction or a historical positive reaction to a skin prick test with NRL. Results 41 individuals were successfully genotyped. Three individuals were filaggrin mutation...
Nossal, Gustav J. V.
The immune system can recognize and produce antibodies to virtually any molecule in the Universe. This enormous diversity arises from the ingenious reshuffling of DNA sequences encoding components of the immune system. Immunology is an example of a field completely transformed during the past 50 years by the discovery of the structure of DNA and the emergence of DNA technologies that followed.
Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes
Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365
... and Luncheons Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, ... texture you are trying to achieve. Differences between Wheat Allergy and Celiac Disease or Gluten Intolerance A ...
Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika
The atopic diseases include atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma. The prevalence of atopic diseases has been on the rise for several decades, particularly in high-income industrialized nations (ISAAC, 1998; Sibbald et al., 1990). As potential explanations for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases the so-called hygiene hypothesis has been suggested. The hypothesis suggests that the continuously increased hygiene in the environment and the food supply results to reduced exposure to a variety of microbes and consequently to a less diverse intestinal microbiota from early life onwards and/or to changes in the gut microbiota from early life. Such changes reflect the exposure to microbes in industrially processed foods and the improved hygiene of the living environment of the mother and infant.
Allergic diseases have recently increased dramatically in the western world, now affecting about 30% of the Swedish population. The reasons for this increase are unclear, but some of the suspects are behavioral factors, such as stress and sleep. Problems with stress are also common today, and stress may change the set-points for the functioning of the body, for instance in the immune system. Sleep, on the other hand, is important for recuperation, and disturbed sleep acts a ...
... to be controversial. Many patients with migraine headache attribute their reactions to certain foods as being an ... in Headache Medicine. Benefits include a recognition of skills and the possibility of referrals. Healthcare professionals: Learn ...
... these foods. Sauces. Many cooks use peanuts or peanut butter to thicken chili and other sauces. Always proceed ... the knife another family member used to make peanut butter sandwiches is not used to butter your bread ...
4.1.Autoimmune disease2005303 Peripheral blood mRNA and interferongene expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.TANG Jianping(汤建平),et al.Dept Rheumatol,RenjiHosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ Shanghai 200001.Chin JIntern Med 2005;44(2):106-110.
Høst, A; Halken, S
elimination/milk challenge procedures in a hospital setting, and continued clinical sensitivity to cow milk (CM) was assessed by rechallenging every 6-12 months until the age of 3 years. Further, in infants with CMA, the clinical course of adverse reactions to other foods and the development of allergy...... than or equal to 2 organ systems. Based on a positive skin prick test (greater than or equal to 2+) and/or AL-RAST class greater than or equal to 2 to CM 16 infants at the time of diagnosis, and at reinvestigation at 1 year, a further five infants giving a total of 21, were classified as having Ig......E-mediated CMA, 19 infants showed "immediate reactions" to CM (within 1 h after intake of 2.3 g milk protein) and 20 infants were "late reactors". No significant correlation between IgE-mediated CMA and "immediate reactions" to CM was demonstrated. The overall prognosis of CMA was good with a total recovery...
... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & ...
Baird, Fiona J; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Lopata, Andreas L
Human anisakiasis, a disease caused by Anisakis spp. (Nematoda), is often associated with clinical signs that are similar to those associated with bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. With the globalisation of the seafood industry, the risk of humans acquiring anisakiasis in developed countries appears to be underestimated. The importance of this disease is not only in its initial manifestation, which can often become chronic if the immune response does not eliminate the worm, but, importantly, in its subsequent sensitisation of the human patient. This sensitisation to Anisakis-derived allergens can put the patient at risk of an allergic exacerbation upon secondary exposure. This article reviews some aspects of this food-borne disease and explains its link to chronic, allergic conditions in humans. PMID:24583228
Baird, Fiona J; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Lopata, Andreas L
Human anisakiasis, a disease caused by Anisakis spp. (Nematoda), is often associated with clinical signs that are similar to those associated with bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. With the globalisation of the seafood industry, the risk of humans acquiring anisakiasis in developed countries appears to be underestimated. The importance of this disease is not only in its initial manifestation, which can often become chronic if the immune response does not eliminate the worm, but, importantly, in its subsequent sensitisation of the human patient. This sensitisation to Anisakis-derived allergens can put the patient at risk of an allergic exacerbation upon secondary exposure. This article reviews some aspects of this food-borne disease and explains its link to chronic, allergic conditions in humans.
This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence of probable food allergy, defined by suggestive history and positive IgE for priority food, was much lower: 2.3% for children and 4.1% for adults. In adults, the prevalence of true food allergy conf...
Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping
Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with th...
Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko
Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27181230
Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko
Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.
... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Infant Allergies ...
Clinicians are facing unexpected issues in everyday practice, and these may become counterintuitive or challenging. Illustrative examples are provided by the hypersensitivity to universally used immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or antibiotics such as beta-lactam. Secondly, additional issues are represented by the discovery of new pathogenetic mechanisms involved in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis or other chronic inflammatory diseases, genomic susceptibility to enigmatic diseases such as giant cell arteritis, or the shared role of specific mediators such as semaphorins. Third, the therapeutic armamentarium has dramatically changed over the past decade following the introduction of biotechnological drugs, and new mechanisms are being proposed to reduce adverse events or increase the drug effectiveness, particularly on cardiovascular comorbidities. Finally, rare diseases continue to represent difficult cases, as for Cogan's syndrome, with limited literature available for clinical recommendations. For these reason, the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology is timely and dedicated to these and other unique topics in clinical immunology and allergy. The aim of this issue is thus to help clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as allergists and clinical immunologists while discussing new pathways that will prove important in the near future.
BACKGROUND: The term "intolerance" is not mentioned in the World Allergy Organization (WAO) document on allergy nomenclature. "Intolerance" has been used to describe some non-immunological diseases. However, pediatric gastroenterologists mix allergy and intolerance, e.g. by using the term "cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/I)", lumping together all types of mechanisms for not tolerating cow's milk. The basis for this mix is the fact that double-blind oral food challenges are time-c...
Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed. PMID:26168302
Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K;
, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management...... of patients of all ages with food allergy is presented. The acute management of non-life-threatening reactions is covered in these guidelines, but for guidance on the emergency management of anaphylaxis, readers are referred to the related EAACI Anaphylaxis Guidelines....
Bardana, Emil J
A diversity of airborne dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors can cause dose-related symptoms in individuals exposed in the workplace. More than 250 chemicals have been incriminated as a cause of occupational asthma (OA). The prevalence of OA ranges from 2% to 6% of the asthmatic population. Predisposing factors facilitating the development of OA include the work environment, climatic conditions, genetic proclivities, tobacco and recreational drug use, respiratory infection, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Pathogenetically, new-onset OA may be immunologic or nonimmunologic in origin. The immunologic variants are usually caused by high molecular-weight allergens such as grain dust and animal or fish protein. Symptoms ensue after a latent period of months to years. Nonimmunologic OA can be precipitated by a brief, high-level exposure to a potent irritant. Symptoms occur immediately or within a few hours of the exposure. In either instance, once the diagnosis is established, the worker should be removed from the workplace. If the diagnosis is made in a timely fashion, most workers experience improvement. Prevention is the best therapeutic intervention. PMID:12592299
Ferreira, Fatima; Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael
Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use ...
Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon
The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...
Chivato, T.; Valovirta, E.; Dahl, R.; de Monchy, J.; Thomsen, A. Bloch; Palkonen, S.; Jacobsen, L.
Background: Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care. Objectives: To investigate diagnostic and treatment patterns associated with respiratory allergies, pa
Hillyer, Julián F
Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. PMID:26695127
Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke E
The healthy human gut supports a complex and diverse microbiota, dominated by bacterial phylotypes belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In the inflamed gut, overall diversity decreases, coincident with a greater representation of Proteobacteria. There is growing evidence supporting an important role for human gut bacteria in mucosal immunity; interactions at the level of both intestinal and colonic epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and T and B immune cells have been documented. These interactions influence gut barrier and defense mechanisms that include antimicrobial peptide and secretory IgA synthesis. The functional effects of commensal bacteria on T helper cell differentiation have led to the emerging concept that microbiota composition determines T effector- and T regulatory-cell balance, immune responsiveness, and homeostasis. The importance of this biology in relation to immune homeostasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and the rising incidence of autoimmune diseases will be discussed. The detailed description of the human gut microbiota, integrated with evidence-based mechanisms of immune modulation, provides an exciting platform for the identification of next-generation probiotics and related pharmaceutical products. PMID:22861803
Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Muraro, A.; Halken, S.; Arshad, S. H.; Beyer, K.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Du Toit, G.; Eigenmann, P. A.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Hoest, A.; Lack, G.; O'Mahony, L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Panesar, S.; Prescott, S.; Roberts, G.; de Silva, D.; Venter, C.; Verhasselt, V.; Akdis, A. C.; Sheikh, A.
Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by
Ferreira, Fatima; Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael
Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use of recombinant allergens allows full validation of identity, quantity, homogeneity, structure, aggregation, solubility, stability, IgE-binding and the biologic potency of the products. In contrast, such parameters are extremely difficult to assay and standardize for extract-based products. In addition to the possibility of bulk production of wild type molecules for diagnostic purposes, recombinant technology opened the possibility of developing safer and more efficacious products for allergy therapy. A number of molecule-based hypoallergenic preparations have already been successfully evaluated in clinical trials, bringing forward the next generation of allergy vaccines. In this contribution, we review the latest developments in allergen characterization, molecule-based allergy diagnosis, and the application of recombinant allergens in therapeutic setups. A comprehensive overview of clinical trials using recombinant allergens as well as synthetic peptides is presented.
Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.;
Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....
Triggiani, M; Patella, V; Staiano, R I; Granata, F; Marone, G
The most dangerous and life-threatening manifestation of allergic diseases is anaphylaxis, a condition in which the cardiovascular system is responsible for the majority of clinical symptoms and for potentially fatal outcome. The heart is both a source and a target of chemical mediators released during allergic reactions. Mast cells are abundant in the human heart, where they are located predominantly around the adventitia of large coronary arteries and in close contact with the small intramural vessels. Cardiac mast cells can be activated by a variety of stimuli including allergens, complement factors, general anesthetics and muscle relaxants. Mediators released from immunologically activated human heart mast cells strongly influence ventricular function, cardiac rhythm and coronary artery tone. Histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor (PAF) exert negative inotropic effects and induce myocardial depression that contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock. Moreover, cardiac mast cells release chymase and renin that activates the angiotensin system locally, which further induces arteriolar vasoconstriction. The number and density of cardiac mast cells is increased in patients with ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathies. This observation may help explain why these conditions are major risk factors for fatal anaphylaxis. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cardiac mast cell activation may lead to an improvement in prevention and treatment of systemic anaphylaxis.
O’Keefe AW; De Schryver S; Mill J; Mill C; Dery A; Ben-Shoshan M
Andrew W O'Keefe,1,2 Sarah De Schryver,1 Jennifer Mill,3 Christopher Mill,3 Alizee Dery,1 Moshe Ben-Shoshan1 1Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada; 3Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Cent...
Thyssen, J P
Contact allergy is frequent among dermatitis patients and subjects in the general population. This review aims to update the reader on the epidemiology of contact allergy epidemics. It presents recent epidemiological data on metals, fragrances, hair dyes, preservatives and thiurams. It concludes ...... high whereas the prevalence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile allergy has decreased following regulatory intervention. Finally, the prevalence of thiuram allergy is decreasing as a result of improved rubber glove production....
Cohen, I R
In last month's issue of Immunology Today, Irun Cohen discussed the inadequacies of the clonal selection paradigm and proposed a cognitive paradigm in which preformed internal images guide and restrict the process of clonal activation. Here he clarifies the nature of these internal images, during on concrete examples from the image of infection and the image of self, the immunological homunculus.
Moingeon, Philippe; Lombardi, Vincent; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Tourdot, Sophie; Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent
Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a curative treatment of type I allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is conducted with allergens adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate particles, whereas sublingual immunotherapy relies on high doses of soluble allergen without any immunopotentiator. There is a potential benefit of adjuvants enhancing regulatory and Th1 CD4+T cell responses during specific immunotherapy. Molecules affecting dendritic cells favor the induction of T regulatory cell and Th1 responses and represent valid candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Furthermore, the interest in viruslike particles and mucoadhesive particulate vector systems, which may better address the allergen(s) to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is documented.
In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…
Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients.
Vaz, N M
Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students--and even professional immunologists--acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."
Full Text Available Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students - and even professional immunologists - acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."
Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T;
and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development......Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005...... as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who...
Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;
Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...
This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence o
Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL
Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.
Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes;
Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided info...
Hourihane, Jonathan O'B
Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.
Wüthrich, B; Hofer, T
The treatment of food allergies is logically based on strict elimination of causative allergens. While it is easy to eliminate food which is infrequently consumed, it is more difficult to manage an allergy involving regularly consumed foods, especially where patients have to eat away from home for professional reasons. The creation of elimination diets for milk, eggs, and mould and yeast allergies is discussed. In raw food and vegetable allergy the act of cooking is often sufficient to denature the allergen as it is unstable to heat. Follow-up investigations show that some 50% of children achieve cure spontaneously by strict elimination diet, especially in regard to milk allergy. In our own 173 (mainly adult) patients with food allergy, some 2/3 reported after 3-5 years that a strict elimination diet had to be followed, since otherwise prompt relapse of allergic symptoms was noted. About 1/3 of patients, mainly with milk, cheese or egg allergy, can hope for spontaneous desensitization by appropriate diet. This is demonstrated by a case history with disappearance of IgE antibodies. Should this fail to occur, oral desensitization with milk or egg-white extracts offers an effective therapy. The practice of hyposensitization with foodstuffs is illustrated by examples and tabulation of immunologic parameters. In raw food or vegetable allergy, which is often associated with birch or mugwort pollinosis, improvement or even complete cure can be expected in about 1/3 of cases by systematic desensitization of pollinosis. On the other hand, the therapy and prognosis of food allergy involving extreme and polyvalent sensitivities, especially to spices, or with multifactorially induced symptoms, is more problematic. In these cases a strict elimination diet should be followed by continuous prophylactic/symptomatic treatment with antianaphylactic substances such as cromoglicinic acid (Nalcrom) - especially in gastrointestinal food allergies - or with ketotifen (Zaditen) or
Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth gr...
3.1 Autoimmune disease2004022 BL-2, IL-6 and their receptors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. QIAN Qihong (钱齐宏), et al. Dept Dermatol & Venereol, 1st Affili Hosp, Suzhou Univ, Suzhou 215006. Chin J Dermatol 2003; 36 (12): 696-698.
5.1 Autoimmune disease2003029 A linkage study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 gene and Graves’ disease in northern Chinese Han ethnic. JIN Ying ( 金迎 ), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2002; 41 (12): 809-812. Objective: To determine if the cytotoxic T lympho-
Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren
dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...
Salvilla, S. A.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine; Panesar, S. S.; Worth, A.; Patel, S.; Muraro, A.; Halken, S.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Regent, L.; de Jong, N. W.; Roberts, G.; Sheikh, A.
This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are
De Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S.; Thusu, Sundeep; Rader, Tamara; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Sheikh, Aziz
BackgroundThe European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention,...
Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T; Cauwenberge, P V; Akdis, C A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Fokkens, W J; Kauffmann, F; Kowalski, M L; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Toskala, E; Wickman, M; Anto, J; Auvergne, N; Bachert, C; Bousquet, P J; Brunekreef, B; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Gjomarkaj, M; Haahtela, T; Howarth, P; Lenzen, G; Lotvall, J; Radon, K; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Schünemann, H J; Szczecklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Valovirta, E; von Mutius, E; Zock, J P
Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development and implementation of guidelines. The major achievements of GA(2)LEN are reported in this paper. PMID:19392994
Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor
Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:26442851
Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L
Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...
Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin
Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630
Pia Kalm-Stephens; Therese Sterner; Kerstin Kronholm Diab; Greta Smedje
Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association ...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...
...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, The Infant Microbiome and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....
Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes
It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made
Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C
Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.
de Leon, Maria P; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, with increasing prevalence worldwide. To date, there is no cure for peanut allergy, and, unlike many other food allergies, it usually persists through to adulthood. Prevention of exposure to peanuts is managed through strict avoidance, which can be compromised by the frequent use of peanuts and peanut products in food preparations. Conventional subcutaneous-injection allergen immunotherapy using crude peanut extract is not a recommended treatment because of the risk of severe side effects, largely as a result of specific IgE antibodies. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a suitable peanut allergen preparation that can induce specific clinical and immunological tolerance to peanuts in allergic individuals without adverse side effects. This requires detailed molecular and immunological characterisation of the allergenic components of peanut. This article reviews current knowledge on clinically relevant peanut allergens, in particular Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, together with options for T-cell-reactive but non-IgE-binding allergen variants for specific immunotherapeutic strategies. These include T-cell-epitope peptide and hypoallergenic mutant vaccines. Alternative routes of administration such as sublingual are also considered, and appropriate adjuvants for delivering effective treatments at these sites examined. PMID:17210088
Lee, Laurie A; Burks, A Wesley
Peanut and/or tree nut allergy is a major health concern affecting over 1% of Americans. Although food allergy in general is the most common cause of anaphylaxis treated in emergency departments, reactions to nuts account for a disproportionate amount of deaths from food allergy. Peanut allergy is a Type I hypersensitivity (IgE mediated) immune response. Eight peanut allergens have been identified that are termed as Ara h 1 through Ara h 8. The diagnosis of peanut allergy can often be made or eliminated with a focused history and specific diagnostic testing. There is no effective method to cure peanut allergy. Therefore, the management of patients with peanut allergy focuses on 1) preventing inadvertent ingestions of peanut, 2) recognizing early signs of allergic reactions, and 3) properly treating peanut-induced symptoms should they occur. Epinephrine is clearly indicated for patients experiencing respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic compromise. Because inadvertent ingestion of peanut often leads to life threatening reactions and peanut allergy is often long-lived, many investigators are focusing on decreasing clinical reactivity after peanut allergy is established. PMID:19273280
Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz
Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899
Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.
Bolhaar, S.T.H.P. (Suzanne)
It is generally assumed that the incidence of allergies in the Western world has been rising over the past few decades. Apple allergy was chosen as a model system because apples are widely consumed in Europe and they frequently cause allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. In Northern
Miguel Angel MUÑOZ
Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.
Katelaris, C H; Linneberg, A; Magnan, A;
function with the mouse model of asthma continuing to offer new insights. There is also a steady flow of papers investigating new therapies, including those derived from plants and herbs, although many are mechanistic with too few high quality clinical trials. The mechanisms involved in allergic disease...... of allergic disease continues to be very productive, although the field has moved on from only investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes to Genome Wide Association Studies and an increasing and welcome emphasis on gene-environment interactions. In the field of clinical allergy...... there is steady flow of papers describing patterns of drug allergy with renewed interest in reactions to contrast media, but food allergy is the major area of interest in this section of the journal. Lastly in the field of allergens there is a growing interest in the role of component resolved diagnosis...
Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy
Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun
Type I allergy has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades. Current immunotherapy for allergic disease is effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies by administration of natural allergen extracts. Injection of food allergen extract can bring on high rate of adverse systemic reaction. Such traditional injection immunotherapy for food allergy is currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. Therefore, effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for food allergy are urgently needed. Allergenicity of allergen by a treatment of radiation were decreased and irradiated allergen was showed immunological change in vivo. Here this study presents an approach for vaccination of irradiated allergen to prevent allergic response and the feasibility for allergy treatment by modified allergen. Gamma irradiation of OVA caused a reduced humoral and cellular immune responses specific to the allergen OVA in preventive and therapeutic effects, and its related mechanisms were associated with down-regulation of OVA-specific T cell activation in preventive effect. From adoptive cell transfer experiment results. T cell of spleen cells is critical role in the suppressive effect of humoral and cellular response on OVA-induced allergy.
Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C;
Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....
Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.
A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…
Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Engkilde, Kåre;
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been speculated that the prevalence of metal allergy may be higher in patients with implant failure. We compared the prevalence and cause of revisions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dermatitis patients suspected to have contact allergy and in patients in ...
Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....
This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/20/2015.
Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P
Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.
Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R
The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
Takemi Otsuki; Fuminori Hyodoh; Ayako Ueki; Yasumitsu Nishimura; Megumi Maeda; Shuko Murakami; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yoshie Miura; Masayasu Kusaka; Takashi Nakano; Kazuya Fukuoka; Takumi Kishimoto
Silicosis patients (SILs) and patients who have been exposed to asbestos develop not only respiratory diseases but also certain immunological disorders. In particular, SIL sometimes complicates autoimmune diseases such as systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (known as Caplan syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematoses. In addition, malignant complications such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma often occurr in patients exposed to asbestos, and may be involved in the reduction of tumor immunity. Although silica-induced disorders of autoimmunity have been explained as adjuvant-type effects of silica, more precise analyses are needed and should reflect the recent progress in immunomolecular findings. A brief summary of our investigations related to the immunological effects of silica/asbestos is presented. Recent advances in immunomolecular studies led to detailed analyses of the immunological effects of asbestos and silica. Both affect immuno-competent cells and these effects may be associated with the pathophysiological development of complications in silicosis and asbestos-exposed patients such as the occurrence of autoimmune disorders and malignant tumors, respectively. In addition,immunological analyses may lead to the development of new clinical tools for the modification of the pathophysiological aspects of diseases such as the regulation of autoimmunity or tumor immunity using cellmediated therapies, various cytokines, and molecule-targeting therapies. In particular, as the incidence of asbestosrelated malignancies is increasing and such malignancies have been a medical and social problem since the summer of 2005 in Japan, efforts should be focused on developing a cure for these diseases to eliminate nationwide anxiety.
Münch, Henrik J; Jacobsen, Stig; Olesen, Jens T;
database from the greater Copenhagen area (n = 27,020). RESULTS: 327 patients were registered in both databases. The prevalence of contact allergy to nickel, chromium, and cobalt was comparable in patients with and without revision surgery. However, in patients with 2 or more episodes of revision surgery......, the prevalence of cobalt and chromium allergy was markedly higher. Metal allergy that was diagnosed before implant surgery appeared not to increase the risk of implant failure and revision surgery. INTERPRETATION: While we could not confirm that a positive patch test reaction to common metals is associated...... with complications and revision surgery after knee arthroplasty, metal allergy may be a contributor to the multifactorial pathogenesis of implant failure in some cases. In cases with multiple revisions, cobalt and chromium allergies appear to be more frequent....
... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...
Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D
BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...
... is also used as a sweetener in some soft drinks and fruit drinks. When the body doesn’t ... is present in high concentrations in non-diet soft drinks and most fruit juices. To confirm fructose intolerance, ...
Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Sterner, Therese; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Smedje, Greta
Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results. PMID:24803940
Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.
Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping
Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort. PMID:26739411
Jo, Juandy; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Leon; Sandalova, Elena
Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow's milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow's milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first i
Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B. H.
The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) bind a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analysed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognise a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with p...
Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;
Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...
Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.
Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.
Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E
Medical historians identify the mid-20th century as the time when the scientific and medical communities acknowledged the existence of autoimmune disease. Several conditions including sympathetic ophthalmia and endophthalmitis phacoanaphylactica, however, were proposed as autoimmune disorders much earlier. During the first half of the century, autoimmune disease was viewed as biologically implausible. Paul Ehrlich coined the term horror autotoxicus to emphasize that autoimmunity would contradict nature's aversion to self-injury. The discoveries of allergy and anaphylaxis were the first clues that the immune system was capable of self-harm. A major obstacle to comprehending the pathogenesis of autoimmunity was how the immune system distinguishes foreign from self, a process eventually understood in the context of immune tolerance. Investigators of sympathetic ophthalmia and endophthalmitis phacoanaphylactica were positioned to invalidate horror autotoxicus but lacked sufficiently convincing experimental and clinical evidence to accomplish the task. Seminal studies of chronic thyroiditis and a series of clinical laboratory breakthroughs led to the general acceptance of autoimmune disease in the 1950s. The travails encountered by ophthalmic investigators offer insights into the how medical ideas take shape. We review the contributions of ocular immunology to the conceptual development of autoimmune disease and explore the reasons why the concept caught on slowly. PMID:27131478
Björkner, B E
Alstroemeria plants have increased in popularity in recent years, but surprisingly few cases of contact allergy have been reported. Observations of combined sensitivity between Alstroemeria and Tulipa have given support to the assumption that they contain identical sensitizing agents. A patient working as a gardner developed a dermatitis from Alstroemeria. Patch tests with Alstroemeria were positive, but patch tests with Tulipa were negative. 2 months after test application, the patient showed depigmented areas at the test sites and at the sites of a previous dermatitis. The depigmented test areas remained unchanged at least a year after test application. Whether the depigmentation was due to some unique character of the molecular structure of the unknown Alstroemeria allergen, or to a unique biological characteristic of the patient, remains to be determined. PMID:6212185
, the possibility of down-regulatory events in the elicitation phase was investigated. No regulatory FoxP3+ T cells were found in challenge sites from non-responders on immunohistochemical staining and no significant changes in mRNA expression were found with microarray analysis. This indicates that non......-responding was not due to an active down-regulation at the challenge site in patients with psoriasis or healthy controls. In conclusion the studies have contributed with evidence to support the theory that autoimmune diseases are inversely related to contact allergy. The studies have demonstrated that patients...... with autoimmune diseases have a reduced sensitization potential and suggest that this is not due to down-regulatory events in the elicitation phase....
Morita, Yoshinori; Iwakura, Hideo; Ohtsuka, Harumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki
Background There have been several reports on neonates with milk allergy in a neonatal ward. This type of allergy is mostly categorized as a non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Although most cases of milk allergy occur in the first few months of life, the differences in clinical characteristics between premature and full-term neonates are still unclear. Objective This study aimed to clarify the differences in clinical characteristics of milk allergy between premature and full-term neonates. Method...
Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T;
to set up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns...... production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between health care professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practice life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs...
... already exhibit allergic symptoms of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis or asthma. Restricting a mother's diet of specific ... allergies, there are steps you can take to control dust mites. Use zippered, "allergen-impermeable" covers on ...
... Educational Events Facebook Twitter Youtube Instagram Pinterest Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Log In Donate 1 in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ...
Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A
Food allergy is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Current research efforts are focused on understanding the immune basis of food allergy, identifying environmental factors that may contribute to its rising prevalence, and developing immunotherapeutic approaches to establish immune tolerance to foods. Technological advances such as peptide microarray and MHC class II tetramers have begun to provide a comprehensive profile of the immune response to foods. The burgeoning field of mucosal immunology has provided intriguing clues to the role of the diet and the microbiota as risk factors in the development of food allergy. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge that need answers to stem the progression of this disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:23648309
Bernstein, Jonathan A
Computers and the internet have begun to play a prominent role in the medical profession and, in particular, the allergy specialty. Computer technology is being used more frequently for patient and physician education, asthma management in children and adults, including environmental control, generating patient databases for research and clinical practice and in marketing and e-commerce. This article will review how computers and the internet have begun to interface with the allergy subspecialty practice in these various areas. PMID:15576895
Barnathan Julia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Miles, S.; Crevel, R.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.; Grimshaw, K.; Guidonet Riera, A.; Gowland, H.; Knibb, R.; Koch, P.; Madson, C.; Mills, C.; Palkonen, S.; Pfaff, S.; Roccaldo, R.; Scholderer, J.; Ueland, O.; Valovirta, E.; Verbeke, W.
Abstract At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers, manu
van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K.; Wong, Gary WK; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong
Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the th...
ZHANG, HUIYUN; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Guo, Lianyi; Sun, Xiaoyun; He, Shaoheng
In recent years, it is recognized that acquired immunity is controlled by regulatory T cell (Treg). Since fundamental pathophysiological changes of allergy are mainly caused by hyperresponsiveness of immune system to allergens that acquires after birth, Tregs likely play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, particularly during the sensitization phase. However, accumulated information indicate that there are several distinctive subtypes of Tregs in man, and each of them seems to play diff...
Sharma, Hemant P; Bansil, Shweta; Uygungil, Burcin
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence. In order for pediatric clinicians to appropriately diagnose and manage food allergies, the characteristic signs and symptoms of these potentially severe reactions must be recognized. Unlike nonimmunologic adverse food reactions (such as lactose intolerance and food poisoning), food allergies by definition are immune-mediated responses that occur reproducibly on food ingestion. The varying clinical presentations of food allergy include IgE-mediated disorders, mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, and cell-mediated food allergies. This review describes the clinical manifestations of each of these categories of food allergy, with special emphasis on recognition of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:26456438
Norma C. Serrano
Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the third trimester of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality, and fetal death, especially in developing countries, but its aetiology remains unclear. Key findings support a causal role of superficial placentation driven by immune mal maladaptation, which then lead to reduced concentrations of angiogenic growth factors and to an increase in placental debris in the maternal circulation resulting in a maternal inflammatory response. Epidemiological research has consistently demonstrated a substantial familial predisposition to preeclampsia. Unfortunately, the conquest of the genes explaining such a individual susceptibility has been proved to be a hard task. However, genetics will also inform us about causality of environmental factors, and then serve as a tool to prioritize therapeutic targets for preventive strategies.
Zheng Feei eMa
Full Text Available Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy.Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusions: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy.
Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, de S.C.; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, van R.
Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions. D
Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, S. de; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van
Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions. D
Zinkernagel, Rolf M.
Simplified and generalizable rules of immune responses against infections or vaccines have been summarized into 20 statements previously (Scand. J. Immunol. 60 (2004) 9-13) and are restated in a slightly different form here. The key terms of immunology (e.g. specificity, tolerance and memory) are explained in terms of their co-evolutionary importance in the equilibrium between infectious agents and diseases with higher vertebrate hosts. Specificity is best defined by protective antibodies or protective activated T cells; e.g. serotype specific neutralizing antibodies against polio viruses represent the discriminatory power of an immune response very well indeed. Tolerance is reviewed in terms of reactivity rather than self-nonself discrimination. Immune respones are deleted against antigens expressed at sufficient levels within the lymphoheamopoetic system, but may well exist at both, the T and the B cell level against antigens strictly outside of secondary lymphatic organs. In this respect the immune system behaves identically against virus infections and against self antigens. Persistent virus infections delete responsive T cells, once eliminated immune T cell responses wane, if a virus keeps outside of secondary lymphatic tissues no immune response is induced. Immunological memory is usually defined as earlier and greater responses but this does not correlate with protective immunity stringently. It is summarized here that pre-existing titers of protective neutralizing antibodies or pre-existence of activated T cells are the correlates of protection acute cytopathic lethal infections and toxins or against intracellular parasites. It is concluded that many discrepancies and uncertainties in immunological research derive from model situations and experimental results that are correctly measured but cannot be related to co-evolutionary contexts, i.e. survival.
Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.
CHENG Zi-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-hua; RI Mudema
Oil emulsion inactivated vaccine was prepared by susceptible embryos, with different strains of AEV. Four groups of normal chickens of 2 - 7 days of age were given injections for immunization, respectively. Another group was used as control. This study was expected to evaluate the immunological effect and discuss the immunological mechanism by means of five different experiments, i.e. the agar-gel precipitin test,the isolation of lymphokine, the isolation, purification and analysis of blood serum IgG, embryo-susceptibility test, and clinical and pathological examination. The results of these experiments indicated that oil emulsion inactivated vaccine is safe and effective. The chickens were normal when inoculated with AE strong virus after immunity at 4 and 37 weeks. Immunological mechanism is that the humoral immunity played an important role and celluar immunity exists, but it is not important in the process of the resistance to AEV.
The mucosal immune system, present along the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, has to discriminate between harmful pathogens and innocuous antigens, such as food, airborne antigens or the commensal bacterial flora. Therefore the mucosal immune system has acquired two opposing immunological functions, i.e. the induction of immunity and defence of mucosal pathogens, and the induction and maintenance of tolerance to environmental antigens and bacterial flora. As described for autoimmunity a breakdown or failure of tolerance induction is believed to lead also to allergies and food enteropathies. Based on the physiological role to prevent hypersensitivity reactions, tolerance induction via the mucosa has been proposed as a treatment strategy against inflammatory diseases, such as allergies. The aim of our research is to develop mucosal allergy vaccines based on the induction of mucosal tolerance and/or the induction of counter-regulatory immune responses with or without the use of certain mucosal antigen delivery systems, such as lactic acid bacteria. The use of recombinant allergens instead of allergen extracts with varying allergen content and composition may be essential for improvement of the treatment efficacy. In the present review we give examples of different animal models of type I allergy/asthma. Using these models we demonstrate that recombinant allergens or hypoallergenic variants thereof can be successfully used to induce mucosal tolerance in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic treatment regime. That the concept of mucosal tolerance induction/mucosal vaccine delivery may in principal also function in humans is supported by recent clinical trials with locally (sublingual) applied immunotherapy.
van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong
Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication, and alcohol may help trigger food allergy and further complicate accurate diagnosis. Where food extract-based diagnostic tests are poorly correlated to symptom severity, new generation molecular diagnostics that measure IgE against individual food allergens provide clinicians and patients with more reliable symptom severity risk profiles. Molecular diagnostics also support establishing whether food sensitization originates directly from exposure to food or indirectly (cross-reactivity) from pollen sensitization. Epidemiological surveys have indicated that allergy to peach primarily originates from peach consumption in Europe, whereas in China it is the result of primary sensitization to mugwort pollen, in both cases mediated by an allergen molecule from the same family. Epidemiological surveys give insight into the etiology of food allergy, the size of the problem (prevalence), and the risk factors involved, which together support evidence-based strategies for prevention. Over the past decade, food allergy has increased in the affluent world. Economic growth and urbanization in
Mohler, R.R.; Asachenkov, A.L.
In 1988 the new IIASA project on System Immunology was inaugurated. The new activity focuses theoretical and experimental research in immunology and system mathematics to experimental planning and prediction for relevant disease applications and systematic understanding of immunology. IIASA analysis and simulation should lead to an effective plan of successive experiments to identify and to quantify particularly sensitive parameters in this most complex system of information processing, decis...
Lundov, Michael D; Johansen, Jeanne D; Carlsen, Berit C;
Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are widely used in consumer products and may often cause contact allergy.......Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are widely used in consumer products and may often cause contact allergy....
D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G
Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336
Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.
Panzer, Petr Cáp Petr Burney Peter Zuberbier Torsten; van Cauvenberg, Paul; Bousquet, Jean
Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. GA2LEN, an FP6 Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle Allergy in its globality. GA2LEN benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has been jointly made and the first papers are being published. GA2LEN achievements in general can be grouped as those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase those which are project-related work based on these novel infrastructures, and the development and implementations of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper. PMID:20662458
Campbell, D E; Boyle, R J; Thornton, C A; Prescott, S L
Allergic disease can be viewed as an early manifestation of immune dysregulation. Environmental exposures including maternal inflammation, diet, nutrient balance, microbial colonization and toxin exposures can directly and indirectly influence immune programming in both pregnancy and the postnatal period. The intrauterine microclimate is critical for maternal and fetal immunological tolerance to sustain viable pregnancy, but appears susceptible to environmental conditions. Targeting aspects of the modern environment that promote aberrant patterns of immune response is logical for interventions aimed at primary prevention of allergic disease. Defining the mechanisms that underpin both natural and therapeutic acquisition of immunological tolerance in childhood will provide insights into the drivers of persistent immune dysregulation. In this review, we summarize evidence that allergy is a consequence of intrauterine and early life immune dysregulation, with specific focus on contributing environmental risk factors occurring preconception, in utero and in the early postnatal period. We explore the immunological mechanisms which underpin tolerance and persistence of allergic disease during childhood. It is likely that future investigations within these two domains will ultimately provide a road map for the primary prevention of allergic disease.
Inam, Muhammad; Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Roohi, Nabila; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Shahid; Ismail, Muhammad
In this study, we estimated the prevalence of food allergy in the adult allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad , Pakistan, based on self-report, skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge test (OFC). SPT was used for the estimation of sensitization to wheat, egg, milk, beef, chicken, mutton, fish, corn, lentils, rice, soya, peanut and banana. Among 689 patients, 39.19 % showed sensitivity to one or more foods, where, sensitization to wheat (156; 22.6 %) was highest, followed by egg (148; 21.48 %) and milk (138; 20.03 %). Sensitization to various proteins ranged between 15.53-15.97 %, while lentils, corn, rice, soya and peanut sensitization was 15.4, 16, 12.5, 12 and 11.5 % respectively. Only 7.1 % patients were SPT positive for banana allergen. SPT was performed in patients with self-reported food allergy (341/689) and also with no self-reported history of food allergy (348/689). SPT results were positive in 69.8 % of the self-report group, whereas, in the patients with no self-reported food allergy 9.2 % were found sensitized to one or more tested food allergens. 101 patients were recruited for OFC, 61 % of these were confirmed of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy in the study population was 9 %. Food specific OFC results show that wheat allergy is affecting 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.9-2.84 %) of the total allergy patients, followed by egg allergy 1.31 % (95 % CI 0.70-2.47 %). Furthermore, corn allergy, rice allergy and peanut allergy were 1.02, 0.87 and 0.73 %, respectively. In conclusion, wheat allergy is the most prevalent, followed by egg, chicken, beef and fish allergy, respectively. PMID:27563525
Zhang, Huiyun; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Guo, Lianyi; Sun, Xiaoyun; He, Shaoheng
In recent years, it is recognized that acquired immunity is controlled by regulatory T cell (Treg). Since fundamental pathophysiological changes of allergy are mainly caused by hyperresponsiveness of immune system to allergens that acquires after birth, Tregs likely play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, particularly during the sensitization phase. However, accumulated information indicate that there are several distinctive subtypes of Tregs in man, and each of them seems to play different role in controlling immune system, which complicates the involvement of Tregs in allergy. The aim of the present study is to attempt to classify subtypes of Tregs and summarize their roles in allergy. Tregs should include natural Tregs (nTreg) including inducible costimulator (ICOS)(+) Tregs, inducible/adaptive Tregs (iTreg), interleukin (IL)-10-producing type 1 Tregs (Tr1 cells), CD8(+) Tregs and IL-17-producing Tregs. These cells share some common features including expression of Foxp3 (except for Tr1 cells), and secretion of inhibitory cytokine IL-10 and/or TGF-β. Furthermore, it is noticeable that Tregs likely contribute to allergic disorders such as dermatitis and airway inflammation, and play a crucial role in the treatment of allergy through their actions on suppression of effector T cells and inhibition of activation of mast cells and basophils. Modulation of functions of Tregs may provide a novel strategy to prevent and treat allergic diseases. PMID:24886492
Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O
Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Medical Countermeasures for Post-Exposure Mitigation/Treatment of...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications...
Hales, B J; Hizawa, N; Jenmalm, M; Sverremark-Ekström, E; Wardlaw, A J
The pathogenesis of asthma continues to be a major topic of interest to our authors with reviews and original papers on the role of viruses, mechanisms of inflammation, biomarkers, and phenotypes of asthma being major topics. A number of papers described new treatments for asthma focusing on blocking the Th2 response reflecting the fact that two decades of work in this area is finally bearing fruit. The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis is a growing area of interest, but there has been less on the genetics of airways disease than in previous years possibly reflecting the degree of rigour (and therefore a smaller body of work), with which these sorts of studies are now being undertaken. There continues to be a wide range of papers dealing with mechanisms of allergic disease ranging from clinical-based studies to basic research and the use of in vivo animal models especially mice. As before, mechanisms and new approaches to immunotherapy are common themes. Several were published in the allergens section investigating modification of allergens to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of adverse events. Risk factors for allergic disease was a common theme in the epidemiology section and food allergy a common theme in clinical allergy with papers on the development of protocols to induce tolerance and attempts to find biomarkers to distinguish sensitization from allergic disease. This was another exciting year for the editors, and we hope the readers of the journal. PMID:26492197
Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R
Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473
Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R
Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.
Thune, P O; Solberg, Y J
Sixteen patients with verified light sensitivity to both UVB and UVA wavebands showed allergic reactions to various lichen plants (Parmelia spp., Hypogymnia spp., Pseuodovernia spp., Cladonia spp., Platismatia spp., Physcia spp., Umbilicaria spp. and Cetraria spp.). Among the aromatic lichen compounds, atranorin was observed to be the most frequently involved allergen but also several other isolated lichen acids were immunologically active: d-usnic, evernic, stictic, fumarprotocetraric, lobaric, salazinic, diffractaic and physodic/physodalic acid. Several patients showed allergy to other plant substances from other sources such as seven different species from the Compositae family, alantolactone, balsam of Peru, colophony and wood tars. Sensitivity to known photosensitizers was observed in four patients. Aromatic lichen acids are UV-absorbing substances and several are evidently able to photosensitive human skin. PMID:7398280
Kidd, Brian A; Peters, Lauren A; Schadt, Eric E; Dudley, Joel T
The immune system is a highly complex and dynamic system. Historically, the most common scientific and clinical practice has been to evaluate its individual components. This kind of approach cannot always expose the interconnecting pathways that control immune-system responses and does not reveal how the immune system works across multiple biological systems and scales. High-throughput technologies can be used to measure thousands of parameters of the immune system at a genome-wide scale. These system-wide surveys yield massive amounts of quantitative data that provide a means to monitor and probe immune-system function. New integrative analyses can help synthesize and transform these data into valuable biological insight. Here we review some of the computational analysis tools for high-dimensional data and how they can be applied to immunology. PMID:24448569
... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. Symptoms ...
... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and ... Four out of every 100 children have a food allergy. In 2007, an estimated 3 million children ...
Peltier Morgan R
Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.
... Fight the Cause of Allergies CIU & You Get Smart About Asthma Know Your Count Tackle Asthma Tackle ... leaks. Promote ground water drainage away from a house. Remove leaves and dead vegetation near the foundation ...
... help reduce the severity of pollen allergy symptoms. Antihistamines Antihistamines, which are taken by mouth or as a ... to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness. Some older antihistamines can cause side effects such as drowsiness and ...
Full Text Available It is estimated that as much as 6-8% population suffers from food allergy or food antigen-related disorders. The prevalence keeps rising. So far we do not have identified remedy to treat food allergy. Avoidance of the offending food is the only effective method currently. Skewed T helper 2 polarization is one of the major feature in the pathogenesis of food allergy. However, the causative mechanism in the initiation of food allergy remains to be further understood. Research in food allergy has got giant advance in recent years. Several animal models have been established and used in food allergy study. One of the common features of these food allergy animal models is that most of them require using microbial products as adjuvant to sensitize animals. This review documents the recent advance in the mechanistic study on concurrent use of microbial products and food antigens to study food allergy.
Dyshidrotic eczema, also known as dyshidrotic dermatitis or pompholyx, is characterized by pruritic, small tense vesicles mainly on the palmoplantar region and lateral and ventral surfaces of the fingers. While its etiology appears to be related to sweating, as dyshidrotic eczema often occurs in an individual with hyperhidrosis, and the spring allergy season, histologic examination shows an eczematous reaction around the sweat ducts which is not associated with abnormalities of the sweat ducts. More recently, the nomenclature of 'acute and recurrent vesicular hand dermatitis' has been proposed to reflect clinical features of dyshidrotic eczema. Although the exact etiology of dyshidrotic eczema remains unknown, given the presence of metal allergy in patients with dyshidrotic eczema and the improvement of the symptoms by removing metal allergen, metal allergy is regarded as one of the important potential etiologic factors for dyshidrotic eczema. PMID:27584966
Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L
The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(4):e150-e156.]. PMID:27064473
Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L
The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic.
Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Bogers, R.J.
This book, written by renowned experts, reflects the current ideas for future possibilities of allergy prevention. It describes approaches from the following main topics: the medical and molecular context; the food production chain and novel foods; the living and occupational environment; people and
Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley
Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the clinical and biochemical effects of a low starting dose for gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with a contact allergy to gold. Methods Serum cytokines were assayed before and 24 h after the first injection of gold sodium thiomalate (GSTM. Results Contact allergy to gold was found in 4 of 19 patients. Compared to gold-negative patients (starting dose: 10 mg GSTM, there was a larger increase in serum TNFalpha (p Conclusions Cytokines are released in blood by GSTM in RA patients with gold allergy. To minimize the risk of acute adverse reactions the starting dose of GSTM should be lowered to 5 mg. Alternatively, patients should be patch-tested before gold therapy; in test-positive cases, 5 mg is recommended as the first dose.
Miles, Susan; Crevel, Rene; Chryssochoidis, George;
common needs regarding, for example, causes and symptomology of food allergy. In addition, some specific information needs for different stakeholders were also identified. The industrial sector requires more information about clear guidelines for labelling practices, whereas the allergic consumers...... that required by other stakeholders (for example, consumers). The results therefore suggest that targeted information strategies may be the most resource-efficient way to communicate effectively to different stakeholders about food allergy. However, those information channels which are best suited to specific......At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., email@example.com . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...
Kumar, Rajesh; Caruso, Deanna M.; Arguelles, Lester; Kim, Jennifer S; Schroeder, Angela; Rowland, Brooke; Meyer, Katie E.; Schwarz, Kristin E.; Birne, Jennafer S.; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Xiaobin
The effect of food introduction timing on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We sought to examine whether the presence of childhood eczema changes the relationship between timing of food introduction and food allergy. The analysis includes 960 children recruited as part of a family-based food allergy cohort. Food allergy was determined by objective symptoms developing within 2 hours of ingestion, corroborated by skin prick testing/specific IgE. Physician diagnosis of eczem...
Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.
On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year’s meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immu...
Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM...... allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with asthma and HDM allergy. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 60 children (age range, 6-15 years) with asthma and HDM allergy were randomized to active (allergy control) or placebo mattress...... children with asthma and HDM allergy....
Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe all
Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;
The history of chromium as an allergen goes back more than a century, and includesan interventional success with national legislation that led to significant changes inthe epidemiology of chromium allergy in construction workers. The 2015 EU Leather Regulation once again put a focus on chromium...
Putten, van M.C.; Kleter, G.A.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Frewer, L.J.
Hypoallergenic novel foods may have benefits for food-allergic consumers. However, other novel foods may exacerbate the problems associated with food allergy. This paper reviews the existing legislation associated with the introduction of novel foods and specifically considers its coverage of allerg
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...
... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...
Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.
Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Child Form
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J
BACKGROUND: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to give an overview of how health-related quality of life (HRQL) can be measured in food allergy and to explore recent findings on how food allergy might impact HRQL. Recent findings In addition to the more familiar burdens of having a food allergy, th
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J
Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo
... therapies in such disorders as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Inner-City Asthma Consortium: Since 1991, the NIAID ... reactions. Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies / Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment / Seasonal ...
Lavelle Timothy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune contribution to cancer progression is complex and difficult to characterize. For example in tumors, immune gene expression is detected from the combination of normal, tumor and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Profiling the immune component of tumors may facilitate the characterization of the poorly understood roles immunity plays in cancer progression. However, the current approaches to analyze the immune component of a tumor rely on incomplete identification of immune factors. Methods To facilitate a more comprehensive approach, we created a ranked immunological relevance score for all human genes, developed using a novel strategy that combines text mining and information theory. We used this score to assign an immunological grade to gene expression profiles, and thereby quantify the immunological component of tumors. This immunological relevance score was benchmarked against existing manually curated immune resources as well as high-throughput studies. To further characterize immunological relevance for genes, the relevance score was charted against both the human interactome and cancer information, forming an expanded interactome landscape of tumor immunity. We applied this approach to expression profiles in melanomas, thus identifying and grading their immunological components, followed by identification of their associated protein interactions. Results The power of this strategy was demonstrated by the observation of early activation of the adaptive immune response and the diversity of the immune component during melanoma progression. Furthermore, the genome-wide immunological relevance score classified melanoma patient groups, whose immunological grade correlated with clinical features, such as immune phenotypes and survival. Conclusions The assignment of a ranked immunological relevance score to all human genes extends the content of existing immune gene resources and enriches our understanding
Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500
Full Text Available Food allergies (FAs are an increasing problem in Western countries, affecting up to 10% of young children. FAs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. The role of FAs as a potential causative factor for infantile colic (IC is still controversial. We report the most recent evidence on the pathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic aspects of FA-induced infantile colic (IC and suggest a stepwise diagnostic approach. We selected articles on clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis and management of FAs and IC from of 1981 to 2015. Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed, using the following terms: colic, infantile colic, food allergy and infantile colic, infantile colic treatment. The possible relationship between FAs and IC derives from the presence of dysmotility with visceral hypersensitivity and dysbiosis, demonstrated in both conditions, and the clinical response to dietary interventions. Unfortunately, the design of the studies, poor characterization of atopy and different dietary approaches limit the understanding of the importance of FAs in subjects with IC. The role of FAs in IC subjects without other symptoms of atopy remains controversial. However, where there is a suspicion of FAs, a short trial with an extensively hydrolyzed cow’s proteins formula or, if breast fed, with maternal elimination diet may be considered a reasonable option.
Full Text Available We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells and acquired (Th2 cells allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.
Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Kazufumi Matsushita
We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells) and acquired (Th2 cells) allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy',...
Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.
During recent decades, allergies and certain food intolerances have shown a worldwide gradual increase in prevalence, concomitantly with economic growth, urbanization, and changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns. They are triggered in humans with an unbalanced immune system and intestinal micro-fl
Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan
One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692
Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel
One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.
Miles, S.; van Crevel, R.; Chryssochoidis, G; Frewer, L.J.; Grimshaw, K.; Guidonet Riera, A.; Gowland, H.; Knibb, R.; Koch, P.; Madson, C.; C. Mills; Palkonen, S; Pfaff, S.; Roccaldo, R.; Scholderer, J.
Abstract At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers, manufacturers, caterers and the general public. Communication needs are reviewed both generally and specifically from the perspectives of different stakeholders. A stakeholder consultation was conducte...
Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda
Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven diagnosi
Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.; Beyer, K.; Frewer, L.J.; Madsen, C.; Botjes, E.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Ree, van R.
Abstract The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vi
van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk;
disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication...
Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.;
The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...
Miles, S.; Valovirta, E.; Frewer, L.J.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to elicit information about the specific information needs of different stakeholders and end-users. An essential part of food allergy prevention includes the development of effective communication strategies to all stakeholders and end-users of this information
Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al
Full Text Available This paper shows how consciousness-based holistic medicine can be used in the case of asthma, allergy, and eczema. We have many fine drugs to relieve patients from the worst of these symptoms, where many children and adults suffer health problems related to hyper-reactivity of the immune system. Many symptoms remain throughout life because the drugs do not cure the allergy and allergy today is the sixth leading cause of chronic illness. The etiology of the immune disturbances is mostly unknown from a biomedical perspective. Consciousness-based holistic medicine could therefore be used to treat these diseases if the patient is willing to confront hidden existential pain, is motivated to work hard, and is dedicated to improve quality of life, quality of working life, and personal relationships. Improving quality of life is not always an easy job for the patient, but it can be done with coaching from the physician. An increased physical health is often observed after only a few sessions with a physician skilled in using holistic medical tools and able to coach the patient successfully through a few weeks of dedicated homework. Children with allergy and asthma can also be helped if their parents are able to do work on personal development, to improve the general quality of life in the family and their relationship with the child.
Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efifcacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.
In this thesis the term allergy is used to denote reactions that are mediated by the antibody IgE. Such allergic reactions usually take place within half an hour after ingestion and may include itching of the mouth, swelling of the throat, hives, swelling of the face, stomach ache, vomiting, diarrhe
Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.
Stephanie K. Lu
Full Text Available Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies. In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.
... Support Community KFA hosts the oldest and largest community for parents managing food allergies. Post Your Questions You can help You can help educate more families and communities to keep children with food allergies safe and ...
Full Text Available Abstract Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.
Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Talbott, Tracy L; Dingler, Elaine
This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared the effects of daily supplementation for 4 week with 250 mg Wellmune WGP® β-1,3/1,6-Glucan (WGP) with placebo 250 mg/day (rice flour) on physical and psychological health attributes of self-described “moderate” ragweed allergy sufferers. Study participants (mean age = 36 ± 9 year; range 18–53 year) were recruited before the beginning of ragweed season (September) in Northeastern Ohio. Serum IgE concentration, allergy symptoms [v...
Lukesová, S; Krcmová, I; Kopecký, O
In the last few years latex allergy has been increasingly recognised as a potential medical problem because of the increase in frequency and potential severity of latex-mediated reactions. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response to natural rubber latex protein with a variety of clinical signs ranging from contact urticaria, angioedema, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Also IV. type of immunology response can participate in it. In highest risk for latex allergy are patients with spina bifida, but health care workers, latex industry workers, patients with multiple surgical procedures and others who wear gloves are also at risk. Patients with history of atopy belong to the high risk group. Diagnosis is done by positive in vitro tests (EAST, CAP-FEIA, immunoblott etc.) and skin prick test. Allergen avoidance and substitution and the use of latex-safe devices including synthetic gloves are essential for the affected patient. PMID:16193945
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on ... as pills, chewable tablets, capsules, and liquids. How antihistamines help Antihistamines treat these allergy symptoms: Congestion, runny ...
Koplin, Jennifer J.; Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Allen, Katrina J.
IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of toleran...
A review of investigations utilizing electrophoretic and immunological methods for identification and classification of microsporidians, the group to which the first protozoan microbial pesticide belongs, indicate that these methods can be successfully used to classify strains an...
Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D
Food allergy is an immune provocation induced by certain food in susceptible individuals. Most of the food allergic manifestations are evident in the individual having impaired oral tolerance. In spite of worldwide prevalence, there is no permanent cure of food allergy. Food allergic reactions are complex immunological events that comprises of several immune molecules like IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and T-cells, therefore, researchers are trying to pick the correct molecule to find out pivotal therapeutic solutions. Being a key regulatory molecule in suppressing T-cells functional activities, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or cluster of differentiation-152 (CD-152) has contributed a novel and revolutionary dimension toward therapeutic research of several diseases. This review focuses on different immunological and mechanistic perspectives of CTLA-4 in correlation with food allergy. PMID:23254121
Full Text Available Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk.A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry, and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants.18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted=0.04. Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007.Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.
Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard
The prevalence of the atopic diseases asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema has increased in the past two to three decades. It is not unusual to read the statement that food additives and other chemicals in food increase the risk of allergy. From a theoretical standpoint chemicals in the diet may in...... that chemicals in foods are contributing to the reported increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....
The maintenance of immunological tolerance is vital for preventing the immune system to damage normal tissues and physiological function of the body. CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells can suppress immune responses in a dominant manner and are essential for immunological tolerance. Although many pathways and molecules have been attributed to the suppressive function of Treg cells, the exact nature of the Treg cell-mediated suppression program is still elusive. In this ...
Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;
or recurrent or severe symptoms suggestive for allergy should undergo an appropriate diagnostic work-up, irrespective of their age. Adequate allergy testing may also allow defining allergic trigger in common symptoms. We provide here evidence-based guidance on when and how to test for allergy in children based...
Moran, Timothy P.; Vickery, Brian P.; Burks, A. Wesley
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence and present an emerging epidemic for westernized countries. Strict dietary avoidance is the only approved management for food allergy, but accidental exposures regularly occur, leading to significant patient anxiety and decreased quality of life. Over the past decade, oral and sublingual immunotherapies have emerged as potential treatments for food allergy. While several small clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can desensitize food...
A. S. Bansal
Full Text Available Aubergine allergy is rare outside of India and the far east, and very few cases have been reported. We describe a case of aubergine allergy in a 9-year-old girl of Anglo-Indian descent who also had sensitivity to potato, coincidental oral allergy syndrome, and latex sensitisation with mild oral symptoms on consuming kiwi fruit. Specific IgE to aubergine was negative, but skin testing was positive to both raw and cooked aubergine. With early and increased consumption of exotic vegetables in western countries, more cases of aubergine allergy can be expected and negative blood tests do not exclude type 1 sensitivity.
Background: Atopic disease is an increasing problem. Eczema affects 10-20% of young children, and 33-37% of children with eczema are food allergic. Among other factors, nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a role in eczema and food allergy. Following the atopic march, pproximately 80% of children with atopic eczema will become sensitized to aeroallergens and develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. Skin prick test is used for investigating sensitization and is considered a safe method. Howeve...
Makrinioti, Heidi; Toussaint, Marie; Jackson, David J; Walton, Ross P; Johnston, Sebastian L
Since the discovery of interleukin 33 as the adopted ligand for the then orphan ST2 receptor, many studies have implicated this cytokine in the pathogenesis of respiratory allergy and asthma. Although some extracellular functions of interleukin 33 have been well defined, many aspects of the regulation and secretion of this cytokine need clarification. Interleukin 33 has been identified as a trigger of T-helper-type-2 cell differentiation, which by interacting with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems, can drive allergy and asthma pathogenesis. However, induction of interleukin 33 by both environmental and endogenous triggers implies a possible role during infection and tissue damage. Further understanding of the biology of interleukin 33 will clarify its possible role in future therapeutic interventions.
Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Anderson, Ulrik D;
Introduction Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) and in national registries. Methods COPSAC2000...... children from Danish national registries. Children born to mothers with preeclampsia were analyzed regarding risk of asthma, allergy and eczema in the 35-year-period 1977-2012. Results COPSAC2000: 5.6% (23) was diagnosed with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of treatment....... Furthermore, the children had an increased risk of sensitization to both aero- and food-allergens, and increased amount of total-IgE during childhood. Registry-based cohort: 3.7% (62,728) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of asthma, eczema...
D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria
A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.
D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria
A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776
University Pulmology and Allergy Clinic was founded in 1975 when the Depertment of Internal Medicine, directed by Prof. Dr. Dimitar Arsov, later member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciencies and Arts, was divided into eight separate and independent clinics. The first head of the Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic was Prof. Dr. Ljubomir Kotevski. He had a very difficult goal: to establish and further develop the newly formed clinic. The Clinic flourished and became one of the leading Clinics in the Clinical Centre during the directorship of Prof. dr. Dejan Dokic.. He completely rebuilt and refurbished the Clinic, which became a modern Clinic providing excellent working conditions for the employees and, most importantly, provided a first class service to the patients. During his mandate he obtained a grant from the Japanese Government worth $1,000,000 which was used to obtain a new, modern and sophisticated medical equipment. Since the establishment of the clinic, many national and international scientific projects were carried out and many scientific papers were published as well as many monographs, and chapters in scientific books. As a result of continuous education, of the total number of 24 doctors there are 16 subspecialists in respiratory medicine and 4 specialists in internal medicine. There are 9 professors in internal medicine at the University of Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic lecturing at the Medical Faculty in Skopje. The University Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic has an international reputation due to many contacts with famous European Institutions. All these international interrelations have resulted in honouring 3 professors: Prof. Dr. Gert Kunkel from Berlin, Germany, Prof. Dr. Robert Loddenkemper from Berlin, Germany and Prof. Dr. Peter Howard from Southampton, UK. PMID:23921480
D'Elios, Mario Milco
Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially eli...
Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;
BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from...... exposure to leather. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study was performed: the case group consisted of 183 dermatitis patients with a positive patch test reaction to cobalt chloride and a negative patch test reaction to potassium dichromate; the control group consisted of 621 dermatitis patients who...... did not react to either cobalt or chromium in patch testing. Comparisons were made by use of a χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact, and the Mann-Whitney test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations while taking confounding factors into consideration. RESULTS: Leather was observed...
de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Halken, S;
BACKGROUND: Food allergies can have serious physical, social, and financial consequences. This systematic review examined ways to prevent the development of food allergy in children and adults. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2012...... restrictions. Two reviewers appraised the studies using appropriate tools. Data were not suitable for meta-analysis due to heterogeneity, so were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Seventy-four studies were included, one-third of which were of high quality. There was no good evidence to recommend that pregnant...... with extensively or partially hydrolyzed whey or casein formulas for infants at high risk for the first 4 months. Soy milk and delaying the introduction of solid foods beyond 4 months did not have preventive benefits in those at high or normal risk. There was very little evidence about strategies for preventing...
Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...
Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia
The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492
Mossakowska, M; Pawlinska-Chmara, R; Broczek, K M
According to National Census, there were 1541 people over the age of 100 years (centenarians) in Poland, in 2002, including 1215 females and 326 males. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians included in the Polish Centenarians Program, POLSTU 2001, conducted between 2001 and 2004. The study group consisted of 301 subjects including 258 females and 43 males. Research data were gathered in a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study, completed by the interviewer during meetings with the subjects and their families. According to the medical history reported by the subjects, 10 persons (3.3%) suffered from asthma and 41 (13.6%) from allergy. There were no subjects with childhood onset asthma. Allergy to food and medicinal products was the most prevalent. One in four centenarians reported dyspnea and one in eight complained of cough. When analyzed in relation to gender, cough was more prevalent in males, which might have been related to cigarette smoking. Respiratory disorders are frequent in elderly populations, but symptoms may be underreported, especially in the situation of coexisting medical problems. Moreover, it might be difficult to perform full diagnostic procedures in the very elderly due to disability, cognitive impairment, and technical problems. Thus, medical care for the aged should be based on thorough medical evaluation supported by the medical history and reliable information on physician-diagnosed diseases.
Bousquet, J; Kauffmann, F; Demoly, P; Leynaert, B; Bousquet, P J; Demenais, F; Lenzen, G; Burney, P-G; Zuberbier, T; Van Cauwenberge, P
Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), an FP6 Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle Allergy in its globality. GA2LEN benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has been jointly made and the first papers are being published. GA2LEN achievements in general can be grouped as those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase those which are project-related work based on these novel infrastructures, and the development and implementations of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper. PMID:19623103
Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A F; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar
The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best known from occupational insect breeder allergies. Exposure in homes thus introduces a new form of domestic allergy to grasshoppers and related insects. Accordingly, an 8-year old boy developed severe bronchial hypersensitivity and asthma within 4 months after purchase of a bearded dragon. The reptile was held in the living room and regularly fed with living grasshoppers. In the absence of a serological allergy diagnosis test, an IgE immunoblot on grasshopper extract and prick-to-prick test confirmed specific sensitization to grasshoppers. After 4 years of allergen avoidance, a single respiratory exposure was sufficient to trigger a severe asthma attack again in the patient. Based on literature review and the clinical example we conclude that reptile keeping is associated with introducing potent insect allergens into home environments. Patient interviews during diagnostic procedure should therefore by default include the question about reptile pets in homes. PMID:26322151
Preservatives are biologically active substances mainly used in water-based products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Most people are exposed to them on a daily basis. Formaldehyde is one of the oldest and most commonly used preservatives. However, it is a well-known contact sensitiser in dermatitis patients. The aims of this work were: i) to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to formaldehyde using the baseline patch test series; ii) to determine the optimal pat...
Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Schnuch, Axel;
Over the 20th century, several contact allergy epidemics arose in Western Europe. Today, industries use various assays to determine the sensitization potential of new ingredients and thereby prevent new contact allergy outbreaks. This study debates acceptable risk of sensitization in the general...
Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe allergic reactions. Peanuts are often consumed after thermal processing (e.g. boiling, roasting) which can alter the protein structure and change its immunoreactivity and allergenicity. In vitro diagnostic ...
Rojas, Joselyn; Villalobos, Marjorie; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Torres, Wheeler; Mejías, José Carlos; Miquilena, Edgar; Bermúdez, Valmore
Introduction. Insulin allergy is a rare complication of insulin therapy, especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Key manifestations are hypersensitivity-related symptoms and poor metabolic control. T1DM, as well as insulin allergy, may develop in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), further complicating management. Case Report. A 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed with T1DM, was treated with various insulin therapy schemes over several months, which resulted in recurrent anaphylactoid reactions and poor glycemic control, after which he was referred to our Endocrinology and Immunology Department. A prick test was carried out for all commercially available insulin presentations and another insulin scheme was designed but proved unsuccessful. A desensitization protocol was started with Glargine alongside administration of Prednisone, which successfully induced tolerance. Observation of skin lesions typical of vitiligo prompted laboratory workup for other autoimmune disorders, which returned positive for autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia. These findings are compatible with APS type 4. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of insulin allergy in type 4 APS, as well as this particular combination in APS. Etiopathogenic components shared by insulin allergy and APS beg for further research in immunogenetics to further comprehend pathophysiologic aspects of these diseases. PMID:25548690
Full Text Available Introduction. Insulin allergy is a rare complication of insulin therapy, especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Key manifestations are hypersensitivity-related symptoms and poor metabolic control. T1DM, as well as insulin allergy, may develop in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, further complicating management. Case Report. A 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed with T1DM, was treated with various insulin therapy schemes over several months, which resulted in recurrent anaphylactoid reactions and poor glycemic control, after which he was referred to our Endocrinology and Immunology Department. A prick test was carried out for all commercially available insulin presentations and another insulin scheme was designed but proved unsuccessful. A desensitization protocol was started with Glargine alongside administration of Prednisone, which successfully induced tolerance. Observation of skin lesions typical of vitiligo prompted laboratory workup for other autoimmune disorders, which returned positive for autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia. These findings are compatible with APS type 4. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of insulin allergy in type 4 APS, as well as this particular combination in APS. Etiopathogenic components shared by insulin allergy and APS beg for further research in immunogenetics to further comprehend pathophysiologic aspects of these diseases.
Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy
Pasquale Mansueto; Giuseppe Montalto; Maria Luisa Pacor; Maria Esposito-Pellitteri; Vito Ditta; Claudia Lo Bianco; Stefania Maria Leto-Barone; Gabriele Di Lorenzo
Food allergy is a common and increasing problem worldwide. The newly-found knowledge might provide novel experimental strategies, especially for laboratory diagnosis. Approximately 20% of the population alters their diet for a perceived adverse reaction to food, but the application of double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the "gold standard" for diagnosis of food allergy, shows that questionnaire-based studies overestimate the prevalence of food allergies. The clinical disorders determined by adverse reactions to food can be classified on the basis of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms and the organ system or systems affected. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin prick tests, and laboratory tests to detect serum-food specific IgE, elimination diets and challenges. The primary therapy for food allergy is to avoid the responsible food. Antihistamines might partially relieve oral allergy syndrome and IgE-mediated skin symptoms,but they do not block systemic reactions. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in treating chronic IgE-mediated disorders. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylaxis. Experimental therapies for IgE-mecliated food allergy have been evaluated, such as humanized IgG anti-IgE antibodies and allergen specific immunotherapy.
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them. Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/23/2013.
Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara
Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...
Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;
phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...
... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...
Pałczyński, C; Walusiak, J
For the 10 recent years the incidence of natural rubber latex (NRL) immediate allergy has dramatically increased. Allergy to latex is observed mostly among persons who regularly use rubber devices (particularly rubber gloves) or their mucous membrane is exposed to frequent contact with rubber products. The health service and the rubber industry workers are at the highest risk of latex allergy (10%). Urticaria, angioedema, bronchial asthma, conjunctivitis, rhinitis and anaphylactic shock are most common symptoms of allergy to latex. Severe systemic reactions are frequently first clinical manifestations of latex hypersensitivity. PMID:9312658
Vanessa Jacob Victorino
Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide issue and one of the most relevant death causes in child and adults. There are several causes that can lead to cancer development. It is well known that inflammation is one known hallmark of cancer and it favors tumor cells growth. Several alterations in immunological and inflammatory processes are caused in response to tumor presence and both innate and adaptive immunity have effective mechanism to destroy tumor cells. Nevertheless, distinct tumor types developed mechanisms to evade anti-tumor immunological responses. Here, we revise researches regarding inflammation and immune response during cancer development, as well as cancer signaling pathways and immunotherapy that have been performed in Brazil. The better understanding of the mechanisms regarding cancer and immunological processes is of huge importance and it may support the development of new cancer targets.
Full Text Available It is estimated that as much as 6-8% population suffers from food allergy or food antigen-related disorders. The prevalence keeps rising. So far we do not have identified remedy to treat food allergy. Avoidance of the offending food is the only effective method currently. Skewed T helper 2 polarization is one of the major feature in the pathogenesis of food allergy. However, the causative mechanism in the initiation of food allergy remains to be further understood. Research in food allergy has got giant advance in recent years. Several animal models have been established and used in food allergy study. One of the common features of these food allergy animal models is that most of them require using microbial products as adjuvant to sensitize animals. This review documents the recent advance in the mechanistic study on concurrent use of microbial products and food antigens to study food allergy. (Chen X, Yang PC. Concurrent exposure to microbial products and food antigens triggers initiation of food allergy.
滕懿群; 姚金祥; 严霞; 朱雯; 侯秋英
Objective To analyze the relationship between infants repeated asthma and allergy and to explore the effectiveness of food - avoiding treatment in milk powder - fed infants with frequent asthma. Methods Allergy - specific IgE was measured. Food - elimination challenge tests were conducted to confirm allergy in infants. Food - avoiding treatment was carried out in mild powder - fed infants with frequent asthma. Results Twelve out of 89 infants with repeated asthma had positive milk specific IgE. Another 7 were diagnosed with milk allergy by food - elimination challenge test. Food - avoiding treatment showed notable effects in treating milk powder - fed infants with frequent asthma. Conclusion The incidence rate of milk allergy is high among infants with repeated asthma. Food - elimination challenge test can be an alternative way for the diagnosis of food allergy, since the immunologic mechanism is complicated. Food - avoiding treatment delivers outstanding effects in managing milk powder - fed infants with frequent asthma.%目的 探讨婴儿反复喘息与过敏反应之间的关系以及食物回避疗法治疗奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作婴儿的疗效.方法 通过测定过敏原特异性IgE及食物回避、食物激发试验诊断食物过敏,对奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作婴儿进行食物回避疗法治疗.结果 89例反复喘息的婴儿中,过敏原特异性IgE检测牛奶阳性12例,食物回避、食物激发试验发现牛奶过敏7例.对奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作婴儿,食物回避疗法治疗效果明显.结论 反复喘息发作的婴儿中,牛奶过敏发生率高;机体内免疫机制复杂,食物回避、食物激发试验可作为食物过敏的诊断手段;对奶粉喂养、频繁喘息发作的婴儿,食物回避疗法可取得明显疗效.
Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive [i]Staphylococcus aureus[/i], carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL genes and herpetic (Herpes Simplex – HSV infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient’s quality of life.
Willemsen, Gonneke; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; van Baal, Caroline G. C. M.; Postma, Dirkje; Boomsma, Dorret I.
The present study assessed the prevalence of asthma and allergy, and estimated the importance of genetic and environmental influences on asthma and allergy liability and their association. Longitudinal data on self-reported, doctor-diagnosed asthma and allergy were collected in over 14,000 individua
Jackson, M E
The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384
Silny, Wojciech; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Pawel
Etiology and pathomechanism of atopic dermatitis still remains partially unclear and therefore contemporary methods of treatment are not always satisfactory from the clinical standpoint. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected immunological parameters (tIgE, ECP, sIL-2R, IFN-gamma, IL-4,IL-5) in sera of atopic dermatitis patients in the course of specific immunotherapy performed for the time period of 3 years. Novo-Helisen Depot allergy vaccines of appropriate composition were used for the treatment of 36 children and youngsters with atopic dermatitis, allergic to house dust mites (24 patients) and grass pollen allergens (12 patients). The control group consisted of 20 patients with atopic dermatitis and analogous IgE-mediated airborne allergy who were treated with conventional methods. There was a clear difference between two investigated groups of patients in terms of immunological parameters. In the group treated with allergy vaccines serum concentrations of total IgE and ECP tended to decrease (p < 0.001) as well as sIL-2R (p < 0.01). On the contrary in the control group serum tIgE increased and IL-4 as well as IL-5 concentrations tended to increase significantly (p < 0.01; p < 0.05 respectively).
Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu;
Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...
Bell, R G
This paper analyses the association between infection with helminth parasites, the elevated production of IgE and the expression of allergies. Interpretations of this interaction have taken place in a scientific environment whose most secure element is the immunochemistry of allergic reactions resulting in a substantial body of literature that has sought a biological role for allergic reactivity in protective immunity directed against helminth parasites. While the association between helminth infections and elevated levels of IgE, mast cells and eosinophils is well established, a functional role for allergic reactions in protection against helminths has eluded experimental proof. Instead of this hypothesis, it is proposed that allergic reactivity is rarely present in helminth-infected individuals because allergic reactions do not function to regulate helminth infections. Data from many sources are used to establish that the 'normal' state of all mammals is to be infected with helminth parasites from shortly after birth until well into adulthood. Only in the last 100 years or so have people living in areas of high development with sophisticated water and sewage systems been able to escape helminth infection. Allergies are as conspicuously present in these human populations as they are absent in populations that are still regularly exposed to helminths. Furthermore, in populations with endemic helminthoses there is little overt expression of allergic pathology that could be connected to the acquisition or elimination of helminth parasites. Based on these observations, it is suggested that endemic helminthoses activate the Th2 system, particularly at mucosal surfaces, to provide a different level of immunological homeostasis than currently occurs in developed societies. Under these conditions, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE rarely participate in reactions that we would recognize as 'allergic', although their participation in the control of helminth infections is
Klein, Barbara; Mrowetz, Heike; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Weiss, Richard; Aigner, Ludwig
Allergies and their characteristic TH2-polarized inflammatory reactions affect a substantial part of the population. Since there is increasing evidence that the immune system modulates plasticity and function of the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the effects of allergic lung inflammation on the hippocampus—a region of cellular plasticity in the adult brain. The focus of the present study was on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, and on hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of new neurons. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with a clinically relevant allergen derived from timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5). As expected, allergic sensitization induced high serum levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE) and of TH2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). Surprisingly, fewer Iba1+ microglia were found in the granular layer (GL) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and also the number of Iba1+MHCII+ cells was lower, indicating a reduced microglial surveillance and activation in the hippocampus of allergic mice. Neurogenesis was analyzed by labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and determining their fate 4 weeks later, and by quantitative analysis of young immature neurons, i.e., cells expressing doublecortin (DCX). The number of DCX+ cells was clearly increased in the allergy animals. Moreover, there were more BrdU+ cells present in the hippocampus of allergic mice, and these newly born cells had differentiated into neurons as indicated by a higher number of BrdU+NeuN+ cells. In summary, allergy led to a reduced microglia presence and activity and to an elevated level of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect was apparently specific to the hippocampus, as we did not observe these alterations in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/olfactory bulb (OB) system, also a region of high cellular plasticity and adult neurogenesis.
Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Vonk, Judith M; Hospers, Jeannette J; Postma, Dirkje S; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schouten, Jan P; Boezen, H Marike
PURPOSE: There are indications that a history of allergy may offer some protection against cancer. We studied the relation of three objectively determined allergy markers with cancer mortality and hospitalization risk. METHODS: Associations between three allergy markers (number of peripheral blood e
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... to 6:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health... review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...
Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is occasionally observed following consumption of raw fruits in allergic adults. Since this phenomenon was commonly reported in Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The p...
particular. Methods Epidemiological genetic association studies were performed on a general Danish population. Participants were patch tested, answered a questionnaire on general health and were genotyped for GST, CLDN1 and FLG polymorphisms. Filaggrin’s nickel binding potential was evaluated biochemically......, when ear piercing status was regarded. Nickel patch test readings indicated that proportionally more mutation carriers than wild types had stronger reactions. Epidermally derived filaggrin binds nickel. The GST gene polymorphisms did not associate with contact allergy among adult Danes. The CLDN1...
... the disorder and, in turn, experience a better quality of life. Why You Need To Know About the Food Allergy Guidelines Approximately 1 in ... of the panel members. Make sure your doctor knows that the guidelines are ... that can help your doctor determine whether you have food allergy and if you ...
de Silva, D.; Geromi, M.; Halken, S.; Host, A.; Panesar, S. S.; Muraro, A.; Werfel, T.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Roberts, G.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Poulsen, L. K.; Van Ree, R.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Agache, I.; Grimshaw, K.; O'Mahony, L.; Venter, C.; Arshad, S. H.; Sheikh, A.
Background Food allergies can have serious physical, social, and financial consequences. This systematic review examined ways to prevent the development of food allergy in children and adults. Methods Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2012, for systema
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 8, 2012. Anna P. Snouffer,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 23, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 24, 2013... 20814 which was published in the Federal Register on October 01, 2013, 78 FR 60294. The meeting...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 21, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 22, 2013, 4... which was published in the Federal Register on September 27, 2013, 78 FR 59707. The meeting is...
Full Text Available Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow’s milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow’s milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow’s milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow’s milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow’s milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization, development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow’s milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow’s milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases is discussed.
Asero, Riccardo; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Beyer, Kirsten; Conti, Amedeo; Dubakiene, Ruta; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Lidholm, Jonas; Mustakov, Tihomir; Elberink, Joanne N. G. Oude; Pumphrey, Richard S. H.; Skov, Per Stahl; van Ree, Ronald; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Hiller, Reinhard; Hourihane, Jonathan O.; Kowalski, Marek; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Wal, Jean-Michel; Mills, E. N. Clare; Vieths, Stefan
In June 2005, the work of the EU Integrated Project EuroPrevall was started. EuroPrevall is the largest research project on food allergy ever performed in Europe. Major aims of the project are to generate for the first time reliable data on the prevalence of food allergies across Europe and on the n
Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; van der Meulen, G. N.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg - Boerstra, Berber; Oude Elberink, Hanneke; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B; Dubois, A. E. J.
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) may be affected by food allergy. Presently, no disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for food allergic adults. Therefore, we developed and validated the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) in the Dutch language. Me
Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil
The prevalence of metal allergy is high in the general population, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women and 3% of men are allergic to nickel and that 1-3% are allergic to cobalt and chromium. Among dermatitis patients, the prevalence of metal allergy is even higher. Metal allergy is mainly...... is responsible for most cases of metal allergy, the importance of occupational metal exposure remains present and should always be taken into consideration when one interprets allergic patch test reactions to metals. Traditionally, nickel, cobalt, and chromium have been the most important contact allergens...... an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer exposure...
A change of protein in irradiated food has been known. There are a few reports on change of allergy of irradiated foods. Two kinds of allergy such as the immediate allergy (I type) and delayed allergy (IV type) are taken ill by foods. I type is related to irradiated foods. Allergen enters body through digestive tract. Anti body (IgE) is protein with from 10,000 to 100,000 molecular weight. Allergic disease is originated mainly by egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut and shrimp. When food is irradiated, the proteins are decomposed and produced higher and lower molecular compounds at the same time. Change of the viscosity and the sedimentation coefficient and deactivation of enzymes of β-lactoglobulin, cow albumin, egg albumin and casein were investigated. There is no report of increasing allergy by irradiation. However, some paper indicated that immunogenicity of protein was decreased by irradiation. (S.Y.)
Dustin, Michael L.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Shaw, Andrey S
The immunological synapse has been an area of very active scientific interest over the last decade. Surprisingly, much about the synapse remains unknown or is controversial. Here we review some of these current issues in the field: how the synapse is defined, its potential role in T-cell function, and our current understanding about how the synapse is formed.
Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm
The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen.
Woods, J A; Lambert, S; Platts-Mills, T A; Drake, D B; Edlich, R F
Latex allergy has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality during medical and surgical procedures. Ultimately, many of the affected patients with recognized latex sensitivity and those who are not yet diagnosed will receive treatment for their allergic reactions to latex in emergency departments. Consequently, emergency physicians must have a comprehensive understanding of the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and management of these challenging patients. Groups at high risk include spina bifida cystica patients, health care workers, latex industry workers, specific food-allergy patients, and patients with a history of atopy or multiple surgical procedures. Sensitization to latex antigens is commonly encountered in health care workers wearing latex gloves with high latex allergen concentrations and in workers using powdered latex surgical gloves. Exposure to air-borne allergens and water-soluble IgE reactive latex antigens from natural rubber latex products in sensitized individuals can result in type I (immediate) hypersensitivity reactions. Clinical manifestations include contact urticaria, dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Diagnostic tools include serological assays and skin prick testing. At present, latex avoidance is the only available treatment and is the key to preventing allergic reactions in latex-sensitized individuals. Health care worker sensitization to latex antigens in natural rubber products is becoming an increasing contributor to workers' liability and disability claims. Specific action can be taken to reduce occupational and patient exposure to latex antigens. PMID:9017491
Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy....
Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…
Akbari, Omid; Umetsu, Dale T
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient inducers of all immune responses, and are capable of either inducing productive immunity or maintaining the state of tolerance to self antigens and allergens. In this review, we summarize the emerging literature on DCs, with emphasis on the regulatory function of DCs in allergy and asthma. In particular, we summarize recent data regarding the relationship between DC subsets and TH1, TH2, and regulatory T (TReg) cells. The diverse functions of DCs have been attributed to distinct lineages of DCs, which arise from common immature precursor cells that differentiate in response to specific maturation-inducing or local microenvironment conditions. These subsets of DCs induce different lineages of T cells, such as TH1, TH2, and TReg cells, including Th1Reg and Th2Reg cells, which regulate allergic diseases and asthma. Subsets of DCs regulate the induction of a variety of T-cell subtypes, which suppress the development of allergy and asthma, thus providing anti-inflammatory responses and protective immunity. PMID:15659264
Lepski, Silke; Brockmeyer, Jens
Allergic reactions to food can significantly reduce the quality of life and even result in life-threatening complications. In addition, the prevalence of food allergy has increased in the last decades in industrialized countries and the mechanisms underlying (increased) sensitization are still not fully understood. It is believed that the development and maintenance of oral tolerance to food antigens is a process actively mediated by the immune system and that this reaction is essential to inhibit sensitization. Ongoing research indicates that different dietary factors also may contribute to immune homeostasis and oral tolerance to food and that food processing modulates allergenicity. One of the major questions in food allergy research is therefore which impact nutrition and food processing may have on allergenicity of food and perhaps on sensitization. We summarize in this review the different dietary factors that are believed to contribute to induction of oral tolerance and discuss the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the functional consequences of allergen modification will be emphasized in the second part as severity of allergic reactions and perhaps sensitization to food is influenced by structural modifications of food allergens.
Richter, J; Susický, P
The authors describe a case of an allergic affection in a patient with occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, revealed by the method CAP Phadiatop. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. The authors emphasize the high incidence of latex allergy, the manifestations of which may be encountered also in clinical ophthalmology. PMID:10874793
Full Text Available Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially elicits a T helper (Th-1 response. Many H. pylori factors, such as the neutrophil-activating factor of H. pylori (HP-NAP, are able to drive Th-1 polarization and to display a powerful inhibition of allergic Th-2 response. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about the effects of H. pylori on asthma and allergy. Special attention has been drawn to HP-NAP as a potential novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of asthma and atopy.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating factor, protein, Th-1/Th-2, Treg, asthma
Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST, have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.
Acero, S; Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Garcia, B E; Olaguibel, J M; Moneo, I
Carmine (E120), a natural red dye extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal), has been reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine in a worker not engaged in dye manufacturing. A 35-year-old nonatopic man, who had worked for 4 years in a spice warehouse, reported asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis for 5 months, related to carmine handling in his work. Two weeks before the visit, he reported one similar episode after the ingestion of a red-colored sweet containing carmine. Peak flow showed drops higher than 25% related to carmine exposure. Prick tests with the cochineal insect and carmine were positive, but negative to common aeroallergens, several mites, foods, and spices. The methacholine test was positive. Specific bronchial challenge test with a cochineal extract was positive with a dual pattern (20% and 24% fall in FEV1). Double-blind oral challenge with E120 was positive. The patient's sera contained specific IgE for various high-molecular-weight proteins from the cochineal extract, as shown by immunoblotting. Carmine proteins can induce IgE-mediated food allergy and occupational asthma in workers using products where its presence could be easily overlooked, as well as in dye manufacture workers. PMID:9788693
Munasir, Zakiudin; Muktiarti, Dina
Prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, including food allergy. It is different between countries because food allergy can vary by culture and population. Prevalence of food allergy in Indonesia is unknown; therefore it is not known yet the burden and impact of food allergy in our population. However, we already start to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy, especially cow's milk allergy.
@@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.
... a skin test. A doctor or nurse will scratch the skin (usually on the forearm or back) ... Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Celiac Disease Egg Allergy Allergy Testing Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...
... cheese, soy fiber, soy flour, soy grits, soy ice cream, soy milk, soy nuts, soy sprouts, soy yogurt) ... Kaeding AJ, Matsui EC, Wood RA. The natural history of soy allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2010; ...
Lachance, Daniel H; Yang, Ping; Johnson, Derek R; Decker, Paul A; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ali-Osman, Francis; Wang, Frances; Stoddard, Shawn M; Sprau, Debra J; Kosel, Matthew L; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joseph L; Patoka, Joseph S; Davis, Faith; McCarthy, Bridget; Rynearson, Amanda L; Worra, Joel B; Fridley, Brooke L; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Buckner, Jan C; Il'yasova, Dora; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R
Glioma risk has consistently been inversely associated with allergy history but not with smoking history despite putative biologic plausibility. Data from 855 high-grade glioma cases and 1,160 controls from 4 geographic regions of the United States during 1997-2008 were analyzed for interactions between allergy and smoking histories and inherited variants in 5 established glioma risk regions: 5p15.3 (TERT), 8q24.21 (CCDC26/MLZE), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1/DDX6), and 20q13.3 (RTEL1). The inverse relation between allergy and glioma was stronger among those who did not (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.58) versus those who did (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97; P(interaction) = 0.02) carry the 9p21.3 risk allele. However, the inverse association with allergy was stronger among those who carried (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.68) versus those who did not carry (odds ratio(allergy-glioma) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.86) the 20q13.3 glioma risk allele, but this interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). No relation was observed between glioma risk and smoking (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 1.10; P = 0.37), and there were no interactions for glioma risk of smoking history with any of the risk alleles. The authors' observations are consistent with a recent report that the inherited glioma risk variants in chromosome regions 9p21.3 and 20q13.3 may modify the inverse association of allergy and glioma. PMID:21742680
Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B H
The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) binds a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analyzed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognize a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing beta1,2-xylose and core alpha1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with patients' sera, thus underlining the critical role of glycosylation in the recognition of this protein by patients' IgE and extending previous data showing that deglycosylated Cit s 1 does not possess IgE epitopes. In parallel, we examined the peptide sequence and glycan structure of Cit s 1, using mass spectrometric techniques. Indeed, we achieved complete sequence coverage of the mature protein compared with the translation of an expressed sequence tag cDNA clone and demonstrated that the single N-glycosylation site of this protein carries oligosaccharides with xylose and fucose residues. Owing to the presumed requirement for multivalency for in vivo allergenicity, our molecular data showing that Cit s 1 is monovalent as regards glycosylation and that the single N-glycan is the target of the IgE response to this protein explain the immunological cross-reactive properties of Cit s 1 as well as its equivocal nature as a clinically relevant allergen. PMID:17095532
Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina;
BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P older patients, probably...
Bansal, A S
Aubergine allergy is rare outside of India and the far east, and very few cases have been reported. We describe a case of aubergine allergy in a 9-year-old girl of Anglo-Indian descent who also had sensitivity to potato, coincidental oral allergy syndrome, and latex sensitisation with mild oral symptoms on consuming kiwi fruit. Specific IgE to aubergine was negative, but skin testing was positive to both raw and cooked aubergine. With early and increased consumption of exotic vegetables in we...
Currie, M.; Kerridge, R; BACON, A; J. Williamson
Background: Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during anaesthesia are a major cause for concern for anaesthetists. However, as individual practitioners encounter such events so rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and appropriate management instituted varies considerably.
Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s, a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4+ T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients.
Lyall, Kristen; Van de Water, Judy; Ashwood, Paul; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
Immune aberrations are often noted in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but whether asthma and allergy are related to ASD is not well defined. This study examined asthma and allergies in association with ASD and phenotypic subsets. Participants were 560 children with confirmed ASD and 391 typically developing children from the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study. Maternally reported child asthma and allergy was compared between cases and controls, and in association with cognitive and behavioral test scores. Prevalence of asthma and overall allergies did not differ between cases and controls, but overall allergy in children with ASD was associated with higher stereotypy scores as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In addition, reported food allergies were significantly associated with ASD (adjusted odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval 1.28, 3.89). Our results suggest food allergies and sensitivities may be more common in children with ASD, and that these issues may correlate with other behaviors.
Amoah, Abena Serwaa
Recent studies indicate that there is a global rise in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic disorders. Several epidemiological studies conducted in countries endemic for parasitic worms (helminths) have reported an inverse association between the presence of helminth infections and allergic d
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut flora are important immunomodulators that may be disrupted in individuals with atopic conditions. Probiotic bacteria have been suggested as therapeutic modalities to mitigate or prevent food allergic manifestations. We wished to investigate whether perinatal factors known to disrupt gut flora increase the risk of IgE-mediated food allergies. Methods Birth records obtained from 192 healthy children and 99 children diagnosed with food allergies were reviewed retrospectively. Data pertaining to delivery method, perinatal antibiotic exposure, neonatal nursery environment, and maternal variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between variables of interest and subsequent food allergy diagnosis. Results Retrospective investigation did not find perinatal antibiotics, NICU admission, or cesarean section to be associated with increased risk of food allergy diagnosis. However, associations between food allergy diagnosis and male gender (66 vs. 33; p=0.02 were apparent in this cohort. Additionally, increasing maternal age at delivery was significantly associated with food allergy diagnosis during childhood (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.105; p=0.005. Conclusions Gut flora are potent immunomodulators, but their overall contribution to immune maturation remains to be elucidated. Additional understanding of the interplay between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors underlying food allergy development need to be clarified before probiotic therapeutic interventions can routinely be recommended for prevention or mitigation of food allergies. Such interventions may be well-suited in male infants and in infants born to older mothers.
Jacob, Sharon E.; Butler, Dan; Herro, Elise
Increasing evidence indicates that allergic contact dermatitis can worsen pre-existing psoriasis. The authors highlight a delayed-hypersensitivity reaction to a common psoriasis medication and discuss therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming to evaluate the incidence of sensitization in students of dental medicineThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to some (meth acrylates in students of dental medicine at the time of their education, in dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants and in patients, the manifestation of co-reactivity.A total of 139 participants were included in the study, divided into four groups: occupationally exposed to (methacrylates and acrylic monomers dental professionals, 3-4 year-of-education students of dental medicine, 6th year–of-education students of dental medicine and patients with suspected or established sensitization to acrylates, without occupational exposure. All of them were patch-tested with methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl]propane (bis-GMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA, and tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate. The overall sensitization rates to methacrylates in the studied population are comparative high – from 25.9% for MMA to 31.7% for TREGDMA. Significantly higher incidence of sensitization in the group of 3-4 course students compared to the one in the group of dental professionals for MMA and TREGDMA was observed. Highest was the incidence of sensitization to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, BIS-GMA, 2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate in the group of patients, with
Novey, H S; Marchioli, L E; Sokol, W N; Wells, I D
Increasing reports of respiratory disease associated with exposure to papain prompted clinical, physiological, and immunological studies of the supervisor of a meat tenderizer factory who developed asthma after long-term contact with papain dust. His symptoms were worse at work and better on weekends and vacations. Bronchial inhalation challenges produced both immediate and late asthma to papain but not to the other ingredients in the food product. Immunological studies revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies by direct and passive transfer skin tests and the radioallergosorbent test, and specific precipitating antibodies by immunodiffusion tests. These findings are indicative of a dual type I and III hypersensitivity. Papain acting as an allergen in an occupational setting is a risk factor for eliciting asthma even in a nontropic individual. PMID:759468
Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso
Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.
Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso
Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596
Full Text Available The authors evaluated mRNA TLR4 expression on neutrophils and the chosen parameters of oxidative-antioxidative balance in blood of 35 children with food allergy (17 of them with IgE-dependent allergy and 18 with IgE-independent allergy and 15 healthy children without any allergy. The age of these children ranged from 1 to 36 months. Children with food allergy in comparison with healthy children were found to have lower mRNA TLR4 expression, higher average value of chemiluminescence (CL and its increase after stimulation by fMLP, PMA and OZ as well as lower TAS values. Disturbances of oxidative-antioxidative balance were found in children with food allergy. We suggest that natural immunity is involved in the development of food allergy mechanisms. Moreover, chemiluminescence can be used as an additional diagnostic test.
Giovanni Benato; Valeria Piasere; Francesco Pontarollo; Riccardo Ortolani; Paolo Bellavite; Anita Conforti
The evidence-based research of the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines in common immunologic disorders is reviewed. In part 1, we introduce methodological issues of clinical research in homeopathy, and criteria utilized to evaluate the literature. Then 24 studies (12 randomized and 12 non-randomized) on common upper respiratory tract infections and otorhinolaryngologic complaints are described. In part 2, the focus will be on allergic diseases and the effectiveness of homeopathy will be gl...
Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T
Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease.
Broide, David H.
Although histologic features of airway remodeling have been well characterized in asthma, the immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms that drive progression of asthma to remodeling are still incompletely understood. Conceptually, airway remodeling may be due to persistent inflammation and/or aberrant tissue repair mechanisms. It is likely that several immune and inflammatory cell types and mediators are involved in mediating airway remodeling. In addition, different features of airway remodel...
R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob)
textabstractInfluenza may jeopardize the health of patients with diabetes mellitus in several ways. In the first place influenza infection may inbalance a carefully established metabolic control, and in some cases trigger a process of metabolic deterioration which eventually may lead to ketoacidosis
Shen, Hai-Wang; Cao, Min-Jie; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Ruan, Mi-Mi; Mao, Hai-Yan; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming
Arginine kinase (AK) is an important enzyme participating in energy metabolism in invertebrates, but, to date, there have been no reports that AK from octopus is an allergen. In this study, octopus AK was purified, and its molecular biological, immunological, and physicochemical characterizations were analyzed. The results showed that octopus AK was purified and confirmed by mass spectrometry for the first time, and its molecular mass was 38 kDa. The full-length gene sequence of octopus AK encompassed 1209 bp and was predicted to encode a protein with 348 amino acid residues. The homology of octopus AK and crustacean AK was about 54%, but the similarity between their three-dimensional structures was high. Octopus AK could react with mouse anti-shrimp AK and rabbit anti-crab AK polyclonal antibody singly. Octopus AK could also react with specific IgE of the sera from octopus-allergic patients effectively, whereas crab AK could inhibit the reaction between them. Finally, the IgE-binding activity of octopus AK could be reduced in the processes of thermal or acid-alkali treatment. In summary, AK was identified as a novel allergen in octopus, which had a sensitizing ability similar to that of crustacean AK. This is significant in allergy diagnosis and the treatment of octopus-allergic disorders.
Full Text Available Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV, chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads, and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation.
Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68, and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87, resp. while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72 and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61. Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83 and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91. Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31. There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04 and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95, but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.
Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W;
Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...
Carlsen, B C; Thyssen, J P; Menné, T;
The phenotypic traits of people with the filaggrin mutation (FLG) genotype and atopic dermatitis (AD) are still under elucidation, and the association with concomitant AD and contact allergy (CA) has not previously been examined.......The phenotypic traits of people with the filaggrin mutation (FLG) genotype and atopic dermatitis (AD) are still under elucidation, and the association with concomitant AD and contact allergy (CA) has not previously been examined....
Squatrito D; Colagrande S; Emmi L
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic’s syndrome) is a rare autoimmune disease, previously considered a multiple sclerosis variant. The most important laboratory and clinical features are optic myelitis and transverse myelitis, associated with neuromyelitis optica-IgG antibody (NMO-IgG) positivity. Subsequent to this immunological test being available, different groups have described the not-so-rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica with other systemic autoimmune diseases, syste...
Law Sujata; S. Chaudhuri
The concept of stem cells, their physiological existence, the intricate anatomical localization, the known and the unknown functions, and their exclusive utility for the purpose of regenerative medicine, are all now encompassed within an emergent question, 'how compatible these cells are immunologically?'Indeed, the medical aspects of stem cells are dependent on a large number of queries based on the basic properties of the cells. It has greatly been emphasized to probe into the basic research on stem cells before any successful therapeutic attempts are made. One of the intricate aspects of the adult stem cells is its immunological behavior in relation to the microenvironmental associates, the stromal ceils in the presence of a suitable target.
Eller, E; Kjaer, H F; Høst, A;
. Children with AD were neither more IgE-sensitized nor had higher levels of IgE when compared with healthy children but they were more persistently sensitized. Conclusions: Sensitization to foods in young children without food allergy seems to be a normal phenomenon. The discrepancy between sensitization......Background: The prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and the relationship with atopic dermatitis (AD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the development of FHS and to correlate this with AD in relation to sensitization and symptoms. Methods: This study combines new data...... of AD using Hanifin-Rajka criteria and for FHS using interviews, skin prick test (SPT), specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and food challenge according to EAACI guidelines. Results: Twenty children were confirmed with FHS to milk, egg, and peanut. FHS peaked at 18 months (3.6%) and then decreased to 1...
Dahlquist, I; Fregert, S
Atranorin, one of the most common lichen substances, gave positive patch test reactions in eight subjects (1%) in a routine series. These subjects also reacted to fumarprotocetraric acid and some of them to evernic acid. Stictic acid and usnic acid gave negative reactions. The lichen oak moss Evernia prunastri and an oak moss perfume gave positive reactions. Thin-layer chromatography and a spot test indicated that atranorin is present in oak moss perfumes which are made from oak moss and tree moss. Contact with oak moss perfumes and lichens in nature may cause atranorin allergy. None of the eight subjects had a history of light sensitivity or atopy and none had chronic facial eczema. PMID:7398261
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between allergy and cancer has been investigated extensively, the role of allergy in head and neck cancer (HNC appears less consistent. It is not clear whether allergies can independently influence the risk of HNC in the presence of known strong environmental risk factors, including consumption of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette. METHODS: THE CURRENT PAPER REPORTS RESULTS FROM: 1 an original hospital-based case-control study, which included 252 incident cases of HNC and 236 controls frequency-matched to cases on sex and age; and 2 a meta-analysis combining the results of the current case-control study and 13 previously published studies (9 cohort studies with 727,569 subjects and 550 HNC outcomes and 5 case-control studies with 4,017 HNC cases and 10,928 controls. RESULTS: In the original case-control study, we observed a strong inverse association between allergies and HNC [odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.27-0.62]. The meta-analysis also indicated a statistically significant inverse association between HNC and allergies [meta-relative risk (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.91], particularly strong for allergic rhinitis (meta-RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40-0.76. In addition, the inverse association between allergies and HNC was observed only among men (meta-RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.84 but not among women (meta-RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.81-1.18. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that immunity plays an influential role in the risk of HNC. Future studies investigating immune biomarkers, including cytokine profiles and genetic polymorphisms, are warranted to further delineate the relationship between allergies and HNC. Understanding the relationship between allergies and HNC may help devise effective strategies to reduce and treat HNC.
Gee J Michael
Full Text Available Abstract Background An inflammatory insult following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO is associated with a predisposition to develop a deleterious autoimmune response to the brain antigen myelin basic protein (MBP. Induction of immunologic tolerance to brain antigens prior to MCAO prevents this deleterious autoimmune response and is associated with better functional outcome early after stroke. In this study, we sought to determine the long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and induction of mucosal tolerance. Methods Male Lewis rats were tolerized to MBP or ovalbumin (OVA by intranasal administration prior to MCAO and administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Neurological outcome was assessed at set points after MCAO and animals sacrificed at 3 months; the immune response to MBP in brain and spleen was determined using ELISPOT assay and degree of cellular inflammatory brain infiltrate assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results Animals that developed a pro-inflammatory (TH1 response to MBP experienced worse outcome, while those that developed a regulatory response (TREG experienced better outcome. A TREG response in spleen was also associated with decreased inflammation and an increase in the number of FoxP3 positive cells in brain. In this study, tolerization to MBP prior to MCAO was associated with a tendency to develop a TH1 response to MBP by 3 months after MCAO. Conclusion These data show that induction of immunological tolerance to MBP is associated with improved outcome after stroke. This study, however, raises concern about the potential for inadvertent induction of detrimental autoimmunity through mucosal administration of antigen.
Grandjean, Philippe; Poulsen, Lars K; Heilmann, Carsten;
Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region.......Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region....
Bauer, Michael; Kölsch, Uwe; Krüger, Renate; Unterwalder, Nadine; Hameister, Karin; Kaiser, Fabian Marc; Vignoli, Aglaia; Rossi, Rainer; Botella, Maria Pilar; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Rosello, Monica; Orellana, Carmen; Tejada, Maria Isabel; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Patat, Oliver
MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) duplication causes syndromic intellectual disability. Patients often suffer from life-threatening infections, suggesting an additional immunodeficiency. We describe for the first time the detailed infectious and immunological phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome. 17/27 analyzed patients suffered from pneumonia, 5/27 from at least one episode of sepsis. Encapsulated bacteria (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae) were frequently isolated. T-cell immunity showed no...
Li, Yunsen; Thapa, Prakash; Hawke, David;
Invariant NKT cells are a hybrid cell type of Natural Killer cells and T cells, whose development is dependent on thymic positive selection mediated by double positive thymocytes through their recognition of natural ligands presented by CD1d, a nonpolymorphic, non-MHC, MHC-like antigen presenting...... for identifying additional ligands for NKT cells. Our results also provide early insights into cellular lipidomics studies, with a specific focus on the important immunological functions of glycosphingolipids....
Graner, Michael W.; Alzate, Oscar; Dechkovskaia, Angelika M.; Keene, Jack D.; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A; Bigner, Darell D.
Brain tumors are horrific diseases with almost universally fatal outcomes; new therapeutics are desperately needed and will come from improved understandings of glioma biology. Exosomes are endosomally derived 30–100 nm membranous vesicles released from many cell types into the extracellular milieu; surprisingly, exosomes are virtually unstudied in neuro-oncology. These microvesicles were used as vaccines in other tumor settings, but their immunological significance is unevaluated in brain tu...
Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E
Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975
In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking.
In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking. PMID:24925380
In this review, we would attempt to discuss the interrelationships of allergy, infection, and the psyche. The interplay of these forces is expressed diagrammatically in Fig. 1.1, the interrelationship indicated there, suggests a dynamic interaction between three complex forces, each in itself capable of producing disease. In addition, since each affects the other, each may be able to initiate vicious cycles or chain-type reactions. On the other hand, we would attempt to discuss also, some specific and non-specific mechanisms involved in immunity as well as hypersensitivity reactions against to infectious agents. Fig. 1.2, presents a simplification of the response of allergic patient to microorganisms. Immunity, hypersensitivity and unresponsiveness to different antigens of the same infectious agents can occur simultaneously. PMID:8264451
Thune, P; Solberg, Y; McFadden, N; Staerfelt, F; Sandberg, M
During a period of 2 1/2 years, 7 of 2000 patients routinely tested at our laboratory revealed contact allergy to oak moss in perfumes. All reacted to a mixture of different lichens and to some specific lichen compounds. The sensitivity was probably induced by cosmetics containing lichen substances. The following 3 compounds caused reactions in all patients tested: atranorin, evernic and usnic acids. 3 patients were photosensitive, but stronger reactions were elicited by prolonged contact during occlusion of the patches and complete protection against light, rather than by irradiation alone. The data suggest that the sensitizing capacity of the lichen compounds is primarily of a contact rather than of a photocontact nature. PMID:7172655
Marek L. Kowalski
Full Text Available Abstract One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing, deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided. However, adverse reactions can be minimized or even avoided if a physician is fully aware of potential risk and is prepared to appropriately handle the situation. Information on the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic diseases has been accumulated in the medical literature for decades; however, except for allergen specific immunotherapy, it has never been presented in a systematic fashion. Up to now no single document addressed the risk of the most commonly used medical procedures in the allergy office nor attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO, representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established
Giovanna Vitaliti; Carla Cimino; Alfina Coco; Domenico Praticò; Elena Lionetti
Abstract The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) are gastrointestinal. CMPA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells and production of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Nevertheless, recent studies have been focused on the description of other forms of CMPA, not-mediated by IgE reactions, mostly involving the T lymphocite immune system. Thus, in this field it is important to note how different kind of cells...
Huiming Fan; Song Guo Zheng
@@ The 10th meeting of the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) was held in Boston during 23-27 June 2010. As usual, this conference hightights the greatest advancements in the field of clinical immunology over the previous year.
de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S;
BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September...... reviewers critically appraised the studies using the appropriate tools. Data were not suitable for meta-analysis due to heterogeneity so were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Eighty-four studies were included, but two-thirds were at high risk of potential bias. There was little evidence about acute...... management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended...
... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...
O'Leary, Paula F G
Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...
Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S
The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.
Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Husum, B
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, chlorhexidine is the standard disinfectant in most hospitals and health care workers are repeatedly exposed to it. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine from this type of exposure. METHODS: Two hundred...... and forty-eight doctors, nurses and auxiliary staff were invited to participate in the study. One hundred and four individuals took part in the full study including skin tests and a questionnaire and a further 74 individuals filled in the questionnaire giving a total of 178 questionnaires (72%). Patch tests...... to examine the risk of type I and type IV allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers with daily exposure to chlorhexidine, we did not identify allergies to chlorhexidine in any of the 104 individuals tested or in the additional 74 individuals who completed the questionnaire. We conclude that an allergy...
de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D
Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showin
Lau, Claudia H; Gupta, Ruchi S
CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize the signs and symptoms of food allergy versus food intolerance. 2. Review currently available diagnostic testing modalities for food allergy and their applicability in the pediatric outpatient setting. 3. Review appropriate management practices for pediatricians, including prescription of medications, counseling of families, and referrals to keep children safe. Food allergy is a rapidly increasing and potentially life-threatening health concern in the United States. Given the ubiquity of food in our society and the absence of a cure, it is crucial that families receive proper guidance and medication to keep children safe. The pediatrician plays a key role to this end as he or she is often the first, and sometimes the only physician, these children can access. Accordingly, pediatricians must be equipped to recognize, manage, and evaluate food allergies over time while preventing unnecessary avoidance. This review provides practical translation of guidelines into recommended practices that are most pertinent to pediatricians. PMID:23805958
Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil
an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer exposure...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. David Clary,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 10, 2012. David...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 16, 2012. David...
Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H.
For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new all...
Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo
IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11 months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693
Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694
Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Andorf, Sandra; Gomes, Linda; Dunn, Patrick; Schaefer, Henry; Pontius, Joan; Berger, Patty; Desborough, Vince; Smith, Tom; Campbell, John; Thomson, Elizabeth; Monteiro, Ruth; Guimaraes, Patricia; Walters, Bryan; Wiser, Jeff; Butte, Atul J
The immunology database and analysis portal (ImmPort) system is the archival repository and dissemination vehicle for clinical and molecular datasets created by research consortia funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation. With nearly 100 datasets now publicly available and hundreds of downloads per month, ImmPort is an important source for raw data and protocols from clinical trials, mechanistic studies, and novel methods for cellular and molecular measurements. To facilitate data transfer, templates for data representation and standard operating procedures have also been created and are also publicly available. ImmPort facilitates transparency and reproducibility in immunology research, serves as an important resource for education, and enables newly generated hypotheses and data-driven science. PMID:24791905
Caffarelli, Carlo; Garrubba, Marilena; Greco, Chiara; Mastrorilli, Carla; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta
This review explores the relationship between food allergy and asthma. They can share the same risk factors, such as parental allergy, atopic eczema, and allergen sensitization, and they often coincide in the same child. Coexistence may negatively influence the severity of both conditions. However, it remains to be determined whether food allergy may directly affect asthma control. An early food sensitization in the first year of life can predict the onset of asthma. Furthermore, asthmatic symptoms could rarely be caused by ingestion or inhalation of the offending food. Asthma caused by food allergy is severe and may be associated with anaphylactic symptoms. Therefore, an accurate identification of the offending foods is necessary in order to avoid exposure. Patients should be instructed to treat asthmatic symptoms quickly and to use self-injectable epinephrine. PMID:27092299
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Immune Response to Infection Meeting I. Date: April 25-26, 2011... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...
Björkstén, Bengt; Graninger, Göran; Ekman, Gunilla Jacobsson
The spring term of 2001 saw the start of a new, unique graduate research training program at the Centre for Allergy Research at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden. The program was created to bridge the gaps between basic, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences and to establish a global approach to the study of asthma and allergy. A reflection, two years on, discusses the strategies that are key to this model’s success and the challenges in introducing a multidisciplinary resear...
Kidd, Brian A; Peters, Lauren A; Schadt, Eric E.; Dudley, Joel T.
The immune system is a highly complex and dynamic system. Historically, the most common scientific and clinical practice has been to evaluate its individual components. This kind of approach cannot always expose the interconnecting pathways that control immune-system responses and does not reveal how the immune system works across multiple biological systems and scales. High-throughput technologies can be used to measure thousands of parameters of the immune system at a genome-wide scale. The...
Vitamin A deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems in the Sudan. The dose supplied for treatment should be carefully measured, as long as long-term excess, similar to vitamin deficiency, may cause impairment of the immune response. The present work was designed to study the effect of different vitamin A levels on the immune response (both humoral and cell-mediated)and some other biochemical and hematological values. A survey was also conducted to investigate vitamin A level of blood and milk of cows and goats, both intensive and open systems. In the first experiments, the animals were grouped into four groups receiving four different levels of dietary vitamin A as follows: very high dose, high dose, recommended daily requirement (as control) and a diet devoid of vitamin A. This program was continued for 45 days. Antibodies production was measured after immunization with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in freund's incomplete adjuvant. The phagocytic activity against Staphylococcus bacteria was measured. Serum total proteins, albumin and the total globulins together with the total leukocytes count and the differential count were examined weekly. The survey program included blood and milk samples collected from twenty cows and twenty goats and their vitamin A level was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result revealed that both anti-BSA antibodies production and the phagocytic activity were greatly improved in animals which received high dose of vitamin of A. This was also true for serum total proteins, albumin, total WBCs count and lymphocytes percentage, since all these parameters were improved in high dose animals. On the other hand, all these parameters were greatly reduced in both groups of animals which received very high dose and decent diet in vitamin A. The survey results showed that vitamin A level of goats milk was higher than that of cows. Within the cows, it was higher in those from an intensive system compared to
Hiroko Kuriyama; Satoko Watanabe; Takaaki Nakaya; Ichiro Shigemori; Masakazu Kita; Noriko Yoshida; Daiki Masaki; Toshiaki Tadai; Kotaro Ozasa; Kenji Fukui; Jiro Imanishi
This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) between recip...
LCH lesions are characterized by accumulating LCH-cells, which are related to Langerhans and/or Dendritic cells, and the presence of other elements of the immune system. A significant proportion of LCH-cells display somatic mutations in proteins that drive the constitutive activation of the MAPK-pat
Boder, E; Sedgwick, R P
This syndrome was defined by the authors in 1947. Earlier publications of similar disease descriptions were by Syllaba and Henner (1926), Louis-Bar (1941). The authors at present have a stock of 253 cases. The cardinal symptoms of this phakomatosis are: Cerebellar ataxia which begin in infancy and take a slowly progressive course. In the late stages free walking and standing are no longer possible. Progressive atactic speech disorders, cerebellar atrophy in the pneumoencephalogram. Slowly progressing symmetrical skin and mucosal telangiectasia in the face and especially on the conjunctivae at the age of 3 to 6 years. Relapsing sinopulmonary infections with a tendency toward the development of bronchiectases. Apraxia of eye movements. Atrophy of facial skin and premature graying of hair. Recessively hereditary disorder with a high familial manifestation. This syndrome combines the spinocerebellar degeneration, phakomatoses, and infantile dementia processes. Such other conditions as abnormity or absence of thymus, reduction in gamma globulins, amino-aciduria, autosomal-recessive inheritance suggest a genetically determined "error of metabolism".
Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.
Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Shearer, William T.
A significant number of contributions to our understanding of primary immunodeficiencies in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment were published in the Journal in 2013. For example, deficiency of mast cell degranulation due to STAT3 deficiency was demonstrated to contribute to the difference on frequency of severe allergic reactions in AD-HIES patients, compared to atopic individuals with similar high IgE serum levels. High levels of non-glycosylated IgA were found in WAS patients and these a...
Willemsen, Linette E M
The rise in non-communicable diseases, such as allergies, in westernized countries links to changes in lifestyle and diet. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) present in marine oils facilitate a favorable milieu for immune maturation and may contribute to allergy prevention. N-3 LCPUFA can suppress innate and adaptive immune activation and induce epigenetic changes. Murine studies convincingly show protective effects of fish oil, a source of n-3 LCPUFA, in food allergy and asthma models. Observational studies in human indicate that high dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFA and low intake of n-6 PUFA may protect against the development of allergic disease early in life. High n-6 PUFA intake is also associated with an increased asthma risk while n-3 LCPUFA may be protective and reduce symptoms. The quality of the marine oil used has impact on efficacy of allergy prevention and several observations link in particular n-3 LCPUFA DHA to allergy suppression. Randomized controlled trials indicate that optimal timing, duration and dosage of n-3 LC-PUFA is required to exert an allergy protective effect. Supplementation during early pregnancy and lactation has shown promising results regarding allergy prevention. However these findings should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Although clinical trials in asthma patients reveal no consistent clinical benefits of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on lung function, it can suppress airway inflammation. Future food-pharma approaches may reveal whether adjunct therapy with dietary n-3 LCPUFA can improve allergy prevention or immunotherapy via support of allergen specific oral tolerance induction or contribute to the efficacy of drug therapy for asthma patients. PMID:27041644
R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron)
textabstractSmall bowel transplantation (SBT) would be the treatment of choice for patients suffering from the short bowel syndrome. Although in some centers SBT in patients is done with a considerable degree of success (Grant et al 1990, Todo et al. 1992), it is by no means an established and widel
Full Text Available Major modifications of immune system have been observed in African trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders. The major surface component (variable surface glycoprotein,VSG is associated with escape to immune reactions, cytokine network dysfunctions and autoantibody production. Most of our knowledge result from experimental trypanosomiasis. Innate resistance elements have been characterised. In infected mice, VSG preferentially stimulates a Th 1-cell subset. A response of gd and CD8 T cells to trypanosome antigens was observed in trypanotolerant cattle. An increase in CD5 B cells, responsible for most serum IgM and production of autoantibodies has been noted in infected cattle. Macrophages play important roles in trypanosomiasis, in synergy with antibodies (phagocytosis and by secreting various molecules (radicals, cytokines, prostaglandins,.... Trypanosomes are highly sensitive to TNF-alpha, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. TNF-alpha is also involved in cachexia. IFN-gamma acts as a parasite growth factor. These various elements contribute to immunosuppression. Trypanosomes have learnt to use immune mechanisms to its own profit. Recent data show the importance of alternative macrophage activation, including arginase induction. L-ornithine produced by host arginase is essential to parasite growth. All these data reflect the deep insight into the immune system realised by trypanosomes and might suggest interference therapeutic approaches.Modificações importantes no sistema imune são observadas na tripanosomíase Africana. Essas reações imunológicas não protegem e estão envolvidas em distúrbios imunopatológicos. O principal componente de superfície (glicoproteína variante de superfície, VSG está associado à evasão das respostas imune, às disfunções da rede de citocinas e à produção de autoanticorpos. Muitos de nossos conhecimentos resultam
Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...
Ismael San Mauro-Martín
Full Text Available Introduction: Food allergy is an abnormal response after ingestion of an allergen in a food where there is a proven immune mechanism. During the period of breastfeeding, infants are introducing new foods in small quantities and separately for possible allergies. All in relation to the suggested timetable for the introduction of different food groups suggested by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition. Our project focused on studying the possible relationship between the variability of introduction of the different food groups and the development of allergies in infant.Material and Methods: Retrospective descriptive study in an incidental sample (n = 30. It evolved into an online platform with an Ad Hoc survey, in which data was recollected on the characteristics of allergy, diet, type of birth, and introduction of food were collected.Results: Allergies were found 36% fruit, 20% egg, nuts and dairy 16% and 12%, grains, legumes, seafood and vegetables 4% respectively. 89% were breastfeeding. 78% were born vaginally. 46.2% compliance with the protocol introduction and 53.8% advance or postpone the introduction.Conclusions: The data reviewed suggest that food allergies are influenced by several factors that can influence and affect the number of allergic conditions of a particular region, so it is necessary to define these variables in studies to have greater reliability in the necessary studies performed.
Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S;
Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being...... developed to improve the quality of diagnosis, and to reduce the need for food challenge tests. In addition, recombinant allergens are being evaluated as candidate vaccines for safe and efficacious specific immunotherapy. Pure allergens are indispensable as reference materials for the calibration...... and standardization of methods between different laboratories and operators for risk assessment in the food industry. Therefore, there is a need for well-defined purified food allergens. In this context, a panel of 46 food allergens from plant and animal sources has been purified, from either the food sources...
Food allergy is a serious medical problem without definitive treatment at this time. Intense research focuses on severe peanut allergy. Recombinant peanut major allergens engineered to lose IgE binding capacity mixed with E coli showed great promise in a murine model of peanut anaphylaxis. Rectal vaccine containing E.coli expressing engineered recombinant major peanut allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3 is in preparation for first human clinical trials. Oral desensitization and sublingual immunotherapy w...
Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.
Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.
Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M.; Matos, Sheila M. A.; Cooper, Philip J.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio L.
Background It has been proposed that improved hygiene and reduced experience of infections in childhood influences the development of allergic diseases. The mechanisms by which the hygiene operates are not well established but are underpinned by two apparently incompatible immunologic paradigms, the balance of TH1 versus TH2 cytokines and IL-10–mediated regulation of TH2 cytokines. Objective This study defined immunologic phenotypes with the use of latent class analysis and investigated their associations with environmental factors, markers of allergy and asthma, in a Latin American population. Methods We studied 1127 children living in urban Brazil. Data on wheeze and environmental exposures were collected with standardized questionnaires. Atopy was measured by specific IgE in serum and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens. Cytokines were measured in culture after the stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes with mitogen. Infections with pathogens were assessed by serology and stool examinations. Children were classified as having high or low burden of infection. Latent class analysis was used to identify immune phenotypes on the basis of cytokine production. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted effects of environment and burden of infection on the immunologic phenotypes and the effect of the phenotypes on atopy and asthma. Results Three phenotypes were identified, labeled underresponsive, intermediate, and responsive. Children of more educated mothers, living in improved environmental conditions, and with a low burden of infection were significantly more likely to have the responsive phenotype. The responsive phenotype was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of atopy but not asthma. Conclusion Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the immune mechanisms by which the hygiene hypothesis operates in urban Latin America. PMID:23414599
Kianmehr, Zahra; Kaboudanian Ardestani, Sussan; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Alamian, Saeed; Ahmadian, Shahin
Background: Brucella abortus RB51 is a rough stable mutant strain, which has been widely used as a live vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in cattle instead of B. abortus strain S19. B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has unique properties in comparison to other bacterial LPS. Objectives: In the current study, two types of LPS, smooth (S-LPS) and rough (R-LPS) were purified from B. abortus S19 and RB51, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and immunological properties of purified LPS as an immunogenical determinant. Materials and Methods: Primarily, S19 and RB51 LPS were extracted and purified by two different modifications of the phenol water method. The final purity of LPS was determined by chemical analysis (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO), glycan, phosphate and protein content) and different staining methods, following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously three times at biweekly intervals with the same amount of purified LPSs. The humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring specific IgG levels and also different cytokine levels, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10, were determined for assessing T-cell immune response. Results: Biochemical analysis data and SDS-PAGE profile showed that the chemical nature of S19 LPS is different from RB51 LPS. Both S and R-LPS induce an immune response. T-cell immune response induced by both S and R-LPS had almost the same pattern whereas S19 LPS elicited humoral immunity, which was higher than RB51 LPS. Conclusions: Purified LPS can be considered as a safe adjuvant and can be used as a component in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines targeting infectious disease, cancer and allergies. PMID:26862376
Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan
The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome. PMID:26022861
Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.
The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.
Wang, Ena; Monaco, Alessandro; Monsurró, Vladia; Sabatino, Marianna; Pos, Zoltan; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Wang, Jeanne; Worschech, Andrea; Stroncek, David F; Marincola, Francesco M
Anticancer vaccines have not matched the clinical expectations projected from their ability to induce consistently systemic anticancer T-cell responses. Thus, a dichotomy is observed between the immunological and clinical endpoints of anticancer immunization. Anticancer vaccines have clearly demonstrated that highly specific T-cell responses can be induced that can recognize autologous cancer antigens in patients with cancer. This ability is an outstanding achievement of modern biotechnology, yielding one of the most specific types of potential anticancer reagents. However, systemic, vaccine-induced anticancer responses exemplify a broader immunological paradox: cytotoxic T-cells can coexist within the same organism with their target cells not only in the context of cancer, but also in the context of chronic infections, well-controlled allo-transplant reactions and autoimmunity. According to this view, anticancer immune responses are a facet of a tissue-specific autoimmune phenomenon specific for cancer tissue that may or may not result in the successful immune-destruction of target cells, depending on an assortment of genetic factors related to the background of the host or evolving phenotypes of a heterogeneous cancer environment. This feature article summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tumor rejection in humans as well as in experimental models, in the context of the broader immunological phenomenon leading to tissue-specific destruction. Anticancer vaccines that may not induce clinically significant anticancer responses independently could function as a unique tool to enhance the specificity of the response of the host against cancer, provided that strategies are implemented to amplify the immune reaction initiated by vaccine-induced antibodies and/or T-cells.
... McAllen, TX The report looks at 3 important factors: Pollen score Allergy medication usage Availability of Board-certified allergists This year’s report named Jackson, Mississippi, as the top Spring Allergy Capital due to its: Higher than average pollen Higher ...
Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L
This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.
Gregory, Gregory D; Brown, Melissa A
As in the fashion industry, trends in a particular area of scientific investigation often are fleeting but then return with renewed and enthusiastic interest. Studies of mast cell biology are good examples of this. Although dogma once relegated mast cells almost exclusively to roles in pathological inflammation associated with allergic disease, these cells are emerging as important players in a number of other physiological processes. Consequently, they are quickly becoming the newest "trendy" cell, both within and outside the field of immunology. As sources of a large array of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, mast cells also express cell surface molecules with defined functions in lymphocyte activation and trafficking. Here, we provide an overview of the traditional and newly appreciated contributions of mast cells to both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine. Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.
Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Panesar, S S; Worth, A; Patel, S; Muraro, A; Halken, S; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; Regent, L; de Jong, N W; Roberts, G; Sheikh, A
This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are significantly more sensitive than generic ones in measuring the response to interventions or future treatments, as well as estimating the general burden of food allergy. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify which disease-specific, validated instruments can be employed to enable assessment of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy. From the 17 eligible studies, we identified seven disease-specific HRQL instruments, which were then subjected to detailed quality appraisal. This revealed that these instruments have undergone formal development and validation processes, and have robust psychometric properties, and therefore provide a robust means of establishing the impact of food allergy on QOL. Suitable instruments are now available for use in children, adolescents, parents/caregivers, and adults. Further work must continue to develop a clinical minimal important difference for food allergy and for making these instruments available in a wider range of European languages.
Shen, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen
We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.
Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.
Martha Elisa Ferreira Almeida
Full Text Available The Immunology knowledge is important to therapeutic prevention of several diseases. The aim of this study was present a teaching methodology of Immunology and verify its efficacy as the knowledge acquisition by the participants of an event. To assess the progress of knowledge by the participants as well the use of the play and sung music, each participant fill a questionnaire, containing ten questions, before and after the presentation. The results were evaluated by paired T test at 5%. In both types there was knowledge incorporation after the play activity because the notes after the event were statistically higher. The participants remained attentive and praised the event. The knowledge showed by most of participants was considered lower and regular before the event and after the ludic activities they showed higher grades which categorized knowledge as regular and high. It was concluded that the methodology used contributed with knowledge acquisition and could contribute with the cultural and social education of the participants.