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Sample records for allergic hair dye

  1. Continuous usage of a hair dye product containing 2-methoxymethyt-para-phenylenediamine by hair-dye-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, M.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Bloemeke, B.; Goebel, C.

    Background Despite a positive patch test reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and/or toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD), many people attempt to continue dyeing their hair with products containing PPD or its derivatives. Objectives Investigation of elicitation reactions among PPD/PTD-allergic individuals

  2. Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use...... to temporary black tattoos. These children showed simultaneous positive patch reactions to N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine and local anaesthetics, while such reaction patterns were not seen in children with hair dye reactions only. The clinical consequences of these reactions are unknown. A re...

  3. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  4. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  5. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  6. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    .3% of individuals who had ever used hair dye. Of these, only 15.6% had been in contact with healthcare services after the hair dye reaction. Having had a temporary tattoo was not a significant risk factor for an adverse reaction to hair dyes. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of adverse allergic skin reactions to hair dyes...

  7. The pattern of hair dyeing in koreans with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, Ohsang

    2013-11-01

    Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (phair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (pHair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

  8. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Dabelsteen, Sally

    2010-01-01

    a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph......-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators...

  9. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Ranking of hair dye substances according to predicted sensitization potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Basketter, D A; Estrada, E

    2004-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis following the use of hair dyes is well known. Many chemicals are used in hair dyes and it is unlikely that all cases of hair dye allergy can be diagnosed by means of patch testing with p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The objectives of this study are to identify all hair dye...... in order to help select a number of chemically diverse hair dye substances that could be used in subsequent clinical work. Various information sources, including the Inventory of Cosmetics Ingredients, new regulations on cosmetics, data on total use and ChemId (the Chemical Search Input website provided...... by the National Library of Medicine), were used in order to identify the names and structures of the hair dyes. A QSAR model, developed with the help of experimental local lymph node assay data and topological sub-structural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE), was used in order to predict the likely sensitization...

  11. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity.

  12. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer: evidence from a case-control study in Spain. European Journal of Cancer 2006; 42(10):1448–1454. [PubMed Abstract] Lin J, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Wu X. Personal permanent hair dye use is not ...

  13. Occupational exposure to allergens in oxidative hair dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zaletel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative hair dyes are the most important hair dying products. Hairdressers are exposed to the allergens found in oxidative hair dyes during the process of applying dyes to the hair, when cutting freshly dyed hair, or as a consequence of prior contamination of the working environment. pphenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulphate are the most common ingredients in oxidative hair dyes that cause allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers. Cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine with para-amino benzoic acid, sulphonamides, sulphonylurea, dapsone, azo dyes, benzocaine, procaine, and black henna temporary tattoos is possible. Allergic contact dermatitis is classified as delayed-type hypersensitivity, according to Coombs and Gell. Skin changes typically appear on the hands after previous sensitization to causative allergens. Combined with the patient’s overall medical and work history and clinical picture, epicutaneous testing is the basic diagnostic procedure for confirming the diagnosis and identifying the causative allergens. The simplest and most effective measure for preventing the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers is prevention. Preventive measures should be applied as early as in the beginning stage of vocational guidance for this profession. It is important to include health education in the process of professional training and to implement general technical safety measures, in order to reduce sensitization to allergens in hairdressing. Here, special emphasis must be given to the correct use of protective gloves. Legislation must limit the concentration of allergenic substances in hair dyes, based on their potential hazards documented by scientific research.

  14. Paraphenylenediamine Containing Hair Dye: An Emerging Household Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Rayamane, Anand P; Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda

    2015-09-01

    Paraphenylenediamine poisoning is among one of the emerging causes of poisoning in Asian countries, because it is a constituent of hair dye formulations and is easily available in market at low cost. Hair dyes are rampantly used in Asian households compared with the western world. Locally, hair dye constituents may have allergic adverse effects, and acute systemic poisoning presents with characteristic angioedema, upper airway obstruction, rhabdomyolysis, methemoglobinemia, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. This study reports about the death of a 24-year-old Indian housewife who committed suicide by taking hair dye emulsion. She had an argument with her husband, and because of fit of rage, took a bowlful (80 mL) of hair dye emulsion kept prepared for the use by husband. She developed angioedema, cervical swelling, and rhabdomyolysis and died of acute renal failure within 24 hours. Toxicological analysis of viscera and blood revealed varying levels of paraphenylenediamine. Histopathological samples of kidney showed features of acute tubular necrosis and myoglobin casts in renal tubules. The aim of the study is to create awareness about the adverse effects of the hair dye, its poisoning outcome, and possible preventive measures.

  15. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hair dye products constitute an important source of allergen exposure, and contribute importantly to allergic contact dermatitis in consumers and hairdressers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of potent contact sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products intended for home use...... on the US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average...

  16. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  17. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of hair dyes in this age group. With increased popularity of body art such as body piercing and tattooing, an increase in temporary henna tattoos has also occurred. Although the appeal of non-permanence exists for henna tattoos, dermatologists have begun to see numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis linked with a certain type of henna. We selected 50 patients using hair dye and henna for our study. Patch testing was done in all the patients using Indian standard series of antigens. Regarding to the side effects to hair dye and henna and itching was the commonest symptom seen in 16% patients, erythematous scaly plaques were seen in 10% patients, vesicular reactions were seen in 6% patients, angioneurotic oedema and contact urticaria was seen in 4% patients each and anaphylaxis and keloidal reaction was seen in 2% patients each.

  18. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  19. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  20. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    -2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative......, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing...

  1. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Schnohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. METHODS: We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27......BACKGROUND: Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women...... years (range 0-37). RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25-3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity...

  2. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  3. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  5. (Hair-dye) and Renal Impairment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in hair dyes and cosmetic skin application. PPD intoxication following oral ingestion could be an important cause of ARF in Sudan, Morocco and the Indian Subcontinent. Repeated and prolonged exposure to PPD may also be associated with Chronic Kidney ...

  6. A temporary henna tattoo causing hair and clothing dye allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulich, Jacqueline; Sullivan, John

    2005-07-01

    Contact dermatitis following the application of temporary paint-on henna tattoos indicates a potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 2 cases involving sisters who travelled to Bali together and acquired a temporary black henna tattoo to the lower back region. Both sisters subsequently developed a contact dermatitis at the tattoo site, the dermatitis disseminating in one sister. There was persistent hyperpigmentation at the tattoo site in both sisters several months after the application. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in both sisters. One sister also showed reactions to other hair dyes and to multiple organic dyes. Allergic contact dermatitis to PPD contained in temporary henna tattoos is an increasing problem worldwide, with cross-reaction to related compounds and permanent skin changes, a frequent consequence of sensitization to this significant allergen.

  7. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  8. [Application of natural plant pigment in hair dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Li; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-09-01

    With the development of living condition, more and more people tend to show unique personality, thus hair dyes as hair cosmetics are highly favored. By the year 2012, the global sales of hair dye had exceeded $15 billion, with a sustained growth at a rate of 8%-10% annually. However, the harm caused by long-term use of hair dyes has aroused widespread public concern, so people begin to seek non-toxic or low toxic natural plant hair dyes. The types of commonly used hair dyes and the corresponding dyeing mechanisms were summarized in this manuscript, and the representative natural botanic dyes were listed. Thereafter, their effective fractions, constituents and application status were described. In addition, the values of botanic hair dyes and their broad market prospect were discussed. Finally, the problems that exist in the research and development of plant hair dyes were issued. This review may help to provide thought for developing novel, green and ecological natural plant hair dyes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment. Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33 consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet. Results: 54 Fifty-four (M: F 21:33 patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71% patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  10. Application of wool reactive dyes for hair coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, D.; Koh, J.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the low temperature dyeing properties of wool reactive dyes were investigated for the feasibility study of hair coloration using wool-reactive dyes. The low temperature (30°C, 40°C) wool reactive dyeing properties were compared to the conventional temperature (80°C) wool reactive dyeing and their dyeing properties were compared with those at high temperature. The experiment results showed that the application of low temperature wool reactive dyeing to hair coloration is sufficiently feasible in terms of dyeability and shampooing fastness.

  11. Are gloves sufficiently protective when hairdressers are exposed to permanent hair dyes? An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Annarita; Young, Ewa; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Engfeldt, Malin; Foti, Caterina; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-04-01

    The use of permanent hair dyes exposes hairdressers to contact allergens such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and the preventive measures are insufficient. To perform an in vivo test to study the protective effect of gloves commonly used by hairdressers. Six gloves from Sweden, Italy and Germany were studied: two vinyl, one natural rubber latex, two nitrile, and one polyethylene. The hair dye used for the provocation was a dark shade permanent dye containing PPD. The dye was mixed with hydrogen peroxide, and 8 PPD-sensitized volunteers were tested with the gloves as a membrane between the hair dye and the skin in a cylindrical open chamber system. Three exposure times (15, 30 and 60 min) were used. Eczematous reactions were found when natural rubber latex, polyethylene and vinyl gloves were tested with the dye. The nitrile gloves gave good protection, even after 60 min of exposure to the hair dye. Many protective gloves used by hairdressers are unsuitable for protection against the risk of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis caused by PPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A STUDY ON BRAND PREFERNCE OF CONSUMERS IN PURCHASING HAIR DYE IN TIRUNELVELI CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. Hamil; Muniswari.M

    2017-01-01

    Hair dye use is very common among both Men & Women. Hair dye users are increasing day by day coloring of hair is performed not only by professionals but also a popular cosmetic product. Hair dye is used mostly to change gray hair, since gray hair is a sign of an advanced age. Most of them are using hair dye in our home. Earlier natural hair dyes were used but now due to advancement in cosmetic industry, different types have been developed. There has been concern about hair dye since scientist...

  13. A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire surve...

  14. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from...... two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives...... and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed...

  15. Skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment for occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dye ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Carsten; Diepgen, Thomas L; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Gaspari, Anthony A; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Anne; Schlotmann, Kordula; Krasteva, Maya; Kimber, Ian

    2018-03-09

    Occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dyes has been associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) involving the hands. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) have been implicated as important occupational contact allergens. To conduct a quantitative risk assessment for the induction of contact sensitization to hair dyes in hairdressers, available data from hand rinsing studies following typical occupational exposure conditions to PPD, PTD and resorcinol were assessed. By accounting for wet work, uneven exposure and inter-individual variability for professionals, daily hand exposure concentrations were derived. Secondly, daily hand exposure was compared with the sensitization induction potency of the individual hair dye defined as the No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels (NESIL). For PPD and PTD hairdresser hand exposure levels were 2.7 and 5.9 fold below the individual NESIL. In contrast, hand exposure to resorcinol was 50 fold below the NESIL. Correspondingly, the risk assessment for PPD and PTD indicates that contact sensitization may occur, when skin protection and skin care are not rigorously applied. We conclude that awareness of health risks associated with occupational exposure to hair dyes, and of the importance of adequate protective measures, should be emphasized more fully during hairdresser education and training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  17. Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida da França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations.

  18. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Personal use of hair dyes and temporary black tattoos in Copenhagen hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos.......Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos....

  20. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a korean population with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-08-01

    Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet.

  1. Protective effect of conditioner agents on hair treated with oxidative hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Gama, Robson M; França-Stefoni, Simone A; Sá-Dias, Tânia C; Bedin, Valcinir; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2018-01-07

    Hair coloring is broadly used by women and men either to change their natural hair color or to delay the onset of gray hair. Oxidative dyes may damage the hair, as chemical and physical processes are required to convert the fiber structure and, consequently, alterations in its mechanical and surface properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of silanetriol (and) Panthenol, PEG-12 dimethicone, and hydrolyzed silk (and) hydrolyzed milk protein (and) lactose as conditioner agents on hair treated with oxidative hair dye by protein loss, combability, and breaking strength. In this research, we analyzed the untreated hair (sample I) and the effect of oxidative hair dye emulsions, with or without conditioner agents (sample II) silanetriol (and) Panthenol (sample III), PEG-12 dimethicone (sample IV), and hydrolyzed silk (and) hydrolyzed milk protein (and) lactose (sample V) on Caucasian hair. The hair samples were submitted to protein loss quantification, breaking strength, and combing analysis. For protein loss, the results were: II a  = V a  > IV b  > III c  > I d . For the breaking strength: I e  = II e  = III e  = IV e  = V e . For the combing analysis for wet and dry hair, the results were, respectively: II a  > III b  = IV b  > V c  > I d and II A  > III b  = V b  > IV  c = I c . Data classified by different letters presented statistically significant alterations, α = 5, P ≤ . 05, n = 15. Based on these results, the incorporation of conditioner agents into emulsion blond color decreased the damage caused by the coloring process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Local side effects caused by hair dye use in females: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A

    2012-01-01

    Despite its association with a number of side effects, hair dye use is common worldwide. To explore the local side effects of hair dye use and to relate these effects to features of hair dyeing. A questionnaire about hair dye use was distributed to a random sample of 650 female patients at various outpatient clinics in 2008. A total of 567 females returned the questionnaire (87.2% response rate). Of these respondents, 82.6% (464 of 562) had used hair dye products in the past. The mean age at first use was 22.23 ± 7.05 years, and the median time between two consecutive dyes was 6 months. Of these respondents, 76.8% (354 of 461) used permanent dyes. Participants reported that they suffered skin redness caused by hair dyes (15.1%, 65 of 431), had scaling (14.4%, 60 of 417), or had itchiness (31.3%, 134 of 428). In addition, 74% (262 of 354) of the participants reported that they had issues with the texture or condition of hair following hair dye use; 77.7% (314 of 404) reported split ends, whereas 69.6% (273 of 392) reported hair dryness, 69.4% (256 of 369) lusterless hair, 77.2% (308 of 399) excessive hair loss, and 53.6% (210 of 392) excessive hair graying. Furthermore, 55.1% (196 of 356) of the participants reported a slowing of hair growth. The total number of hair dyeing events was associated with increased hair loss (p  =  .04) and excessive graying (p Hair dye is associated with local side effects to the skin and hair. Increased public awareness of these risks could help inform consumer choices and reduce excessive use.

  3. Anaphylaxis, contact urticaria, and allergic asthma caused by persulfates in hair bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schuttelaar, M.L.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persulfate salts are potent oxidizing agents in hair bleach products that accelerate the bleaching process. Ammonium and potassium persulfates may cause delayedtype and immediate skin reactions. Also allergic asthma and rhinitis have been described. Objectives: Ammonium and potassium

  4. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall be...

  5. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing any...

  6. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which prevent...

  7. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.; Gago-Dominguez, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye

  8. A study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hair dye use among general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair dye usage is extremely common all over the world. Hair dyes have been reported to cause a wide range of adverse effects, therefore, the consumer’s knowledge about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of general population towards the use of hair dyes. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty consecutive persons using hair dyes were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 250 patients comprised 141 men (56.4% and 109 women (43.6% (M: F 1.29:1, aged between 16 and 74 (mean 47.13 years. The majority, 212 patients (84.8% were aged between 20–60 years and 66.4% (n=166 belonged to an urban background. When asked about the reason for using hair color, the principle reason was “to look younger” (59.6%, n=149. Most of the respondents were using synthetic hair dye preparations (55.2%, n=138 and when asked about the brand of hair dye being used, 25.2% (n=63 did not know about the brand they were using. When asked about their perception regarding safety of HD, 61% (n=152 respondents agreed that hair dyes are not safe and on being asked about the carcinogenic potential of HD, only 24% (n=60 respondents agreed. When enquired about the safest variety of HD, majority of respondents (52.4%, n=131 believed that plant based hair colors are the safest. When asked about the safety of HD during pregnancy and lactation, 68% (n=168 of the respondents were unaware regarding this aspect. 14.4% of the respondents reported suffering from some adverse effects due to hair dye use but only 11.11% (n=4 of those stopped using hair dyes. Conclusions: There is lack of awareness about the hair dyes and their adverse effects in the general population. There is an urgent need to increase awareness among consumers regarding the adverse effects of hair dyes and the available safer alternatives. Limitations: Small number of respondents and

  9. In vitro and in vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, Alexey N; Sinichkin, Yury P; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I; Lakodina, Nina A; Altshuler, Gregory B; Tuchin, Valery V

    2002-07-01

    We present experimental results on the in vitro and in vivo study of dye diffusion into human skin and hair follicles. We have studied some commercially available dyes for potential using in the laser selective thermolysis. The degree and the depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined. For hairs in different stages the sebaceous gland was stated as a reservoir for a dye administration. It was found that the penetration depth of dyes is about 1.2 mm from the skin surface. We have developed the biocompatible Indocyanine Green lotions and the method for in vivo dyeing and dye in depth monitoring. Shift on 16-21 nm of absorption peak of Indocyanine Green to the longer wavelengths due to Indocyanine Green binding with cell proteins in the human skin was found.

  10. Microbial decolorization and detoxification of emerging environmental pollutant: Cosmetic hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Swati; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2017-09-15

    Since the usage of hair dyes has increased in recent time, the removal of residual dye from environment is also an emerging issue. Hair dye contains mixture of chemicals including genotoxic chemical, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD or PPD). The present study reports bioremediation of hair dye using bacteria isolated from saloon effluent. Sugarcane bagasse powder (SBP) was used as a source of nutrient and surface for bacterial growth. The 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed the isolate as Enterobacter cloacae which was designated as DDB I. The decolourization of dye was studied using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The detoxification study was conducted on microbes isolated from fresh ponds using well diffusion assay. The 1mg/ml of dye was effectively decolourised within 18h of DDB I treatment in the minimal medium containing 30mg/ml of SBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune responses to hair dyes containing toluene-2,5-diamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, J D; Johansen, J D; Nielsen, M M

    2014-01-01

    : Immune responses against two different permanent hair dye products containing 1·60% (w/w) and 0·48% (w/w) PTD within the colour gel, and various concentrations of pure PTD were studied. The local inflammatory response was measured by ear swelling and cell infiltration, and T- and B-cell infiltration...... and proliferation was determined in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: Concentration-dependent immune responses were seen to PTD both in the skin and draining lymph nodes. The hair dye containing 1·60% PTD induced strong local inflammation and caused T- and B-cell infiltration and proliferation as well...... as an increased number of regulatory T cells in the draining lymph nodes. In contrast, the hair dye containing 0·48% PTD induced skin inflammation but only minor responses in the draining lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Consumer-available PTD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent immune activators inducing both...

  12. A study of dye molecule diffusion in human hair using positron lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekara, M.N.; Ranganathaiah, C. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore (India)

    2009-11-15

    The diffusion behavior of a commercial permanent liquid hair dye in human hair has been investigated using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and gravimetric sorption method. The o-Ps lifetime parameters {tau}{sub 3} and I{sub 3} decrease rapidly during the first 60 minutes of sorption time. This is understood in terms of dye molecules filling the free volume cavities in hair. The sorption results suggest that the dye molecule diffusion is essentially a Fickian process. In the latter part of the sorption, where positron parameters remain almost constant, mass increase might be due to surface adhesion. These two stages of sorption are well separated by the positron technique. The study shows that the free volume theory and positron technique, widely used in polymer research, may expediently be used to understand hair properties, more importantly diffusion of dye molecules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all

  14. Diffusion of permanent liquid dye molecules in human hair investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M N; Ranganathaiah, C

    2009-02-15

    The diffusion behavior of a commercial permanent liquid hair dye in human hair has been investigated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and gravimetric sorption method. The positron technique makes it possible to non-invasively characterize the angstrom sized free volume holes in hair, which are supposed to be express pathways for diffusion of small molecules. The o-Ps lifetime parameters tau3 and I3 decrease rapidly during the first 60 min of sorption time. The overall decrease in o-Ps lifetime (tau3) was well over 200 ps and o-Ps intensity (I3) drops by 3.5%. These positron results are explained in terms of dye molecules filling the free volume holes and hair morphology. The dye penetrates the cuticle rapidly, but slowly in cortex. The first hour of dyeing appears to be the most effective period of deposition of dye molecules within hair. These results are well corroborated by the sorption results which suggest that the dye diffusion is essentially a diffusion controlled (i.e. Fickian) process, with no observable relaxation effects. In the latter part of the sorption, where positron parameters remain almost constant, mass increase might be due to surface adhesion. These two stages of sorption are well separated by the positron technique. The sorption curve also yielded an average value of apparent diffusivity of the dye in hair. From this study, we conclude that the free volume theory and positron technique, widely used in polymer research, may expediently be used to understand hair properties, more importantly diffusion of dye molecules.

  15. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R

    2014-01-01

    dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy....

  16. In situ detection and identification of hair dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-03

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence.

  17. Self-testing for contact allergy to hair dyes - a 5-year follow-up multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Goosens, An; Giménez-Arnau, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    concerning the variability in instructions between products and producers, and the safety and validity of this tool. OBJECTIVES: To perform a 5-year follow-up study in order to determine whether manufacturers still recommend a self-test, and if so, whether the procedures have been changed. METHODS: During......BACKGROUND: In 2011, a multicentre study was conducted in order to determine how hair dye manufacturers instructed consumers to perform a self-test prior to dyeing their hair, in order to identify individuals who are likely to react upon subsequent hair dyeing. A number of concerns were raised...... March 2016, a total of 40 oxidative hair dye products from 21 different manufacturers were bought in retail stores in 8 European countries. RESULTS: The consumers were instructed to perform a self-test prior to hair dyeing for 39 of the products; however, the procedures varied greatly regarding...

  18. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: A mass balance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Bie, A.T.H.J.de; Toutain, H.; Bolt, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade

  19. Personal use of hair dyes and temporary black tattoos in Copenhagen hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henriette S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan; Søsted, Heidi

    2010-06-01

    Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos. To investigate hairdressers' professional and personal risk exposures and to compare the frequency of temporary tattoos among hairdressers and subjects from the general population. A questionnaire was sent to 1679 Copenhagen hairdressers and 1063 (63.3%) responded; 3471 subjects from the general population in Copenhagen were asked about temporary black tattoos. Of the female hairdressers, 38.3% had coloured hair within the previous week. Adverse skin reactions to own hair dye were reported in 29.5%. In the hairdresser population, no significant association was observed between self-reported adverse skin reactions to hair dye and having had a temporary black tattoo when adjusted for sex, age, and atopy. A total of 19.0% of hairdressers (43.5% of apprentices) and 6.3% of participants from the general population had ever had a temporary black tattoo performed at one point. There were no differences in frequency of eczema after temporary tattooing between hairdressers and subjects in the general population. Almost all hairdressers (99.2%) used gloves for hair colouring, 51% for high/low lighting, 39.6% for perming and 21.1% used gloves for shampooing. In conclusion, skin reactions to hair colour are frequent among Copenhagen hairdressers. Temporary black tattoos were more frequent among hairdressers than in a sample of the general population and increased with decreasing age.

  20. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  1. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  2. Self-testing for contact sensitization to hair dyes--scientific considerations and clinical concerns of an industry-led screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi; Uter, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetic industry producing hair dyes has, for many years, recommended that their consumers perform 'a hair dye allergy self-test' or similar prior to hair dyeing, to identify individuals who are likely to react upon subsequent hair dyeing. This review offers important information...... in the wrong population group; (iv) skin reactions have been read by dermatologists and not by the targeted group (consumers and hairdressers); (v) hair dyes contain strong and extreme sensitizers that are left on the skin in high concentrations, potentially resulting in active sensitization; and (vi......, there is severe risk that a tool has been marketed that may cause morbidity in European consumers....

  3. Liquid-crystalline membrane permeation ability for selected nitro hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Iwona; Arct, Jacek; Mojski, Miroslaw; Krus, Stanislaw

    2012-11-01

    A comparison of permeation ability of selected semi-permanent hair dyes and an attempt to estimate the influence of fundamental physicochemical parameters on dyes' epidermal penetration rate. Dyes' permeation ability through liposome membrane (as a model of stratum corneum) with side-by-side cells was assessed. It has been shown that the chosen dyes are capable of permeating the membrane. High penetration coefficients (Kp) were obtained for a simple nitrophenylenediamines and nitroaminophenols. Their N-, O-hydroxyalkyl substitution significantly limits penetration. H-bonding capability has a major impact on the investigated dyes' permeation ability. Substituents with H-bonding properties can significantly limit dyes' penetration, even in the case of lipophilic structures. Special attention should be placed into compounds with strong intramolecular H-bonding properties, which improve transmembrane transport. Substitution patterns have an influence on selected nitro dyes' permeation through a model stratum corneum. Permeation is limited by dyes diffusive properties (mostly by its H-bonding properties). Hydroxyalkylation results in hindered dyes permeation: purple, violet and blue nitrophenylenediamine or nitroaminophenol derivatives are less permeable than its not substituted analogues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods...

  5. Determination of lead, cadmium and nickel in hennas and other hair dyes sold in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-08-01

    The concentrations of lead, nickel and cadmium in various hennas and synthetic hair dyes were determined by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS). For this purpose, 1 g of sample was digested using 4 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30%) and 8 mL of nitric acid (65%). The digests were diluted to 15 mL and the analytes were determined by HR-CS GFAAS. All determinations of Pb and Cd were performed using NH4H2PO4 as a modifier. The analytes in hair certified reference materials (CRMs) were found within the uncertainty limits of the certified values. In addition, the analyte concentrations added to hair dye were recovered between 95 and 110%. The limits of detection of the method were 48.90, 3.90 and 12.15 ng g(-1) for Pb, Cd and Ni, respectively and the characteristic concentrations were 8.70, 1.42 and 6.30 ng g(-1), respectively. Finally, the concentrations of the three analytes in various synthetic hair dyes with different brands, shades and formulae as well as in two henna varieties were determined using aqueous standards for calibration. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Ni in hair dyes were in the ranges of LOD-0.56 μg g(-1), LOD-0.011 ng g(-1) and 0.030-0.37 μg g(-1), respectively, whereas those in the two hennas were 0.60-0.93 μg g(-1), 0.033-0.065 ng g(-1) and 0.49-1.06 μg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition influence accumulation of dyes in hair follicles of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Alaruikka, Soile; Lashley, Lisa; Caussin, Julia; Whitehead, Lynne; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2003-04-01

    In skin and hair research drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest. Therefore the influence of permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition on local accumulation has been examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Formulations saturated with either Oregon Green 488, Bodipy FL C(5) or Bodipy 564/570 C(5) were prepared. The dyes were applied in citric acid buffer, 8% (w/v) surfactants in citric acid buffer or 8% (w/v) surfactants/20% (w/v) propylene glycol in citric acid buffer. Flow-through diffusion experiments were performed with fresh human scalp skin, after which the skin was imaged using CLSM. Diffusion studies showed for Oregon Green 488 (low lipophilicity) a higher flux when applied in citric acid buffer compared to surfactants. In contrast the fluxes of the more lipophilic dyes (Bodipy FL C(5) and Bodipy 564/570 C(5)) are highest when applied in surfactants/propylene glycol. CLSM studies revealed that follicular accumulation increased with (i) a lipophilic dye and (ii) application of lipophilic dyes in surfactants-propylene glycol. Therefore we conclude that targeting to the hair follicle can be increased by the use of lipophilic drugs in combination with surfactant solutions and propylene glycol.

  7. Distribution kinetics of 3H-labelled p-phenylene diamine - - a hair dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Jain, I.S.; Sharma, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution kinetics of the 3 H-labelled p-phenylene diamine (a hair dye compound), was studied when administered iv and when applied percutaneously. The tracer experiments in rabbits after iv administration showed a biphasic blood clearance with half life values of 24 min and 43.5 h and quick-percutaneous absorption. The tissue distribution pattern investigated after iv and percutaneous administration in 16 different tissues and also in blood did not demonstrate any target organ for selective localisation of the dye. Not more than 0.06 percent of the iv administered radioactivity was measured per 10 mg of any tissue at 12th day. (author)

  8. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference toN-Nitrosamine Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie

    2013-02-13

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NO x of secondary amines to give the N- nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N -nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  11. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Hawkes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates, the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  12. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety. PMID:28809322

  13. A rapid nuclear staining test using cationic dyes contributes to efficient STR analysis of telogen hair roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ha, Eun-Ju; Woo, Seung-Kyun; Lee, So-Min; Lim, Kyung-Hee; Eom, Yong-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Telogen hairs presented in the crime scene are commonly encountered as trace evidence. However, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of the hairs currently have low and limited use due to poor success rate. To increase the success rate of STR profiling of telogen hairs, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to estimate the number of nuclei in the hair roots. Five cationic dyes, Methyl green (MG), Harris hematoxylin (HH), Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB), and Safranin O (SO) were evaluated in this study. We conducted a screening test based on microscopy and the percentage of loss with nuclear DNA, in order to select the best dye. MG was selected based on its specific nuclei staining and low adverse effect on the hair-associated nuclear DNA. We examined 330 scalp and 100 pubic telogen hairs with MG. Stained hairs were classified into five groups and analyzed by STR. The fast staining method revealed 70% (head hair) and 33.4% (pubic hair) of full (30 alleles) and high partial (18-29 alleles) STR profiling proportion from the lowest nuclei count group (one to ten nuclei). The results of this study demonstrated a rapid, specific, nondestructive, and high yield DNA profiling method applicable for screening telogen hairs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Decolorization of hair dye by lignocellulosic waste materials from contaminated waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib eZahir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic yellow 57 (BY57 was chosen as a model hair dye due to its prevalence in cosmetics wastewaters. This study proposes the use of lignocellulosic materials like spent tea leaves of peppermint (PM, chai tea (CT and chamomile (CM as raw adsorbents for the removal of BY57 from contaminated solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at room temperature to achieve the maximum adsorption capacity. Results indicate that the highest removal is achieved at pH 6 – 8, with a minimum adsorbent mass of 75 mg and in the absence of salinity, crowding agents and heavy metals. Adsorption equilibria were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm theories and reported the following trend: PM>CT>CM, reaching qmax values of 105, 80, and 38 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that diluted solution of HCl is able to desorb the up to 80% of the dye and recover the adsorbent to be used in consecutive cycles. Finally, the adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, indicating that the adsorbents have a porous and heterogeneous surface, showing pockets and protrusions that are potential adsorption sites for the dye.

  15. Hemolytic anemia after ingestion of the natural hair dye Lawsonia inermis (henna) in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardes, Daniel J; Ross, Linda A; Markovich, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and case management of a dog that developed hemolytic anemia and evidence of renal tubular dysfunction after ingestion of a natural hair dye containing Lawsonia inermis (henna). To review cases of henna toxicity reported in the human literature. An 8-year-old female spayed Border Collie was presented 5 days after ingestion of a box of natural hair dye. The dog was showing signs of lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. A serum biochemistry profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis demonstrated evidence of renal tubular dysfunction and a regenerative anemia without spherocytosis. The dog was treated with a transfusion of packed RBCs and IV fluids, resulting in significant clinical improvement. Repeat diagnostics showed resolution of the anemia and no lasting evidence of tubular dysfunction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the veterinary literature of toxicity following ingestion of Lawsonia inermis (henna). Henna ingestion was associated with the development of hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  16. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water,

  17. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  18. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-09

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  19. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo.

  2. 55 cases of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-01-01

    for angio-oedema. The 55 cases comprised a total of 75 visits to the health service and 5 admissions to hospital. 18 persons had sick leave, which supports the impression of very severe dermatitis reactions. 60% were treated with antihistamine, while 52% were treated with corticosteroids. 29% of the cases...

  3. A flexible and miniaturized hair dye based photodetector via chemiluminescence pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chang; Sun, Da-Shiuan; Lin, Ya-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Tso; Cheng, Chieh; Sun, Wen-Hsien; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2017-04-15

    A flexible and miniaturized metal semiconductor metal (MSM) biomolecular photodetector was developed as the core photocurrent system through chemiluminescence for hydrogen peroxide sensing. The flexible photocurrent sensing system was manufactured on a 30-µm-thick crystalline silicon chip by chemical etching process, which produced a flexible silicon chip. A surface texturization design on the flexible device enhanced the light-trapping effect and minimized reflectivity losses from the incident light. The model protein streptavidin bound to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was successfully immobilized onto the sensor surface through high-affinity conjugation with biotin. The luminescence reaction occurred with luminol, hydrogen peroxide and HRP enzyme, and the emission of light from the catalytic reaction was detected by underlying flexible photodetector. The chemiluminescence in the miniaturized photocurrent sensing system was successfully used to determine the hydrogen peroxide concentration in real-time analyses. The hydrogen peroxide detection limit of the flexible MSM photodetector was 2.47mM. The performance of the flexible MSM photodetector maintained high stability under bending at various bending radii. Moreover, for concave bending, a significant improvement in detection signal intensity (14.5% enhancement compared with a flat configuration) was observed because of the increased photocurrent, which was attributed to enhancement of light trapping. Additionally, this detector was used to detect hydrogen peroxide concentrations in commercial hair dye products, which is a significant issue in the healthcare field. The development of this novel, flexible and miniaturized MSM biomolecular photodetector with excellent mechanical flexibility and high sensitivity demonstrates the applicability of this approach to future wearable sensor development efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Technique of Branchial Fistula Tract Delineation and Excision In Children Allergic To Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagatam Banerjee

    2015-08-01

    Surgical excision of branchial fistulas in children with allergy to dyes can be challenging. Insertion of a polypropylene thread into the fistula tract makes its subsequent dissection easy with minimal disruption of adjacent structures.

  6. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system.

  7. Chemical and photo-oxidative hair damage studied by dye diffusion and electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsch, S B; Yang, B; Kamath, Y K

    2003-01-01

    Microspectrophotometric and electrophoretic methods were used to characterize and quantify the effects of primary damage to hair from chemical and photochemical oxidative processes. The diffusion of molecules proceeding from the fiber surface to the center of untreated and modified (by chemical and photochemical oxidative processes) hair fibers was mapped by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by calculating diffusion coefficients of a fluorescent molecule. In addition, an electrophoretic separation technique, namely, SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), was used not only to substantiate the results obtained in the microfluorometric study, but also to show how the main classes of proteins of unaltered hair are modified by cosmetic chemical treatments, light exposure, and combinations of these two processes. UV microspectrophotometry is an alternate analytical method to evaluate photo-oxidative damage in hair, and supports the results obtained by microfluorometry.

  8. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  9. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A.; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K m and V max values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C max was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and

  10. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  11. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Due to Paraphenylenediamine: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encabo Durán, B; Romero-Pérez, D; Silvestre Salvador, J F

    2018-02-26

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is an amine that is mainly used as an ingredient in hair dyes and henna tattoos. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to PPD is increasing, particularly in younger patients. In this article, we review the main sources of PPD and the substances with which it can interact and present a practical algorithm for diagnosing and treating suspected cases of PPD allergy. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-pulse energy Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment for hair-dye-induced Riehl's melanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Hye Rang; Hong, Won Jin; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-06-01

    Riehl's melanosis, a form of dermatitis characterized by reticulate pigmentation, typically presents as a gray-brown to black hyperpigmentation on the face and neck. Among the various etiologic factors suggested, photoallergic reaction and pigmented contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to drugs, coal tar dyes, optical whitener, or other ingredients found in cosmetics are believed to be the major contributing factors in this disease. The histopathological features of Riehl's melanosis mainly consist of pigmentary incontinence along with infiltration of numerous dermal melanophages and lymphohistiocytes.1,2 Additionally, notable clinical improvements in the treatment of this condition have been reported for intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, in comparison to long-term topical application of bleaching agents.2 Here, we report the cases of two Asian patients treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser for hair dye-induced Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck. In conclusion, we observed that Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck was effectively and safely treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. We suggest that this method can be used in Asian patients with Riehl's melanosis at risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from excessive light or laser energy delivery.

  14. Contact allergy to hair colouring products. The cosmetovigilance experience of 4 companies (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Tozer, Sarah; Rich, Kim; Hoting, Edo; Hollenberg, Detlef; Fuchs, Anne; Fautz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The post-marketing undesirable events to hair colouring products in the European Union notified to the cosmetovigilance departments of four major cosmetic companies were analysed (2003-2006). The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors. Alleged undesirable events (UEvs, all notifications prior to causality assessment), were compared to the respective undesirable effects (UEfs, reasonably attributable to product use). A detailed analysis was performed on notifications with manifestations compatible with allergic contact dermatitis. No time effect of UEvs and UEfs was shown, for all hair-dye associated notifications and for allergic contact dermatitis, for all hair colouring products together and by product type. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to direct hair colouring products was lower for all four companies compared to oxidative hair dyes. The reporting rates of UEfs were statistically higher in the UK for one of four companies. Past history of black henna tattoos appeared as a major risk factor for seriousness of allergic contact reactions.

  15. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  16. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  17. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  18. On-line diffusion profile of a lipophilic model dye in different depths of a hair follicle in human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Lamers, Gerda; Sturmann, Nico; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2005-10-01

    In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500 microm in the skin, a fast increase of fluorescence is observed in the gap followed by accumulation of the dye in the hair cuticle. Penetration was also observed via the stratum corneum and the epidermis. Little label reached depths greater than 2000 microm. Fat cells accumulated the label fastest, followed by the cuticular area and the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Sweat glands revealed very low staining, whereas the bulb at a depth of 4000 microm was visualized only by autofluorescence. From this study, we conclude that on-line visualization is a promising technique to access diffusion processes in deep skin layers even on a cellular level. Furthermore, we conclude that the gap and the cuticle play an important role in the initial diffusion period with the label in the cuticle originating from the gap.

  19. Time and depth resolved visualisation of the diffusion of a lipophilic dye into the hair follicle of fresh unfixed human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Cornwell, Paul; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2004-08-27

    Visualising the penetration pathway of a lipophilic model dye into the hair follicle of fresh unfixed human skin would facilitate optimisation of drug formulations for local delivery to the pilosebaceous unit. A block of fresh human scalp skin was mechanically fixed in a newly designed combination of cutting device/on-line diffusion cell, manual cross-sectioned perpendicular to the skin surface and sealed to create the donor and acceptor compartment. The donor phase consisted of a saturated solution of Bodipy FL C(5) in a citric acid buffer solution. Images were obtained on-line by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) every 30 min for 16 h. For each time point and each skin region relative intensity values were calculated. The on-line visualisation showed a fast diffusion of the label into the gap of the hair follicle followed by a fluorescent staining in the gap itself. The data strongly indicate that the fluorescence in the cuticle originates mainly from the dye of the gap and not from the surrounding epidermis. The on-line visualisation provides a new and excellent tool to monitor simultaneous changes in distribution profiles in the various skin layers including the hair follicle. This information can be used to determine penetration pathways in the skin.

  20. The hair-dye reagent 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol is mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venitt, S; Crofton-Sleigh, C; Osborne, M R

    1984-01-01

    A new hair-dye ingredient, 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol (2,4-DAPE), was described as being devoid of any genotoxic activity on the basis of a multi-laboratory study. Since 2,4-DAPE is a close analogue of 2,4-diaminoanisole (2,4-DAA), which is mutagenic and carcinogenic, we tested this claim by assaying 2,4-DAPE for bacterial mutagenicity. Two samples of 2,4-DAPE X 2HCl were synthesized by reduction of the corresponding dinitrophenoxyethanol and identity and purity were established by elemental analysis, NMR spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, UV-spectrophotometry, TLC and HPLC. Fresh aqueous solutions of 2,4-DAPE X 2HCl were assayed in several separate plate tests using S. typhimurium TA1538, TA97, TA98 and TA100, and E. coli WP2uvrA (pKM101), 3 plates per dose and 0%, 4%, 10% and 30% Aroclor 1254-induced rat-liver S9 in S9 mixes. We obtained negative results in TA100 and E. coli. Reproducible, statistically significant dose-related increases in revertants (up to 14 times the background) were obtained in frame-shift mutants of S. typhimurium in the dose range 10-80 micrograms per plate. Mutagenicity was S9-dependent, significant increases in revertants being obtained only with 50 microliter per plate or more of S9. 2,4-DAPE induced significant mutagenic effects at doses of less than 1 micrograms per ml in TA1538 and TA98 in fluctuation tests using 2% S9 in the S9 mix. In plate tests, 2,4-DAPE was less mutagenic (by a factor of about 8) than 2,4-DAA, which gave the highest mutant yields with 20 microliter S9 per plate (4% S9 in the S9 mix). 2,4-DAPE obtained commercially was about 8 times more mutagenic than our sample of 2,4-DAPE. After purification, the commercial product, now chromatographically identical with our own sample, gave plate-test results close to those obtained for our samples of 2,4-DAPE. A review of the published reports (in which 2,4-DAPE was claimed to be inactive in a variety of short-term tests) revealed: (a) the use of protocols for bacterial

  1. Sensitization and Clinically Relevant Allergy to Hair Dyes and Clothes from Black Henna Tattoos: Do People Know the Risk? An Uncommon Serious Case and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Moro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Henna (Lawsonia inermis L. tattooing has been used in Egypt and India since ancient times. Today this temporary body art is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Various chemicals are added to henna to darken and enhance the definition of tattoos, especially para-phenylenediamine (PPD, which is a strong sensitizer known to cause cross sensitive reactions to azoic dyes and other para-amino compounds. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who became clinically sensitive to textile dyes after having showed a serious reaction both to her first hair dying when she was 16 years old and following the application of a temporary henna tattoo when she was a kid. The evidence from our literature review showed 33 cases of manifest sensitization to hair dye and only one of observable contact allergy to both hair and textile dyes from henna tattoos. The sensitization of children may have long-life lasting consequences, because of cross-reaction to dyes and other chemicals contained in hair colourants, clothes and drugs. Since tattoos are very popular and globalization has increased the circulation of unauthorized products we point out the need for informative campaigns about the risk of sensitization caused by temporary tattoos.

  2. A Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using a Composite of PEDOT:PSS and Carbon Derived from Human Hair for a Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitsada Moolsarn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon derived from hair is interesting because it has good electrocatalytic activity due to the existence of innate heteroatom dopants especially nitrogen and sulfur. In this study, a carbon catalyst containing high nitrogen contents (9.47 at.% was fabricated without using any harsh chemicals. Moreover, the carbonization temperature was only 700°C. Carbonized hair/PEDOT:PSS composites (CxP with varied carbon contents from x = 0.2 to 0.8 g were tested as a counter electrode (CE for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This type of DSSC CE has scarcely been investigated. A DSSC with a C0.6P CE provides the best efficiency (6.54 ± 0.11% among all composite CEs because it has a high fill factor (FF and a high short-circuit current density (Jsc. The efficiency of DSSC with C0.6P CE is lower than Pt’s (7.29 ± 0.01% since the Pt-based DSSC has higher FF and Jsc values. However, C0.6P is still promising as a DSSC CE since it is more cost-effective than Pt.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-05-01

    Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm(2) in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm(2) in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (phair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair.

  4. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Miranda da Gama; André Rolim Baby; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

    2017-01-01

    Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can b...

  5. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  6. Basic Red 51, a permitted semi-permanent hair dye, is cytotoxic to human skin cells: Studies in monolayer and 3D skin model using human keratinocytes (HaCaT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Thalita B; Tiago, Manoela; Faião-Flores, Fernanda; de Moraes Barros, Silvia B; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2014-06-05

    The use of hair dyes is closely associated with the increase of cancer, inflammation and other skin disorders. The recognition that human skin is not an impermeable barrier indicates that there is the possibility of human systemic exposure. The carcinogenic potential of hair dye ingredients has attracted the attention of toxicologists for many decades, mainly due to the fact that some ingredients belong to the large chemical family of aromatic amines. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Basic Red 51 (BR51) in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). BR51 is a temporary hair dye that belongs to the azo group (NN); the cleavage of this bond may result in the release of toxic aromatic amines. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in HaCaT cells is 13μg/mL. BR51 induced a significant decrease on expression of p21 in a dose dependent manner. p53 was not affected, whereas BR51 decreased procaspase 8 and cleaved procaspase 9. These results proved that caspase 3 is fully involved in BR51-induced apoptosis. The dye was also able to stop this cell cycle on G2 in sub-toxic doses. Moreover, we reconstructed a 3D artificial epidermis using HaCaT cells; using this model, we observed that BR51 induced cell injury and cells were undergoing apoptosis, considering the fragmented nuclei. Subsequently, BR51 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase on the levels of 8-oxo-dG. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that consumer and/or professional exposure to BR51 poses risk to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  8. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  9. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  10. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-10-01

    To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients. Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products in the environment. We still lack a good understanding of why these patients become so easily sensitized.

  11. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases.

  12. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  13. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair bulb. This is where the hair's color pigment, or melanin, is produced. Most people lose about ... diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can ...

  14. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  15. Effect of Ionic Liquid on the Determination of Aromatic Amines as Contaminants in Hair Dyes by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonylimide BMIm[NTf2] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthyl-amine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf2] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf2] 70:30 (v/v as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min−1, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L−1 to 217 mg·L−1, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L−1 to 0.246 mg·L−1 and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3 were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples.

  16. Kumkum-induced allergic contact dermatitis: Are we missing the actual culprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Annabathula

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Allergic contact dermatitis to kumkum occurs both due to the dyes (added for enhancing the colour and turmeric. All patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis should be patch tested with kumkum, turmeric and dyes, based on which alternative non-allergic material could be advised. Kumkum dermatitis can also occur due to various other allergens, for which too patch testing should be done.

  17. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by

  18. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with dark hair because the melanin (colored pigment) in the hair absorbs more of the light, ... medications can reduce hair growth by blocking androgen production. Doctors often prescribe oral contraceptives in conjunction with ...

  19. Allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiner, Alexander N.; Hellings, Peter W.; Rotiroti, Guiseppina; Scadding, Glenis K.

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very common disorder that affects people of all ages, peaking in the teenage years. It is frequently ignored, underdiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and mistreated, which not only is detrimental to health but also has societal costs. Although allergic rhinitis is not a serious illness,

  20. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  1. Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Gude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine is an important constituent of hair dye toxicity of which one could herald fatal complications such as rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, angioneurotic edema, and respiratory failure. We present a case of hair dye poisoning that presented with respiratory distress due to laryngeal edema and later developed trismus, subclinical tetany, apnea, and conduction abnormality on electrocardiogram. This case report highlights the need for a thorough toxicological review of the components of any ingested substance.

  2. Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: I. UV-visible microspectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

    2010-03-01

    Current protocols for examining hair do not attempt to differentiate hair color using instrumental analysis. In this study, hair samples treated with 55 different red hair dyes were analyzed using UV-visible microspectrophotometry between 200 and 700 nm. Using air as a background reference gave the best results, although mounting media such as glycerin could also be used. The contribution of the hair substrate is predominantly observed in the range of 300-400 nm while the dye peak is evident in the range of 425-550 nm. It was found that the presence of hair dye reduces the overall intrasample variability of the hair color. In addition, visual inspection and spectral interpretation showed that dyed hair exhibits distinct and discernable shades. The color of all samples was stable during storage and while all hair dyes fade with washing, significant fading of the color was only evident after daily washing for 3 weeks.

  3. Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Alexander N; Hellings, Peter W; Rotiroti, Guiseppina; Scadding, Glenis K

    2011-12-17

    Allergic rhinitis is a very common disorder that affects people of all ages, peaking in the teenage years. It is frequently ignored, underdiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and mistreated, which not only is detrimental to health but also has societal costs. Although allergic rhinitis is not a serious illness, it is clinically relevant because it underlies many complications, is a major risk factor for poor asthma control, and affects quality of life and productivity at work or school. Management of allergic rhinitis is best when directed by guidelines. A diagnostic trial of a pharmacotherapeutic agent could be started in people with clinically identified allergic rhinitis; however, to confirm the diagnosis, specific IgE reactivity needs to be recorded. Documented IgE reactivity has the added benefit of guiding implementation of environmental controls, which could substantially ameliorate symptoms of allergic rhinitis and might prevent development of asthma, especially in an occupational setting. Many classes of drug are available, effective, and safe. In meta-analyses, intranasal corticosteroids are superior to other treatments, have a good safety profile, and treat all symptoms of allergic rhinitis effectively. First-generation antihistamines are associated with sedation, psychomotor retardation, and reduced academic performance. Only immunotherapy with individually targeted allergens has the potential to alter the natural history of allergic rhinitis. Patients' education is a vital component of treatment. Even with the best pharmacotherapy, one in five affected individuals remains highly symptomatic, and further research is needed in this area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dust mites, are in dust. Dust mites are tiny living creatures found in bedding, mattresses, carpeting, and upholstered furniture. They live on dead skin cells and other things found in house dust. How is allergic rhinitis diagnosed? If your ...

  5. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions can cause hair loss, including: Hormonal changes. Hormonal changes and imbalances can cause temporary hair loss. This could be due to pregnancy, childbirth or the onset of menopause. Hormone levels are also affected by the thyroid ...

  7. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  8. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  9. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  10. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani, Marie-Paule; Bertails, Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  11. Diffusion of coloured silica nanoparticles into human hair

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Jaime Rocha; Sampaio, Sandra; Maia, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for dyeing human hair fibres using coloured silica nanoparticles of 206 nm has been developed. Diffusion of coloured silica nanoparticles into hair fibres has been investigated; silica nanoparticles do not penetrate at all, or do so only sparingly, into the structure of Caucasian virgin hair. However, coloured silica nanoparticles diffused readily into bleached hair fibres. Scanning electron microscopy showed that coloured silica nanoparticles were present mainly in...

  12. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  13. Root Hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  14. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  15. Nanoporous of W/WO{sub 3} thin film electrode grown by electrochemical anodization applied in the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the basic red 51 used in hair dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Luciano E.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B., E-mail: fraga@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Self-organized W/WO{sub 3} nanoporous electrodes can be obtained by simple electrochemical anodization of W foil in 0.15 mol L{sup -1} NaF solution as the supporting electrolyte, applying a ramp potential of 0.2 V s{sup -1} until it reached 60 V, which was maintained for 2 h. The monoclinic form is majority in the highly ordered WO{sub 3} annealed at 450 deg C, obtaining a higher photoactivity when irradiated by visible light than by UV light. The electrode promotes complete discoloration of the investigated basic red 51 dye after 60 min of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, on current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} and irradiation on wavelength of 420-630 nm. In this condition it was obtained 63% of mineralization. Lower efficiency is obtained for the system irradiated by wavelength (280- 400 nm) when only 40% of total organic carbon removal is obtained and 120 min is required for complete discoloration. (author)

  16. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones por tinturas para el cabello son infrecuentes en Antioquia; sin embargo, su toxicidad es potencialmente letal cuando ingresan al organismo por vía oral al producir un compromiso multiorgánico que puede llevar a la muerte del paciente. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 2 años que ingirió una dosis de 125 mg/kg de parafenilendiamina, asociada a ácido bórico y perborato de sodio, compuestos que hacen parte de una presentación comercial de una tintura para el cabello; la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina tuvo como consecuencia principal la obstrucción de la vía aérea por angioedema que requirió intubación endotraqueal, soporte ventilatorio y administración de esteroides y antihistamínicos; secundario al compromiso aéreo la paciente presentó edema agudo de pulmón y posteriormente un cuadro neumónico que requirió tratamiento con antibióticos. Adicionalmente presentó rabdomiolisis severa que se trató con líquidos endovenosos para que no se comprometiera la función renal. Luego de una terapia durante 10 días en el hospital, la niña fue dada de alta con resolución completa del cuadro tóxico. Se revisan los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina, dado que este fue el compuesto tóxico clínicamente importante en el contexto de este caso. There have been few cases reported of intoxication by hair dyes in Antioquia; however, their toxicity may be potentially lethal when their components enter the organism by oral route inducing a multiorganic compromise that may lead to death. We report the case of a two year old girl who ingested 125mg/kg of paraphenylenediamine, with boric acid and sodium perborate; these compounds are part of the commercial presentation of a hair dye; the child suffered airway obstruction because of angioedema that required intubation, ventila tory support, steroids and antihistaminics; due to

  17. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...

  18. Use of body hair and beard hair in hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2013-08-01

    For many hair restoration patients with limited scalp donor hair it is possible to use nonhead hair sources to increase the potential follicle supply. Follicular unit extraction provides the hair restoration surgeon with a useful surgical means for accessing this valuable source of donor reserve. Nonhead hair can also be used to restore eyebrows, eyelashes, and moustaches. This article focuses on the use of body hair and beard in hair restoration. Discussed are the indications and effective techniques for performing hair transplants using non head hair donor sources, along with the pitfalls and risks of this surgical modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexander; Riemann, Iris; Stark, Martin; König, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro multiphoton imaging was used to perform high resolution optical sectioning of human hair by nonlinear excitation of endogenous as well as exogenous fluorophores. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) based on time-resolved single photon counting and near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse excitation was employed to analyze the various fluorescent hair components. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of intratissue pigments has the potential (i) to identify endogenous keratin and melanin, (ii) to obtain information on intrahair dye accumulation, (iii) to study bleaching effects, and (iv) to monitor the intratissue diffusion of pharmaceutical and cosmetical components along hair shafts.

  20. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  1. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  2. Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ik-Joon; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

    2006-07-01

    Henna (Lawsonia inermis, family Lythraceae) is a shrub cultivated in India, Sri Lanka and North Africa and contains the active dye lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Henna dye is obtained from the dried leaves, which are powdered and mixed with oil or water and are used to prepare hair and body dyes. Temporary henna tattoos are readily available worldwide, last on the skin for several weeks and offer a self-limited, convenient alternative to a permanent tattoo. The addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is widely recognised as a sensitizer, increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis from henna tattoo mixtures, and a number of cases have been reported. We examined 15 henna samples available in Korea for the presence of PPD and heavy metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, lead and mercury using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), mercury analyser and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. PPD, nickel and cobalt were detected in 3, 11 and 4 samples, respectively.

  3. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  4. Allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2001-03-01

    Dye mixtures containing henna, P-phenylenediamine (PPD), and indigo are applied to the skin in various parts of the world for religious purposes, social recognition or fun. To identify eventual allergens responsible for contact sensitization to skin decoration in three young children. Lesions remained strictly limited to the site painted during the summer holiday. None of the children had a previous history of contact dermatitis, but two of them suffered from severe seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to PPD in all three patients, and one child presented a positive prick test to 1% henna in water. The eruptions resolved following spontaneous elimination of the dyes and topical applications of corticosteroids, but left residual depigmentation. PPD is the main allergen identified in allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

  5. Removal of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-01-08

    Jan 8, 2013 ... Keywords: Bambara groundnut shell, Congo red, Sugarcane Bagasse, % Dye Removal. ... inhibit growth of aquatic biota by blocking out sunlight and utilizing dissolved oxygen. Some dyes may cause allergic dermatitis, skin irritation, cancer and mutation ..... carbon cloth using QSPRS as tools to approach.

  6. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  7. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in c...

  8. The allergic scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children. Allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a condition which occurs due to inflammation of the epithelial lining of the nasal mucosa. This inflammatory process is ... is TNF-α. TNF-α levels increase dramatically approximately. Figure 2: Common atopic diseases in childhood. Anaphylaxis. Allergic rhinitis. Asthma. Atopic.

  9. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    sent in persistent allergic rhinitis will eventually occur in the mucous mem- branes of the ostiomeatal units in the middle meati leading ultimately to allergic inflammation of the sinuses. The other important factor is that sinusi- tis may also occur as a result of viral infections in these allergic children as it does in normal children.

  10. Measurements of hair volume by laser stereometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger; Zisa, Franco; Jachowicz, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional laser stereometer was constructed utilizing an x-y two-dimensional translational stage and a laser device, which provides distance information in the z-direction. The distance data is obtained by triangulation of the reflecting red laser beam from the surface of the measured object, in this case hair. Since hair fiber assemblies do not have a continuous solid surface, each z-dimension reading is obtained as an average of measurements obtained from multiple reflections corresponding to fibers at various depths below the outermost hair surface. We demonstrate the utility of this technique to perform the analysis of either an entire hair tress or relatively short sections of tresses prepared from straight, curly, and frizzy hair and subjected to cosmetic treatments such as washing, conditioning, dyeing, etc. An interpretation is provided for the three-dimensional images of hair assemblies as well as for the calculated volume of space occupied by a hair tress. In addition, we investigated various strategies for testing the volume retention of styling polymers.

  11. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  12. Cross-elicitation responses to 2-methoxymethyl-para-phenylenediamine in para-phenylenediamine-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.-L.; Coenraads, P.-J.; Blömeke, B.; Goebel, C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into para-phenylenediamine (PPD) resulted in the development of a new hair dye molecule: 2-methoxymethyl-para-phenylenediamine (Me-PPD). Besides having excellent hair colouring properties, this PPD derivate has significantly lower skin-sensitizing

  13. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    treatments, including port-wine stain and tattoo removal, diag- nostic measurements, lithotripsy, activation of photosensitive drugs for photodynamic therapy, etc. In the field of medical applications, dye lasers have potential advantages over other lasers. Dye lasers are unique sources of tunable coherent radiation, from the ...

  14. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  15. [Aeroallergen spectrum of patients with child allergic rhinitis in Changsha area of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhuqing; Wang, Fang; Wang, Tiansheng; Li, Liangming; Tan, Guolin

    2011-09-01

    To investigate aeroallergen spectrum and allergy positive rates of patients with child allergic rhinitis and analyze its related factors. Skin prick test was carried out in 562 cases with child allergic rhinitis using 13 inhaled allergens, and detailed history was collected in all cases. Four hundred and fifty-seven (81.3%) of 562 cases showed positive reaction to at least one allergen out of 13 allergens. The most common allergens found in patients was Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and positive reaction was 93.1% in child allergic rhinitis, followed by tropical mite, Periplaneta americana, Blattella germanica and dog hair. The pollen allergen, most common in American and European, was pretty rare in this study. The prevalence of child allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in urban than in rural (Penviroment. Most of patients with child allergic rhinitis can be treated by the mite specific immunotherapy. The skin prick test is a safe technique for diagnosis of children with allergic rhinitis.

  16. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  18. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth / For Kids / Help! It's Hair Loss! ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  19. Aging of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  20. Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectr...

  1. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    markers such as the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Chemoattractants including eotaxin,. IL-5, and RANTES lead to the characteristic infiltration by eosinophils, basophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and mast cells in chronic allergic rhinitis.15. Figure 2. Cell and mediator pathways underlying the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.

  2. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    inflammatory oede- ma present in persis- tent allergic rhinitis will eventually occur in the mucous mem- branes of the ostiomeatal units in the middle meati leading ultimately to allergic ... most children over the age of 6 months. These are excellent tests .... flax oil or fatty fish is of a high omega 3 and essential amino acid.

  3. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ABPA most commonly affects people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Many people with ABPA also suffer from allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), urticaria (hives) , allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and sinusitis . Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms If you have asthma, the first noticeable ...

  4. The allergic march

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic eczema to the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Rhodes et al.2 studied 100 infants from atopic families over a 22-year period in the UK. The prevalence of atopic eczema reached a peak in 20% of children at 1 year of age and then declined to just ...

  5. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  7. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  8. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  9. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were ...

  10. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean so hair oils don't clog your pores. If you're washing your hair every day ... in curly hair. Relaxers containing lye can cause skin irritation and hair breakage. Although "no lye" relaxers ...

  11. [Allergic rhinitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent form of chronic rhinitis in children. It is driven by allergic inflammation and is commonly associated with other atopic diseases such as asthma and atopic eczema. The main allergens are primarily aeroallergens: house dust mite, and tree, grass and weed pollen. It is, however, not exceptional to experience symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in conjunction with food allergy and oral food allergy syndrome, especially in infants and toddlers. Allergic rhinitis is often associated with allergic asthma, either preceding it, or developing later and making it more difficult to treat. The mainstay of treatment is exposure prophylaxis, antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists and intranasal corticosteroids. Allergic rhinitis is one of the prime indications for specific allergen immunotherapy, which may have a preventive effect on the development of asthma. Allergic rhinitis associated with intermittent or mild persistent asthma may be a good indication for concomitant combination treatment with antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. Intranasal corticosteroids should not be withheld in more severe forms. Shortterm (up to 3 months) use of intranasal corticosteroids has not been associated with any significant local or systemic side effects.

  12. Use of hair colouring products and risk of multiple myeloma among US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutros, S; Baris, D; Bell, E; Zheng, T; Zhang, Y; Holford, T R; Leaderer, B P; Landgren, O; Zahm, S Hoar

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between personal hair dye use and risk of multiple myeloma among women. A population-based case-control study of 175 cases of multiple myeloma and 679 controls. Cases and controls were interviewed regarding the type and colour of hair colouring product used, age at first use, age use stopped, duration, and the frequency of use per year. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression to compare never users with four exposure groups: all users, ever semi-permanent dye users, ever permanent dye users and dark permanent dye users (most frequent use). No association was found between ever reporting hair colouring product use and myeloma risk among all users (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.1), semi-permanent dye users (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.2), permanent dye users (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.1) or dark permanent dye users (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.3). There were no significant associations among women who used hair dyes before 30 years of age, started use before 1980, had >or=240 lifetime applications, or had used dark permanent dye for 28 or more years. No evidence of an association between hair colouring product use and myeloma risk was found. However, given the conflicting body of literature on hair colouring product use and risk of multiple myeloma, this question should be further evaluated in larger studies or consortia, and in high risk groups.

  13. [Aeroallergen spectrum of patients with allergic rhinitis in Enshi area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Wan, Jing; Liu, Zhong

    2011-07-01

    To investigate aeroallergen spectrum of patients with allergic rhinitis in Enshi area and analyze its related factors. Skin prick test was carried out in 463 patients with allergic rhinitis with 13 inhaled allergens. Detailed history was collected in all cases. Three hundred and eighty-seven cases (83.6%) showed positive reaction to at least one allergen of 13 allergens. The most common allergens found in patients were Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, followed by tropical mite, Periplaneta americana, Blattella germanica and dog hair. The positive reaction rate of single specie allergen were 51.9%, and most of them was positive to mites (49.6%). The positive reaction degree was significantly related to family history, asthma, age and housing enviroment. The major allergen of allergic rhinitis was mite. The positive reaction degree related to genetics, asthma, age and housing enviroment.

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  15. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  16. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Laser Dyes. G S Shankarling K J Jarag. General Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September ... Author Affiliations. G S Shankarling1 K J Jarag1. Dyestuff Technology, Department Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga Mumbai 400 019, India.

  17. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the best strategy for managing allergic rhinitis? Avoidance Antihistamines or nasal corticosteroid sprays Immunotherapy (allergy shots) It ... pollen or pet dander isn't always feasible. Antihistamines often help for short-term relief of symptoms. ...

  18. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharpe, Chet A; Kemp, Stephen F

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common pediatric problem with significant comorbidities and potential complications. This article is an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and current therapeutic strategies. Allergic rhinitis management in a specific child is age dependent and influenced by the severity and frequency of the symptoms and the presence of any concurrent conditions. Current strategies permit symptomatic control and improved quality of life for most patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  1. Hair greying is associated with active hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H I; Choi, G I; Kim, E K; Choi, Y J; Sohn, K C; Lee, Y; Kim, C D; Yoon, T J; Sohn, H J; Han, S H; Kim, S; Lee, J H; Lee, Y H

    2011-12-01

    Hair greying is an obvious sign of ageing in humans. White (nonpigmented) hair is thicker than black (pigmented) hair. The growth rate of white hair is also significantly higher than that of black hair. However, the mechanism underlying this is largely unknown. To examine the association between hair greying and hair growth patterns by evaluating expression of the genes or proteins related to hair growth in white and black hairs. Morphological characteristics were observed in eyebrow and scalp hairs. The differential expression of genes was analysed in black and white hairs from human scalp by a microarray analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry for genes and proteins related to hair growth were performed in black and white hairs. Keratin and keratin-associated protein (KRTAP) genes in white hair were upregulated at least two-fold in comparison with black hair in a microarray analysis. Upregulation of selected keratin genes and KRTAP4 isoform genes in white hair was validated by RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for KRT6, KRT14/16 and KRT25 was increased in the hair follicle of white hair compared with black hair. Gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) was downregulated in white hair compared with black hair. However, gene expression of FGF7 was upregulated in white hair compared with black hair. Expression of genes and proteins associated with active hair growth is upregulated in white (nonpigmented) hair compared with black (pigmented) hair. These results suggest that hair greying is associated with active hair growth. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Kumkum-induced allergic contact dermatitis: Are we missing the actual culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabathula, Ashwini; Priya, S; Srinivas, C R

    2018-01-01

    Kumkum, made with turmeric and slaked lime along with colour enhancing dyes is known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. The possible contact allergens in kumkum include turmeric, Sudan-1, 4-aminoazobenzene, brilliant lake red R and cananga oil. We report patch test results among patients with suspected contact hypersensitivity to kumkum. To identify the allergen causing kumkum induced allergic contact dermatitis by patch testing and to advise patients about organic kumkum which doesnot contain colour enhancing dyes. Eighteen patients with suspected contact hypersensitivity to kumkum were patch tested with undiluted kumkum, undiluted turmeric, Sudan-1 (95%), 4-aminoazobenzene and allergens of the Indian Standard Series. Of the 18 patients, 14 patients had patch test positivity to kumkum and 4 had a negative reaction to kumkum. Patch test with other suspected contact allergens showed positive reaction to turmeric in 4 patients, Sudan-1 in 3 patients and 4-aminoazobenzene in 2 patients. Among the allergens of the Indian Standard Series, positivity to nickel and fragrance mix was seen in 5 and 2 patients respectively. Positive reaction to PPD, chlorocresol and parthenium was seen in 1 patient each. Small sample size. Allergic contact dermatitis to kumkum occurs both due to the dyes (added for enhancing the colour) and turmeric. All patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis should be patch tested with kumkum, turmeric and dyes, based on which alternative non-allergic material could be advised. Kumkum dermatitis can also occur due to various other allergens, for which too patch testing should be done.

  3. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  4. Premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  5. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  6. Circumferential ′ Woolly Hair Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Woolly hair naevus presents as a circumscribed area of tightly coiled hair since birth, in an individual of non-negroid origin. We report a 10 year old boy of Indian origin who presented with woolly hair in the periphery of the scalp and normal straight hair in the center-mimicking a straight hair naevus.

  7. [Allergic fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, J R; Lafarga, J; Ronda, J M; Trigueros, M; Sancho, M; Aracil, A

    2000-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is a recently described clinical entity that has gained increased attention as a cause of chronic sinusitis. Consist in a benign noninvasive sinus disease related to a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens. It should be suspected in any atopic patient with refractory nasal polyps. Computed tomography (CT) findings are characteristics, but not diagnostic. Diagnosis requires show allergic mucin in the histopathologic examination and hiphae in special fungal stains. The suitable treatment includes the allergic mucin removal and sinus aeration accomplished endoscopically, perioperative systemic steroids and immunotherapy with fungal antigens. We present a case of this kind of chronic sinusitis describing the characteristic histopathologic and radiologic findings, the pathogenic theories and recent advances in immunotherapy.

  8. Medications for Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Rachel E; Ishman, Stacey; Lee, Stella; Lin, Sandra; Shin, Jennifer J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Adherence to the allergic rhinitis clinical practice guideline is being considered as a potential focus for national performance metrics. To help inform this discussion, we assessed patient- and clinician-reported medication administration among nationally representative populations of patients with allergic rhinitis. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses. Setting and Subjects Home health assessments, ambulatory visits. Methods Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey / National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were assessed. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients reporting receipt of antihistamines and/or nasal steroids among those with allergy-related symptoms and the percentage for whom a clinician administered these medications when diagnosing allergic rhinitis. Secondary outcomes included assessments of those with worse quality of life, confirmatory allergy testing, and leukotriene receptor antagonist use. Results Within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, an estimated 29.2 million patients were diagnosed with "hay fever," while 92.2 million were diagnosed with "allergies." Patients with symptoms of allergic rhinitis reported that antihistamines or nasal steroids were prescribed in 21.1% to 24.0% of cases. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were given to 1.7% of those without asthma or use of other allergy medications. Within the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey / National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, observations representing 149.5 million visits for allergic rhinitis demonstrated that nasal steroids were administered in 29.6% of cases, while nonsedating and sedating antihistamines were given in 22.4% and 17.2%, respectively. Conclusions Despite a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, per patient report and clinician entry, a substantial number of affected patients do not receive antihistamines and nasal steroids.

  9. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    match, the right substance being suspected, but investigations showed an additional allergen or several substances, including the right substance being suspected. CONCLUSIONS: An informed guess is not a reliable way of determining the cause of a supposed allergic reaction during anaesthesia and may put...... a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  11. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  13. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28 days to go away, even with treatment. Nickel, perfumes, dyes, rubber (latex) products and cosmetics also ... or swollen skin, you may have a skin allergy. • Urticaria (hives) are red, itchy, raised areas of ...

  14. Premature hair graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-04-01

    Hair pigmentation and graying are important topics for the understanding of the physiology of aging; the differentiation of stem cells; and the mechanisms underlying disease processes such as progeroid syndromes, vitiligo, and hypothyroidism. Although hair graying, or canities, is a common process occurring in people as they age, an unknown percentage of individuals experience premature graying from familial inheritance or pathologic conditions. We review the physiology of hair pigmentation and the mechanism underlying physiologic graying, and we explore the etiology of pathologic causes of premature graying, pathologies associated with premature graying, and the limited available treatment options for hair graying.

  15. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  16. Allergic rhinitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is also associated with co-morbidities such as sinusitis, otitis media ... nose, chronic infective sinusitis and nasal polyps may mimic the signs .... fungal spores. Gauteng. Add: tree pollen (cypress). Farming areas. Add: Zea mays, horse, Blomia tropicalis. Table ii. Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  17. Healthy hair: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  18. Diffuse heterochromia of scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W S; Lee, I W; Ahn, S K

    1996-11-01

    Heterochromia of hair is the presence of more than one distinct color of hair in the same person. A color difference between scalp hair and a mustache or sideburns is not uncommon. Pubic and axillary hair and eyebrows and eyelashes are often darker than scalp hair in a fair-haired person. Rarely, a circumscribed patch of hair of different colors occurs. However, diffuse heterochromia of black and red scalp hair has not been previously reported. We describe a father and son with this condition.

  19. Influence of Th2 cells on hair cycle/growth after repeated cutaneous application of hapten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, K; Nomura, T; Ikenouchi-Sugita, A; Ito, T; Nakamura, M; Miyachi, Y; Tokura, Y; Kabashima, K

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to contact allergens in order to produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) seems to induce hair cycle/growth, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated this mechanism and found that repeated application of hapten induced production of interleukin (IL)-4 in lymph-node immune cells. In addition, hair growth was induced in mice after the adoptive transfer of T-helper (Th)2 cells that had been purified from mice exposed to repeated cutaneous application of hapten. These findings lead us to speculate that Th2 cells that are repeatedly hapten-sensitized are recruited to hapten-challenged skin areas, and thus stimulate the production of IL-4 in the vicinity of the hair follicles, which influences hair cycle/growth. Our results may provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of contact hypersensitivity-induced hair cycle/growth. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Studies of some Heavy Metals Profile in Hair, Nail and Plasma Samples of Normal and Allergy Patients of Sargodha Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, I.H.; Mehmood, M.H.; Naqvi, S.A.R.; Sarwar, M.J.; Latif, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Various metal concentrations in hairs, nails and blood plasma of allergic and non-allergic (as a control) patients were assessed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Remarkable changes were observed in concentration of Co, Ni, Mn and Cr while almost same concentration of Cu, Cd and Zn were observed in all patients and control subjects. While in blood plasma increase in concentration of Zn was observed in all patients in contrast to Cu that have increased in male while remain unchanged in females. The concentration profile of heavy metals in different parts of the body showed key impact on allergy disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the concentration of some trace metals in allergic subjects and healthy controls. The study was taken using three body parts, nail, hairs and blood, of 18 allergic females and 15 non smoker allergic male patients were investigated by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Decrease in concentration of Co, Ni and Mn were observed while that of Cr was increased and almost change were seen in the concentration of Cu, Cd and, Zn. All allergic subjects are compared to their respective controls. While the concentration of Co, Ni and Mn was decreased and the concentration of Cr was increased in both male and female allergic subjects as compare to their respective controls. In case of plasma the concentration of Zn was increased in both male and female allergic subjects. But the concentration of Cu was increased in male allergic subjects and in female allergic subjects its concentration remained almost same as for controls. The concentration of Cr and Cd remains the same in both male and female allergic subjects. While the concentration of Mn, Ni and Co was decreased in both male and female allergic subjects. (author)

  1. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  3. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich

  4. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mordants help in binding of dyes to fabric by forming a chemical bridge from dye to fiber thus improving the staining ability of a dye with increasing its fastness properties (Padma, 2000). Some of these mordants are chemical agents which are not eco-friendly therefore it is important to use natural dyes with eco-friendly ...

  5. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  6. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  7. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Anil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an immunologic disorder that develops in individuals who have produced allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental exposures (most commonly to pollens, animal dander, insect debris, and molds. For patients with a severe allergy that is not responsive to environmental controls and pharmacotherapy or for those who do not wish to use medication for a lifetime, immunotherapy may be offered. Specific immunotherapy as practiced since hundred years in Western Europe and the USA. Different routes for specific immunotherapy have been evaluated, such as the subcutaneous, sublingual, oral, nasal, bronchial, and intra-lymphatic, the first 2 of these routes being the most commonly used today in clinical practice. In this article, subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis is reviewed.

  10. Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Anil; Koray Harmanci

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunologic disorder that develops in individuals who have produced allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental exposures (most commonly to pollens, animal dander, insect debris, and molds). For patients with a severe allergy that is not responsive to environmental controls and pharmacotherapy or for those who do not wish to use medication for a lifetime, immunotherapy may be offered. Specific immunotherapy as practiced since hundred years in Wester...

  11. Diagnosing Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis K; Scadding, Guy W

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common immunologic disease in industrialized societies and has a significant impact on quality of life. Most asthmatics also have rhinitis. AR may present with comorbidities, including chronic otitis media with effusion, cough, and pollen-food cross-reactivity. AR may occur in isolation or be part of a mixed rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bruxism in allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M B

    1980-01-01

    A study of bruxism (tooth grinding) was conducted at the University of Miami School of Medicine, at Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, and at the Sleep Disorders Center, Mount Sinai MEdical Center, Miami Beach, Florida. A threefold incidence of this pernicious oral habit in allergic children was disclosed as compared to nonallergic children. Dental literature stresses psychogenic factors, occlusal maladjustments, systemic conditions, and occupational pursuits which do not pertain to most children. Allergy is rarely considered. Nocturnal bruxism may be initiated reflexly by increased negative pressures in the tympanic cavities from intermittent allergic edema of the mucosa of the Eustachian tubes. Embryologic, anatomic, and neurological relationships between the muscles of the eardrum, Eustachian tubes, and jaws have a primordial, common ancestry. Chronic middle ear disturbances may promote reflex action to the jaws by stimulating the trigeminal nuclei in the brain. Sleep studies at Mount Sinai Medical Center on allergic, bruxing children have produced some interesting but incomplete results. We are attempting to develop sophisticated devices for monitoring abnormal tubal function which may be the crux of the bruxism problem.

  13. Food-induced Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasan Bemanian; Saba Arshi; Mohammad Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis ...

  14. Computer-Generated Photorealistic Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Alice J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for generating and rendering photorealistic hair in two dimensional pictures. The method consists of three major steps. Simulating an artist drawing is used to design the rough hair shape. A convolution based filter is then used to generate photorealistic hair patches. A refine procedure is finally used to blend the boundaries of the patches with surrounding areas. This method can be used to create all types of photorealistic human hair (head hair, faci...

  15. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  16. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  17. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  18. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  19. [Allergic rhinitis and food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Brazowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Atopic diseases are a serious problem of current medicine due to epidemiological range. It also concerns allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Associations between allergic rhinitis and food allergy is still a developing subject and literature concerning its relationship is not to numerous. A short literature review of studies and reviews concerning the above subject was performed. Differences of epidemiological data concerning the association between allergic rhinitis and food allergy were presented and pathophysiology of this correlation is not precisely known. Nevertheless conclusion can be made that in cases of allergic rhinitis with diagnostic difficulties, food allergens can be taken into consideration as possible etiologic factors. Problem of correlation between allergic rhinitis and food allergy is an open subject and there is a need for further studies.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  1. Adverse drug reaction, patent blue V dye and anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Swagata; Nair, Priya V

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patent blue vital (PBV) dye is used for varied perioperative indications, and has a potential for causing life-threatening allergic reactions. In this retrospective case series study, at a tertiary level neurosciences centre, we analysed the nature, management and outcome of adverse drug reaction to the preoperative use of PBV for marking vertebral level prior to back surgeries. Methods: Patients were identified from the theatre and radiology database. Data were collected ...

  2. Allergic Fungal Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, E M; Woolnough, K; Pashley, C H; Wardlaw, A J

    Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels. In contrast, thermotolerant species, which include fungi from the Candida, Aspergillus, and Penicillium genera, can cause a persistent allergenic stimulus independent of their airborne concentrations. Moreover, their ability to germinate in the airways provides a more diverse allergenic stimulus, and may result in noninvasive infection, which enhances inflammation. The close association between IgE sensitization to thermotolerant filamentous fungi and fixed airflow obstruction, bronchiectasis, and lung fibrosis suggests a much more tissue-damaging process than that seen with aeroallergens. This review provides an overview of fungal allergens and the patterns of clinical disease associated with exposure. It clarifies the various terminologies associated with fungal allergy in asthma and makes the case for a new term (allergic fungal airway disease) to include all people with asthma at risk of developing lung damage as a result of their fungal allergy. Lastly, it discusses the management of fungirelated asthma.

  3. [Allergic reactions during anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, F; Sierra, P

    1996-01-01

    Anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia is a constant source of concern for anesthesiologists, given that the rates of death and serious complications are high and predicting which patients will be susceptible is impossible. All substances used in the perioperative period carry a certain risk of releasing histamine and triggering an allergic reaction, though muscle relaxants are the drugs usually implicated. The incidence of serious anaphylaxis ranges between 1:4,000 and 1:23,000 anesthetic procedures, with mortality set at 3-9% and morbidity 10 times higher. Clinical signs vary from mild symptoms to anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest. The diagnostic procedure to follow upon observing an allergic reaction is to first identify the responsible mechanism and later the responsible agent, as well as drugs that can be used safely. Prophylaxis is based mainly on recognizing predisposed patients before surgery and following recommendations and pharmacological protocols based on better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause anaphylactic reaction and on experience in managing them.

  4. Smokers? hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and meas...

  5. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness) is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category) wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and ...

  6. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  7. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  8. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Rhodamine B diffusion in hair as a probe for structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Silva, A L; Joekes, I

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the diffusion of Rhodamine B into bleached, photo bleached and abraded hair, treated or not with an emulsion of ceramide using two different techniques: spectrophotometry and fluorescence optical microscopy with image analysis. This comparison, combined with the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation, allowed validating a methodology that uses the apparent diffusion coefficient of a dye as an index for hair damage. Distinct behaviors of the dye were observed in the cuticle and in the cortex. For a bleached hair sample the apparent diffusion coefficient in the cuticle ranges from 8.2 x 10(-11) cm2 s(-1) to 10 x 10(-11)cm2 s(-1), while for the cortex this value drops to 4.0 x 10(-11) cm2 s(-1) to 4.2 x 10(-11) cm2 s(-1). The diffusion is always faster in the cuticle than in the cortex and the apparent diffusion coefficient shows up to a seven-fold decrease when the dye penetrates the cortex. The chemical, photochemical and physical treatments applied to hair significantly change the values of the apparent diffusion coefficients in the cuticle. The data also proved that the penetration of Rhodamine B into hair occurs via an intercellular path.

  10. Accumulation of explosives in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Shinde, Kajal P; Marimganti, Suvarna

    2005-07-01

    The sorption of explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, EGDN) to hair during exposure to their vapors is examined. Three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Following exposure of hair, the sorbed explosive was removed by extraction with acetonitrile and quantified. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: EGDN > TATP >TNT > PETN > RDX. In some cases, the explosive-containing hair was subject to repeated washings with sodium dodecylsulfate or simply left out in an open area to determine the persistence of the explosive contamination. While explosive is removed from hair with time or washing, some persists. These results indicate that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling.

  11. Optimization of biomimetic hair sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating

  12. Review: Paraphenylene Diamine (Hair Dye) Poisoning in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angio-edema of the upper airway, often requiring tracheostomy, accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue. PPD intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI), flaccid paralysis, severe ...

  13. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  14. The Growth of Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  15. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  16. Segmented heterochromia in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo

    2003-12-01

    Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.

  17. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  18. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  19. Allergic reactions during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J H

    1988-01-01

    Any drug or blood product administered in the perioperative period has the potential to produce a life-threatening allergic (immune reaction) called anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic reactions represent adverse reactions mediated by immunospecific antibodies (IgE and IgG) that interact with mast cells, basophils, or the complement system to liberate vasoactive mediators and recruit other inflammatory cells. Activation of humoral and cellular pathways produces characteristic responses in the respiratory (bronchospasm and upper airway edema), cardiovascular (vasodilation and increased capillary permeability), and cutaneous systems (wheal and flare). Other predictable adverse drug reactions may mimic anaphylaxis to produce similar physiologic consequences independent of allergy (immune responses). Rapid and timely cardiopulmonary intervention with airway maintenance, epinephrine, and volume expansion is essential to avoid an adverse outcome. Severe reactions may be protracted, especially during anesthesia, requiring even larger doses of catecholamines and intensive care observation.

  20. Food-induced Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Bemanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis is not clearly identified, in a very small percentage of patients, rhinitis is the clinical manifestation of food allergy.

  1. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  2. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  3. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  4. Guidelines for pubic hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmyo, Lia Mayumi; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2006-01-01

    Although the loss of pubic hair is a relatively frequent condition, there have been few reports about pubic hair restoration. This report aims to describe the demarcation and technical guidelines for pubic hair restoration using follicular micrografts. Demarcation is described and based on anatomic parameters such as the level of the greater trochanters and the labium majus. The angle of micrograft insertion and direction also are described. The use of micrografts for pubic hair restoration is a procedure that promotes very natural results. The described parameters of demarcation and technical details are important issues that should be considered to obtain a natural result in pubic hair restoration.

  5. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing difficulty. These episodes, sometimes referred to as asthma attacks, are triggered by irritation of the inflamed airways. ... tobacco smoke, in people with allergic asthma . An asthma attack is characterized by tightening of the muscles around ...

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective...

  8. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  9. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  10. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in skin, people couldn't feel warmth, cold, or other sensations. For instance, goosebumps form when the erector pili muscles contract to make hairs on the skin stand up straight when someone is cold, excited, or frightened — the blood vessels keep the ...

  11. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  12. [Non-allergic chronic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    To review the existent literature regarding non-allergic rhinitis. PubMed search was performed using the key words: non-allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, irritant rhinitis, idiopathic rhinitis, chronic rhinopathy, nociceptive dysfunction, capsaicin, entopy. Articles were selected based on their relevance to this review. Chronic rhinitis affects up to 20% of the general population. The term rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosal membrane) is used in daily practice for nasal dysfunction causing symptoms like nasal itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and or nasal blockage. When allergy, mechanical obstruction, and infections have been excluded as the cause of rhinitis, a number of poorly defined nasal conditions of partly unknown etiology and pathophysiology remain. The differential diagnosis of non-allergic noninfectious rhinitis is extensive. If the pathophysiology is unknown, the term idiopathic rhinitis is used as well as vasomotor rhinitis. This term has been recently questioned and the term non-allergic rhinopathy has been proposed with the subsequent definition and inclusion criteria delineated; other forms include irritative-toxic (occupational) rhinitis, hormonal rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome, rhinitis due to physical and chemical factors, food-induced rhinitis, emotion-induced rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis. The number of patients with non-allergic, non-infectious rhinitis as a known cause or precipitant factor has increased in the last years. Nevertheless, 50% of the patients have to be classified as non-allergic rhinitis, known today as non-allergic rhinopathy. It's important for this group of patients to be evaluated by an expert in Rhinology and Allergy to determine the best possible treatment.

  13. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation.

  14. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  15. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Kaur, Harsimran

    2016-01-01

    Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS), “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS) and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS. PMID:29376948

  18. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunaloke Chakrabarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS, “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  19. Remission of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and sensitization are considered chronic conditions. However, few studies have reported remission rates in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the incidence of remission of AR during an 8-year period. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15......- to 69-year-old patients in 1990 were invited to a follow-up in 1998. Questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and serum for specific IgE (s-IgE) analyses were collected at both visits in 734 subjects (69% of those invited). Pollen AR was defined as rhinitis symptoms on pollen exposure within the last 12...... months and s-IgE levels of class 2 or greater against pollen (birch, grass, or mugwort). This was similar for AR to animals (cat or dog) or house dust mites (HDMs). Remission of AR was defined as AR at baseline but no rhinitis symptoms at follow-up and sensitization (s-IgE level class > or =2 at baseline...

  20. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  1. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    showed that element adsorption or desorption occurs due to the dye. Analysis of hair samples collected from different regions of the head presented significant differences for the elements Fe, Sc, Se and Cr, indicating the importance of defining head regions for hair sample collection. Results of hair analysis from individuals residing in Sao Paulo metropolitan area showed individual differences for age, gender and natural hair color. Results obtained in this population also showed, that the mean element concentrations found are within the literature values. (author)

  2. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs...

  3. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... with growth factors as well as fibronectin and interstitial collagens, and can associate in a transmembrane relationship with the cellular cytoskeleton. It is strongly expressed in mesenchymal cells coincident with stromal-epithelial interactions during tissue morphogenesis. Proteoglycans are present in all...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...

  4. The changes in hair growth pattern after autologous hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Kim, D W; Jun, J B; Lee, S J; Kim, J C; Kim, N H

    1999-08-01

    Recently donor dominance has been emphasized in autologous hair transplantation while the influence of the recipient site has been considered negligible. In fact, there have been few studies that show this. This study was performed to examine the influence of the recipient site on transplanted hairs. A clinical study of 19 leprosy patients was performed. These patients had received single hair transplantation due to madarosis and were admitted to The Leprosy Mission, Jesus Hospital, Taegu, Korea, or had visited its outpatient clinic. In this study, the rate of growth, thickness of shaft, and graying rate between the transplanted eyebrow hair in the recipient site and scalp hair near the donor site were compared to observe the changes in the growth pattern of the hairs after transplantation. For most of the patients, the growth rate and graying rate of transplanted hairs were lower than those of hairs in the donor site. It seems that the recipient site may have an influence on the transplanted hairs. Further studies are needed, including clinical, histopathologic, and molecular biological methods.

  5. Supporting cells eliminate dying sensory hair cells to maintain epithelial integrity in the avian inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jonathan E; Daudet, Nicolas; Warchol, Mark E; Gale, Jonathan E

    2010-09-15

    Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed β-actin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study how sensory epithelia responded during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell trauma. We found that glial-like supporting cells used two independent mechanisms to rapidly eliminate dying hair cells. Supporting cells assembled an actin cable at the luminal surface that extended around the pericuticular junction and constricted to excise the stereocilia bundle and cuticular plate from the hair cell soma. Hair bundle excision could occur within 3 min of actin-cable formation. After bundle excision, typically with a delay of up to 2-3 h, supporting cells engulfed and phagocytosed the remaining bundle-less hair cell. Dual-channel recordings with β-actin-EGFP and vital dyes revealed phagocytosis was concurrent with loss of hair cell integrity. We conclude that supporting cells repaired the epithelial barrier before hair cell plasmalemmal integrity was lost and that supporting cell activity was closely linked to hair cell death. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 did not prevent bundle excision but prolonged phagocytic engulfment and resulted in hair cell corpses accumulating within the epithelium. Our data show that supporting cells not only maintain epithelial integrity during trauma but suggest they may also be an integral part of the hair cell death process itself.

  6. Oxazine laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  7. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sulfonated oils, which possess better metal bind- ing capacity than the natural oils due to the presence of sulfonic acid group, bind to metal ions forming a complex with the dye to give superior fastness and hue. Limitations of Natural Dyes. Tedious extraction of colouring component from the raw mate- rial, low colour ...

  8. for aqueous dye lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Keywords. Temperature-dependent fluorescence; Rhodamine B; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; dye laser. PACS Nos 36.20.kd; 83.60.pq; 87.64.kv. 1. Introduction. Rhodamine B (RhB) is an efficient and photostable laser dye ...

  9. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  10. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on hu...

  12. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  13. Nutrition and the allergic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, L K

    1984-05-01

    Nutritional management of the allergic athlete centers around providing a diet adequate to meet the increased needs of the athlete at the same time that it is modified by the exclusion of any problematic foods. The athlete has an increased need for water, total energy, carbohydrate, B vitamins, and perhaps protein, the last two of which are usually met when the diet fulfills the energy requirements of the athlete. Requirements for electrolytes are minimally increased, and the need for additional iron is unclear in light of "sports anemia." There is no evidence to support the use of vitamins C and E as ergogenic aids; however, the findings relating vitamin C to bronchospasm and bronchial hyperreactivity are interesting. Caffeine and bee pollen, often believed to increase performance, may be harmful for the allergic athlete. An approach for determining the problematic foods for the allergic athlete and necessary supplementation when they are avoided is given.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: keratoderma with woolly hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Keratoderma with woolly hair Keratoderma with woolly hair Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of related conditions that affect ...

  15. studies on hair growth, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life on women with breast cancer under antineoplastic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of hair growth rates, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life under antineoplastic treatment. Participants in this prospective study were 34 women, suffering from breast cancer, receiving either chemotherapy (n = 17) or tamoxifen (n = 17). The following methods were used: TrichoScan for the evaluation of hair density, anagen and telogen hair rates, optical coherence tomography for the determina...

  16. Hair follicle stem cells and intrafollicular homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Alp Can

    2014-01-01

    A hair follicle is the primary unit that produces a single outgrowing visible hair shaft. All hair follicles have a regeneration cycle consisting growth, destruction and resting phase, all of which are controlled by several intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. All hair forming cell populations arise from hair follicle stem cells that are located in bulge and hair germ. Epithelial progenitors themselves surround a core cluster of mesenchymal cells, the dermal papilla, which is thought to provid...

  17. The allergic march | Weinberg | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The allergic march is sometimes referred to as the 'atopic march'. The former term is preferred as it is easier to understand by parents and patients when used during consultations in allergy practice. The common atopic conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema are allergic conditions that occur in families and ...

  18. Allergic Conjunctivitis | Vally | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a condition characterized by conjunctival inflammation caused by airborne allergens. The symptoms include: itching, excessive lacrimation, discharge, and conjunctival hyperaemia (pink eye). The disease usually affects young adults and is associated with other allergic conditions like allergic rhinitis, ...

  19. Smokers' hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Shahait, Awni D; Ayoub, Musa N; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-04-01

    To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  20. Smokers’ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the “PHG” group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking. PMID:23741662

  1. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  2. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  3. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  4. Professionalizing hair care in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the last two decades, Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga, witnessed an explosion of a particular kind of business, hair salons. For owners, workers, and customers alike, hair salons represent modernity and cosmopolitanism, and they thus attract a particular kind of clientele and

  5. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight ® intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight ® group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight ® group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight ® group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight ® treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  6. Arginine homeostasis in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, Harm; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic disease characterized by early and late asthmatic reactions, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Changes in L-arginine homeostasis may contribute to all these features of asthma by decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased

  7. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  8. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  9. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  10. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  11. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  12. [Indications for micrograft hair transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanna, P

    2002-05-01

    Advances in treatment of androgenetic alopecia have led to the development of novel medical or surgical therapies adapted to the severity of hair loss and balding. Follicular units or tiny micro-graft hair transplants are a fundamental technical progress. This technique leads to the simple and painless permanent restoration of hair in male and female baldness. It provides the patient with a group of 1 to 3 hairs, emerging from a single orifice. The difference between androgenic receptors of occipital areas and those of other areas explains the permanent nature of the implanted hair growth. The degree of male or female androgenetic alopecia can be determined according to Hamilton's static classification or Ludwig's Classification, or it can be measured and monitored more accurately with Bouhanna's Dynamic Multifactorial Classification. The current indications for micro-graft transplantation are

  13. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-06-16

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months.

  14. PTCA (1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) as a marker for oxidative hair treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Meier, Sylvia I; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-04-01

    Hair analysis for the assessment of alcohol or drug abstinence has become a routine procedure in forensic toxicology. Hair coloration leading to loss of incorporated xenobiotics and to false negative results has turned out to be a major problem. Currently only colored extracts provide hints of manipulations but not bleaching. A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine 1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA), a major oxidation product of melanin. PTCA was determined in natural hair samples (n = 21) after treatment with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) for 30 or 40 minutes with concentrations up to 12% for 40 minutes. In another series, 12 natural hair samples were submitted to different coloration procedures (henna, tinting, semi-permanent and permanent dyeing, bleaching) and the changes in PTCA content were determined. A significant increase in the PTCA content was found for both incubation times and increasing H 2 O 2 concentrations. Coloration with henna or tinting had no influence on PTCA levels detected, but a significant increase was observed after semi-permanent and permanent dyeing and bleaching. As PTCA concentrations in natural hair were found to be in a range of <2.1-16.4 ng/mg (8.4 ± 3.8 ng/mg, mean ± SD, n = 33), a cut-off of 20 ng/mg is recommended for the distinction between natural vs. excessively oxidized hair. In case of naturally low melanin content (light-blond or white hair), no marked increase in PTCA may occur. The present study demonstrated that PTCA is formed during oxidative treatment of melanin in hair, which can be used to detect previous hair coloration including oxidation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Plant hair dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, R V; Haegi, L A

    1992-05-04

    To survey the ill effects of plant hairs on humans in Australia, incorporating new records. Retrospective analysis of new records, in some cases confirmed and supplemented by experimental skin contacts, along with a general survey of relevant literature. Reports of accidental injuries submitted to the authors, through either medical or other sources, and to the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium of South Australia, were studied and compared with existing literature; in some cases the effects were confirmed experimentally. A general survey of plant hair dermatitis in Australia is offered. Most species included have been referred to in the scattered earlier literature, but a few plants not previously recorded as irritating are included, notably Apalochlamys spectabilis, Wisteria sinensis and Grevillea species. Attention is also called to the penetrating and irritating pod spines of Brachychiton spp. (kurrajongs and relatives) and Lagunaria patersonii (Norfolk Island hibiscus or pyramid tree), which are often planted as ornamental street trees. Generally those most likely to receive these injuries are gardeners and children.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  18. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  19. THE PRESHAVING PROTOCOL IN BODY HAIR-TO-SCALP TRANSPLANT TO IDENTIFY HAIR IN ANAGEN PHASE

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The use of body donor hair for transplanting to the bald scalp is termed body hair transplant. In recent times, robust body hair has been used as an adjunct to scalp donor hair to augment the donor hair supply. A large percentage of body hair are in telogen and, as single hair units. Aims: To devise a non invasive protocol to identify the body donor hair in anagen phase prior to extraction. Materials and Methods: Hairs are shaved flush with the skin, four days prior to ex...

  20. Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

    It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

  1. Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis. Key words: Blepharoconjunctivitis, crab louse, eyelashes, nits, pthirus ...

  2. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  3. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    additives to be assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, many years ago, (ii) because of concern regarding possible health effects of artificial colours arising since the original evaluations.Concerns includedbehavioural effects in children, allergic reactions, genotoxicity and possible carcinogenicity....... Of the 11 previously authorisedazo dyes (Red 2 G, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Brilliant Black BN, Brown FK, Brown HT and Litholrubine BK), the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for Red 2G was withdrawn because of concerns regarding genotoxicity...

  4. Body hair scores and total hair diameters in healthy women in the Kirikkale Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin

    2004-06-30

    It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.

  5. The ethnic differences of the damage of hair and integral hair lipid after ultra violet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai; Lee, Won-Soo

    2013-02-01

    Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

  6. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body. Hair pulling can be a way of dealing with ... possibly including severe stress. With alopecia areata, the body's immune system attacks the hair follicles — causing hair loss. Stress and hair loss ...

  7. Graying of the human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Imfeld, Dominik; Gräub, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life in our society depends crucially on healthy aging, a hallmark of which is the graying hair follicle. During anagen melanocyte precursors migrate to the hair bulb to form the pigmentary unit where they mature and synthesize melanin. Melanin is transferred to the hair shaft forming keratinocytes giving the hair its colour. Graying is the process in which distinct mechanisms lead to deterioration of the hair follicle melanocyte population. We briefly review the hair graying process and state that the aging hair follicle is a valid model for tissue specific aging and a promising target to test therapeutic intervention.

  8. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand Fard, Mohammad Amin; Khanjani, Narges; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Ashrafi Asgarabad, Ahad

    2017-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data. The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant ( P=0.046); and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets' skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose) were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038). These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring. In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions.

  9. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Conjunctival Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  10. [Hair micrograft technique for eyebrow reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudrap, E; Divaris, M; Bouhanna, P

    2010-06-01

    The eyebrow reconstruction should restore an eyebrow with a natural shape and with matching hair direction. We describe the micrograft hair technique for eyebrow reconstruction, using either hair from the opposite eyebrow or hair from the scalp. We illustrate our technique with three clinical cases: a traumatic eyebrow injury, a burn scar and a progressive hair loss. We insist on the advantages of this technique which is simple, "taylor-made" and which allows to choose the hair direction according to the eyebrow topography. The micrograft hair technique has many advantages in comparison with scalp strip grafting or hair-bearing island scalp flap techniques. The eyebrow reconstruction using micrograft hair technique is a simple effective technique offering a better cosmetic result than usual techniques by achieving a natural hair direction and density. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...... random stores in Copenhagen, Denmark to detect the proportion of items that may result in nickel allergy. METHODS: Inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps were purchased from 36 stores and street vendors in Copenhagen and were later tested for nickel release using the DMG test. RESULTS: The study showed...

  12. The structure of people's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  13. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  14. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  15. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets....... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  16. Patch Testing To a Textile Dye Mix by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E

    2015-01-01

    .2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. CONCLUSIONS: Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix......BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. METHODS: Two thousand four hundred ninety......-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic...

  17. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  18. Allergic Respiratory Inflammation and Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Respiratory inflammation of the adaptive and innate immune system is the focus of this review, and chronic inflammation is not limited to the respiratory tissue. The inflammatory response, which consists of phagocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes, spreads along the respiratory tract, leading to tissue damage. Mast cells and eosinophils are commonly recognized for their detrimental role in allergic reactions o...

  19. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  20. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostner, Johanna M.; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells – an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO˙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO˙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO˙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO˙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO˙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may play a

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AI...... appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. CONCLUSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  2. Prostanoids and Hair Follicles: Implications for Therapy of Hair Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Gang Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2, are a family of lipid-derived autacoids that modulate many physiological systems and pathological contexts. Prostanoids are generated by sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid, catalysed by cyclo-oxygenase, to PGH2, which is then converted to PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 and TXA2, catalysed by their specific synthases. Recent evidence suggests that prostanoids play a role in regulating hair growth. The PGF2α analogue is Food and Drug Administration-approved in the US and routinely used to enhance the growth of human eyelashes. PGE2 is reported to protect from radiation-induced hair loss in mice. Conversely, PGD2 inhibits hair growth. This paper reviews the metabolism of prostanoids and the expression pattern of prostanoid receptors in hair follicles, focussing on their different and opposing effects on hair growth and the underlying mechanisms. This has potential clinical relevance in the treatment and prevention of hair disorders.

  3. The pattern of sensitisation to inhalant allergens in omani patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamemi, Salem H; Al-Shidhani, Azza N; Al-Abri, Rashid K; Jothi, Balaji; Al-Rawas, Omar A; Al-Riyami, Bazdawi M

    2008-11-01

    Identification of relevant allergens that are prevalent in each environment which may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications in allergic diseases. This study aimed to identify the pattern of sensitisation to inhalant allergens in Omani patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. The study was carried out during three consecutive years (2004-2006) at the allergy skin test laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman. Records of patients who had undergone an allergy skin prick test with a referring diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis were reviewed. Two panels were used during the 3 years period. The frequencies of positive skin tests were analysed. 689 patients were tested, 384 for the first panel and 305 for the second panel. In the first panel, the commonest positive allergens were: house dust mites (37.8%), hay dust (35.4%), feathers (33.3%), sheep wool (26.6%), mixed threshing dust (25.8%), cat fur (24.2%), cockroach (22.7%), straw dust (22.7%), horse hair (17.4%), maize (16.1%), grasses (11.5%), cotton flock (10.7%), trees (10.4%), cow hair (7.8%), Alternaria alternata (3.6%), Aspergillus Niger (3.4%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (1.3%). In the second panel, the commonest positive allergens were also house dust mites: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (50.8%), Dermatophagoides farinae (47.9%); Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) (35.7%), Russian thistle (Salsola kali) (34.4%), cockroach (32.1%), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) (19.7%), grass mix-five standard (18.0%), wheat cultivate (14.1%), cats (13.8%), Penicillium notatum (4.3%), Alternaria tenius (3.9%), Aspergillus Niger (3.3%), feather mix (3.0%), dog (2.6%), horse hair and dander (2.6%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (1.6%). The pattern of sensitisation to environmental allergens in Oman seems to be similar to other reports from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods to identify and characterise environment specific allergens like a pollen survey may help in the

  4. Preparation and characterization of novel super-artificial hair fiber based on biomass materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Sen; Gong, Yumei

    2017-06-01

    A novel super-artificial hair fiber basing on sodium alginate (SA) and Antarctic Krill protein (AKP) was prepared by wet spinning successfully. Such SA/AKP fiber did not only have similar crystalline structure with human hair, but also had super flame resistance and mechanical performance. It should be noted that the whole preparation process was green without any incorporation of non-toxic solution. Moreover, comparing with human hair, the SA/AKP fiber had a lot of unique groove upon the fiber surface, which contributed a lot to excellent hygroscopicity. Meanwhile, the dyeing performance could be improved notably due to incorporation of protein into the matrix. Herein, the SA/AKP fiber with superior mechanical and functional performance had practical value for application in the field of synthetic wig. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dye diffusion from microcapsules with different shell thickness into mammalian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, Huai Nyin; Wu, Xiao; Routh, Alexander F; Guy, Richard H

    2009-05-01

    Oil-in-water microcapsules with varying shell thicknesses were fabricated via a coacervation technique, whereby evaporation of volatile solvents induced the shell-forming polymer to precipitate, phase separate and migrate to the oil/water interface to form microcapsules. These microcapsules encapsulated a lipophilic dye within their cores and were applied topically onto porcine skin for 6h. Results indicated that the dye preferentially accumulated within the skin furrows and hair follicles, though the dye did not penetrate beyond the stratum corneum. A model estimates the diffusion coefficients of dye through the microcapsule shell and within the skin to be approximately 10(-18) and 10(-16)m(2)s(-1), respectively.

  6. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  7. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  8. Antinuclear antibodies in autoimmune and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Rogacka, Natalia; Rogacki, Michał; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are primarily significant in the diagnosis of systemic connective tissue diseases. The relationship between their occurrence in allergic diseases is poorly documented. However, the mechanism of allergic and autoimmune diseases has a common thread. In both cases, an increased production of IgE antibodies and presence of ANA in selected disease entities is observed. Equally important is the activation of basophils secreting proinflammatory factors and affecting the differentiation of TH17 lymphocytes. Both autoimmune and allergic diseases have complex multi-pathogenesis and often occur in genetically predisposed individuals. The presence of antinuclear antibodies was confirmed in many systemic connective tissue diseases and some allergic diseases. Examples include atopic dermatitis, non-allergic asthma, and pollen allergy. Co-occurring allergic and autoimmune disorders induce further search for mechanisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of both groups of diseases.

  9. TOXICO-ALLERGIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Mel'nikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 15% of children in the world have allergic diseases (who data. The rate of allergic diseases in citizens of megapolices in Russia is 30–60%. The number of visits to the doctors increased on 18% in last 3 years. Generalized allergic reactions have leading place: anaphylactic shock and toxico-allergic dermatitis (steven johnson and lyell's syndromes. These diseases are characterized as pathology with fulminant course and frequently negative outcome. Literature data about this problem was analyzed in this article. The results of own researches in the field of urgent medical care on pre admission stage in children with generalized allergic reactions were presented.Key words: children generalized allergic reactions, urgent care.

  10. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  11. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  12. Natural Compounds as Occult Ototoxins? Ginkgo biloba Flavonoids Moderately Damage Lateral Line Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveux, Sarah; Smith, Nicole K; Roche, Anna; Blough, Bruce E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Coffin, Allison B

    2017-04-01

    Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine. Using the zebrafish lateral line, we screened a natural products library to identify potential ototoxins. We found that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, both from the Gingko biloba plant, demonstrated significant ototoxicity, killing up to 30 % of lateral line hair cells. We then examined a third Ginkgo flavonoid, isorhamnetin, and found similar levels of ototoxicity. After flavonoid treatment, surviving hair cells demonstrated reduced uptake of the vital dye FM 1-43FX, suggesting that the health of the remaining hair cells was compromised. We then asked if these flavonoids enter hair cells through the mechanotransduction channel, which is the site of entry for many known ototoxins. High extracellular calcium or the quinoline derivative E6 berbamine significantly protected hair cells from flavonoid damage, implicating the transduction channel as a site of flavonoid uptake. Since known ototoxins activate cellular stress responses, we asked if reactive oxygen species were necessary for flavonoid ototoxicity. Co-treatment with the antioxidant D-methionine significantly protected hair cells from each flavonoid, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could prevent hair cell loss. How these products affect mammalian hair cells is still an open question and will be the target of future experiments. However, this research demonstrates the potential for ototoxic damage caused by unregulated

  13. An Investigation of Hair Cortisol Concentration across Body Sites and within Hair shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher F. Sharpley; Kathleen G. Kauter; James R. Mcfarlane

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as “alive” and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair taken from forearms had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol than hair from lower legs, suggesting a localized hair cortisol response an...

  14. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  15. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Levy, Michael B; Shaw, Jeffrey L; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  16. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    OpenAIRE

    Tr?eb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people?s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today?s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of heal...

  17. Water soluble laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  18. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms...... a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  20. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can continue to produce new hair growth. Platelet-rich plasma therapy: This therapy uses your own blood. After ... FPHL is still in the experimental stages. Like platelet-rich plasma therapy, more studies are needed to know whether ...

  1. Cerebellar white matter inflammation and demyelination in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, B.; Sørensen, P. S.; Juhler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology......Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology...

  2. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  3. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  5. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-06-29

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs by using a green-fluorescent-protein-talin reporter and shown to form a dense mesh in the apex of the growing tip. The kojak gene, which encodes a protein similar to the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, is needed in the first stages of hair growth. A role for LRX1, a leucine-rich repeat extensin, in determining the morphology of the cell wall of root hairs has been established using reverse genetics. The new information can be integrated into a general and more advanced view of how these specialized plant cells grow.

  6. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  7. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...... nasal eosinophilia albeit less than children with allergic rhinitis. These findings suggest different pathology in allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis which may have important clinical implications for early pharmacological treatment of rhinitis in young children. In paper II, we utilized the nasal...

  9. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Suzana; Calderon, Moises A; Wilson, Duncan; Durham, Stephen

    2010-12-08

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 2, 2003.Allergic rhinitis is a common condition which can significantly impair quality of life. Immunotherapy by injection can significantly reduce symptoms and medication use but its use is limited by the possibility of severe systemic adverse reactions. Immunotherapy by the sublingual route is therefore of considerable interest. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in adults and children. We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register; CENTRAL (2010, Issue 3); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 14 August 2009. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of sublingual immunotherapy in adults or children. Primary outcome measures were symptom and medication scores. We also collected adverse event data. Two independent authors selected studies and assessed risk of bias. One author extracted data which was rechecked by two other authors. We used the standardised mean difference (SMD) with a random-effects model to combine data. We included a total of 60 randomised controlled trials in the review. Forty-nine were suitable for pooling in meta-analyses (2333 SLIT, 2256 placebo participants). Overall, we found a significant reduction in symptoms (SMD -0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64 to -0.34, P sublingual immunotherapy compared to placebo. None of the trials included in this review reported severe systemic reactions or anaphylaxis, and none of the systemic reactions reported required the use of adrenaline. This updated review reinforces the conclusion of the original 2003 Cochrane Review that sublingual immunotherapy is effective for allergic rhinitis and has been proven to be a safe route of administration.

  10. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Ušćumlić, Gordana S.; Valentić, Nataša V.; Marinković, Aleksandar D.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments) have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were use...

  11. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  12. [Toxic, allergic, and inflamatory edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yuko; Yoshida, Shunji

    2005-01-01

    Edema is defined as the condition in which intraluminal lymph fluid components leak into the tissues and the interstitium fluid is abnormally increased. At the site of edema, toxication, allergy or inflammation occasionally occurs. This paper will focus on local skin and mucosal edema. Toxic edema is locally caused by intake of industrial goods or medical products (pharmaceuticals). Like urticaria, allergic edema is attributed to the increased vascular permeability caused by a chemical mediator. Inflammatory edema is the state in which increased inflammatory reaction in local skin causes increases in osmotic pressure of the tissues and metabolism and then inflammatory effusion accumulate there. It includes burn and cellulites.

  13. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose PT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul T RoseHair Transplant Institute of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, hair transplant, surgical procedure

  14. Current management of allergic rhinitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Fokkens, Wytske

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, including the discovery of new inflammatory mediators, the link between asthma and allergic rhinitis ('one airway-one disease' concept) and the introduction of novel

  15. Bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and cholecystectomy: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial asthma or allergic ...

  16. Nasobronchial interaction in allergic rhinitis and asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Braunstahl (Gert-Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe key to the diagnosis lies in taking a good medical history. This rule especially applies to allergic rhinitis and asthma. Both diseases have in common that they are often underdiagnosedl and lack proper treatment. Allergic rhinitis and asthma frequently occur together. Almost 40 % of

  17. Evidence-based treatment of allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawankar, R.; Fokkens, W.

    2001-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an extremely common disease worldwide, affecting 10% to 50% of the population. An increasing prevalence of allergic rhinitis over the past decades and its frequent association with asthma have raised concerns about treating the disease appropriately. New knowledge of the

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  19. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Röder (Esther)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Europe. Besides nose symptoms such as sneezing and a blocked nose, patients also suffer from general complaints like fatigue, sleeping problems and difficulty concentrating. Allergic rhinitis can have a serious impact on

  20. Hair testing is taking root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail Audrey Ann

    2011-11-01

    An increasing number of toxicology laboratories are choosing to expand the services they offer to include hair testing in response to customer demands. Hair provides the toxicologist with many advantages over conventional matrices in that it is easy to collect, is a robust and stable matrix that does not require refrigeration, and most importantly, provides a historical profile of an individual's exposure to drugs or analytes of interest. The establishment of hair as a complementary technique in forensic toxicology is a direct result of the success of the matrix in medicolegal cases and the wide range of applications. However, before introducing hair testing, laboratories must consider what additional requirements they will need that extend beyond simply adapting methodologies already validated for blood or urine. Hair presents many challenges with respect to the lack of available quality control materials, extensive sample handling protocols and low drug concentrations requiring greater instrument sensitivity. Unfortunately, a common pitfall involves over-interpretation of the findings and must be avoided.

  1. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  2. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D J; Sloan, G M; Nichter, L S; Reinisch, J F

    1988-12-01

    We have witnessed six cases of the hair-thread tourniquet syndrome, an entity characterized by strangulation of an appendage (toes, fingers, or external genitalia) by hair or hair-like fibers in the pediatric population. All six of our cases were in infants, 12 days to 5 months of age. The offending fibers were hair in three of the four patients with toe injuries and synthetic fibers from mittens in the finger cases. All six patients were treated by immediate removal of the constricting fibers, and, in spite of the worrisome appearance of the tissue distal to the constriction, all six eventually healed without significant tissue loss. A review of the literature indicated 60 similar cases of this type reported, 24 involving toes, 14 involving fingers, and 22 involving genitals. The majority of the toe and external genitalia cases were caused by hair, whereas the majority of finger strangulations were caused by thread from mittens. At greatest risk for strangulation are the middle finger and third toe, followed by the index finger and second toe. Patients with finger or penile involvement were more likely to suffer significant complications from the injuries than those patients with toe involvement. Based on our own experience and that described in the literature, we recommend prompt removal of the offending fiber, followed by prolonged conservative management of the damaged distal tissue, in the hope of maximal tissue salvage. Increased physician awareness of this syndrome is mandatory for prevention, diagnosis, and early treatment.

  3. Human Schistosome Infection and Allergic Sensitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several field studies have reported an inverse relationship between the prevalence of helminth infections and that of allergic sensitisation/atopy. Recent studies show that immune responses induced by helminth parasites are, to an extent, comparable to allergic sensitisation. However, helminth products induce regulatory responses capable of inhibiting not only antiparasite immune responses, but also allergic sensitisation. The relative effects of this immunomodulation on the development of protective schistosome-specific responses in humans has yet to be demonstrated at population level, and the clinical significance of immunomodulation of allergic disease is still controversial. Nonetheless, similarities in immune responses against helminths and allergens pose interesting mechanistic and evolutionary questions. This paper examines the epidemiology, biology and immunology of allergic sensitisation/atopy, and schistosome infection in human populations.

  4. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-05-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  5. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  6. Trichoscopic Hair Evaluation in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zadurska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    Hair abnormalities in ectodermal dysplasia may be difficult to identify. Among 16 patients with ectodermal dysplasia trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) revealed predominance of pilosebaceous units with 1 hair (69%), abnormalities of hair shaft pigmentation (gray hair with single dark hairs, 56%), pili torti, trichothiodystrophy, trichorrhexis nodosa, and rarely, cicatricial alopecia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  8. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  9. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  10. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  11. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  12. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  13. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  14. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of each hair, which contains some of the pigment that contributes the hair's color, is missing. The ... in the RMRP gene likely result in the production of a noncoding RNA that is unstable. This ...

  15. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: 3. Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari L. Horvath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples are transferred by solubilization via digestion into a liquid phase. Small molecular solvents and molecules with hydrophobic groups appear to have higher affinity for hair. A good solvent attacks the disulfide bonds between cystine molecules and hydrates the hair shaft. Consequently, the hair becomes a jelly-like mass.

  16. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  18. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  19. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  20. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4... Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  1. Hair loss in cancer chemotherapeutic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadha V

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The hair loss in 8 cancer patients aged between 18 and 60 years on chemotherapy was studied. All had diffuce moderate alopecio within 1 month of starting treatment. Of the 8, 3 had only telogen hairs and 3 had high dystrophic hair count. Both anagen and telogen effluvium are implicated.

  2. Hair loss and hirsutism in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordinsky, Maria; Sawaya, Marty; Roberts, Janet L

    2002-02-01

    This article contains a brief review of hair follicle biology, followed by a presentation of the workup of elderly patients who present with hair loss or hirsutism. Common hair disorders, such as graying, telogen effluvium, androgenic alopecia, senescent alopecia, alopecia arcuata, hirsutism, and hypertrichosis, are discussed.

  3. Structural and molecular hair abnormalities in trichothiodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christine; Morris, Andrea; Schlücker, Sebastian; Imoto, Kyoko; Price, Vera H; Menefee, Emory; Wincovitch, Stephen M; Levin, Ira W; Tamura, Deborah; Strehle, Katrin R; Kraemer, Kenneth H; DiGiovanna, John J

    2006-10-01

    We examined hair from 15 patients with trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare inherited disorder with brittle, cystine-deficient hair. They had a wide variety of phenotypes, from brittle hair only to severe intellectual impairment and developmental delay. Polarizing light microscopic examination showed alternating light and dark (tiger tail) bands under polarizing microscopy. Confocal microscopy captured structural features of breaks in intact TTD hairs. The autofluorescent appearance was regular and smooth in normal donors and markedly irregular in sections of TTD hairs possibly reflecting abnormalities in melanin distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed numerous surface irregularities. All TTD hair samples had reduced sulfur content. We observed an inverse correlation (R(val)=0.9) between sulfur content and percent of hairs with shaft abnormalities (trichoschisis, trichorrhexis nodosa, or ribbon/twist). There was no association between clinical disease severity and percent of abnormal hairs. Raman spectra of hairs from TTD patients and normal donors revealed a larger contribution of energetically less favored disulfide conformers in TTD hairs. Our data indicate that the brittleness of the TTD hair is dependent upon abnormalities at several levels of organization. These changes make TTD hairs excessively prone to breakage and weathering.

  4. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour. Th...

  5. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma: a prospective population-based study. The Copenhagen Allergy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L; Madsen, F; Dirksen, A; Jørgensen, T

    2002-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were invited to a follow-up in 1998. A total of 734 subjects were examined on two occasions eight years apart. Allergic rhinitis to pollen was defined as a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to pollens and IgE specific to pollen. Allergic asthma to pollen was defined as a history of lower airway symptoms on exposure to pollens and IgE specific to pollen. Similarly, diagnoses of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma to animals or mite were defined. At follow-up, all subjects with allergic asthma to pollen (n = 52) had in addition allergic rhinitis to pollen. In the longitudinal analysis, there were a total of 28 new (incident) cases of allergic asthma to pollen. They all had allergic rhinitis to pollen at baseline, or had developed allergic rhinitis to pollen at follow-up. Accordingly, allergic rhinitis to animals and mite were ubiquitous in subjects with allergic asthma to animals and mite, respectively. The results support the hypothesis that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity.

  6. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm - 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  7. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  9. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that c...

  10. Allergic rhinitis and CXCR3 chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzi, V; Fallahi, P

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of allergic rhinitis involves IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. Cytokines are very important in this process. Many data suggest a systemic shift to more intensely type 1-dominated immune responses in non-allergic individuals and, conversely, to more type 2-dominated responses in allergic individuals upon natural re-exposure to grass pollen. However other studies have found that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10/ interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and CXCL9/monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) concentrations are elevated in nasal lavages from allergic patients suggesting that these chemokines may play a role in chronic allergic inflammation. Several studies have also evaluated the effect of different immune-modulating drugs in allergic rhinitis showing local and peripheral increase of IFN-γ and IP-10, associated with a reduction of symptoms. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of T helper (Th)1 chemokines in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis, and to evaluate their role as biomarkers of disease and of response to treatments.

  11. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  12. A comparative study of allergic and primary irritant contact dermatitis with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, D R; Gaafar, S M

    1975-08-01

    Attempts were made to induce allergic contact dermatitis in dogs, a species generally considered poorly responsive to experimental allergic contact dermatitis. Yound Beagles were sensitized to 2,4 dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) by multiple intradermal injections. Two weeks after sensitization, these dogs were challenged topically with 0.1% DNCB by a standard closed-patch technique. Sensitization evidenced by various degrees of reaction following challenge was established in all of 14 pups used, while 7 nonsensitized control pups did not react to challenge. Primary irritant contact dermatitis was induced in the skin of nonsensitized Beagle pups by 1%, 5%, and 10% solutions of DNCB. In allergic contact dermatitis the sites of challenge were grossly indurated, erythematous, and edematous. Histologically at these sites there was an infiltration of mononuclear cells which reached maximum intensity at 3 to 4 days. Accumulations of lymphoid cells were marked around sweat galnds and hair follicles. Penetration of leukocytes into these cutaneous adnexa was associated with degenerative processes in their cellular structures. Mononuclear cell infiltration into the epidermis was mild. Spongiosis was observed in the epidermis, but vesicle formation was rare. In primary irritant contact dermatitis gross lesions were characterized by severe erythema, edema, and gangreen of the skin. Microscopically, the main lesions were necrosis of the epidermal cells, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, dermal edema, and massive infiltration of the dermis with polymorphonuclear cells.

  13. [Examination of acute phase proteins concentrations in children with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Iwona; Sobieska, Magdalena; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of upper respiratory tract (about 15 per cent of the population in industrialized countries suffer from this condition), characterized by frequent sneezing and a runny or stuffy nose sometimes accompanied by watery eyes. As the most common allergic condition, allergic rhinitis affects people of all ages. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls. The median age of onset of the condition is 10 years old, meaning that equal numbers of children develop the condition before and after age 10. Symptoms usually appear in childhood first and then lessen by the age of 30 or 40. Seasonal allergic rhinitis usually results from tree, grass or weed pollen. With this type of rhinitis, symptoms will decrease with the arrival of cold weather. Perennial allergic rhinitis can cause year-round symptoms. This allergic reaction is the result of indoor irritants such as feathers, mold spores, animal dander (hair and skin shed by pets) or dust mites. It is often aggravated by a food allergy, the most common being an allergy to milk. Acute phase proteins (APP) belong to the most ancient part of the unspecific immunity and contribute markedly to the keeping of homeostasis. As much as 30 various proteins are for the moment regarded as APP. Being multifunctional regulators and effectors APP stay in multiple relations to practically all types of cells and molecules. Among APP following functional groups may be described: transport proteins (transferrin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin), clotting factors (fibrinogen), antiproteases (alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin), complement components (C3, C4) and several proteins of hardly known function, like C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A, acid alpha1-glycoprotein (AGP) and others. From a group of 32 children, aged from 5 to 14 years, with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and from a control group of 10 healthy children sex and age matched

  14. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeine, R; Owens, T

    1992-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate demyelinating pathology. We have used flow cytometry to directly analyse the migration to the CNS of MBP-reactive CD4+ T cells labelled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye...

  15. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  16. [Specific immunotherapy in allergic asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K-Ch

    2003-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways considered as the result of a deregulated immune response, with a pivotal role played the TH2 cytokine phenotype. The treatment of allergic asthma is based on allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, and patient education. Specific immunotherapy is able to normalize the upraised TH2 cytokine phenotype and indicated for patients who have demonstrable evidence of IgE-mediated clinically relevant sensitisation to pollens, house-dust mites and cat or dog allergens. The exposure to the allergens must be related to the appearance of symptoms. Randomised controlled trials in asthma have found that immunotherapy was effective (evidence 1a, strength of recommendation A) in reducing specific and non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, asthmatic symptoms, and medication requirements. Patient selection is important and efficacy must be balanced against the risk of side effects. Immunotherapy should be used by pneumologists with a training in allergology in patients with mild asthma.

  17. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    food companies avoid being a part of such a tragic story? The EuroPrevall project has developed a new website on the management of food allergens, www.foodallergens.info, which is aimed at the food industry. Content on the new website about food allergy: • Basal knowledge about food allergy such as how...... the commonly eaten foods such as milk, egg and hazelnut as well as the more exotic foods such as frogs. You may for example use the database to get an idea about how common a specific food allergy is. • Access to the Food Allergy Portal, which is a collection of links to more than 100 websites about food...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  18. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  19. Allergic contact stomatitis from colophony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Paul R

    2006-09-01

    Colophony is an ubiquitous contact sensitizer which may be present in dental materials, such as periodontal dressings, impression materials, cements, fix adhesives and varnishes. Exposure to a sensitizer in a hypersensitive person may initiate an allergic contact dermatitis/stomatitis. This usually occurs after direct skin/mucosa contact with the sensitizer. This paper reports the case of a colophony hypersensitive male who developed contact stomatitis after dental treatment with a colophony-containing product. Sensitizing colophony is present in Duraphat 2.26%F varnish, a fluoride varnish used all over the world. A case of hypersensitivity to Duraphat 2.26%F varnish is presented in a patient who, at the initial visit, indicated only an allergy to sticking plasters.

  20. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  1. Allergic rhinitis caused by food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, Cemal; Demirbas, Duygu; Songu, Murat

    2010-09-01

    Food allergies occur in 1-2% of adults and in 8% of children under 6 years of age. Food-induced allergies are immunological reactions that cause a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The reactions are mediated by both IgE- and non-IgE-dependent (cellular) mechanisms. Isolated food-induced allergic rhinitis is not common as it frequently occurs together with other food allergy symptoms such as asthma, eczema, oral allergic manifestations, urticaria, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The present paper provides an overview of food allergies and food-induced allergic rhinitis.

  2. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  3. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  4. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  5. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  6. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  7. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  8. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  9. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  10. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  11. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  12. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  13. Number of siblings and allergic rhinitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Soewira Sastra; Lily Irsa; Mohammad Sjabaroeddin Loebis; Rita Evalina

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Recent studies have suggested that having fewer siblings was associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic diseases in children. Previous studies also indicated that older siblings was associated with higher incidence of allergic rhinitis. Objectives To assess for a possible association between number of siblings and allergic rhinitis and to assess for an effect of birth order on allergic rhinitis in chil...

  14. Number of siblings and allergic rhinitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Soewira Sastra; Lily Irsa; Muhammad Sjabaroeddin Loebis; Rita Evalina

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Recent studies have suggested that having fewer siblings was associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic diseases in children. Previous studies also indicated that older siblings was associated with higher incidence of allergic rhinitis. Objectives To assess for a possible association between number of siblings and allergic rhinitis and to assess for an effect of birth order on allergic rhinitis in child...

  15. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  16. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet.

  17. Hair pain (trichodynia): frequency and relationship to hair loss and patient gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Barbara; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2002-01-01

    Patients complaining of hair loss frequently claim that their hair has become painful. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of this phenomenon and its relationship to hair loss. Patients seeking advice for hair loss either spontaneously reported or were questioned about painful sensations of the scalp. Hair loss activity was quantified by a hair pull, daily count and wash test. Telogen percentage was obtained by a hair pluck. The scalp surface was examined by dermatoscopy. Of 403 examined patients, 20% of women and 9% of men reported hair pain, irrespective of the cause and activity of hair loss. A minority presented scalp telangiectasia. This strongly correlated with hair pain. Hair pain (trichodynia) affects a significant proportion of patients complaining of hair loss and may increase the anxiety. The symptom neither allows discrimination of the cause nor correlates with the activity of hair loss. A higher prevalence of female patients might be connected to gender-related differences in pain perception in relation to anxiety. The role of vasoactive neuropeptides in the interaction between the central nervous system and skin reactivity is discussed. In the absence of any correlation with quantitative parameters of hair loss or specific morphologic changes of the scalp, management remains empiric and tailored to the individual. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  19. Effect of Grey Hair Evulsion on the Response to Calcium Pantothenate in Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty nine girls between 12 and 31 years in age, having Premature grey hairs were, treated with calcium pantothenate 200 mg, Basiton Forte. (a vitamin B complex formulation, and/or vitamin E 200 mg a day orally, combined with grey hair evulsion which consists of pulling out all the grey hairs along with snipping the converted hairs at the grey black junction, and checking after 3-5 months, the numbers of hairs regrowing as grey hairs, new grey hairs, new converted hairs and the hairs missed during the previous check - ups. This study revealed that following evulsion of grey hairs, all such hairs do not regrow as grey hairs, the per cent rate of regrowth varied between nil and 88.23% during the first recheck, and almost similar results were obtained during further follow up. Out of 7 patients who have been followed up for almost 3 years, the total numbers of grey hairs had decreased from 109 to 15, 47 to 1, 35 to 7, and 242 to 7 in 4 cases, increased from 31 to 108 and 23 to 41 in 2 cases, and remained almost unchanged from 25 to 33 in the seventh case. This response is considered better than the effect of calcium panthothenate used without grey hair evulsion.

  20. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  1. Strength of Occipital Hair as an Explanation for Pilonidal Sinus Disease Caused by Intruding Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Dietrich; Bosche, Friederike D; Stauffer, Verena K; Sinicina, Inga; Hoffmann, Sebastian; van der Zypen, Dominic; Luedi, Markus M

    2017-09-01

    Pilonidal sinus disease is thought to be caused by intrusion of hair into healthy skin; loose hair in the intergluteal fold is thought to promote disease. However, compelling evidence to support these postulates is lacking; the cause of pilonidal sinus disease remains uncertain. To determine whether particular properties of hair are associated with susceptibility to pilonidal sinus disease, we compared physical properties of hairs of patients with pilonidal sinus disease with hairs from control subjects who were matched for sex, BMI, and age. This was an experimental study with establishment of a mechanical strength test for single hairs to quantify the maximum vertical force that a hair could exert, following tests of strength of occipital, lumbar, and intergluteal hair. Hair from patients with pilonidal sinus disease and matched control subjects were harvested from patients of the St. Marienhospital Vechta Department of Procto-Surgery. A total of 17 adult patients with pilonidal sinus disease and 217 control subjects were included. ANOVA and intraclass and interclass variations of data gained from mechanical strength tests of occipital, lumbar, and intergluteal hair were included. Vertical hair strength was significantly greater in patients with pilonidal sinus disease. Occipital hair exhibited 20% greater, glabella sacralis 1.1 times greater, and intergluteal hair 2 times greater strength in patients with pilonidal sinus disease than in matched control subjects (all p = 0.0001). In addition, patients with pilonidal sinus disease presented with significantly more hair at the glabella sacralis and in the intergluteal fold. The study was limited by its relatively small number of patients from a specific cohort of European patients. Occipital hair exhibited considerable vertical strength. Because occipital hair exerted the greatest force and cut hair fragments were found in the pilonidal nest in large quantities, these data suggest that pilonidal sinus disease is

  2. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergi...

  3. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Sonia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders.

  4. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national

  5. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2017-04-01

    To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA, this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  6. [Allergic reaction during anesthesia: two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shinji; Futagawa, Koichi; Sugiura, Junko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Okuda, Takahiko; Koga, Yoshihisa

    2009-10-01

    We experienced two cases of serious and potentially life-threatening allergic reactions. The first patient was a 28-year-old male patient scheduled for surgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations and another patient was a 66-year-old male patient scheduled for hepatic resection. After uneventful anesthetic induction, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, air and oxygen. Both patients developed allergic reactions characterized by cardiovascular failure during anesthesia. Resuscitative treatment included rapid fluid infusion, administration of adrenaline and steroid. Both patients were successfully resuscitated without any lasting sequelae. The causative agent in one of these cases was probably a prophylactically used antibiotic, while that of the other case was a reaction to latex. Both patients showed elevated histamine and tryptase concentrations in blood samples. Recently, the incidence of allergic reactions to antibiotics and latex during anesthesia is increasing. Anesthesiologists should, therefore, be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions to all drugs and substances, especially to latex, during the perioperative period.

  7. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared with organic dyes, inorganic metal complex dyes have high thermal and chemical stability. Among these complexes, polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizers were widely used and investi- gated for their high stability and outstanding redox properties and good response to natural visible sunlight. The sensitizers an-.

  8. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: ... Author Affiliations. N Sekar1 Vishal Y Gehlot. Dyestuff Technology Department Institute of Chemical Technology (Formerly UDCT) Nathalal Parekh Marg Matunga Mumbai 400 019, India.

  9. Evaluation of the permeability of hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres to hair follicles and their hair growing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Hara, Kaori; Tsukada, Yusuke; Huang, C C; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Arakaki, Minoru; Okayasu, Hajime; Mimura, Haruko; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the process of encapsulating hair growing ingredients in the PLGA nanospheres by emulsion solvent diffusion method and investigates the feasibility of using the PLGA nanospheres as the DDS (Drug delivery System) carriers for delivering various hair growing ingredients to hair follicles. In-vitro and in-vivo tests were conducted to verify the performances of encapsulated PLGA nanospheres with three different hair growing ingredients. In the in-vitro tests, the scalp-pore permeability of hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres (dispersed in the PBS solution) was examined using human scalp biopsies in a modified Bronaugh diffusion chamber in comparison to that of the control samples containing the hair growing ingredient in the PBS solution. Furthermore, the hair growing effect of the encapsulated PLGA nanospheres was evaluated with the C3H mice in the in-vivo tests. By observing the fluorescence intensity of the ingredients, as shown in the cross-section photographs of the human scalp biopsies, it was found that the dispersion liquids containing hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres exerted a scalp-pore permeability 2.0- to 2.5-fold more marked than that of the control samples. Also, the hair growing activities were enhanced by using the encapsulated PLGA nanospheres, which transformed the hair growth cycle from the resting phase to the growing phase. As a result, the degree of hair growth was improved significantly. These results suggested that the PLGA nanosphere can be a new DDS carrier for delivering hair growing ingredients and drugs to the hair follicles.

  10. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  11. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, ...

  12. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis - Outcomes of Multimodality Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baisakhi Bakat; Subhendu Chowdhury; Amitabha Roy Chowdhury; Soumitra Ghosh; Barin Kumar Roychaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective : To evaluate the treatment outcomes of multimodality therapy for allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Study Design: Prospective Observational Study. Materials&methods : This study was carried out in the department of ENT & Head neck Surgery, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan, Kolkata from January 2010 to July 2011. During this study period of one & half years, 20 subjects having Allergic Fungal Sinusitis were selected fr...

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis ca...

  14. Study of Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is common among children and quite often represents a stage of the atopic march. Although sensitization to food and airborne allergens may appear in infancy and early childhood, symptoms of the disease are usually present after age 3. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent food and indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens involved in allergic rhinitis in children in the region of Piraeus. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic of otolaryngologic a...

  15. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  16. Dyeing and characterization of regenerated cellulose nanofibers with vat dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Shaikh, Irfan; Phan, Duy-Nam; Khan, Qamar; Khatri, Zeeshan; Lee, Hoik; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-10-15

    Recent advancement in dyeing of nanofibers has been accelerated to improve their aesthetic properties, however, achieving good color fastness remains a challenge. Therefore, we attempt to improve the color fastness properties nanofibers. Vat dyes are known for better color fastness and their application on nanofibers has not been investigated to date. Herein, we report dyeing of regenerated cellulose nanofibers (RCNF) that were produced from precursor of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation process. The resultant RCNF was dyed with two different vat dyes and the color attributes were examined under spectrophotometer which showed outstanding color build-up. Morphological of CA before and after deacetylation and before and after vat dyeing was investigated under TEM, FE-SEM and SEM respectively. The vat dyed RCNF were further characterized by FTIR and WAXD. Excellent color fastness results demonstrate that vat dyed RCNF can potentially be considered for advanced apparel applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological treatment of effluent containing textile dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Amorim, M. T. P.; Porter, R. S.; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; Ferra, M. I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Colour removal of textile dyes from effluent was evaluated using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Several commercial dyes were selected to study the effect of dye structure on colour removal. The anaerobic reactor was fed with glucose, an easily biodegradable organic matter and selected individual dyes. Results show that some of the dyes are readily reduced under anaerobic conditions even at high concentration of 700 mg/l. The average removal efficiency for acid dyes usin...

  18. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand Fard, Mohammad Amin; Khanjani, Narges; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Ashrafi Asgarabad, Ahad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data. Results: The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant ( P=0.046); and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets’ skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose) were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038). These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring. Conclusion: In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions. PMID:28589108

  19. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Farahmand fard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran.   Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data.   Results: The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant (       P=0.046; and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets’ skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038. These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring.   Conclusion: In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions.

  20. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  1. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features of body hair disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Tanus, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Dermoscopic examination of hair and scalp, also named "trichoscopy," is an essential tool in diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases. Trichoscopy is fast and noninvasive and can be used to evaluate hair disorders in all body areas. Body hair disorders are uncommon, and most publications on their dermoscopic features are limited to case reports or series. In this review we present the available information on the dermoscopic diagnosis of body hair disorders including keratosis pilaris, trichostasis spinulosa, pili multigemini, circle hairs, rolled hairs, eruptive vellus hair cyst, and ingrown hairs. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of internal wool lipids to hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Sandra; Barba, Clara; Lanzilotta, Alisa Roddick; Kelly, Rob; Parra, Jose Luís; Coderch, Luísa

    2008-11-01

    Hair lipids can contribute to physicochemical phenomena such as diffusion, cell cohesion and mechanical strength, although lipids occur at much lower levels (1-6% dry weight) than proteins (>90%).Hair lipids can be diminished by hair washing and submission to chemical treatments. Studies have shown that internal wool lipids (IWL) resemble those membranes of other keratinic tissues such as human hair or stratum corneum. In this work, the IWL, in the form of liposomes or from an emulsion system, were applied to untreated hair fibres and also treated hair fibres. The results showed that application of IWL to pretreated hair samples lead to an improvement in mechanical strength properties of the fibres when the IWL were applied structured as liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies demonstrated that the application of IWL to pretreated hair sample led to a slight increase in the crystalline material of the fibres. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy studies showed that application of IWL liposomes to damaged hair fibres lead to an improvement of the cuticle scale, demonstrating the importance of the use of a delivery vehicle with a bilayer structure similar to the one present in the hair fibre to restore the natural properties of the fibre.

  3. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, José

    2017-11-01

    We are hairy inside: beds of passive fibers anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. Such hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem which is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear- driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model which accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers toward the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter which controls nonlinear behavior. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps. J.A. acknowledges support the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF-14-1-0396.

  4. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  5. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  6. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  7. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  8. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  9. Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: Current scenario and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation has emerged as a green, passive, solar energy driven and cost effective approach for environmental cleanup when compared to physico-chemical and even other biological methods. Textile dyes and effluents are condemned as one of the worst polluters of our precious water bodies and soils. They are well known mutagenic, carcinogenic, allergic and cytotoxic agents posing threats to all life forms. Plant based treatment of textile dyes is relatively new and hitherto has remained an unexplored area of research. Use of macrophytes like Phragmites australis and Rheum rhabarbarum have shown efficient removal of Acid Orange 7 and sulfonated anthraquinones, respectively. Common garden and ornamental plants namely Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora, Zinnia angustifolia, Petunia grandiflora, Glandularia pulchella, many ferns and aquatic plants have also been advocated for their dye degradation potential. Plant tissue cultures like suspension cells of Blumea malcolmii and Nopalea cochenillifera, hairy roots of Brassica juncea and Tagetes patula and whole plants of several other species have confirmed their role in dye degradation. Plants' oxidoreductases such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, riboflavin reductase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase are known as key biodegrading enzymes which break the complex structures of dyes. Schematic metabolic pathways of degradation of different dyes and their environmental fates have also been proposed. Degradation products of dyes and their fates of metabolism have been reported to be validated by UV-vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy and several other analytical tools. Constructed wetlands and various pilots scale reactors were developed independently using the plants of P. australis, Portulaca grandiflora, G. pulchella

  10. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    OpenAIRE

    LUZIANA HOXHA; ONEIDA KYCYK; RENATA KONGOLI; ERANDA MANE

    2014-01-01

    Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102) a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatoph...

  11. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    non-dyed hair showed that element adsorption or desorption occurs due to the dye. Analysis of hair samples collected from different regions of the head presented significant differences for the elements Fe, Sc, Se and Cr, indicating the importance of defining head regions for hair sample collection. Results of hair analysis from individuals residing in Sao Paulo metropolitan area showed individual differences for age, gender and natural hair color. Results obtained in this population also showed, that the mean element concentrations found are within the literature values. (author)

  12. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation is a surgical method of hair restoration. Physician qualification : The physician performing hair transplantation should have completed post graduation training in dermatology; he should have adequate background training in dermatosurgery at a centre that provides education training in cutaneous surgery. In addition, he should obtain specific hair transplantation training or experience at the surgical table(hands on under the supervision of an appropriately trained and experienced hair transplant surgeon. In addition to the surgical technique, training should include instruction in local anesthesia and emergency resuscitation and care. Facility : Hair transplantation can be performed safely in an outpatient day case dermatosurgical facility. The day case theatre should be equipped with facilities for monitoring and handling emergencies. A plan for handling emergencies should be in place and all nursing staff should be familiar with the emergency plan. It is preferable, but not mandatory to have a standby anesthetist. Indication for hair transplantation is pattern hair loss in males and also in females. In female pattern hair loss, investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair loss such as anemia and thyroid deficiency should be carried out. Hair transplantation can also be performed in selected cases of scarring alopecia, eyebrows and eye lashes, by experienced surgeons. Preoperative counseling and informed consent :Detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and if more procedures are needed for proper results, it should be clearly mentioned. Patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, computer presentations, and personal discussions. Need for concomitant medical therapy should be emphasized. Patients should understand

  13. Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, L.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Hellings, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a common disorder, which can be defined as chronic nasal inflammation, independent of systemic IgE-mediated mechanisms. Symptoms of NAR patients mimic those of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. However, AR patients can easily be diagnosed with skin prick test or

  14. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium microdomains at presynaptic active zones of vertebrate hair cells unmasked by stochastic deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzi, Mario; Lelli, Andrea; Mammano, Fabio

    2008-08-01

    Signal transduction by auditory and vestibular hair cells involves an impressive ensemble of finely tuned control mechanisms, strictly dependent on the local intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). The study of Ca(2+) dynamics in hair cells typically combines Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators (dyes), patch clamp and optical microscopy to produce images of the patterns of fluorescence of a Ca(2+) indicator following various stimulation protocols. Here we describe a novel method that combines electrophysiological recordings, fluorescence imaging and numerical simulations to effectively deconvolve Ca(2+) signals within cytoplasmic microdomains that would otherwise remain inaccessible to direct observation. The method relies on the comparison of experimental data with virtual signals derived from a Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion model based on a realistic reconstruction of the relevant cell boundaries in three dimensions. The model comprises Ca(2+) entry at individual presynaptic active zones followed by diffusion, buffering, extrusion and release of Ca(2+). Our results indicate that changes of the hair cell [Ca(2+)](i) during synaptic transmission are primarily controlled by the Ca(2+) endogenous buffers both at short (hair cell endogenous Ca(2+) buffers and Ca(2+)-ATPases. We finally show that experimental fluorescence data collected during Ca(2+) influx are not interpreted correctly if the [Ca(2+)](i) is estimated by assuming that Ca(2+) equilibrates instantly with its reactants. In our opinion, this approach is of potentially general interest as it can be easily adapted to the study of Ca(2+) dynamics in diverse biological systems.

  16. Contact allergy to textile dyes. Clinical and experimental studies on disperse azo dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskiene, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Disperse dyes are the most common allergens among textile dyes. It is not known whether the purified dyes, impurities in the commercial dyes, or metabolites are the actual sensitisers. Moreover, it is not known whether those disperse dyes that are now present in test series are actually used in textile dyeing today. The aim of this thesis was A) to evaluate the significance of the impurities found in the commercial dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3 and their potential metabolit...

  17. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  18. HAIR Based Sensing and Actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Small single gap boss capacitance electrodes hair boss capacitance electrodes 22 Single capacitor flow sensors force trade-off between...profilometer; volume change confirmed by LEXT confocal microscopy • Non-uniform deflection and asymmetric bulging due to edge pull-in 100V 200V... capacitor < 0.3 cm3 IEDM’10, ISSCC’11, Transducers’11 Funded by DARPA HI-MEMS 31 Center for Wireless Integrated MicroSensing & Systems Galchev

  19. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...

  1. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75 ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  2. Canonical WNT signalling controls hair follicle spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlake, Thomas; Sick, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Canonical WNT signals play an important role in hair follicle development. In addition to being crucial for epidermal appendage initiation, they control the interfollicular spacing pattern and contribute to the spatial orientation and largely parallel alignment of hair follicles. However, owing to the complexity of canonical WNT signalling and its interconnections with other pathways, many details of hair follicle formation await further clarification. Here, we discuss the recently suggested reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanism of spatial hair follicle arrangement in the light of yet unpublished data and conclusions. They clearly demonstrate that the observed hair follicle clustering in dickkopf (DKK) transgenic mice cannot be explained by any trivial process caused by protein overexpression, thereby further supporting our model of hair follicle spacing. Furthermore, we suggest future experiments to challenge the RD model of spatial follicle arrangement.

  3. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  4. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  5. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.

    2007-01-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle

  6. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  7. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  9. [Prevalences of allergic diseases among synthetic chemical workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, T; Uehata, T

    1987-09-01

    We studied the prevalence of allergic diseases among synthetic chemical workers, using a cross-sectional questionnaire, to clarify the epidemiological evidence of occupational allergy due to chemicals which workers were handling and manufacturing. A file, registered in 1981, of 6,819 person, was used to calculate the prevalence during the preceding 12 months of "allergy," "asthma," and "skin disease," and to analyze the relationship between the prevalence and the exposure risks such as the work or the chemicals being manufactured. The main results were: 1) In workers who were exposed to the various chemicals, the prevalence of "allergy," "asthma," and "skin disease" were 3.2, 1.9, and 9.0%, respectively. 2) Among the workers who were engaged in the manufacturing of synthetic resins, paints, films, titania or pharmaceuticals, the prevalence of "allergy" was significantly higher than among others. The rates of "asthma" were significantly higher than others among workers in cosmetics, synthetic resins, or fertilizers. The rates of "skin disease" were significantly higher among those working with cosmetics, synthetic resins, paints, dyes, or organic solvents. The results indicate that allergy research should be concentrated on workers engaged in manufacturing the above chemicals.

  10. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  11. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Hermann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  12. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Ines; Meier, Christiane; Url, Angelika; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Doerfler, Petra

    2010-05-21

    Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  13. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Peereboom-Wynia, J.D.R.

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on hair growth. Hair plucking followed by microscopic examination has been used as a diagnostic procedure in the past two decades. Van Scott et al. ( 195 7) were first to standardize the technique of hu...

  14. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

  15. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented h...

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by a new temporary blue-black tattoo dye - sensitization to genipin from jagua (Genipa americana L.) fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Andreas J; Sigg, Rita; Scherer Hofmeier, Kathrin; Schlegel, Urs; Hauri, Urs

    2017-12-01

    Temporary tattoos made with an extract of the jagua fruit (Genipa americana L.) are becoming increasingly popular. It is claimed that it is 'dermatologically tested' and does not contain p-phenylenediamine. Extracts of jagua and gardenia fruits have been used by indigenous people in South America, as well as in traditional Chinese medicine, for centuries. Genipin is currently used for its cross-linking effect in the manufacture of polysaccharides, and is being investigated for its anti-inflammatory and other properties. To report the presence of the allergenic substance genipin in a self-administered temporary tattoo dye made from the fruit juice of jagua (Genipa americana L.). A 39-year-old female who repeatedly applied 'completely natural and 100% safe' Earth Jagua® tattoo, obtained via the internet, to her left hand developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 weeks. Analysis of the dye showed the presence of geniposide and genipin. Patch tests with the dye and with its main components, including genipin, gave strong positive reactions to the latter. There was no sensitization to other ingredients or p-amino compounds. We report an extensively evaluated case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by a temporary Earth Jagua® tattoo. The allergen identified is genipin, a substance that is increasingly used for tattoos and as a therapeutic agent in medicine. This could result in an increase in the number of allergic reactions in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Canonical WNT Signalling Controls Hair Follicle Spacing

    OpenAIRE

    Schlake, Thomas; Sick, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Canonical WNT signals play an important role in hair follicle development. In addition to being crucial for epidermal appendage initiation, they control the interfollicular spacing pattern and contribute to the spatial orientation and largely parallel alignment of hair follicles. However, owing to the complexity of canonical WNT signalling and its interconnections with other pathways, many details of hair follicle formation await further clarification. Here, we discuss the recently suggested ...

  18. Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey; Bared, Anthony; Kuka, Gorana

    2014-08-01

    Patients of different ethnicities have specific characteristics that are essential for hair transplant surgeons to understand so that aesthetic results can be achieved. In this article, the approaches of follicular unit extraction and follicular unit grafting or strip hair transplants for pattern hair loss are reviewed, along with the procedures of eyebrow and beard transplants and surgical hairline advancement/forehead reduction surgeries, within various ethnic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod

    2017-02-01

    Hair heterochromia involves the presence of two different non-artificially induced colours of hair in the same individual which can be due to either iron deficiency anaemia, genetic mutations or mosaicism. We report a six-month old male infant who presented to the Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman, in 2013 with focal scalp hair heterochromia without any detectable underlying abnormalities. The area of heterochromia was still noticeable at a one-year follow-up.

  20. Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pramod

    2017-01-01

    Hair heterochromia involves the presence of two different non-artificially induced colours of hair in the same individual which can be due to either iron deficiency anaemia, genetic mutations or mosaicism. We report a six-month old male infant who presented to the Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman, in 2013 with focal scalp hair heterochromia without any detectable underlying abnormalities. The area of heterochromia was still noticeable at a one-year follow-up.

  1. Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair heterochromia involves the presence of two different non-artificially induced colours of hair in the same individual which can be due to either iron deficiency anaemia, genetic mutations or mosaicism. We report a six-month old male infant who presented to the Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman, in 2013 with focal scalp hair heterochromia without any detectable underlying abnormalities. The area of heterochromia was still noticeable at a one-year follow-up.

  2. Nod factors alter the microtubule cytoskeleton in Medicago truncatula root hairs to allow root hair reorientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieberer, B.; Timmers, A.C.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is an important part of the tip-growth machinery in legume root hairs. Here we report the effect of Nod factor (NF) on MTs in root hairs of Medicago truncatula. In tip-growing hairs, the ones that typically curl around rhizobia, NF caused a subtle shortening of the

  3. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of long hair in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In many humans, head hair can grow to a much greater length than hair elsewhere on the body. This is a "derived" form that evolved outside Africa and probably in northern Eurasia. The ancestral form, which is frizzier and much shorter, survives in sub-Saharan Africans and in other groups whose ancestors never left the tropics. This original hair form is nonetheless relatively straight and silky during infancy. Head hair thus seems to have lengthened in two stages: 1) retention of the infan...

  5. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  6. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Paul T RoseHair Transplant Institute of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relatio...

  7. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  8. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  9. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  10. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Can curcumin modulate allergic rhinitis in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, M; Muluk, N Bayar; Yigitaslan, S; Cengiz, B P; Shojaolsadati, P; Karimkhani, H; Ada, S; Berkoz, M; Cingi, C

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21-28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21-28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined. The sneezing and nasal congestion scores were higher in the azelastine and curcumin treatment groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination showed focal goblet cell metaplasia on the epithelial surface in the azelastine group. In the curcumin group, there was a decrease in goblet cell metaplasia in the epithelium, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular proliferation in the lamina propria. Curcumin is an effective treatment for experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in rats.

  12. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  13. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  15. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  16. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  17. Studies on Dyeing Performance of Novel Acid Azo Dyes and Mordent Acid Azo Dyes Based on 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Bharat C.; Patel, Hitendra M.; Desai, Dhirubhai J.; Dixit, Ritu B.

    2009-01-01

    Novel acid azo and mordent acid azo dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aminonaphthol sulphonic acids and aromatic amino acids with 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The dyeing assessments of all the dyes were evaluated on wool and silk textile fibers. The dyeing of ...

  18. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo L K

    2011-05-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis and epidemiological surveys have suggested a close connection between upper and lower airway diseases expressed as the "united airways concept". Furthermore, an association between upper and lower airway diseases also seems to exist in non-atopic individuals. Nevertheless, the nature of this association is poorly understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with nasal eosinophilia and irreversible nasal airway obstruction suggesting chronic inflammation and structural remodeling

  19. Treatment of dye house effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Ashraf, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental considerations play an increasingly important role in processing of textiles. For textile, limits on particular substances have been and are being laid down either by law or as a result of the demands of clothing manufactures. One of the most complex areas in textile processing is textile printing and dyeing. Here, virtually all dye classes are used. In some printing processes such as reactive printing, many of products used end up in the wastewater. A study of the optimisation of wastewater treatment systems and the systematic management of water and the problems of dyeing are reviewed in this article. (author)

  20. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong