WorldWideScience

Sample records for allergic hair dye

  1. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  2. Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2006-01-01

    Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of...... hair dyes in this age group. This investigation reports PPD sensitization in children with regard to cause of sensitization, clinical presentation and consequences. Clinical history and patch test results for consecutive children below 16 years of age with suspected hair dye allergic reactions and...... positive patch tests to PPD were collected over 2 years in 2 Danish dermatology clinics. 8 children aged 12-15 years were collected, and they all reacted to several hair dye ingredients. 5 of the patients were hospitalized, 1 in the intensive care unit. 6 of the patients gave a history of prior reaction to...

  3. 55 cases of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2002-01-01

    themselves, and adverse reactions to hair dye may not necessarily be recorded by the health care system, unless the reactions are especially severe. Based on this assumption, we suspected that hair dye dermatitis was occurring more frequently than reported in the literature. Consumer complaint-based data...... in the health care system. The frequency of allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye is likely to be underestimated. New methods to survey the frequency of adverse reactions should be considered....

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  5. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Dabelsteen, Sally;

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned...... due to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a...... modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph...

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the product. ...

  7. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  10. Cross-elicitation responses to 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine under hair dye use conditions in p-phenylenediamine-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemeke, B.; Pot, L. M.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Hennen, J.; Kock, M.; Goebel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The factors influencing elicitation responses in individuals allergic to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes are not well understood. Objectives Investigation of the elicitation response to the new, less-sensitizing PPD alternative 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) under simul

  11. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  12. Occupational exposure to allergens in oxidative hair dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Lunder, Tomaž; Bilban, Marjan; Zaletel, Polona

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative hair dyes are the most important hair dying products. Hairdressers are exposed to the allergens found in oxidative hair dyes during the process of applying dyes to the hair, when cutting freshly dyed hair, or as a consequence of prior contamination of the working environment. pphenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulphate are the most common ingredients in oxidative hair dyes that cause allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers. Cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine with...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYEING EFFICIENCY AND RETENTION CAPACITY OF HERBAL HAIR DYES

    OpenAIRE

    Pingle R.P; Gadge M. S; Phadatare Suvarna P; Nesari Tanuja N; Pokharkar Deepak

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, attempts were made to make a powder herbal hair dye that gives dark brown to black colour to hair, resembling natural hair colour with better dyeing effect and greater retention capacity on comparison with marketed herbal hair dye formulation. Most of the marketed herbal hair dye formulations contain para-phenylenediamine at 20-25% concentrations which is the main ingredient of commercial synthetic dyes. It is known to trigger allergic skin reactions in many peop...

  14. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk On This Page Why is ... over age 40 use some type of hair dye ( 1 ). Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent (or oxidative), semipermanent, ...

  15. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Handa; Rahul Mahajan; Dipankar De

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continen...

  16. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  17. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

  18. Erythema multiforme following application of hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankha Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with varying degrees of blistering and ulceration. Common causes of EM are herpes simplex virus infection, mycoplasma infection, drug hypersensitivity, vaccination and drug-virus interaction. EM induced by contact dermatitis is rare. Paraphenylene diamine, a common ingredient in many hair dyes, is well known to produce allergic contact dermatitis. We report a 35-year-old lady presenting with EM following severe contact dermatitis to hair dye. So far as we know, this is the first report from India describing EM following contact dermatitis.

  19. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar; Tatiana Alexandra Vogel

    2016-01-01

    Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA) and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD), a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed....

  20. Erythema Multiforme Following Application of Hair Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Sankha Koley; Jyotirindranath Sarkar; Sanjiv Choudhary; Suparna Dhara; Manoj Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with varying degrees of blistering and ulceration. Common causes of EM are herpes simplex virus infection, mycoplasma infection, drug hypersensitivity, vaccination and drug-virus interaction. EM induced by contact dermatitis is rare. Paraphenylene diamine, a common ingredient in many hair dyes, is well known to produce allergic contact dermatitis. We report a 35-year-old lady presenting with EM following severe conta...

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYEING EFFICIENCY AND RETENTION CAPACITY OF HERBAL HAIR DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingle R.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, attempts were made to make a powder herbal hair dye that gives dark brown to black colour to hair, resembling natural hair colour with better dyeing effect and greater retention capacity on comparison with marketed herbal hair dye formulation. Most of the marketed herbal hair dye formulations contain para-phenylenediamine at 20-25% concentrations which is the main ingredient of commercial synthetic dyes. It is known to trigger allergic skin reactions in many people. Ayurvedic powder hair dye devoid of any synthetic agent was prepared in present research work and evaluated for dyeing efficiency. Different combinations of powdered leaves, fruits of plants like Madayantika, Bhringraj, Amla and Nilini were evaluated as hair dyes. The polyherbal hair dye compositions containing large proportion of Nili, Mehendi and 5% Bhringraj and Amla, blended with 5% loha bhasma were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters like particle size, colour, pH, angle of repose and bulk density. Ayurvedic polyherbal powder hair dye of present investigation is semi-permanent in nature and exhibit better dyeing efficiency than marketed herbal hair dye.

  2. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  3. Hair dye contact allergy: quantitative exposure assessment of selected products and clinical cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study was to...... identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  4. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population: an interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n...... = 4000) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face...

  5. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri; Asha Puri

    2013-01-01

    P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tat...

  6. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Mrinal Gupta; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Pushpinder S Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Ind...

  7. Allergic dermatitis to hair dyes: an analysis of 597 cases in Tianjin%天津地区染发者变态反应性皮炎的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨薇; 刘全忠; 徐宏俊; 齐蔓莉; 陈玉敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morbility and epidemic characteristics of hair dye dermatitis in individuals who dyed their hair in Tianjin.Methods Questionnaires were distributed to the outpatients in the Gerneral Hospital of Tianjin Medical University,students and teachers in Tianjin Medical University,residents in the community and customers in barber shop from Aug.2007 to Mar.2008.The personal data including the methods and site of coloring hair and something correlated to hair dyes were investigated.Results A total of 597 cases with the history of coloring hair were enrolled in the study,including 485 women and 112 men,with mean age of 41 years (ranged from 16- 74years).Among 597 cases,69 cases had allergic reactions to hair dye,including 51 women and 18 men,with mean age of 44 years (ranged from 19-65 years).The median age of the first coloring hair was 40 years (ranged from 3-50 years).The comparison between the sites of coloring hair had no statistic significance (P >0.05),but there was a significant difference between black dyed hairs and col or dyed hairs (P <0.05).Conclusions People with black hair dye are prone to be allergic.%目的 通过对天津地区染发者的流行病调查,了解染发剂变态反应性皮炎的发病情况和流行病特点.方法 对在天津医科大学总医院门诊就医者、天津医科大学在校学生、居委会及美发厅染发者共597例发放问卷调查表,以了解其个人资料、染发方式、染发地点和所使用的染发剂类型等相关内容.结果 597例染发者中,女485例,男112例,平均年龄41岁(16~74岁).其中69例出现了染发剂变态反应,女51例,男18例,平均年龄44岁(19~65岁).初次染发年龄的中位数为40岁(3~74岁).将染发剂变态反应者和未变态反应者染发地点进行比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).选择黑色染发剂和选择彩色染发剂染发者变态反应情况比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 使用黑色染

  8. Paraphenylenediamine Containing Hair Dye: An Emerging Household Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Rayamane, Anand P; Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda

    2015-09-01

    Paraphenylenediamine poisoning is among one of the emerging causes of poisoning in Asian countries, because it is a constituent of hair dye formulations and is easily available in market at low cost. Hair dyes are rampantly used in Asian households compared with the western world. Locally, hair dye constituents may have allergic adverse effects, and acute systemic poisoning presents with characteristic angioedema, upper airway obstruction, rhabdomyolysis, methemoglobinemia, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. This study reports about the death of a 24-year-old Indian housewife who committed suicide by taking hair dye emulsion. She had an argument with her husband, and because of fit of rage, took a bowlful (80 mL) of hair dye emulsion kept prepared for the use by husband. She developed angioedema, cervical swelling, and rhabdomyolysis and died of acute renal failure within 24 hours. Toxicological analysis of viscera and blood revealed varying levels of paraphenylenediamine. Histopathological samples of kidney showed features of acute tubular necrosis and myoglobin casts in renal tubules. The aim of the study is to create awareness about the adverse effects of the hair dye, its poisoning outcome, and possible preventive measures. PMID:26056768

  9. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of hair dyes in this age group. With increased popularity of body art such as body piercing and tattooing, an increase in temporary henna tattoos has also occurred. Although the appeal of non-permanence exists for henna tattoos, dermatologists have begun to see numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis linked with a certain type of henna. We selected 50 patients using hair dye and henna for our study. Patch testing was done in all the patients using Indian standard series of antigens. Regarding to the side effects to hair dye and henna and itching was the commonest symptom seen in 16% patients, erythematous scaly plaques were seen in 10% patients, vesicular reactions were seen in 6% patients, angioneurotic oedema and contact urticaria was seen in 4% patients each and anaphylaxis and keloidal reaction was seen in 2% patients each.

  10. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry. PMID:27319056

  11. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  12. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  13. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use: The Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 37 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F.; Schnohr, Peter; Børge G. Nordestgaard

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We asse...

  14. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida;

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  15. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  16. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. PMID:26895479

  17. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced by...

  18. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  19. Fatal Asthma with Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Hair Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Chizu; Shimoda, Terufumi; Matsuse, Hiroto; Matsuo, Nobuko; Takao, Atsuko; Obase, Yasushi; Kohno, Shigeru; Asai, Sadahiro

    1998-01-01

    Hair dyes have been reported to cause exacerbation of asthma in hairdressers through occupational exposure. We report a 54-year-old housewife who developed a fatal asthma attack following the use of a hair dye at home. She was admitted semiconscious with multiple organ failure. Laboratory findings were indicative of rhabdomyolysis. Skin prick and interdermal tests with hair dyes were performed. Hair dyes can be nonspecific stimuli that cause an asthma attack. But in our case, we cannot deny t...

  20. Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Aparecida da França; Michelli Ferrera Dario; Victoria Brigatto Esteves; André Rolim Baby; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

    2015-01-01

    Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, an...

  1. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye

    OpenAIRE

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks’ gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity r...

  2. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment. Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33 consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet. Results: 54 Fifty-four (M: F 21:33 patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71% patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  3. Skin testing of gallic acid-based hair dye in paraphenylenediamine/paratoluenediamine-reactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunseok; Lee, Joon Ho; Kwon, Hyok Bu; An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test. PMID:26663148

  4. Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye "Super Vasmol 33" intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived.

  5. A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire surve...

  6. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  7. Severe Hair Loss of the Scalp due to a Hair Dye Containing Para phenylenediamine

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Waka; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old female showing severe hair loss approximately 90% after the use of a hair dye. These symptoms developed six days after the use of a hair dye containing PPD. A patch test showed a (++) reaction at 48 h to 1% PPD in petrolatum, whereas all metals and white petrolatum were negative. She was therefore diagnosed with contact dermatitis due to PPD, resulting in hair loss. The skin lesions gradually improved after starting treatment with the systemic corticosteroi...

  8. Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida da França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations.

  9. Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Jung; Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Wen-Yin; Mai, Fu-Der; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-07-01

    A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H 2PO 4- penetrating into the internal region of hair might initiate a renewed interest in exposure study.

  10. Hairdressers - hand eczema, hair dyes and hand protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Marie-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Hand eczema is a well-known problem in occupations that involve largely manual work, in combination with long periods of wet exposure and skin contact with chemicals. Hairdressing involves dermal exposure to a number of skin damaging substances. Hair cosmetic products such as hair dyes, permanent wave solutions and bleaches can cause contact allergy and extensive wet work can cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). In this thesis the occurrence of hand eczema was studied i...

  11. Personal use of hair dyes and temporary black tattoos in Copenhagen hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Seiler; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2010-01-01

    Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos.......Hairdressers are occupationally and personally exposed to hair dye substances and adverse reactions from the skin are well known. Currently, little is known about personal exposure to hair dye ingredients and temporary black tattoos....

  12. Severe liver injury induced by repeated use of hair dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Feng-qin; LIN Xiao-hong; YU Yan-yan; WANG Tai-ling; WANG Gui-qiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Asignificant number of drugs has been proven,or at least suggested,to cause hepatotoxicity.1-3 Liver injury due to herbal medicines,chemicals or natural toxins also occur from household,occupational,or environmental exposure.4,5 However,liver toxicity due to hair dyes now is rarely recognized.Only in 2003,Tokumoto et al6 reported a case of hair dye-induced hepatitis,which presented a comparatively mild liver lesion.Here we described a case had more severe liver injury.

  13. Repeated exposure to hair dye induces regulatory T cells in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, I M C; Dabelsteen, S; Nielsen, M M;

    2010-01-01

    We have recently shown that commercial p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dyes are potent immune activators that lead to severe contact hypersensitivity in an animal model. However, only a minority of people exposed to permanent hair dyes develops symptomatic contact hypersensitivity. This...... suggests that the majority of people exposed to hair dyes does not become sensitized or develop immunological tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of the consumer open skin allergy test as a method of prediction of contact dermatitis to hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Maya; Cottin, Martin; Cristaudo, Antonio; Lainé, Gérard; Nohynek, Gerhard; Orton, David; Toutain, Hervé; Severino, Vincenzo; Wilkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    To prevent contact dermatitis to oxidative hair colouring products, a consumer test (skin allergy test, SAT) consisting of the open application of the colourant base prior to mixing with the developer is recommended 48 hours before hair colouring. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the SAT to detect and prevent contact allergy to oxidative hair colouring products that contained a range of concentrations of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and corresponded to different shades (light, medium and dark). Test colouring products containing increasing concentrations of PPD (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%) were applied to 34 PPD-positive hair dye-allergic individuals and to 49 non-allergic control subjects. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects whereas none occurred in control PPD-negative subjects. For each subject the eliciting concentration of PPD in the SAT was compared with the PPD concentration range of the group of commercial shades reported as causing reactions by the consumer. In all PPD-positive subjects the eliciting concentrations of PPD in the SAT was within or lower than the range of PPD concentrations in the reported eliciting colourant base of commercial products. In conclusion, our results confirm the excellent predictive value of the SAT over the entire range of PPD concentrations used in oxidative hair colouring products and suggest that the test is a suitable tool for the secondary prevention of contact allergic reactions to hair colouring products. PMID:15701588

  16. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    An Goossens

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cos...

  17. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two hair dyes used in the formulation of black color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafurt-Cardona, Yaliana; Suares-Rocha, Paula; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-12-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), some hair dyes are considered mutagenic and carcinogenic in in vitro assays and exposed human populations. Epidemiological studies indicate that hairdressers occupationally exposed to hair dyes have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer. In Brazil, 26% of the adults use hair dye. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of two hair dyes, Basic Red 51 (BR51) and Basic Brown 17 (BB17), which are temporary dyes of the azo group (R-N=N-R'), used in the composition of the black hair dye. To this end, MTT and trypan blue assays (cytotoxicity), comet and micronucleus assay (genotoxicity) were applied, with HepG2 cells. For cytotoxic assessment, dyes were tested in serial dilutions, being the highest concentrations those used in the commercial formula for hair dyes. For genotoxic assessment concentrations were selected according to cell viability. Results showed that both dyes induced significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the cells, in concentrations much lower than those used in the commercial formula. Genotoxic effects could be related to the azo structure present in the composition of the dyes, which is known as mutagenic and carcinogenic. These results point to the hazard of the hair dye exposure to human health. PMID:26404083

  18. Immune responses to hair dyes containing toluene-2,5-diamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, J D; Johansen, J D; Nielsen, M M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) is the most frequently used dye in oxidative hair dyes on the Scandinavian market. However, little is known about immune responses to PTD-containing oxidative hair dyes. OBJECTIVES: To study immune responses induced by PTD-containing hair dyes in mice. METHODS......: Immune responses against two different permanent hair dye products containing 1·60% (w/w) and 0·48% (w/w) PTD within the colour gel, and various concentrations of pure PTD were studied. The local inflammatory response was measured by ear swelling and cell infiltration, and T- and B-cell infiltration and...... proliferation was determined in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: Concentration-dependent immune responses were seen to PTD both in the skin and draining lymph nodes. The hair dye containing 1·60% PTD induced strong local inflammation and caused T- and B-cell infiltration and proliferation as well as an...

  19. Angioedema-like allergic contact dermatitis related to black henna

    OpenAIRE

    Gokalp, Hilal; Kaya, Kismet

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to para-phenylendiamine (PPD) from temporary black henna tattoos and hair dyes has become an epidemic in recent years. Several cases of adverse skin reactions to PPD have been reported in the literature. Herein, we present a case of angioedema-like allergic contact dermatitis related to hair coloring with henna.

  20. Personal use of hair dye and the risk of certain subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yawei; De Sanjose, Silvia; Bracci, Paige M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Wang, Rong; Brennan, Paul; Hartge, Patricia; Boffetta, Paolo; Becker, Nikolaus; Maynadie, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Cocco, Pierluigi; Staines, Anthony; Holford, Theodore; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Benavente, Yolanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2008-01-01

    Personal use of hair dye has been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), perhaps because of small samples or a lack of detailed information on personal hair-dye use in previous studies. This study included 4,461 NHL cases and 5,799 controls from the International Lymphoma Epide

  1. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which...

  2. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall...

  3. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R;

    2014-01-01

    on the US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average...

  4. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study from The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, M.; Gago-Dominguez, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Vermeulen, S. H.; L.A. Kiemeney

    2012-01-01

    Background - Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk remains inconclusive. Objective - In this study, we examined associations between personal use of permanent and temporary hair dyes and bladder cancer risk in a populati...

  5. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study from The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Martine M.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Aben, Katja K. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Kampman, Ellen; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Lambertus A Kiemeney

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk remains inconclusive. Objective In this study, we examined associations between personal use of permanent and temporary hair dyes and bladder cancer risk in a population-b...

  6. In-vitro and in-vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Perpelitzina, Olga A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2000-11-01

    We present experimental results on in vitro and in vivo investigation of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles. It was shown that dyeing as a method of enhancement of the absorption coefficient of hair follicle tissue components can be used for selective photodestruction of hair follicle and surrounding tissues. Strength and depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined for various dyes.

  7. Dyeing Behavior of Yak Hair Fiber Treated with Microwave Low Temperature Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The scales on the surface of yak hair fiber act as barriers during the dyeing process. In order to solve the scale problem and to improve the dyeability of yak hair, yak hair fiber was treated by microwave low temperature plasma (MLTP) in this study. The weight loss and the dyeing properties of the yak hair fiber modified by MLTP were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM ) photographs were taken to observe the changes in the surface shape of yak hair fiber before and after treatment. Results showed that after MLTP treatment, the scale structure of yak hair was weakened and damaged greatly and the noticeable changes on the surface shape took place. At the same time, a significant improvement in dyeing properties of yak hair fiber was exhibited.

  8. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.; Gago-Dominguez, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye

  9. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Gago-Dominguez, M.; Aben, K.K.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Vermeulen, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye u

  10. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer : a case-control study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, Martine M.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Aben, Katja K. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Kampman, Ellen; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladd

  11. P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Crumling, Mark A.; Tong, Mingjie; Aschenbach, Krista L.; Liu, Li Qian; Pipitone, Christine M.; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-01-01

    The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable increase in intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel function. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X2. Therefore, we explore...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  13. Hair Dye Use and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T.; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Lindsay M. Morton; Colt, Joanne S.; Hein, David W.; Moore, Lee E.; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; KARAGAS, MARGARET R.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amine components in hair dyes, and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism, may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1,193 incident cases and 1,418 controls from Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person ...

  14. Personal Use of Hair Dye and the Risk of Certain Subtypes of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yawei; de Sanjose, Silvia; Paige M Bracci; Lindsay M. Morton; Wang, Rong; Brennan, Paul; Hartge, Patricia; Boffetta, Paolo; Becker, Nikolaus; Maynadie, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Cocco, Pierluigi; Staines, Anthony; Holford, Theodore; Holly, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Personal use of hair dye has been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), perhaps because of small samples or a lack of detailed information on personal hair-dye use in previous studies. This study included 4,461 NHL cases and 5,799 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium 1988–2003. Increased risk of NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4) associated with hair-dye use was observed among women who began...

  15. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Mei Lee; Yi-Shyan Chen; Chih-Chien Lin; Kuan-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone ...

  16. FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Kamin; Revelo, Natalia H.; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the un...

  17. A study of dye molecule diffusion in human hair using positron lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekara, M.N.; Ranganathaiah, C. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore (India)

    2009-11-15

    The diffusion behavior of a commercial permanent liquid hair dye in human hair has been investigated using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and gravimetric sorption method. The o-Ps lifetime parameters {tau}{sub 3} and I{sub 3} decrease rapidly during the first 60 minutes of sorption time. This is understood in terms of dye molecules filling the free volume cavities in hair. The sorption results suggest that the dye molecule diffusion is essentially a Fickian process. In the latter part of the sorption, where positron parameters remain almost constant, mass increase might be due to surface adhesion. These two stages of sorption are well separated by the positron technique. The study shows that the free volume theory and positron technique, widely used in polymer research, may expediently be used to understand hair properties, more importantly diffusion of dye molecules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all mater

  19. Personal hair dyes use and risk of glioma: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chuan; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Hui, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Use of hair dyes for glioma risk has been investigated in numerous epidemiological studies, but the evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between hair dyes use and glioma risk. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases without any limitations, covering all papers published by the end of March 8, 2013. Cohort and case-control studies reporting relative risk estimates (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidenc...

  20. Exposure of hairdressers to ortho- and meta-toluidine in hair dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Gabriella M; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Axmon, Anna; Christian H Lindh; Lind, Marie-Louise; Gustavsson, Mats; Broberg, Karin; Boman, Anders; Meding, Birgitta; Lidén, Carola; Albin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from hair dyes have recently received new attention. One of these is ortho (o)-toluidine, which is classified as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives To clarify exposure of hairdressers to potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines, including o-toluidine. Methods We measured eight potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines in the blood of 295 hairdressers, 32 users of hair dyes and 60 controls. The study was restricted to female non-smokers. Lifestyle...

  1. Trends in Use of Hair Dye: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dharmistha; Narayana, Sarala; Krishnaswamy, Bhuvana

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study was to assess the knowledge, practice, perception and adverse reactions among hair dye users. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients, their attenders and staff of SDUMC. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (28) pertaining to use of hair dyes and reactions to them was administered randomly. Statistical Analysis: The demographic data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, quantitative data expressed as perce...

  2. Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed; Ali, El-Tigani; Hussien, Rasha; Zijlstra, Eduard

    2011-11-01

    A 14-year-old female was referred to the pediatric nephrology unit with a short history of progressive angio-oedema of the face requiring tracheostomy. She ingested an unusual substance which caused swollen tongue, cervical oedema and dark coloured brown urine. These clinical features with the laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of paraphenylene diamine (PPD) poisoning. Psychological assessment confirmed that the child had severe depression. The suicide attempt was just immediately after failure in the final qualifying examination to secondary school. She did not have any family support but she used to be punished in different ways. In Sudan PPD in its pure form is available in the local market and until recently there was no restrictions for its use or trade. Adolescents are well aware of its toxic effects and it is commonly used to attempt suicide. Legislation and laws should prevent its use in different hair dye formulations and look for another substitute. Clinical management is hampered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic test; no other treatment other than supportive measures can be offered. PMID:21543462

  3. In situ detection and identification of hair dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence. PMID:25635868

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF THE TREND OF RISING IN POISONING DUE TO HAIR DYE BRAND (SUPERVASMOL 33 KESHKALA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sugunakar; Ch Appaji; Malakondai a h

    2013-01-01

    Hair dye ingestion as a means of deliberate self - harm is well reported 1 and a growing trend is observed among rural Indian population 2 but rarely encountered in children. Hair dyes are being used extensively by the general population in India , and several brands are available in the market. There are increasing reports of suic idal ingestion of hair dye from various parts of the country because of easy availability and high lethality. Human poisonin...

  5. Genetic Variations in Xenobiotic Metabolic Pathway Genes, Personal Hair Dye Use, and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yawei; Hughes, Kathryn J.; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Zhang, Yaqun; Holford, Theodore R.; Dai, Li; Bai, Yana; Han, Xuesong; Qin, Qin; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhu, Yong; Leaderer, Brian; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2009-01-01

    From 1996 to 2000, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes modifies the relation between hair dye use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. No effect modifications were found for women who started using hair dyes in 1980 or afterward. For women who started using hair dye before 1980 as compared with never users, a statistically significantly increased risk of non-Hodgkin...

  6. Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Anthraquinone Hair Dyes in Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Oliveira; Felipe Hudari; Jefferson Franco; Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a voltammetric sensor for the selective determination of Acid Green 25 (AG25) hair dye, widely used in commercial temporary hair dyes. The method is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes activated in the presence of sulfuric acid, where the anthraquinone group present as a chromophore in the dye molecule is reduced at −0.44 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a reversible process involving two electrons in Britton-Robinson (B-...

  7. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  8. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies

  9. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Heikkinen; Janne Pitkäniemi; Tytti Sarkeala; Nea Malila; Markku Koskenvuo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence...

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF THE TREND OF RISING IN POISONING DUE TO HAIR DYE BRAND (SUPERVASMOL 33 KESHKALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugunakar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye ingestion as a means of deliberate self - harm is well reported 1 and a growing trend is observed among rural Indian population 2 but rarely encountered in children. Hair dyes are being used extensively by the general population in India , and several brands are available in the market. There are increasing reports of suic idal ingestion of hair dye from various parts of the country because of easy availability and high lethality. Human poisoning due to hair dye has been reported from third world countries. Case reports on hair dye poisoning are getting published from variou s parts of India. We have conducted this study in view of the increased suicidal attempts with supervasmol 33 (Kesh Kala reported at our hospital. We report 18 cases of super vasmol 33 (keshkala poisoning admitted in M.G.M. Hospital from June 2005 to May 2006

  11. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: A mass balance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Bie, A.T.H.J.de; Toutain, H.; Bolt, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade oxidat

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods...

  13. Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Anthraquinone Hair Dyes in Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a voltammetric sensor for the selective determination of Acid Green 25 (AG25 hair dye, widely used in commercial temporary hair dyes. The method is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes activated in the presence of sulfuric acid, where the anthraquinone group present as a chromophore in the dye molecule is reduced at −0.44 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a reversible process involving two electrons in Britton-Robinson (B-R buffer solution at pH 4.0. Analytical curves were obtained using square wave voltammetry in the range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 7.0 × 10−6 mol·L−1, achieving a detection limit of 2.7 × 10−9 mol·L−1. The voltammograms recorded for the Acid Black 1 (AB1 dye showed that the azo groups of the dye were reduced on the carbon nanotube-modified electrode (CNTME, presenting a pair of redox peaks at −0.27 V and −0.24 V in the reverse scan. Under these experimental conditions, both dyes could be detected in the water sample, since the AG25 dye is reduced at −0.47 V. The presence of other hair dyes bearing other chromophore groups, such as Acid Black 1, Acid Red 33 and basic blue 99, did not interfere with the method, which showed an average recovery of 96.7 ± 3.5% (n = 5 for AG25 dye determination in the presence of all of these dyes. The method was successfully applied to tap water and wastewater samples collected from a water treatment plant.

  14. Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence Relating Personal Hair Dye Use to the Risk of Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemi...

  15. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Hawkes; John Mama; David Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the signifi...

  16. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: a mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueber-Becker, Frédérique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K; Meuling, Wim J A; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Toutain, Herve; Bolt, Hermann M

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade oxidative hair dye containing 2% [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Three separate phases of hair dyeing were monitored: (A) dye preparation/hair dyeing, (B) rinsing/shampooing/conditioning and (C) cutting/drying/styling. Ambient air and personal monitoring samples (vapours and particles), nasal and hand rinses were collected during all study phases. Urine (pre-exposure, quantitative samples for the 0-12, 12-24, 24-48 h periods after start of exposure) and blood samples (blank, 4, 8 or 24 h) were collected from all exposed subjects. Radioactivity was determined in all biological samples and study materials, tools and washing liquids, and a [14C]-mass balance was performed daily. No adverse events were noted during the study. Waste, equipment, gloves and coveralls contained 0.41+/-0.16%, dye mixing bowls 2.88+/-0.54%, hair wash 45.47+/-2.95%, hair+scalp 53.46+/-4.06% of the applied radioactivity, respectively. Plasma levels were below the limit of quantification (10 ng PPDeq/mL). Total urinary 0-48 h excretion of [14C] levels ranged from a total of dyeing. Minimal air levels at or slightly above the limit of quantification were found in a few personal air monitoring samples during the phases of hair dyeing and hair cutting, but not during the rinsing phase. Air area monitoring samples or nasal rinses contained no measurable radioactivity. Hand residues ranged from 0.006 to 0.15 microg PPDeq/cm2, and were found predominantly after the cutting/drying phase. The mean mass balance of [14C] across the six study days was 102.50+/-2.20%. Overall, the mean, total systemic exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes during a working day including 6 hair dyeing processes was

  17. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic.Methods: PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA. To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD.Results: Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm, and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was

  18. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:25458838

  19. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:27343798

  20. Determination of lead, cadmium and nickel in hennas and other hair dyes sold in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-08-01

    The concentrations of lead, nickel and cadmium in various hennas and synthetic hair dyes were determined by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS). For this purpose, 1 g of sample was digested using 4 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30%) and 8 mL of nitric acid (65%). The digests were diluted to 15 mL and the analytes were determined by HR-CS GFAAS. All determinations of Pb and Cd were performed using NH4H2PO4 as a modifier. The analytes in hair certified reference materials (CRMs) were found within the uncertainty limits of the certified values. In addition, the analyte concentrations added to hair dye were recovered between 95 and 110%. The limits of detection of the method were 48.90, 3.90 and 12.15 ng g(-1) for Pb, Cd and Ni, respectively and the characteristic concentrations were 8.70, 1.42 and 6.30 ng g(-1), respectively. Finally, the concentrations of the three analytes in various synthetic hair dyes with different brands, shades and formulae as well as in two henna varieties were determined using aqueous standards for calibration. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Ni in hair dyes were in the ranges of LOD-0.56 μg g(-1), LOD-0.011 ng g(-1) and 0.030-0.37 μg g(-1), respectively, whereas those in the two hennas were 0.60-0.93 μg g(-1), 0.033-0.065 ng g(-1) and 0.49-1.06 μg g(-1), respectively. PMID:27184940

  1. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huncharek, Michael; Kupelnick, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the methodology of observational studies that explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of bladder cancer. METHODS: Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity analy...

  2. Phototoxicity of Phenylenediamine Hair Dye Chemicals in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and Human Skin Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hongtao; Mosley-Foreman; Choi, Jaehwa; Wang, Shuguang

    2008-01-01

    Phenylenediamines (PD) are dye precursors used to manufacture hair dyes. The three PDs, 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-PD and three chlorinated PDs, 4-chloro-1,2-PD, 4-chloro-1,3- PD, and 4,5-dichloro-1,2-PD were studied for their mutagenic effect in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102, cytotoxicity in human skin keratinocyte cells, and for DNA cleavage. The results show that all six compounds are not toxic/mutagenic in TA 102 bacteria or skin cells, and do not cause DNA cleavage in ΦX 174 phage DNA. If the s...

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis in Danish children referred for patch testing - a nationwide multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard;

    2013-01-01

    -17 years, 25.1% had one or more positive patch test reactions. The associated relevance was 66.4%. The most common sensitizers were metals, fragrances, and hair dyes. The frequency of positive patch test reactions and allergic contact dermatitis was significantly higher among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic...

  4. Self-testing for contact sensitization to hair dyes--scientific considerations and clinical concerns of an industry-led screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi; Uter, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetic industry producing hair dyes has, for many years, recommended that their consumers perform 'a hair dye allergy self-test' or similar prior to hair dyeing, to identify individuals who are likely to react upon subsequent hair dyeing. This review offers important information on the...... requirements for correct validation of screening tests, and concludes that, in its present form, the hair dye self-test has severe limitations: (i) it is not a screening test but a diagnostic test; (ii) it has not been validated according to basic criteria defined by scientists; (iii) it has been evaluated in...... the wrong population group; (iv) skin reactions have been read by dermatologists and not by the targeted group (consumers and hairdressers); (v) hair dyes contain strong and extreme sensitizers that are left on the skin in high concentrations, potentially resulting in active sensitization; and (vi...

  5. Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary re...

  6. Analysis of the Results from the Patch Test to Para-Phenylenediamine in the TRUE Test in Patients with a Hair Dye Contact Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy (HDCA). However, no recent studies have been published that describe the results of reactions to patch tests using PPD and hair dyes in Korea. Objective To analyze the results of the patch tests to PPD using the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test system in patients with HDCA and to investigate patients' awareness that hair dyes contains allergens, which cause the developmen...

  7. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Hawkes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates, the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  8. 染发对大学生发汞含量的影响%The Effects of Hair Dye on Hair Mercury Content of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰继承; 范富

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of hair mercury(Hg) exposure levels by hair dye and hair Hg content,hair samples were collected randomly and detected hair Hg content of undergraduate students in the Inner Mongolia University of Nationalities.The results showed that all students'average content of hair Hg was 3.34±1.49 μg/g,4.06±1.51 μg/g of the girls and 2.46±0.90 μg/g of the boys,and the girls' level significantly higher than boys'(p0.01),but there was no significantly between sex and hair Hg content.What was more;it was significantly affect that hair dye on hair Hg content of college students(p 0.05);Compared to the last century,the hair Hg content of exposure levels significantly increased in contemporary college students,especially female students who used hair dyes or cosmetics.So it should be payed more attention important to the quality of dyes or cosmetics.%为了解当前大学生汞暴露水平及染发对发汞含量的影响,采取随机法对内蒙古民族大学在校本科生发样进行采集、测定,并对发汞含量进行了统计分析,结果表明:发汞平均含量为3.34±1.49μg/g,其中女大学生发汞平均含量为4.06±1.51μg/g,男大学生发汞平均含量为2.46±0.90μg/g,女大学生发汞平均值极显著高于男大学生(p〈0.01);性别与发汞水平间无显著差异(p〉0.05);染发对于发汞含量影响显著(p〈0.05);相比上世纪90年代,当前人群整体汞暴露水平增高,特别是女大学生,今后在染发剂、化妆品的选择上应该要更加着重质量.

  9. FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kamin

    Full Text Available Styryl (FM dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs, as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume.

  10. 染发剂的安全性及监管对策%Hair dyes' safety and their surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆弘

    2012-01-01

    分别对持久性或氧化型染发剂、半持久性染发剂和暂时性染发剂的毒性进行了分析,包括致敏性、致癌性及重金属物质的毒性;讨论了影响染发剂的安全性的其他因素,如染发剂的生产及使用时的防护措施;重点对染发剂的安全监管进行了分析,涉及我国及欧盟对染发剂监管的措施,并针对我国在染发剂监管方面存在的问题,提出了相关对策,如完善化妆品卫生规范,增加禁用物质种类,对限用物质的限量要求更加严格或进行调整,提升染发剂安全性检测的技术水平,加强对染发剂标签警示用语的管理,对使用者提出健康忠告,在使用染发剂时,要采取相应的防护措施等.%Toxicity of permanent hair dyes, semi - permanent hair dyes and botanical hair dyes, involving allergenicity,carcinogenicity and heavy metal, was introduced. Several factors concerning the safety of hair dyes,such as protection measures adopted in production and application of hair dyes, were discussed. The current safety surveillance measures adopted in China and EU were described. Proposals with respect to existing issues in surveillance of hair dye safety in China were presented, such as the perfection of hygienic standards for cosmetics, increase of varieties of materials prohibited in hair dyes, reduce use of controlled substances and materials in cosmetics, upgrading of the technological level of hair dye safety detection, enhancement of administration of labels and precautions used for cosmetic products and finally advice to consumers on safe use of hair dyes.

  11. A STUDY OF CLINICAL, PATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WHO ATTEMPTED SUICIDE BY HAIR DYE SUPERVASMOL 33 INGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Babu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : All the patient in the study consumed the hair dye available in the market with the trade name Supervasmol 33. The prevalence of Super vasmol 33 hair dye poisoning has been on a surge for the past 2 - 3 years as has been observed by the increase in number of cases being admitted into the hospitals. It was observed that the tendency of poisoning by Super vasmol 33 hair dye was more in females than in males and was more in the age group of 15 - 35 years, as with any other poisoning. METERIALS AND METHODS: Study of Clinical, pathological and biochemical findings in patients who attempted suicide by hair dye ingestion (Supervasmol 3 who were admitted in Government General Hospital/Guntur medical college, Guntur during June 2013 to March 2015 brought to emergency department and those who were admitted into the HDU, ICU and medical wards of the hospital, after the following exclusion criteria were ruled out. RESULTS: A significant statistical correlation was found to exist between development of AKI and the levels of CPK in blood, rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia. The morbidity rates were 100% for angioedema, 58% for rhabdomyolysis and 32% for acute kidney injury (AKI. Institutional mortality rate was about 8% due to refractory hemodynamic shock. CONCLUSION: As the burden of handling Supervasmol 33 hair dye poisoning cases has been recently increasing, primary care physicians, intensive care physicians and nephrologists need to be aware of its clinical manifestation and management

  12. Determination of Constituents in Hair Dyes by Reversed-phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the separation and quantitation of 1,4-phenylenediamine, 4-aminophenol, 3-aminophenol, 1,3-benzendiol and 2,6-phenylenediamine in hair dyes was developed. The separation was carried out on a μ-Bondapak C18 column with methanol-water containing 0.1% triethylamine and 0.02 mol/L NH4Ac (pH=5.20) (10:90, vol./vol.) as the mobile phase. Two real samples were analyzed.

  13. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results. PMID:27038658

  14. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki-Choon

    2011-01-01

    Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair ...

  15. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee HY; Jeong YI; Choi KC

    2011-01-01

    Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair ...

  16. Decolorization of hair dye by lignocellulosic waste materials from contaminated waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbelEnriqueNavarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic yellow 57 (BY57 was chosen as a model hair dye due to its prevalence in cosmetics wastewaters. This study proposes the use of lignocellulosic materials like spent tea leaves of peppermint (PM, chai tea (CT and chamomile (CM as raw adsorbents for the removal of BY57 from contaminated solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at room temperature to achieve the maximum adsorption capacity. Results indicate that the highest removal is achieved at pH 6 – 8, with a minimum adsorbent mass of 75 mg and in the absence of salinity, crowding agents and heavy metals. Adsorption equilibria were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm theories and reported the following trend: PM>CT>CM, reaching qmax values of 105, 80, and 38 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that diluted solution of HCl is able to desorb the up to 80% of the dye and recover the adsorbent to be used in consecutive cycles. Finally, the adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, indicating that the adsorbents have a porous and heterogeneous surface, showing pockets and protrusions that are potential adsorption sites for the dye.

  17. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. PMID:25846501

  18. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, mat

  19. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d’Ischia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized wi...

  20. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coloring/dye through my skin? Low levels of hair dye can be absorbed through the skin after application, ... am pregnant? There are very few studies of hair dye use during human pregnancy. In animal studies, at ...

  1. 染发污水处理技术探讨%Choose and Discuss the Hair Dyeing Sewage Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    开艳; 尹军; 刘伟

    2014-01-01

    Unproper treatment of hair dyeing sewage will cause greater harm to environment , so this paper has summarized the current methods of treating dyeing sewage. In addition, based on the research achievements of treating dyeing wastewater at home and abroad, it has studied the effect of biological treatment on hair dyeing sewage, and the result indicated that using biological methods can treat hair dyeing sewage with low concentrations effectively.%根据染发污水与印染废水水质相似的特点,阐述了印染发废水处理技术发展现状,同时,在综述了国内外在印染废水及染料废水处理方面所取得的研究成果的基础上,通过试验考察了染发污水对生物处理的影响,表明,利用生物方法可以处理低浓度染发污水。

  2. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future.

  3. Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

    2015-05-01

    This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm. PMID:24888375

  4. Safety Evaluation of Metal Exposure From Commonly Used Hair Dyes and Tattoo Inks in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Onyeloni, Sunday O; Bassey, Francisca I; Tesi, Godswill; Martincigh, Bice S

    2016-01-01

    In the study described in this article, the concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, aluminum, lead, nickel, zinc, cobalt, manganese, and iron) in samples of some commonly used hair dyes and tattoo inks were determined with a view to providing information on the hazards associated with the use of these products. The concentrations of metals were measured after nitric acid/perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results indicated that the tattoo ink samples contained allergenic metals such as nickel, chromium, and cobalt at concentrations above the suggested limit of 1 μg/g for greater skin protection, and the toxic metals were below their respective prescribed limits, as impurities in ingredients for use for cosmetics, in the majority of the samples. PMID:26867288

  5. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  6. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  7. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  8. Laccase-catalysed polymeric dye synthesis from plant-derived phenols for potential application in hair dyeing: Enzymatic colourations driven by homo- or hetero-polymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Park, Hyo-Keun; Kim, Young-Mo; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Wang-Gi; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2010-05-01

    Laccase efficiently catalyses polymerization of phenolic compounds. However, knowledge on applications of polymers synthesized in this manner remains scarce. Here, the potential of laccase-catalysed polymerization of natural phenols to form products useful in hair dyeing was investigated. All 15 tested phenols yielded coloured products after laccase treatment and colour diversity was attained by using mixtures of two phenolic monomers. After exploring colour differentiation pattern of 120 different reactions with statistical regression analysis, three monomer combinations, namely gallic acid and syringic acid, catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, giving rise to brown, black, and red materials, respectively, were further characterized because such colours are commercially important for grey hair dyeing. Selected polymers could strongly absorb visible light and their hydrodynamic sizes ranged from 100 to 400 nm. Analyses of enzyme kinetic constants, liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled with collision-induced dissociation MS/MS indicate that both monomers in reactions involving catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, are coloured by heteropolymer synthesis, but the gallic acid/syringic acid combination is based on homopolymer mixture formation. Comparison of colour parameters from these three reactions with those of corresponding artificial homopolymer mixtures also supported the idea that laccase may catalyse either hetero- or homo-polymer synthesis. We finally used selected materials to dye grey hair. Each material coloured hair appropriately and the dyeing showed excellent resistance to conventional shampooing. Our study indicates that laccase-catalysed polymerization of natural phenols is applicable to the development of new cosmetic pigments. PMID:21255331

  9. EVALUATION OF AN AZO AND TWO ANTHRAQUINONE DYES FOR ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two dye mixtures and the individual component dyes were evaluated for the potential to Induce contact or pulmonary hypersensitivity. hese dye mixtures were suspect because of anecdotal reports of both pulmonary and contact hypersensitivity in assembly workers, and because the com...

  10. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. PMID:26544094

  11. Severe aplastic anaemia following the use of hair dye: report of two cases and review of literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, J. E.; Manoharan, A.

    1985-01-01

    We describe two female patients aged 31 and 62 y who developed severe aplastic anaemia following the use of hair dye containing para-toluenediamine. One received a bone marrow transplant but died after developing graft versus host disease and severe opportunistic infection. The second responded to treatment with methylprednisolone, oxymetholone and antithymocyte globulin and 3 y later she has a normal blood count apart from mild thrombocytopenia. In this paper we also review previously descri...

  12. Suitability of the in vitro Caco-2 assay to predict the oral absorption of aromatic amine hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, Cindy; Manwaring, John; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola J; Rothe, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Oral absorption is a key element for safety assessments of cosmetic ingredients, including hair dye molecules. Reliable in vitro methods are needed since the European Union has banned the use of animals for the testing of cosmetic ingredients. Caco-2 cells were used to measure the intestinal permeability characteristics (Papp) of 14 aromatic amine hair dye molecules with varying chemical structures, and the data were compared with historical in vivo oral absorption rat data. The majority of the hair dyes exhibited Papp values that indicated good in vivo absorption. The moderate to high oral absorption findings, i.e. ≥60%, were confirmed in in vivo rat studies. Moreover, the compound with a very low Papp value (APB: 3-((9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-(methylamino)-1-anthracenyl)amino)-N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-1-propanaminium) was poorly absorbed in vivo as well (5% of the dose). This data set suggests that the Caco-2 cell model is a reliable in vitro tool for the determination of the intestinal absorption of aromatic amines with diverse chemical structures. When used in combination with other in vitro assays for metabolism and skin penetration, the Caco-2 model can contribute to the prediction and mechanistic interpretation of the absorption, metabolism and elimination properties of cosmetic ingredients without the use of animals. PMID:26578466

  13. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants.We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22-60 years and diagnosed in 2000-2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36 among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48. We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005. Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50.Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to

  14. [Simultaneous determination of six components in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Feiming

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six components which included 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylamine sulfate hydrate and 2,4-diaminophenol sulfate, etc. in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by water through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The separation was performed on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mmx 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) with gradient elution of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode was used for the analysis of the six components in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed good linear relationships with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for the six components were in the range of 0.26-4.6 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the six components in the spiked samples were in the range of 83.0%-92.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 5.4%-11.2%. The precision, accuracy, mean recoveries and the matrix effects satisfied the requirements of cosmetic sample measurement. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of six dyes in actual samples. This method is simple, accurate and effective for the simultaneous determination of the six components in hair dyes. PMID:25958662

  15. 非对苯二胺染发剂合成的研究进展%Progress on synthesis of non-p-phenylenediamine hair dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉红; 高海燕; 岳娟

    2012-01-01

    概述了3类非对苯二胺染发剂的作用原理、合成方法及其染发效果.其中植物色素染发剂详细介绍了散沫花色素、姜黄素、槲皮素和苏木精;苯胺类衍生物染发剂主要介绍了2,5 -二氨基苯乙醇、β-(2,4-二氨基苯氧基)-乙醇盐酸盐、N,N-双-(2-羟乙基)-对苯二胺;其他化学合成染发剂介绍了染色硅胶纳米粒子、含巯基染发剂和天然黑色素制备的染发剂.简单总结了各种合成路线的优缺点,并对染发剂的开发和应用前景进行了展望.%The dyeing mechanism, synthetic method, and dyeing effect of three kinds of non - p -phenylenediamine hair dyes were reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages described. Henna, curcumin,quercetin and hematoxylin were proposed as plant colorants for natural hair dye. 2,5 - Diamino -phenylethanol ,β -2,4 - diaminophenoxyethanol dihydrochloride, and N, N - bis ( 2 - hydroxyethyl) - p -phenylenediamine dihydrochloride were introduced as aniline derivative hair dyes. Other hair dyes, including colored silica nanoparticles, mercapto - modified dyes and natural melanin, were introduced too. Further, outlooks for the developing trends and application of hair dyes were prospected.

  16. 染发剂的安全监管与健康防护%Safety Supervision and Health Protection of Hair Dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆弘

    2011-01-01

    目的 论述常用3种染发剂的毒性,包括致敏性、致癌性及重金属物质的毒性,对我国及欧盟对染发剂监管的措施进行了分析,针对我国在染发剂监管方面的存在问题,提出了相关对策,如完善化妆品卫生规范,增加禁用物质种类,对限用物质的限量要求更加严格或进行调整;提升染发剂安全性检测的技术水平;加强对染发剂标签警示用语的管理;对使用者提出健康忠告,在使用染发剂时,要采取相应的防护措施等.%[Objective]This paper discussed the toxicity of the three hair dyes, including allergenicity, carcinogenicity and heavy metal toxicity. The surveillance of hair dyes in China and European Union was comparatively analyzed. Targeted at existed problem in hair dye supervision of China, the measures such as improving the hygienic standard for cosmetics, increasing types of prohibited substances, decreasing or adjusting the level of the limited, improving the technology of detection, managing strictly of warning lan-guage on the hair dyes products, and advice for consumers of the hair dyes, adopting corresponding protection measures in hair dye use, etc were proposed.

  17. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system. PMID:26246999

  18. Advances in mechanism of hair dye dermatitis%染发皮炎的发病机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏俊; 刘全忠

    2009-01-01

    对苯二胺是染发剂的主要功能成分,也是染发皮炎的主要致敏物质之一.研究表明,树突细胞的激活、某些细胞因子及γδT细胞等可能参与对苯二胺引起的变态反应.人类乙酰转移酶、血管紧张素转换酶、锰超氧化物歧化酶等的基因多态性也可能与染发皮炎的发生有关.对染发皮炎可能涉及的免疫因素、遗传易感性的研究进展进行概述.%Pare-phenylenediamine is the main functional component of hair dyes,and also a most potent contact allergen in hair dye dermatitis.Studies have shown that the activation of human dendritic ceils,production of some cytokines,and γδT cells are involved in P-phenylenediamine allergy.The genetic polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase,angiotensin-converting enzyme and manganese superoxide dismutase is reported to be associated with the development of hair dye dermatitis.This article gives an update on hair dye dermatitis-related immune factors and genetic susceptibilities.

  19. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  20. Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Hein, D.W.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    In the organism of mammals, important detoxification pathways of arylamines are catalysed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). A recent case-control epidemiology study suggested that human NAT2 slow acetylators exposed to oxidative hair dyes may be at greater risk to develop bladder cancer. We therefore

  1. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  2. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and Ha

  3. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  4. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  5. Low-pulse energy Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment for hair-dye-induced Riehl's melanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Hye Rang; Hong, Won Jin; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-06-01

    Riehl's melanosis, a form of dermatitis characterized by reticulate pigmentation, typically presents as a gray-brown to black hyperpigmentation on the face and neck. Among the various etiologic factors suggested, photoallergic reaction and pigmented contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to drugs, coal tar dyes, optical whitener, or other ingredients found in cosmetics are believed to be the major contributing factors in this disease. The histopathological features of Riehl's melanosis mainly consist of pigmentary incontinence along with infiltration of numerous dermal melanophages and lymphohistiocytes.1,2 Additionally, notable clinical improvements in the treatment of this condition have been reported for intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, in comparison to long-term topical application of bleaching agents.2 Here, we report the cases of two Asian patients treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser for hair dye-induced Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck. In conclusion, we observed that Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck was effectively and safely treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. We suggest that this method can be used in Asian patients with Riehl's melanosis at risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from excessive light or laser energy delivery. PMID:25602355

  6. 阳离子改性兔毛纤维的活性染料染色性能%The Dyeing Properties of Cation-Modified Rabbit Hair Fibre with K Type Reactive Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪燕; 魏少云

    2001-01-01

    确定了兔毛阳离子化处理的最佳条件,研究了K型活性染料染阳离子改性兔毛纤维,明显地提高了对K型活性染料的吸附性能,染色匀染性及染色牢度也良好。%The results of the research indicate that adsorption of K type reactive dyes on the cation-modified rabbit hair fibre is significantly enhanced and level dyeing property,and colour fastness are good.

  7. Hair dye use, regular exercise, and the risk and prognosis of prostate cancer: multicenter case–control and case-only studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Huang, Shu-Pin; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects that hair dye use and regular exercise exert on the risk and prognosis of prostate cancer. Methods We studied 296 cases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 296 age- (in 2-y bands), ethnicity-, and hospital-matched controls in Taiwan between August 2000 and December 2008. To determine the rate of prostate cancer survival, another 608 incident prostate cancer cases occurring between August 2000 and December 2007 were investigated. Infor...

  8. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better tr...

  9. Dye Hair Simulation and Hairstyle Registration Based on Face Detection%染发仿真及基于人脸检测的发型配准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璠璠

    2015-01-01

    Proposes the face detection for the automatic registration of hair and hair dyed algorithm. Facial feature points obtained by the gray-level projection and Susan edge detection and corners match the corresponding feature points of hair to achieve the hairstyle registration. Through the dyeing algorithm of three sections of broken line type, can make the hair color to achieve the desired goal, and tries to keep the brightness of the original hairstyle change level to keep the administrative levels feeling, natural, undistorted dyeing effect.%提出将人脸检测用于发型自动配准以及发型染色的算法,通过灰度投影及Susan边缘检测和角点提取获得人脸的特征点,再和发型相对应的特征点匹配以达到发型配准;再通过三段折线式染色算法进行染色,既能使头发的颜色达到预期的目标,又能尽量保持原发型的亮度变化层次,达到有层次感的、自然的、不失真的染色效果。

  10. Determination of aromatic amines in hair dye and henna samples by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Sevket

    2008-05-12

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the determination of carcinogenic and toxic aromatic amines in hair dye, henna and dyed hair samples. The method includes ion-pair extraction of aromatic amines from aqueous samples with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate (BEHPA) released after solving the samples in acidic solution followed by sonication, derivatisation of compounds with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) and their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation (PNICI) mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. The obtained recoveries of aromatic amines ranged from 92.2 to 98.4% and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs) was within the range of 0.7-4.2%. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)=3 were within the range from 0.02 to 0.20 ng/g. In the present study, the commercially available 54 permanent hair dye, 35 modified or natural henna and 15 dyed hair samples were analysed for the aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable to determine the aromatic amine ingredients and metabolites of these commercial products. PMID:18280687

  11. Determination of Twenty Kinds of Dye Components in Hair Dye by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定染发剂中20种染料成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春梅; 庞燕军; 程红新; 李彦博; 李莹

    2014-01-01

    建立了以高效液相色谱法测定染发剂中20种染料成分的分析方法。采用RP-AMIDE C16色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm ×5μm),以水-乙腈-磷酸盐混合溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱,同时测定染发剂中20种染料成分。方法回收率在85%~115%之间,在10~500μg/mL的质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,相关系数r均大于0.99。%An analytical method for determination of 20 kinds of dye components in hair dye by HPLC was established. By using RP-AMIDE C16 (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5μm)as chromatographic column,acetonitrile-water-mixed phosphate solution as mobile phase with gradient elution,20 kinds of dye components in hair dye were determined simultaneously. The recoveries were between 85% and 115% at the spiked levels of 10 to 500μg/mL,and good linear relationship withrmore than 0.99 of the curves were achieved.

  12. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  13. 三剂型天然染发剂中预处理剂的应用研究%Study of natural hair dyes and its application condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昔慧; 李群; 杨蕊

    2009-01-01

    Natural amino acid was used in formulation of pretreatment agent for hair dyeing (Agent A) while the mordant (Agent B) complexed with gallnuts extract (Agent C) can provide the natural black color of human hair. There are many factors that affect the dyeing result, in which the effect of Agent A is the major one. Under fixed conditions referring to Agent B and Agent C, effects with respect to dosage of amino acid, pH, dyeing temperature and time were investigated. The results showed that good dyeing result can be obtained when the dosage of amino acid achieves 10% ,the pH is kept as 8~9,the dyeing time takes 15 min~20 min and the dyeing temperature is maintained at 30℃~35℃.%三剂型天然染发剂采用天然氨基酸为主原料配制预处理剂(A剂)对头发进行预处理,以媒染剂(B剂)与中药五倍子提取物(C剂)络合赋予人发自然黑色.影响染色效果的因子较多,但以A剂的影响较大.在B剂、c剂因子水平固定的情况下,研究了A剂中氨基酸用量、A剂预处理过程中pH、时间和温度等对染色效果的影响.结果表明,A剂中氨基酸质量分数为10%,预处理过程中pH=8~9,30℃~35℃,15 win~20 min时,染色效果较佳.

  14. Permeability of hair dye compounds p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate and resorcinol through protective gloves in hairdressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2007-07-01

    Dermal exposure to skin irritants and contact allergens is frequent in hairdressing. Hair dyeing is popular today and involves exposure to highly potent contact allergens, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Use of protective gloves to prevent contact with skin-damaging substances is essential. The aim of the present study was to determine the resistance to permeation by PPD, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate (TDS) and resorcinol (RES) through protective gloves used in hairdressing in Sweden. The permeation of PPD, TDS and RES through four types of protective gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL), polyvinylchloride (PVC), nitrile rubber (NR) and polyethene (PE) was tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (1-inch) test cell. Exposure solutions were 5% PPD (w/v), 0.75% TDS and 10% RES in borate buffer with 0.2 M ascorbic acid. The cumulative breakthrough, the so-called 'time-lag breakthrough' (Lag-BT), and permeation rate were determined for each substance and glove. For the NRL glove, the permeated amounts were below the analytical detection levels for all the tested substances. The NR glove was permeated only by RES, with a Lag-BT of 183 min. The PE glove was the thinnest glove and had a Lag-BT of 32 min for PPD; however, the steady-state permeation rate was only 0.031 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The PVC glove gave the lowest protection against PPD and RES. TDS did not permeate any of the tested gloves. All the tested gloves were disposable, and all need to be changed often and disposed of after use. In conclusion, if properly used, all the tested gloves give considerable protection against permeation of PPD, TDS and RES. PMID:17595170

  15. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and uncomfortable. If you decide to use a hair-removal cream, make sure it says it’s gentle enough for the pubic area. Don’t put on any product that could sting, like aftershave lotion. To help avoid irritation, don’t use products with added dyes or fragrances. If you have more questions about ...

  16. 头发对水中阳离子染料的吸附特性%Adsorption characteristics of cationic dyes in water by human hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仙弟; 陈晓英; 韩德满; 胡云; 陈燕萍

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study was made on the capacities of human hair adsorpting with two cationic dyes and two anionic dyes,also the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of fuchsin basic and methylene blue onto hair were measured through static adsorption experiments.Adsorption isothermal and adsorption kinetics data were interpreted by pseudo-first-order,pseudo-second-order kinetic models,and Langmuir,Freundlich equations models,and the parameters of thermodynamics were also calculated.The results show that the adsorption capacities with cationic dyes are much higher than those with anionic dyes,this is consistent with the electrical gravity between dyes and hair.Hair had good adsorption properties when neutral and alkaline with fuchsin basic and methylene blue and the adsorption equilibrium time was about 120 min,on the same condition,the adsorption capacity was methylene blue > fuchsin basic.The adsorption kinetics fit to pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption isothermal fit to Freundlich adsorption model.The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of cationic dyes onto hair were spontaneous,endothermic,molecular layer,physical adsorption process.%采用静态吸附法对比了2种阴离子染料和2种阳离子染料在头发上的吸附能力,并测定了头发对阳离子染料碱性品红和亚甲基蓝的吸附动力学和吸附等温线,用准一级、二级动力学模型和Langmuir、Freundlich等温吸附模型进行拟合,计算了热力学参数.结果表明,头发对阳离子染料吸附能力较强,而对阴离子染料吸附能力较差,这主要和头发表面与染料之间电性引力有关.头发对碱性品红和亚甲基蓝在中、碱性条件下吸附效果较好,120 min达到吸附平衡,相同条件下,吸附量:亚甲基蓝>碱性品红.准二级动力学模型和Freundlich等温吸附模型能较好地描述头发对阳离子染料的吸附过程.吸附热力学参数计算结果表

  17. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  18. Sensitization and Clinically Relevant Allergy to Hair Dyes and Clothes from Black Henna Tattoos: Do People Know the Risk? An Uncommon Serious Case and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Moro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Henna (Lawsonia inermis L. tattooing has been used in Egypt and India since ancient times. Today this temporary body art is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Various chemicals are added to henna to darken and enhance the definition of tattoos, especially para-phenylenediamine (PPD, which is a strong sensitizer known to cause cross sensitive reactions to azoic dyes and other para-amino compounds. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who became clinically sensitive to textile dyes after having showed a serious reaction both to her first hair dying when she was 16 years old and following the application of a temporary henna tattoo when she was a kid. The evidence from our literature review showed 33 cases of manifest sensitization to hair dye and only one of observable contact allergy to both hair and textile dyes from henna tattoos. The sensitization of children may have long-life lasting consequences, because of cross-reaction to dyes and other chemicals contained in hair colourants, clothes and drugs. Since tattoos are very popular and globalization has increased the circulation of unauthorized products we point out the need for informative campaigns about the risk of sensitization caused by temporary tattoos.

  19. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluidunnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

  20. Preparation and application of a reactive hair dye%一种活性染发剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建召; 曹光群; 孙培冬

    2012-01-01

    A reactive dye was synthesized from acid yellow 73, epichlorohydrin and sodium hydrosulfide via a two step process. The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and mole ratio of reactants on yield of product of the first step was studied. Suitable reaction conditions were identified as: n ( epichlorohydrin) : n(acid yellow 73) = 20: 1,reaction temperature 80 ℃,reaction time 4 h,yield 65%. Thio - modified acid yellow 73 was synthesized by treating the intermediate product prepared in the first step by sodium hydrosulfide. Chemical structure of the intermediate product and final product was characterized by 1R and LC - MS. The thio - modified acid yellow 73 product was formulated in hair dye to investigate its dyeing efficacy. Results showed that the product can combine to hair with good fastness against water washing.A reactive dye was synthesized from acid yellow 73, epichlorohydrin and sodium hydrosulfide via a two step process. The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and mole ratio of reactants on yield of product of the first step was studied. Suitable reaction conditions were identified as: n ( epichlorohydrin) : n(acid yellow 73) = 20: 1,reaction temperature 80 ℃,reaction time 4 h,yield 65%. Thio - modified acid yellow 73 was synthesized by treating the intermediate product prepared in the first step by sodium hydrosulfide. Chemical structure of the intermediate product and final product was characterized by 1R and LC - MS. The thio - modified acid yellow 73 product was formulated in hair dye to investigate its dyeing efficacy. Results showed that the product can combine to hair with good fastness against water washing.%以酸性黄73、环氧氯丙烷、硫氢化钠为原料,采用两步法合成活性染料,考察了反应时间、反应温度、原料摩尔比对第1步反应产物收率的影响,得到的较佳反应条件为∶n(环氧氯丙烷)∶n(酸性黄73)=20∶1,80℃下反应4h,在此条件下第1步反应产物的收率为65

  1. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desired professional counseling might be of help. Perms, dyes and other cosmetic options can be used to give a fuller appearance to hair. Contrary to common wisdom, shampooing doesn't increase ...

  2. 4种植物型染发剂的遗传毒性研究%A Study on Genotoxicity of Four Kinds of Herbal Hair Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟真; 蔡德雷; 宋松; 吴惠岭; 严峻; 应英; 冯靓

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解4种植物型染发剂的遗传毒性作用,掌握其潜在的健康危害.方法 通过鼠伤寒沙门氏菌回复突变试验(Ames试验)、CHL细胞染色体畸变试验和V79细胞HGPRT基因突变试验,检测4种染发剂对原核细胞和真核细胞在基因水平和染色体水平的诱变性.结果 Ames试验结果显示,1号和2号染发剂在高剂量5000 μg/皿时,在添加和未添加代谢活化系统条件下,TA97、TA98和TA100的菌落回变数异常增加,结果为阳性;3号和4号染发剂在添加和未添加代谢活化系统条件下,各剂量组菌落回变数均在正常范围内,结果为阴性.与阴性对照组比较,4种植物型染发剂各剂量组均未引起CHL细胞染色体畸变率和V79 细胞HGPRT基因突变频率明显增加(P >0.05),结果均为阴性.结论 在本实验条件下,3号和4号染发剂未显示遗传毒性.1号和2号染发剂尽管在真核细胞水平的试验结果为阴性,但仍需十分谨慎评价其潜在的健康危害.%Objective To understand the potential genotoxicity of four kinds of herbal hah- dyes. Methods Ames test, chromosome alienation test in CHL fells and HGPRT locus forward mutation test in V79 fells were employed to investigate the effect of the four herbal hair dyes on gene mutation and ehromosome aberration in both prokaiyotir and eukaryotic cells in Vitro. Results An abnormal growth of reverse mutation colonies of TA97, TA98 and TA100 induced by sample 1 and 2 herbal hair dyes was observed, which were at the highest dose of 5000 μg/dish under Symh. activation system or without it. The same phenomenon was not occurred under the stimulation of sample 3 and 4 herbal hair dyes. There was no significant difference of chromosome alienation rate between the exposed and control cell ( P>0. 05 ), as well as the mutation frequencies at HGPRT locus. Negative data was also obtained in mammalian cells. Conclusion Sample 3 and 4 herbal hair dyes have no genotoxicity. It is difficult

  3. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  4. 毛细管气相色谱测定染发剂中苯二胺%Determination of phenylenediamine in hair dyes by capillary gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛金花; 梁超; 李程

    2011-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of p-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine,o-phenylenediamine in hair dyes was established.The samples of hair dyes were accurately weighted,selected with the ethylacetate and extracted by the ultrasonic,the impurity was removed by centrifugal work.The extraction was separated by capillary column and detected by FID for qualitativing with retention time and peak area.The linear relation of these three kinds of phenylenedianmine isoma in the range of 0.01 ~ 10 g/L were positive,and the "r" was about 0.9995 ~0.9996.The spiked recovery rates of the o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine and m-phenylenediamine were 88.6% ~97.8% ,93.3% ~ 105.0% and 88.5% ~99.1%.respectively.RSDs were 1.94% ~2.05% (n=7) ,and the detection limits were 2,2.5,2 ng/mL, respectively.This method was simple and rapid, which can effectively extract and separate the phenylenediamine isomer in hair dyes with satisfactory results.%建立了毛细管气相色谱法测定染发剂中邻、间、对苯二胺含量的分析方法.样品用乙酸乙酯、超声波提取,离心除去杂质,然后采用毛细管分离,FID检测,保留时间定性,峰面积定量.苯二胺三种异构体在0.01..10 g/L浓度范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.999 5~0.9996;邻苯二胺、对苯二胺、间苯二胺加标回收率分别为88.6%~97.8%,93.3%~105.0%,88.5%~99.1%,相对标准偏差为1.94%~2.05%(n=7),检出限分别为2,2.5,2 ng/mL.该方法简单、快速应用于实际样品测定,结果满意.

  5. Determination of 11 Kinds of Phenol and Aniline Dyes in Oxidative Hair Dyes by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定染发剂中11种苯胺和苯酚类染料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵超英; 秦婷; 孙多志; 刘峻; 邵玉婉

    2014-01-01

    A method of simultaneous determination of the eleven phenol and aniline dyes in oxidative hair dyes by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The orthogonal and single-factor experiments were designed to and optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions, and the samples were extracted using 10 mL of 5% methanol under the conditions of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant for 10 min. The gradient elution program and the electrospray ionization mode change were together used for the optimization of the measurements, and the determinations were completed by using the multi-reaction monitoring scan. The detection limits were 1. 15-9. 43 μg/g, the recoveries of spiked samples were 88. 0%-118. 1%. The method can be used to determine trace prohibited and restricted dyes in hair dyes.

  6. 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted polymer and its potency to hair-dye assay using graphene/ionic liquid electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peini; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical approach for detecting diaminopyridine derivatives has been constructed using a molecular imprinting-electrochemical sensor. Opposed to the conventional strategy of employing diaminopyridine as the functional monomer and uracil derivatives as the target analyte, in the current study, the 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized with 2,6-Diaminopyridine as the template molecule and 6-aminouracil as the functional monomer. Graphene and ionic liquid which can assist 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles in electrochemical reaction kinetics by increasing conductivity have been introduced to form one of the electrode modified layers. The proposed analytical method has been applied in 2,6-Diaminopyridine detection in hair-dyes and demonstrated appropriate sensitivity and selectivity, with a linear range of 0.0500-35.0 mg kg(-1) and a detection limit as low as 0.0275 mg kg(-1). PMID:25441409

  7. Development of New Kind of Thiol Natural Hair Dye%新型巯基天然染发剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔凯; 雍平

    2012-01-01

    以天然植物色素提取物—茜素为原料与烯丙基氯进行Williamson醚化反应并通过两种方式在不饱和醚化产物的双键上引入巯基:(1)通入氯化氢气体加成,再以硫脲对氯化产物进行改性得到巯基改性茜素;(2)Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3催化下,通入硫化氢气体进行马氏规则的烯烃亲电加成反应得到巯基改性茜素。利用红外光谱对上述两种产物结构进行表征后,又将其配制为染发剂试验,结果表明,两种巯基改性的茜素染发效果均达到永久性染发剂标准。%Alizarin,a natural plant pigment extract,was used as raw materials to undergo Williamson etherification reaction and bring in sulfhydryl in the double bond of unsaturated etherification product through two ways:(1)aerate hydrogen chloride gas to perform addition reaction,then use thiourea to modify the chlorinated product to get sulfhydryl modified alizarin;(2)under the catalytic of Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3,aerate hydrogen sulfide(gas) to perform the olefin electrophilic addition reaction under Markovnikov's rule to get sulfhydryl modified alizarin.The structure of the above-mentioned two kinds of product was characterized by infrared spectrum.The results of a hair dye test showed that both the two kinds of sulfhydryl modified alizarin dye hair can reach the permanent colourants standard.

  8. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  9. The Preparation of Non-toxic and No Carcinogenic Hair Dye With Sophra Japonica%用槐米作原料制备无毒不致癌染发剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奎堂; 余嘉豪

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, Sophra Japonica has been used as main material to prepare a vegetal hair dye. Rutin has been extracted from sophra japonica and the common use of toxic and carcinogenic aromatic amines has been avoided. The hair dye prepared in this experiment was made up of three reagents, A as hair softener, B as dye reagent and C as chromogenic reagent. The dyeing effect of compositon, temperature, and the softening time were investigated.%使用槐米作为主要原料,制备了一种植物性染发剂.提取槐米中的有效成分芦丁,避免了使用常用的有毒且致癌的芳香胺.染发剂由A、B、C三剂组成:A为头发软化剂,B为主染色剂,C为显色剂.系统研究了A、B、C三剂组成、温度、软化时间对染发效果的影响.

  10. 用儿茶及其他中药制备无毒不致癌染发剂%The Preparation of Non-toxic and Non-carcinogenic Hair Dye with Cutch and Other Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奎堂; 陈锦仪

    2012-01-01

    使用儿茶及其他中药作为主要原料,避免了常用的有毒且致癌的芳香胺,制备了一种植物性染发剂.染发剂由A、B两剂组成,A为主染色剂,B为显色剂.系统研究了A、B两剂组成、温度、作用于头发的时间对染发效果的影响.%In this experiment, cutch and other Chinese medicines were used as main materials to prepare a vegetal hair dye a-voiding the use of common toxic and carcinogenic aromatic amines. The hair dye prepared in this experiment is made up of two reagents, A as dye reagent and B as chromogenic reagent. The dyeing effect of the composition of A and B reagents, temperature and the action time on hair were investigated.

  11. Determination of 1 2 kinds of organic amine dyes in hair dyes by HPLC method%高效液相色谱法测定染发剂中的12种有机胺类染料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希; 张国文

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD)method was developed for the determination of p-phenylenediamine and other 1 1 kinds of dyes in the commercially a-vailable hair dyes.The HPLC was performed on a RP-AMIDE C16 column (4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),with phosphate mixed solution-acetonitrile(9010)as the mobile phase and detected by DAD with the detection wavelength of 280 nm.The flow rate was 1 mL·min-1.All the samples were extracted using ultrasonic techniques in the ice-water bath with 10% sodium bisulfite-ethanol(11)mixed solution.The extract was centrifuged and filtered.In the given concentration range,the peaking areas and concentration of the twelve kinds of dyes had a good linear relationship,and the correlation coefficient was not less than 0.999 7.The average recoveries were 98.1%~108.4% with relative standard deviations of 0.3%~1.4%,and the detec-tion limits were 19~22μg·g-1 .The method is simple,accurate and fast,which could be used for the de-termination of 1 2 kinds of dyes in hair dyes.%建立染发剂中对苯二胺等12种染料的高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器(HPLC-DAD)测定方法。采用RP-AMIDE C16柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm),流动相为磷酸盐混合溶液-乙腈(9010),流速为1 mL·min-1,检测器为DAD,检测波长为280 nm。样品用10%亚硫酸氢钠水溶液-乙醇(11)混合溶液冰水浴超声提取,离心过滤后检测。12种染料在给定的浓度范围内峰面积与浓度有良好的线性关系,相关系数均不低于0.9997,平均回收率为98.1%~108.4%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.3%~1.4%,检出浓度为19~22μg·g-1。该方法简便、准确、快速,可用于检测染发剂中12种染料。

  12. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Maiti; Sudarson Sekhar Sinha; Mukesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and p...

  13. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58% of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76% patients. Face creams (20%, hair dyes (14%, and soaps (12% were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%, cetrimide (28%, and thiomersal (20%. Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal.

  14. 气相色谱-质谱法同时测定氧化型染发剂中的17种染料%Simutaneous Determination of 17 Components in Oxidative Hair Dyes by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖莺; 陈和秀; 林睿; 王鸿辉; 董清木; 黄宗平

    2011-01-01

    建立了氧化型染发剂中17种染料中间体(包括苯二胺类、氨基酚类、苯二酚类、萘酚和氨基吡啶类等)的气相色谱-质谱检测方法.采用体积分数为50%的乙醇超声提取染发剂中的染料中间体,加入还原剂连二亚硫酸钠防止待测物变质,选择DB-WAX毛细管柱实现了在25 min内同时分离17种水溶性和醇溶性染料.结果表明,本方法对所测物质的检出限(LOD)为2~380 mg/kg,定量限(LOQ)为7.5~1267.5 mg/kg.在1,2,10,20或100倍LOQ 4个添加水平下的平均回收率在81.1%~103.7%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)在0.67%~3.73%之间.%A reliable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(GC-MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 dye intermediates, including benzenediamines, aminophenols, benzenediols, naphthalenediol and diaminopyridine, in oxidative hair dyes. Samples were extracted with 50% ethanol by adding sodium dithionite to prevent oxidation. A DB-WAX capillary column was selected for the separation of both water soluble and alcohol soluble hair dye intermediates. The results showed that 17 dye intermediates were well separated within 25 min. The detection limits of these compounds were in the range of 2-380 mg/kg. The recoveries of the target compounds in hair dyes ranged from 81. 1% to 103. 7% with four addition levels. The method described was validated by 5 different laboratories and successfully applied to the analysis of commercial oxidative hair dyes.

  15. Hair Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  16. Oily hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  17. 面向节能优化的发制品染整设备研究%Research on Dyeing and Finishing Equipment in Hair Products Faced to Energy Saving Optimizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永科; 张银娟

    2015-01-01

    发制品生产是一个古老而“新兴”的产业,本文结合染整设备节能减排和技术升级改造的需求,深入研究发制品染整生产工艺和特点,研发出发制品行业专用的新型多功能染整联合设备。该设备的成功投产,明显提高生产效率,为企业节能降耗提供强有力的保障,加快推进发制品行业设备的机械化和自动化进程,有较高的市场推广价值。%Production of hair goods is an ancient and "new" industry. Combined with the needs of energy sav-ing and technology upgrade on dyeing and finishing equipment, the paper deeply researches its production technol-ogy and characteristics, and designs a new multifunctional dyeing finishing range which is specialized in hair goods industry. Its successful production obviously improves the production efficiency, provides strong technical support to enterprises for energy saving, promotes the equipment's mechanization and automation processes in hair goods industry, and has a higher value in market promotion.

  18. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes. PMID:24675548

  19. 天然染发剂中对苯二胺定量分析%Quantitative Analysis of P-phenylenediamine in Natural Hair Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖怀; 崔胜男; 白志英; 杨亮仙; 刘倩斌; 张云雁

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect the content ofp-phenylenediamine in five representative kinds of natural black hair dyes in the market and evaluate the quality and safety with industry standards. Methods: p-phenylenediamine was determined by HPLC with a Eclipse XDB-%目的:测定市场上具有代表性的5种天然染黑染发剂中限用物质对苯二胺的含量,并根据含量〈6%的行业标准进行品质及安全性评价。方法:采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),EclipseXDB—C18色谱柱(4.6mm×150mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈:pH7.7的磷酸-1%Z乙醇胺缓冲溶液5:95;流速0.8mL/min;检测波长280nm。结果:对苯二胺的检测浓度在0.0250-0.4000mgeqnL范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9999);平均加样回收率为99.27%,RSD=1.49%(n=6)。5种染发剂中

  20. Effect on human health of long-term using and contacting hair dye%长期使用和接触染发剂对人体健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丽君; 陆翊平

    2011-01-01

    Objective This article expound the relationship between hair dye and human health by study on literatures and correlated data. Method Analyzed on the internal and overseas literatures and correlated data. Results The various kinds of mutagenicity studies suggested that part of aniline derivant could cause mutagenicity. Carcinogenic test showed that part of aniline derivant could induce rats and mice bladder carcinoma and hepatoma etc. Carried out epidemiological studies to users and vocational contact person suggested that long time used and vocational contacted oxidized form of hair dye could increase the incident rate of cancer. Conclusions We should pay full attention to the toxicity of hair dye and do deeper studies.%目的 染发剂的致癌性和致突变性日益受到关注.通过文献复习及相关研究数据,进一步阐述染发剂与人体健康的关系.方法 采用文献复习法对国内外文献及相关研究数据进行分析.结果 各种致突变试验证明,部分苯胺衍生物具有致突变性.致癌试验证明,部分苯胺衍生物可诱发大鼠、小鼠膀胱癌、肝癌等.使用者和职业接触者流行病学调查结果表明,长期使用和职业接触氧化型染发剂可能增加癌症的发病率.结论 对染发剂的毒性应充分的重视,并进一步深入研究.

  1. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  2. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud; Poulsen, Lars K.; Swindle, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased...... play a dominant role, B cells switch to IgE-production, a process that is more effective at young age. IgE-producing plasma cells have been shown to be long-lived, hiding in the bone-marrow or inflammatory tissues where they cannot easily be targeted by therapeutic intervention. Allergic sensitization...

  3. Effect of Ionic Liquid on the Determination of Aromatic Amines as Contaminants in Hair Dyes by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonylimide BMIm[NTf2] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthyl-amine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf2] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf2] 70:30 (v/v as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min−1, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L−1 to 217 mg·L−1, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L−1 to 0.246 mg·L−1 and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3 were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples.

  4. Determination of 20 kinds of banned and restricted dyestuffs in hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定染发剂中20种禁限用成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓蕊; 杜洪淼; 张哲; 沈虹; 夏然

    2015-01-01

    建立测定染发剂中20种禁限用成分的高效液相色谱法.使用Agilent Poroshell HPH C18 (3.0 mm× 100 mm,2.7μm),以甲醇-50 mmol/L磷酸盐溶液为流动相,使用二极管阵列检测器,检测波长为225 nm和280 nm.以空白染发剂样品为基体进行加标回收实验,测得回收率80.3%~115.0%,相对标准偏差为0.3%~8.5%(n=6).%An HPLC method for determination of 20 kinds of banned and restricted dyestuffs in hair dyes was established. The extract was separated on Agilent Poroshell HPH C18 column (3.0 mm× 100 mm, 2.7μm) using methanol-50 mmol/L phosphate buffer as mobile phase and detected by a photodiode array detector (DAD) with the detection wave lengths of 225 nm and 280 nm. Using blank sample of hair dyes as matrix, test for recovery was made by standard addition method. The rate of recovery for this method ranged from 80.3%to 115.0% and the relative standard deviations of this method were 0.3%to 8.5%( n=6).

  5. Determination on Iron, Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Cobalt in Hair Dye%染发剂中铁、铜、铬、镉、铅、镍和钴等重金属含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解楠; 顾宇翔; 周泽琳

    2012-01-01

    建立了微波消解前处理,电感耦合等离子发射光谱(ICP-AES)测定染发剂中铁、铜、铬、镉、铅、镍和钴等重金属含量的方法.该方法各元素检出限均为0.05 mg/kg,线性范围0~500 ng/mL,加标回收率86.8%~108.0%,相对标准偏差为0.98%~5.54%.该方法简便、灵敏,结果稳定准确,可以用于染发剂中重金属含量的测定.%An inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with samples microwave digestion method for determination of Iron, Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Cobalt in hair dye was established. The detection limits of all elements were 0.05 mg/kg, the linearity ranged from 0 to 500 ng/mL, and recoveries of samples were in the range of 86. 8%~108. 0%, the RSD of precision is from 0. 98% to 5.54%. It indicates that the method is simple, sensitive, stable and accurate, which can be used for the determination of heavy metal elements in hair dye.

  6. 循环伏安法测定染发剂中的对苯二胺%Determination of p-phenylenediamine in Hair Dyes by Cyclic Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 张睿; 金根娣

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the determination of the content of p-phenylenediamine in one hair dye sample by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Results showed that p-phenylenediamine on carbon paste electrode produced a pair of well-defined redox peak, the potential of which were +0.32V and + 0.24V, respectively, and the reaction on the electrode was an adsorption-controlled process. This method was well applicable for the determination of p-phenylenediamine in hair dye samples on sales which would obtain satisfactory results.%采用循环伏安法,对某品牌染发剂中对苯二胺的含量进行了测定。结果表明,对苯二胺在碳糊电极上产生良好的氧化还原峰,其氧化峰和还原峰峰电位分别为+0.32V和+0.24V;反应过程受吸附控制;将该方法用于测定市售染发剂中对苯二胺的含量取得较好的结果。

  7. Case control study on relationship between hair dye use and myeloid dysplastic syndrome%染发剂与骨髓增生异常综合征关系的病例-对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 孙璐; 张曦; 肖超; 常春康; 李晓

    2012-01-01

    探讨骨髓增生异常综合征(myelodysplastic syndrome,MDS)的危险因素.方法:对我院102例初诊的MDS患者和102名性别、年龄匹配的健康对照者进行1∶1配对的病例-对照研究,调查受试者的一般情况、毒物接触史、使用抗肿瘤药物史、染发史、放射线接触史和肿瘤家族史等,并应用Logistic回归对资料进行统计分析,估计人群归因危险度.结果:Logistic回归分析显示,染发剂的种类、使用频率和年限是MDS发生的危险因素,其OR值分别为2.36、2.23和2.11,调整归因危险度分别为19.80%、17.12%和15.64%,综合归因危险度为30.63%.结论:染发剂的使用与MDS的发生有关.%Objective To study the risk factors of myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS).Methods A matched case-control study consisting of 102 newly diagnosed MDS patients and 102 gender and age-matched controls were performed to explore the risk factors for MDS.Sex,age,history of toxin exposure,use of antitumor drugs,use of hair dye,radiation exposure and cancer family history were analyzed by conditional logistic regression analysis.Results Type of hair dye,duration and frequency of hair dying were the risk factors for MDS.The OR values were 2.36,2.23 and 2.11,respectively.Adjusted attributable risks were 19.80%,17.12% and 15.64%,respectively.Overall attributable risk was 30.63%.Conclusions Use of hair dye might have relation with MDS.

  8. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair restoration ... Avram MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  9. Hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

  10. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maiti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen.

  11. Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Gude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine is an important constituent of hair dye toxicity of which one could herald fatal complications such as rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, angioneurotic edema, and respiratory failure. We present a case of hair dye poisoning that presented with respiratory distress due to laryngeal edema and later developed trismus, subclinical tetany, apnea, and conduction abnormality on electrocardiogram. This case report highlights the need for a thorough toxicological review of the components of any ingested substance.

  12. Determination of Nine kinds of Basic Dyes in Hair by Using a HPLC-DAD Method%头发中9种碱性染料的HPLC-DAD检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖军海

    2014-01-01

    A HPLC-DAD method of simultaneous determination of 9 basic dyes in hair was developed. Hair samples were subject to extraction using methanol, the exact was performed on a XB-C18 column with a diode array detector of acetonitrile-0.02mol/L ammonium acetate(contain 0.05%(v/v) formic acid). Recovery rates with 9 basic dyes were in the range of 93.9%-102.5%,with the RSD of 1.2%-3.5%.The minimum detectable concentration was 0.15-0.60 mg/kg. The results show that the method is simple, rapid, and suitable for the determination of 9 basic dyes’ content.%文中建立了HPLC-DAD同时测定头发中碱性橙31等9种碱性染料的方法。方法以甲醇为提取溶剂,采用XB-C18柱,以乙腈-0.02mol/L乙酸铵(含0.05%甲酸)为流动相进行梯度洗脱,二极管阵列检测器检测。试验的平均回收率为93.9%~102.5%,相对标准偏差为1.2%~3.5%,最低检测浓度为0.15~0.60 mg/kg。结果表明该方法前处理简单、快速,适用于测定头发中碱性橙31等9种碱性染料组分的含量。

  13. 高效液相色谱法同时测定染发剂中13种染料%Simultaneous determination of 13 colorants in hair dyes by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯靓; 王立媛; 应英; 张念华; 马冰洁; 赵永信

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To develop a HPLC method for determination of 13 colorants in hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatograpghy. Methods: After ultrasonic extraction with ethanol - water, samples were analyzed by HPLC. With 2.5 mmol/L PBS ( pH = 6.0) - acetonitrile as mobile phase in gradient etution with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection wavelength of 203 nm. Results: In a given concentration range,the peak areas and concentrations of colorants had good linear relationships. The average recoveries of the method were 96.2% ~ 112.3% with relative standard deviations of 0.39% ~ 9.87% ( n = 6). Conclusion: This method is suitable for simultaneous determination of 13 colorants in hair dyes.%目的:建立染发剂中13种染料的HPLC测定方法.方法:样品经乙醇-水超声提取后,过滤后进样检测.以磷酸盐缓冲液-乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,流速1 ml/min,检测波长为203 nm.结果:在给定浓度范围内各染料的峰面积与浓度具有良好的线性关系.平均回收率为96.2%~112.3%,相对标准偏差为0.39%~9.87%(n=6).结论:本方法可同时测定染发剂中13种染料.

  14. The oxidation of p-phenylenediamine, an ingredient used for permanent hair dyeing purposes, leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals: Oxidative stress and DNA damage in human immortalized keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Thalita B; Hudari, Felipe; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Godschalk, Roger W; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Bast, Aalt; Barros, Silvia B M; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Hageman, Geja J; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-12-15

    The hair-dyeing ingredient, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), was previously reported to be mutagenic, possibly by inducing oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism of PPD in inducing oxidative stress upon skin exposure during hair-dyeing in human keratinocytes remains unknown. The aim of our studies was therefore to investigate the toxicity of PPD and its by-products in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) after auto-oxidation and after reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that the PPD half maximal effective cytotoxic concentration (EC50) to HaCaT is 39.37 and 35.63 μg/mL after 24 and 48 h, respectively, without addition of H2O2 to induce oxidation. When PPD (10 or 100 μg/mL) is combined with 10.5 μg/mL of H2O2, intracellular ROS production by HaCaT after 1 h was significantly increased and enhanced levels of DNA damage were observed after 4 h of exposure. After 24 h incubations, 20 μg/mL of PPD increased the level of DNA oxidation in HaCaT. Also, we found that the in vitro reaction between PPD and H2O2, even below the maximum allowance by cosmetic industries, released hydroxyl radicals which can damage DNA. Taken together, we conclude that PPD alone and when combined with H2O2 increases the formation of reactive oxygen species in human keratinocytes, leading to oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. These alterations suggest that the mechanism by which PPD exposure, alone or combined with H2O2, damages keratinocytes by the formation of the high reactive HO∙ radicals. PMID:26456176

  15. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  16. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  17. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's also found in your fingernails and toenails. Hair growth begins beneath the surface of your skin at ... provide cushioning and protection. In some cases, excess hair growth, called hirsutism (pronounced: hur -soo-tih-zum), may ...

  18. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sweating Facial Redness Frown Lines and Forehead Furrows Hair Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider ... Sweating Facial Redness Frown Lines and Forehead Furrows Hair Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider ...

  19. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  20. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologi...

  1. 高效液相色谱法同时测定染发剂中11种氨基苯酚%Simultaneous determination of 11 aminophenols in hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝伟霞; 王彩娟; 杨冀州; 魏蔚; 孙转莲; 张书胜

    2012-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱测定直接型与氧化型染发剂中11种氨基苯酚含量的分析方法.样品在亚硫酸氢钠的保护下用甲醇提取,高速冷冻离心净化;采用Agilent Zorbax SB C18色谱柱分离,流动相为5 mmol/L庚烷磺酸钠-40 mmol/L pH 2.8磷酸盐缓冲液和乙腈,梯度洗脱,11种氨基苯酚分别于230、270和400 nm 下检测.11种氨基苯酚在0.05~500 mg/L线性范围内相关系数不小于0.999 2,4-氨基-3-硝基苯酚、2-氨基-5-硝基苯酚、3-硝基-4-(2-羟乙基)氨基苯酚的方法定量限为5 mg/kg,其他8种氨基苯酚包括对氨基苯酚、对甲氨基苯酚、间氨基苯酚、邻氨基苯酚、5-氨基-2-甲基苯酚、4-氨基-3-甲基苯酚、2-甲基-5-(2-羟乙基)氨基苯酚和2-氨基-4-硝基苯酚定量限为20mg/kg,方法回收率为88.5%~109.5%,相对标准偏差为2.2%~8.3%.测定了多种市售染发剂,结果表明该方法操作简单、测定结果准确,可用于直接型与氧化型染发剂中11种氨基苯酚的测定.%An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 aminophenols in direct and oxidized hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were extracted with methanol using sodium bisulfite for anti-oxidation. The purification was carried out with the high speed frozen centrifugation. The separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB Clg column with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and an ion pair system of sodium heptanesulfonate and phosphate under a gradient elution. The analytes were detected at three different wavelengths of 230, 270 and 400 nm. In the concentration range of 0.05 -500 mg/L, the correlation coefficients for the 11 aminophenols were not less than 0.999 2. The limits of quantification including 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-( 2-hydroxyethyl) amino-3-nitrophenol were 5 mg/kg. Other aminophenols including 4-aminophenol, 4-methyl aminophenol, 3-aminophenol, 2

  2. HPLC Determination of 2-Nitro-p-benzenediamine in Hair Dyes%高效液相色谱法测定染发剂中2-硝基-p-苯二胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖莺; 陈和秀; 林睿; 王鸿辉; 董清木; 黄宗平

    2012-01-01

    应用高效液相色谱法测定了染发剂中2-硝基-P-苯二胺的含量。样品用乙醇-水(1+1)混合溶液提取后,经水系C18色谱柱分离,以(A)10mol·L^-1柠檬酸缓冲溶液-10rnol·L^-1辛烷磺酸钠溶液(pH2.6)与(B)乙腈以体积比75比25组成的混合溶液为流动相进行等度洗脱,用二极管阵列检测器于410nm检测。2-硝基-P-苯二胺的线性范围为2.4-240mg·L^-1,检出限(3S/N)为0.7mg·L^-1。以染发剂样品为基体,进行加标回收试验,回收率在90.4%-99.49/6之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)在0.359/6-3.0%之间。%HPLC was applied to the determination of 2-nitro-p-benzenediamine in hair dyes. The sample was extracted with mixture of CHaCH2OH-H20 (1+1). The extract was separated on auqo-C18 column by gradient elution with eluants containing A (10 mol · L^-1 citric acid +10 mol · L^-1 sodium octanesulfonate of pH 2. 6) and B (acetonitrile) mixed in the ratio of 75 to 25, and determined with diode array detector at the wavelengths of 410 nln. Linearity range for 2-nitro-p-benzenediamine was found between 2.4--240 mg · L^-1, with detection limit (3S/N) of 0. 7 mg · L^-1. Using sample of hair dyes as matrix, recovery test was made by standard addition method, values of recovery found were in the range of 90. 4%-99.4%, with RSD's (n=6) in the range of 0. 35%-3.0%.

  3. HPLC Determination of 11 Dyes in Oxidative Hair Colorants%高效液相色谱法测定氧化型染发剂中11种染料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春华; 刘海山; 楼成杰; 谢文; 陈笑梅; 何建敏

    2012-01-01

    HPI.C was applied to the determination of 11 dyes in oxidative hair colorants. The sample was extracted with mixture of methanol and H2O (1+1). The extract was separated on Capcell Pak Cls MG S5 column (250 mm×4. 6 mm, 5 μm by gradient elution with mixture of acetonitrile and triethylamine (adjusted to pH 7. 7 with phosphoric acid) mixed in the ratio of 3 to 97, and determined with photodiode array detector at the wavelength of 280 nm. Linearity ranges for 11 dyes were found between 20-500 mg ·L-1. Using blank sample of hair colorants as matrix, test for recovery was made by standard addition method, values of recovery found were in the range of 70%-110% with RSD's (n=6) less than 10%.%提出了高效液相色谱法测定氧化型染发剂中11种染料含量的方法。样品用甲醇-水(1+1)溶液超声萃取15min,经Capcell Pak C18MG S5色谱柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm)分离,用磷酸调至pH 7.7的乙腈-三乙胺磷酸缓冲溶液(3+97)为流动相进行等度洗脱,用二极管阵列检测器于波长280nm处检测。11种染料的线性范围均在20~500mg·L-1之间。以空白染发剂样品为基体,进行加标回收试验,回收率在70%~110%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)均小于10%。

  4. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  5. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...

  6. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the hair or fur, feathering, and beautifying) means the process of applying dyestuffs to the hair or fur, either by immersion in a dye bath or by application of the dye by brush, feather, spray, or otherwise, for the purpose of changing the color of the fur or hair, or to accentuate its natural...

  7. Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine after temporary henna painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Nour-Eldin, Osama

    2003-11-01

    The use of temporary natural henna painting for body adornment and hair dyeing is very common in several countries of the Indian subcontinent, Middle East, and North Africa, and the fad is spreading in other parts of the world. Several cases of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) contaminated, temporary traditional/natural henna induced sensitization and acute allergic reaction have been reported, along with occasional serious long term and rare fatal consequences. We report here a 17-year-old girl with blisters over her hands of five-days duration that appeared within 72 hours of applying a temporary henna paint to her hands during a social occasion. Similar lesions were noted on her face. She had previously applied black henna only once, a year earlier without developing any lesions. Clinical diagnosis of acute allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was made. After a short course of oral corticosteroids, topical mometasone furaote 1.0% cream, and oral antihistamines, the lesions healed completely over the next four weeks leaving post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. Patch testing done with standard European battery, PPD 1% in petrolatum, and commercially available natural henna powder revealed a 3+ reaction to PPD at 48 hours. No reaction was seen at the natural henna site. Awareness of the condition among physicians and the public and regulation regarding warnings of the risks of using such products is urgently warranted. PMID:14684936

  8. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Trichotillomania Dealing With a Health Condition Taking Care of Your Hair Skin, Hair, and Nails Body Image and Self-Esteem Alopecia: Kayla's Story Dealing With Cancer Contact Us ...

  9. 9种氧化型染发剂中染料的高效液相色谱测定法%Determination of Nine Kinds of Oxidative Hair Dyes by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁琳; 龙朝阳; 许秀敏; 吴西梅; 高燕红

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立9种氧化型染发剂中染料的高效液相色谱检测方法,对《化妆品卫生规范》中的氧化型染料的高效液相色谱法进行改进和补充.方法采用乙醇(1+1)作为提取液,以1%抗坏血酸作为抗氧化剂,以Supelco C18(250mmx4.6mm,5μm)为色谱分析柱,以乙腈-三乙醇胺水溶液(pH=7.5)为流动相洗脱,流量为1.0ml/min,检测波长为280nm,进行高效液相色谱法测定.结果 9种氧化型染料在50~250μg/ml范围内呈良好线性,相关系数均大于0.9990,检出浓度为150~800μg/g,方法的回收率为87.4%~119.6%,RS为1.2%~6.2%.结论 改进后的方法准确可靠,是对《化妆品卫生规范》中的氧化型染料测定方法的有效修改和补充.%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of oxidative hair dyes, and to modified the method for the determination of oxidative hair dyes in Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics. Methods Ethanol (1 + 1) was used as the extracting solution, 1% ascorbic acid as antioxidants, Supelco C|8 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 u,m) was used as analytical column and acetonitrile-aqueous solution of triethanolamine (pH=7.5) as mobile phase eluting at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, the detective wavelength was 280 nm, the prepared samples were analyzed by HPLC. Results The method for the determination of nine kinds of oxidized dye presented a good linear relationship between 50 -250 (Xg/ml, the linear correlation coefficients were more than 0.999 0, the limit of detection was 150-800 u,g/g, the average recoveries were 87.4% -119.6%, the relative standard deviations were 1.2%-6.2%. Conclusion The modified method is more accurate and reliable.

  10. Einstein Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Kolyvaris, Theodoros; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Siopsis, George

    2011-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system of vanishing cosmological constant consisting of an electromagnetic field and a scalar field coupled to the Einstein tensor. A Reissner-Nordstr{\\o}m black hole undergoes a second-order phase transition to a hairy black hole of generally anisotropic hair at a certain critical temperature which we compute. The no-hair theorem is evaded due to the coupling between the scalar field and the Einstein tensor ("Einstein hair"). We calculate explicitly the properties of a hairy black hole configuration near the critical temperature and show that it is energetically favorable over the corresponding Reissner-Nordstr{\\o}m black hole.

  11. Nanoporous of W/WO{sub 3} thin film electrode grown by electrochemical anodization applied in the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the basic red 51 used in hair dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Luciano E.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B., E-mail: fraga@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Self-organized W/WO{sub 3} nanoporous electrodes can be obtained by simple electrochemical anodization of W foil in 0.15 mol L{sup -1} NaF solution as the supporting electrolyte, applying a ramp potential of 0.2 V s{sup -1} until it reached 60 V, which was maintained for 2 h. The monoclinic form is majority in the highly ordered WO{sub 3} annealed at 450 deg C, obtaining a higher photoactivity when irradiated by visible light than by UV light. The electrode promotes complete discoloration of the investigated basic red 51 dye after 60 min of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, on current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} and irradiation on wavelength of 420-630 nm. In this condition it was obtained 63% of mineralization. Lower efficiency is obtained for the system irradiated by wavelength (280- 400 nm) when only 40% of total organic carbon removal is obtained and 120 min is required for complete discoloration. (author)

  12. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  13. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warm and provides a little cushioning for your skull. Eyelashes protect your eyes by decreasing the amount ... Colors What kind of hair do you have — black and curly, blond and straight, or some other ...

  14. UPLC-MS/MS同时检测染发剂中三种二氨基酚类物质%Determinauon of 3 diaminopnenols in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鹏; 耿金培; 许红岩; 李晓玉; 李金强; 梁君妮; 沙美兰

    2011-01-01

    建立了超高效液相色谱-串联质谱( UPLC-MS/MS)同时检测染发剂中三种二氨基酚类物质(2,4-二氨基苯酚盐酸盐、2,4-二氨基苯甲醚盐酸盐、2,3-二氨基苯酚)含量的方法.样品经0.1%甲酸水溶液提取,正己烷净化后,用Waters ACQUITY BEH Shield RP18色谱柱进行分离,流动相为甲醇和5 mmol/L乙酸铵-0.1%甲酸溶液.分离后采用多反应监测模式进行检测,外标法定量.在优化实验条件下,三种化合物的线性范围为10 ~ 500.μg/L,相关系数均大于0.998.三种二氨基酚类化合物的检出限为3μg/kg,定量下限为10μg/kg,加标平均回收率为80.3%~113.5%,相对标准偏差均不高于8.6%.该方法适用于染发剂中三种二氨基酚类物质的定量及确证分析.%An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple-quadruple tandem mass speetrometric ( UPLC-ESI MS/MS) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of three diaminophenols, including 2,4-diaminophenol dihydrochloride, 2,4-diaminoanisole dihydrochloride, and 2,3-Diaminophenol, in hair dyes. The diaminophenols were extracted by water - 0. 1 % formic acid and cleaned up by n-hexane. The separation was carried out by an ACQUITY? BEH Shield RP18 column using methanol and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate - 0. 1 % formic acid as the mobile phase. The target compounds were confirmed and quantified by MS-MS under multiple-reaction monitering ( MRM) mode with external standard method. Extraction and chromatographic conditions were optimized and the best separation was obtained. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 10 ~ 500 jxg/L for the three compounds with correlation coefficients more than 0.998. The limits of detection (LOD) were 3 fig/kg, and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 10 jxg/kg. The average recoveries of 3 diaminophenols were between 80.3% and 113. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) no more than 8

  15. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones por tinturas para el cabello son infrecuentes en Antioquia; sin embargo, su toxicidad es potencialmente letal cuando ingresan al organismo por vía oral al producir un compromiso multiorgánico que puede llevar a la muerte del paciente. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 2 años que ingirió una dosis de 125 mg/kg de parafenilendiamina, asociada a ácido bórico y perborato de sodio, compuestos que hacen parte de una presentación comercial de una tintura para el cabello; la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina tuvo como consecuencia principal la obstrucción de la vía aérea por angioedema que requirió intubación endotraqueal, soporte ventilatorio y administración de esteroides y antihistamínicos; secundario al compromiso aéreo la paciente presentó edema agudo de pulmón y posteriormente un cuadro neumónico que requirió tratamiento con antibióticos. Adicionalmente presentó rabdomiolisis severa que se trató con líquidos endovenosos para que no se comprometiera la función renal. Luego de una terapia durante 10 días en el hospital, la niña fue dada de alta con resolución completa del cuadro tóxico. Se revisan los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina, dado que este fue el compuesto tóxico clínicamente importante en el contexto de este caso. There have been few cases reported of intoxication by hair dyes in Antioquia; however, their toxicity may be potentially lethal when their components enter the organism by oral route inducing a multiorganic compromise that may lead to death. We report the case of a two year old girl who ingested 125mg/kg of paraphenylenediamine, with boric acid and sodium perborate; these compounds are part of the commercial presentation of a hair dye; the child suffered airway obstruction because of angioedema that required intubation, ventila tory support, steroids and antihistaminics; due to

  16. Determination of p-phenylenediamine content in hair dye by flow injection analysis of chemiluminescence intensity inhibition%流动注射化学发光抑制法测定染发剂中对苯二胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小宁

    2011-01-01

    Through the study on chemiluminescence intensity inhibition effect of p -phenylenediamine on Na2CO3 -NaNO2 -H2O2 system,a flow injection analysis method for determination of p- phenylenediamine content in hair dye product was established. Experimental work results showed that, under the selected optimal conditions, the p - phenylenediamine solution mass concentration and the reduction of the value of the chemiluminescence intensity displays good linear relationship. In eleven parallel tests carried out with p-phenylenediamine solution of mass concentration of 1.0 × 10-4 g · L-1, the relative standard deviation is 0. 58% ,and the detection limit is 1.5 × 10-7 g· L-1.%通过对酸性介质中对苯二胺抑制Na2CO3-NaNO2-H2O2体系的化学发光进行研究,建立了一种流动注射-抑制化学发光测定染发剂中对苯二胺的方法.实验结果表明,在所选择的优化条件下,对苯二胺溶液的质量浓度与化学发光强度的降低值呈良好的线性关系,对质量浓度为1.0×10-4g·L-1的对苯二胺溶液进行11次平行测定的相对标准偏差为0.58%,检出限为1.5×10-7g·L-1.

  17. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... methods of hair removal. back to top Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  18. Relationship between polymorphism of arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 and genetic susceptibility to hair dye dermatitis%N-乙酰基转移酶2基因多态性与染发皮炎易感性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋艳; 徐宏俊; 刘原君; 姚卫锋; 刘全忠

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨N-乙酰基转移酶2(NAT2)基因多态性与中国人染发皮炎遗传易感性的关系.方法 应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)及限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP)技术检测和分析天津地区60例染发皮炎患者及73例正常对照者的NAT2野生型等位基因(NAT2*4)和3个常见突变位点(NAT2*5A,NAT2*6B和NAT2*7A)的基因多态性,比较NAT2各等位基因及基因型频率在染发皮炎组与对照组间分布差异.结果 NAT2等位基因NAT2*4,NAT2*5A,NAT2*6B和NAT2*7A在染发皮炎组中的分布频率分别是52.5%,5.0%,26.7%,15.8%,在对照组中为55.5%,3.4%,27.4%,13.7%,两组相比差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);快型、中间型、慢型基因型在染发皮炎组中频率分别是26.7%,51.7%,21.7%,在对照组中为30.1%,50.7%,19.2%,与对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 NAT2基因多态性与中国汉族人染发皮炎遗传易感性无关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and hair dye dermatitis in a Chinese population. Methods Polymorphism chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used and the wild-type allele (NAT2 * 4) and three mutant alleles (NAT2 * 5A, 6B and 7A) were determined in 60 patients with hair dye dermatitis and 73 age-matched control subjects in Tianjin region. Results In hair dye dermatitis cases, the frequency of NAT2 * 4, NAT2 * 5A, NAT2 * 6B, NAT2 * 7A was 52. 5 % , 5. 0 % ,26.7 % and 15. 8 %, respectively, and no statistically significant difference of the frequencies was found between the hair dye dermatitis patients and controls (P>0. 05). The frequency of rapid genotype, intermediate genotype and slow genotype was 26. 7 % , 51. 7 % and 21. 7 % in hair dye dermatitis cases, 30. 1 %, 50. 7 % and 19. 2 % in control subjects, respectively, and no statistically significant difference of the frequencies between the two groups (P>0. 05). Conclusions Our study suggests that there might be

  19. The clinical study on the risk of permanent hair dye use for connective tissue disease with positive antinuclear antibodies%永久性染发剂与抗核抗体阳性结缔组织病发病风险的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫玉芳; 魏巧凤; 王秀花; 吕明; 李兴福

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of permanent hair dye use for connective tissue disease ( CTD ) with positive antinuclear antibodies ( ANA ).Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to analyze 440 CTD patients from the department of our hospital.Four hundreds and forty patients' relatives or friends who were free from any CTD were selected as controls.Patients and controls were matched in sex and age.A face-to-face interview was adopted to finish questionnaires about subjects' demographic data and the use of permanent hair dye.Data about the duration,frequency,times of usage and allergy related to hair dye were collected.Medical history was also reviewed,such as the diagnosis,disease course,primary symptoms,serum tests and organ involvements.Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 17.0 software using x2 test and Logistic regression.Results The association between the use of permanent hair dye and CTD did not reach statistical significance (OR=1.282,95%CI 0.966-1.700,P=0.085 ),when the relationship of hair dye use with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was tested,the same result (OR=1.092,95%CI 0.795-1.500,P=0.587 ) could be revealed.Conclusion This preliminary study has shown that the use of permanent hair dye couldn't induce the occurrence of CTD.%目的 探讨使用永久性染发剂与抗核抗体阳性结缔组织病(CTD)发病的风险.方法 采用病例对照研究,对440例CTD患者和性别、年龄相匹配的440名健康的患者家属或朋友进行比较分析.采用面对面的交谈,以调查问卷的方式记录研究对象的基本信息和染发信息(包括染发时间、染发频率、染发次数及与染发相关的过敏).记录病例组的现病史,包括疾病的诊断、病程、初发症状、各脏器受累情况及各项实验室检查.应用SPSS 17.0软件进行x2检验和Logistic回归分析.结果 使用永久性染发剂与CTD发病无明确因果关系[比值比(OR)=1.282,95%可信区间(CI)0.966~1

  20. 气相色谱法测定染发剂中13种染料及杂质%GC Determination of 13 Dyes and Impurities in Hair Colorants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱然; 张旭龙; 王吉德; 刘俊

    2012-01-01

    提出了应用气相色谱法同时测定染发剂中苯酚、邻苯二胺、间苯二胺、对苯二胺、邻苯二酚、间苯二酚、对苯二酚、间氨基苯酚、对氨基苯酚、2,6-二氨基吡啶、2-甲基雷琐辛、5-氨基-2-甲基苯酚、3,4-二氨基甲苯等13染料含量的方法。染发剂样品经乙酸乙酯超声萃取15min,经AgilentHP-5(30m×0.32mm,0.25μm)毛细管柱分离,用氢火焰离子化检测器检测。13种染料的质量浓度均在10-00mg·L叫范围内呈线性,方法的检出限(3S/N)均小于1mg·L-1。在50,100,200mg·L-1等3个添加水平下,13种染料的回收率在85.4%~103.5%之间,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=6)在1.2%~5.2%之间。%A method of CA2 for simultaneous determination of 13 dyes, including phenol, o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, o dihydroxybenzene, m-dihydroxybenzene, p-dihydroxybenzene, m-aminophenol, p-aminophenol, 2, 6-diamino-pyridine, 2-methylresorcinol, 5-amino-2-methylphenol and 3, 4- diamino-methylbenzene in hair colorants was proposed. The 13 dyes in sample were ultrasonically extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on HP-5 capillary chromatographic column (30m×0.32mm,0.25μm) and detected by flame ionization detector (FID). Linearity ranges for the 13 dyes were found in the same range of 10- 500 mg·L-1, with detection limits (3S/N) less than 1mg·L-1. Tests for recovery were carried out at three concentration levels of 50, 100 and 200mg·L-1, giving values of recovery in the range from 85.4% to 103.5% and RSD's (n= 6) in the range from 1.2% to 5.2%.

  1. Ultrastructural analysis of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line reveals an early mitochondrial response.

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Kelly,; Cunningham, Dale,; Macdonald, Glen; Rubel, Edwin,; Raible, David,; Pujol, Remy

    2007-01-01

    Loss of the mechanosensory hair cells in the auditory and vestibular organs leads to hearing and balance deficits. To investigate initial, in vivo events in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage, we examined hair cells from the lateral line of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mechanosensory lateral line is located externally on the animal and therefore allows direct manipulation and observation of hair cells. Labeling with vital dyes revealed a rapid response of hair cells to the aminoglycos...

  2. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations. PMID:20384898

  3. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  4. Halting the allergic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, Hugo P; Samuel, Sudesh T; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, has increased exponentially. In Singapore, the prevalence of asthma at all ages exceeds 20%, and around 50% of Singaporean children show features of an underlying allergy. The exact environmental causes for the increase of allergic diseases have not yet been identified, but most researchers agree that a decreased bacterial load in young children may be one of the reasons for the increase. However, the causes of allergy are multiple, and the development of an allergic disease is the result of complex interactions between genetic constitution and environmental factors. In this review article, different aspects of allergic sensitization are covered, including prenatal and postnatal sensitization. The phenomenon of the "allergic march" (switching from one clinical expression of allergy to another) and its underlying mechanisms are discussed. The last part of this review article is on prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including the role of bacterial products (probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and the role of immunotherapy, including sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:23283392

  5. Analysis of correlation between hair dyeing times and prognostic factors of myeloid dysplastic syndrome%染发次数与骨髓增生异常综合征患者部分预后因素的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 孙璐; 赵佑山; 张曦; 张征; 常春康

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析染发次数与骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)患者的血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)值、染色体分型、国际预后积分系统(IPSS)评分、骨髓网硬蛋白定量间的相关性.方法:将我院108例初诊的MDS患者按染发剂使用次数分组,比较各组间LDH值、染色体分型、IPSS积分、网硬蛋白定量等指标的差异;分析观察指标与染发次数间的相关性.结果:108例MDS患者中,难治性贫血4例,难治性贫血伴环形铁粒细胞9例,难治性血细胞减少伴多系发育异常46例,难治性贫血伴原始细胞增多34例,MDS不能分类者8例,5q-者7例.不同染发组MDS患者间LDH值、IPSS积分、骨髓网硬蛋白定量、染色体核型的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),且与染发次数呈正相关.结论:染发剂的使用对MDS患者的预后具有一定影响.%Objective To analysis the correlation between times of hair dyeing and serum level of LDH, chromosome typing, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), bone marrow reticulin quantitative parameter in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods One hundred and eight patients with primary diagnosis of MDS were enrolled (including refractory anemia 4 cases, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts 9 cases, refractory cytopenia with multilin-eage dysplasia (RCMD) 46 cases, refractory anemia with excess blasts 34 cases, unclassified myelodysplastic syndrome 8 cases, 5q- MDS 7 cases).Patients were divided into different groups in accordance with the times of hair dyeing, and comparisons were made in serum LDH level, chromosome type, IPSS , bone marrow reticulin quantitative parameter between these groups and an analysis was made. Results Differences in serum LDH level, chromosome type, IPSS, bone marrow reticulin quantitative parameter between different hair dyeing times groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Times of hair dyeing was correlated positively with these criteria Conclusins Use of hair dye has

  6. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distribution of melanin in the cortex of each hair (the same melanin that's found in the epidermis). Hair also contains ... red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have only a small amount of melanin in their hair. Hair becomes gray when people ...

  7. Going to Court Over Hair Dye Allegations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜浩

    2002-01-01

    近年花甲,两鬓渐白,乃人间一景。但头发若仍保持原色,不显苍白,也未必会产生多大的轰动效应。可这事发生在名人身上,轩然大波也许在所难免了。德国总理施罗德因为否认曾染过头发,而反对党认为:58岁的他不可能看不出有白发,由此,双方展开激烈的争论,进而引申到人的“诚信”问题!

  8. Application of Fenton heterogeneous dog hair solid catalyst in decoloration of simulated reactive dye wastewater%非均相Fenton狗毛固体催化剂在活性染料模拟废染液脱色中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨晓; 王雪燕

    2014-01-01

    以狗毛作为催化剂载体,采用浸渍法负载Fe3+,制备了非均相Fenton反应催化剂,并将其用于催化活性蓝M-B模拟废染液的脱色.结果表明:在初始染料质量浓度为100 mg/L的50 mL模拟废染液中,添加Fe3+吸附量为33.0 mg/g的狗毛非均相Fenton反应催化剂0.4 g以及30%的H2O20.4 mL/L,脱色液pH控制在6左右,室温(25℃)下,脱色反应120 min,活性蓝M-B脱色率可达85%.%Fenton reaction heterogeneous catalyst was prepared using dog hair as the catalyst carrier with impregnation method loading Fe3+, which was catalyzed the decoloration of Reactive Blue M-B simulated dye wastewater. The experimental results showed that: the initial dye concentration was 100 mg/L of simulat-ed waste dye 50 mL, addition 0.4 g of heterogeneous Fenton catalyst dog hair with 33.0 mg/g of Fe3+ adsorp-tion amount and 0.4 mL/L of 30% H2O2, decoloration solution pH was control ed at about 6, reacted at room temperature (25℃) for 120 min, the decoloration rate of Reactive Blue M-B could reach 85%.

  9. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  10. Laser Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Removal, Laser A A A AFTER: Two laser hair removal treatments were performed. This picture is ... Procedure Overview With just the right type of laser or Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) technology, suitable hairs ...

  11. Changing Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Changing Your Hair KidsHealth > For Kids > Changing Your Hair Print A ... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  13. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  14. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  15. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  16. 天然植物染发剂%The Natural Plant Hair-dying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆伟伟; 李志洲

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the structure and composition of hair, the mechanism of hair dye was summarized and the hair dye was classified again. Meanwhile, the chemical composition of hair dyes and natural plant hair dye were compared, the emphasis was on the great advantages of natural plant hair dye and development prospects. The present development of natural plant hair dye and application technology of breakthrough and innovation was focused on. In addition, the sensitization of hair dye was analyzed and a considerable solution was put forward. Finally, the development of natural plant hair dye was put on the technical field of great expectations and support.%从头发的结构和组成出发,总结染发剂的作用机理并对染发剂进行再次分类;同时将化学合成类染发剂与天然植物类染发剂进行比较,着重突出了天然植物染发剂的巨大优势及发展前景;重点阐述了天然植物染发剂的发展现状及其应用技术上的突破和革新,另外对于染发剂的致敏性进行分析,并提出了可观的解决方案和思路。最后,对天然植物染发剂在技术领域上的发展寄予厚望和支持。

  17. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  18. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  19. PA01.05. Formulation & Evaluation of herbomineral natural hair colorant

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjari, Anita S.; Bhutada, S.; Jadhao, Sanjivani; Desa, Priti; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Irrespective of age, Graying of hairs (pallitya) has become a crucial problem in the present era. The varied reasons like genetic factor, environmental factor, life style, faulty food habits etc. are causative factors. To overcome the problem of Pallitya many synthetic dyes are used by the community. But these dyes are having chief disadvantage of producing hypersensitivity in some individuals. The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barb...

  20. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective survey of possible allergic reactions during anaesthesia was to investigate whether the cause suspected by anaesthetists involved corresponded with the cause found on subsequent investigation in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC). METHODS: Case...... notes and anaesthetic charts from 111 reactions in 107 patients investigated in the DAAC were scrutinized for either suspicions of or warnings against specific substances stated to be the cause of the supposed allergic reaction. RESULTS: In 67 cases, one or more substances were suspected. In 49 of these...... match, the right substance being suspected, but investigations showed an additional allergen or several substances, including the right substance being suspected. CONCLUSIONS: An informed guess is not a reliable way of determining the cause of a supposed allergic reaction during anaesthesia and may put...

  1. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from the use of permanent hair dyes is common. Approximately 100 hair dye chemicals are permitted in Europe. Hair dye ingredients may change over time, and hence new hair dye allergens should be looked for continuously. OBJECTIVES: To review...

  2. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the...... present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  3. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  4. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26359937

  5. Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectr...

  6. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  7. Periostin in Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  8. Common Hair Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the top of the head. Women may develop female pattern baldness in which the hair becomes thin over the ... is most commonly seen in children. Hair Loss, Female Pattern Baldness (Female Pattern Alopecia) Female pattern baldness (alopecia) is ...

  9. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This ... scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

  10. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating disorder: When a person has an eating disorder, hair loss is common. Anorexia (not eating enough) and bulimia (vomiting after eating) can cause hair loss. Medicine Some prescription medicines can cause ...

  11. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  13. Bubble Hair and Other Acquired Hair Shaft Anomalies due to Hot Ironing on Wet Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Savitha, AS; Sacchidanand, S; Revathy, TN

    2011-01-01

    Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality characterized by multiple airfilled spaces within the hair shaft. It is a result of thermal injury. We report a classic case of 22-year-old female who complained of dry brittle hair of two-week duration. Patient had used hot iron on wet hair twice to straighten hair. Hair microscopy was diagnostic and showed multiple air-filled spaces within the hair shaft.

  14. Hair transplantation: Innovations, applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Civaş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant improvement in hair transplantation techniques and results owing to hair transplant experience and the development of more suitable microsurgery equipment. In fact, almost natural looking results are beginning to be achieved. This article provides a general assessment of the indications of technical innovations of hair transplant techniques by elaborating the effects of latest hair transplant techniques on patient selection.

  15. Hair transplantation: Innovations, applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Civaş

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant improvement in hair transplantation techniques and results owing to hair transplant experience and the development of more suitable microsurgery equipment. In fact, almost natural looking results are beginning to be achieved. This article provides a general assessment of the indications of technical innovations of hair transplant techniques by elaborating the effects of latest hair transplant techniques on patient selection.

  16. A CLINICAL STUDY ON ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS TO TURMERIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok babu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:- BACKGROUND: In south India it is a culture among ladies to use turmeric for beautiful white skin, to remove unwanted hair on the face, in this context I have encountered ladies coming with redness, itching, burning and vesiculation of skin after application of turmeric and also especially on forehead, hair parting after applicat ion of kumkum which is prepared from turmeric and which is traditionally followed by Hindu women. AIM : To evaluate incidence of allergic contact dermatitis due to turmeric in female by patch testi ng. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 clinical suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis in f emales of all age groups who were using turmeric were taken and also 20 females who were not using t urmeric were taken and patch testing was done with Indian standard series (ISS, kumkum, and prep ared turmeric allergens (ethanol extract, sediment, raw turmeric and commercial preparations . RESULTS: Out of 50 cases tested 44 cases were positive for different turmeric antigens (88% . The incidence of kumkum allergy is also high. All the 20 females who were not using turmeric were neg ative. Conclusion: Apart from immense beneficial effects of turmeric, allergic contact de rmatitis due to turmeric has been demonstrated and confirmed through patch testing in the present stud y.

  17. Hair tourniquet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangroo A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequently unrecognized and potentially devastating form of penile strangulation is that caused by human hair. Hair tourniquet syndrome frequently occurs during the time period when post partum mothers are experiencing increased hair loss. The majority of cases are thought to be accidental, however possibility of child abuse should be considered in every case.

  18. Hair transplantation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Manoj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science.

  19. Hair transplantation update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  20. Hair transplantation surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Manoj

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science.

  1. The association between hair dyes and bladder cancer:a systematic review and Meta-analysis of dose-response%染发剂与膀胱癌发病关系的系统评价及剂量-反应 Met a分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段支前; 徐畅; 曾宪涛; 刘同族

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer .Methods Da-tabases including PubMed ,Embase ,Cochrane Library ,CNKI ,VIP and CDDB were searched for relevant studies on the asso-ciation between hair dyes and bladder cancer up to Dec .14 ,2013 .The references of the articles and recent reviews were manu-ally retrieved .Literature screening and data extracting were carried out by two reviewers independently .Meta-analysis and rel-evant statistical analysis were conducted using StataSE12 .0 software .Results A total of 17 articles were included .Compared with non users ,the pooled OR of bladder cancer for users was 0 .84 (95% CI :0 .67-1 .05) ,and the discrepancy had no statisti-cal significance;for females ,the pooled OR was 0 .89 (95% CI :0 .80-1 .00);for both male and female ,the pooled OR was 1.03 (95% CI :0 .83-1 .28) ,still showing no statistical significance .Dose-response Meta-analysis showed 5-year use did not raise the risk of bladder cancer (RR= 1 .05 ,95% CI :0 .99-1 .12);the relevant RR was 1 .5 (95% CI :1 .09-2 .06) for 22 .5-year use and 1 .63 (95% CI:1 .13-2 .36) for 28 .5-year use .Conclusions Use of hair dyes does not increase the risk of blad-der cancer for men;but there is an inverse correlation between hair dye use and bladder cancer for woman ,and when using hair dyes for an average of 22 .5 years ,women may have increased risk of bladder cancer .%目的:探讨染发剂与膀胱癌发病之间的关联性。方法计算机检索PubMed、Embase、Cochrane Library、中国知网、维普中文科技期刊数据库、万方数据库,查找并筛选有关染发剂与膀胱癌发病的研究,浏览相关综述,同时手工检索结果中所附相似文献及参考文献,检索时限为建库至2013年12月14日。由2名系统评价员单独进行文献筛选及资料提取,采用StataSE12.0软件进行Meta分析及其他统计学分析。结果共纳入文献17篇,对于男性

  2. Radioactivation analysis of hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of indicating environmental pollution effects by heavy metals on humans using hair, nondestructive activation analysis was applied to 382 normal Japanese hair samples (background level). Elemental contents of hair could be determined for Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ti, V and Zn. As these elements in hair have wide concentration ranges, the differences in concentration distribution between groups (sex, age, permanent treatment and regional difference) are discussed. A method for hair sampling is presented. (author)

  3. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    OpenAIRE

    Trifunović Gordana; Plavec Goran; Tomić Ilija; Popović Lidija; Stefanović Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA) - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age) was admitted t...

  4. Studies of some Heavy Metals Profile in Hair, Nail and Plasma Samples of Normal and Allergy Patients of Sargodha Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various metal concentrations in hairs, nails and blood plasma of allergic and non-allergic (as a control) patients were assessed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Remarkable changes were observed in concentration of Co, Ni, Mn and Cr while almost same concentration of Cu, Cd and Zn were observed in all patients and control subjects. While in blood plasma increase in concentration of Zn was observed in all patients in contrast to Cu that have increased in male while remain unchanged in females. The concentration profile of heavy metals in different parts of the body showed key impact on allergy disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the concentration of some trace metals in allergic subjects and healthy controls. The study was taken using three body parts, nail, hairs and blood, of 18 allergic females and 15 non smoker allergic male patients were investigated by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Decrease in concentration of Co, Ni and Mn were observed while that of Cr was increased and almost change were seen in the concentration of Cu, Cd and, Zn. All allergic subjects are compared to their respective controls. While the concentration of Co, Ni and Mn was decreased and the concentration of Cr was increased in both male and female allergic subjects as compare to their respective controls. In case of plasma the concentration of Zn was increased in both male and female allergic subjects. But the concentration of Cu was increased in male allergic subjects and in female allergic subjects its concentration remained almost same as for controls. The concentration of Cr and Cd remains the same in both male and female allergic subjects. While the concentration of Mn, Ni and Co was decreased in both male and female allergic subjects. (author)

  5. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  6. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pulling them out without professional help can cause hair and scalp damage or even hair loss. Sometimes hair breakage and dry, brittle hair are signs of a medical problem, such as hypothyroidism or an eating disorder. If your hair is breaking even though you ...

  7. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

  8. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  9. Female pattern hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    İdil Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatm...

  10. Female pattern hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Singal; Sidharth Sonthalia; Prashant Verma

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident...

  11. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  12. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Tobias; Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the ...

  13. Hair Follicle Pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2005-01-01

    Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of...

  14. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  15. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  16. Tarantula hair keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

    2012-10-26

    We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

  17. Isolation and Screening of Water Microbes for Decolourisation of Textile Dye Waste

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Singh,; Ranjan, R.; Pranay P. Pankaj*

    2016-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in textile industry. Unused dyes, consisting mainly non biodegradable released along with waste water streams without any proper pre-treatment which cause nuisance for environment and accumulate in flora as well as fauna. These also exhibit allergic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties for human beings. Isolation and screening of azo dye degrading bacteria are economic in biodegradation and detoxification. In the present study, 200 waste water samples were collected...

  18. PREVALENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajlaxmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a disease of young immune competent adults. Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal allergy and proptosis were the most common presentations. Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires high index of suspicion in patients presenting with chronic rhino sinusitis, such cases should be properly evaluated. Differentiation from invasive forms of fungal sinus disease is crucial

  19. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

  20. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahide Eriş Eken; Banu Taşkın; Sibel Alper

    2014-01-01

    Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hai...

  1. 超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定染发剂中6种染料%Simultaneous determination of six components in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游飞明

    2015-01-01

    建立了同时测定染发剂中4,4′-二氨基二苯胺硫酸盐和2,4-二氨基苯酚硫酸盐等6种染料的超高效液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)分析方法。以水为提取剂进行超声提取,用 Waters BEH-C18柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,1.7μm)分离,以10 mmol/L的乙酸铵和乙腈为流动相进行梯度洗脱。在电喷雾正离子模式下,采用多反应监测(MRM)模式进行定性和定量分析。6种染料在相应的质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,线性相关系数(R2)均大于0.99,检出限为0.26~4.6 mg/kg,回收率为83.0%~92.2%,相对标准偏差为5.4%~11.2%。方法精密度、准确度、回收率和基质效应均符合染发剂样品测定的要求,用于实际样品测定,结果满意。本方法准确、简便、快速,适用于染发剂中6种染料的分析测定。%A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six compo-nents which included 4,4′-diaminodiphenylamine sulfate hydrate and 2,4-diaminophenol sul-fate,etc. in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by water through ultrasonic extraction,the samples were ana-lyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The separation was performed on a Waters BEH-C 18 column( 100 mm × 2. 1 mm,1. 7 μm)with gradient elution of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The electrospray ionization( ESI)source in positive ion mode was used for the analysis of the six components in the multiple reaction monitoring( MRM)mode. The results showed good linear relationships with all the correlation coefficients(R2)more than 0. 99. The limits of detection (LODs,S/N=3)for the six components were in the range of 0. 26-4. 6 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the six components in the spiked samples were in the range of 83. 0%-92. 2% with the relative standard deviations( RSDs,n=6)of 5. 4%-11. 2%. The precision,accuracy,mean recoveries and the matrix effects

  2. Analysis of nine derivatives of phenylenediamine and p-Aminophenol in Hair Dyes by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定染发剂中9种苯二胺类化合物和p-氨基苯酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光斌; 倪辉; 欧光南; 蔡慧农; 胡阳

    2015-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)method was developed for the determination of 10 derivatives of phenylenediamine in hair dyes. Dyes were separated on a Discovery RP-Am ide C16 silica column(250mm × 4.6mm, 5μm,Supelco),the gradient elution of the compounds was performed by HPLC using mobile phase composed of acetonitrile,phosphate buffer and the ion-pairing reagent with methanol-25mM phosphate buffer(pH=6.0)containing 0.1%1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt ,and detection wavelength of 250nm and 280nm.the flow rate was 1.0ml/min and the column temperature was 30℃. The linear range were from 0.500mg/L to 400mg/L and the R were from 0.9992 to 0.9999. the detectable limits were from 18mg/Kg~113mg/Kg and the quantificative limits were from 42mg/Kg to 373mg/Kg ,the coefficient of variations were less than 10% and the recovery rates were from 86% to 104%. The methods of high performance liquid chromatography introduced in this paper is simple,rapid,accurate and is applicable to the analysis of various hair dyes.%建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)同时测定染发剂中9种苯二胺类化合物和p-氨基苯酚的方法。采用Discovery RP-Am ide C16柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm,美国Supelco公司)为固定相,25mmol/L磷酸缓冲液体系(pH=6.0,含0.1%的辛烷磺酸钠)和乙腈为流动相,流速1.0ml/min,柱温30℃,进样量20μL,检测波长250nm和280nm。该方法各组分的线性范围为0.500mg/L~400mg/L,相关系数R为0.9992~0.9999,检出限为18mg/Kg~113mg/Kg,定量限为42mg/Kg~373mg/Kg,相对标准偏差RSD<10%,加标回收率为86%~104%。该检测方法具有简便、快速、准确等特点,基本满足实际样品的分析要求。

  3. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious. PMID:10524269

  4. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  5. Application of Purified Lawsone as Natural Dye on Cotton and Silk Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahabub Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The color which is obtained from the leaves of Henna, that is, Lawsonia inermis L., is used frequently in hair coloring. It is the chemical lawsone that is responsible for the reddish brown color. Its content makes it a substantive dye for dyeing the textile materials. This work concerns with the extraction and purification of natural dyestuff from a plant Lawsonia inermis L. and dyeing of cotton and silk fabric in exhaust dyeing method. The dye portion is isolated from the total extract by column chromatography and is evaluated by dyeing cotton and silk under different dyeing conditions. The color strength and fastness properties of the dye are undertaken by changing mordant and techniques of mordanting. The changes of colors have been noticed by using different types of mordant. The dye exhaustion percentage, wash, rubbing, and light fastness results reveal that the extract of henna can be used for coloration of cotton and silk fabric.

  6. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  7. Remission of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    - to 69-year-old patients in 1990 were invited to a follow-up in 1998. Questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and serum for specific IgE (s-IgE) analyses were collected at both visits in 734 subjects (69% of those invited). Pollen AR was defined as rhinitis symptoms on pollen exposure within the last......BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and sensitization are considered chronic conditions. However, few studies have reported remission rates in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the incidence of remission of AR during an 8-year period. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15...... observed in only 22% of remitting subjects yet was seen significantly more often than in nonremitting subjects (7.4%). Remission of sensitization occurred in 6% (HDM) to 11% (pollen-furry animal) and was predicted on the basis of low s-IgE levels (class 2) at baseline. CONCLUSION: Remission of AR symptoms...

  8. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma. Discussion Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent dev...

  9. Biology of human hair : know your hair to control it

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Rita; Fernandes, Margarida M.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Gomes, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    Hair can be engineered at different levels—its structure and surface—through modification of its constituent molecules, in particular proteins, but also the hair follicle (HF) can be genetically altered, in particular with the advent of siRNA-based applications. General aspects of hair biology are reviewed, as well as the most recent contributions to understanding hair pigmentation and the regulation of hair development. Focus will also be placed on the techniques developed specifically for d...

  10. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun . The dark or light color of someone's hair depends on how much melanin each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells ... cells in a hair follicle, that strand of hair will no longer contain as much melanin and will become a more transparent color — like ...

  11. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2013-01-01

    Aryl azo compounds are widely used as colorants (azo dyes) in a wide range of products including textiles, leather, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food.As part of its systematic re-evaluation of food additives, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has carried out new risk assessments of...... additives to be assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, many years ago, (ii) because of concern regarding possible health effects of artificial colours arising since the original evaluations.Concerns includedbehavioural effects in children, allergic reactions, genotoxicity and possible carcinogenicity...... allazo dyes permitted in food. EFSA has also evaluated a number of azo dyes found illegally in food in recent years, including Sudan dyes, Para Red and Orange II. The re-evaluation of all food colours, including the azo dyes,was considered high priority (i) because colorants were among the first...

  12. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  13. Application of Purified Lawsone as Natural Dye on Cotton and Silk Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mahabub Hasan; Khandakar Abu Nayem; Abu Yousuf Mohammad Anwarul Azim; Nayon Chandra Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    The color which is obtained from the leaves of Henna, that is, Lawsonia inermis L., is used frequently in hair coloring. It is the chemical lawsone that is responsible for the reddish brown color. Its content makes it a substantive dye for dyeing the textile materials. This work concerns with the extraction and purification of natural dyestuff from a plant Lawsonia inermis L. and dyeing of cotton and silk fabric in exhaust dyeing method. The dye portion is isolated from the total extract by ...

  14. Complications in hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  15. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases wi...

  16. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Bruno A.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth contr...

  17. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    OpenAIRE

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recur...

  18. Computer-Generated Photorealistic Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Alice J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for generating and rendering photorealistic hair in two dimensional pictures. The method consists of three major steps. Simulating an artist drawing is used to design the rough hair shape. A convolution based filter is then used to generate photorealistic hair patches. A refine procedure is finally used to blend the boundaries of the patches with surrounding areas. This method can be used to create all types of photorealistic human hair (head hair, faci...

  19. Enzymatic reduction and oxidation of fibre-bound azo-dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Pricelius, S.; Held, C; Sollner, S.; Deller, S.; Murkovic, M.; Ullrich, R; Hofrichter, M.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Macheroux, P.; Guebitz, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    A new customer and environmental friendly method of hair bound dye decolouration was developed. Biotransformation of the azo-dyes Flame Orange and Ruby Red was studied using different oxidoreductases. The pathways of azo dye conversion by these enzymes were investigated and the intermediates and metabolites were identified and characterised using UV–vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, manganese perox...

  20. Tips for Healthy Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  1. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  2. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  3. Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Improves the Symptomatology of Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Edmir Américo; Caldeira, Eduardo José; Carvalho, César Alexandre Fabrega; Cunha, Marcelo Rodriques; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius Henriques; Passos, Saulo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The relevance of allergic rhinitis is unquestionable. This condition affects people's quality of life and its incidence has increased over the last years. Objective Thus, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of subcutaneous injectable immunotherapy in cases of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis patients. Methods In the present study, the same researcher analyzed the records of 281 patients. Furthermore, the researchers identified allergens through puncture cutaneous tests using standardized extracts containing acari, fungi, pet hair, flower pollen, and feathers. Then, the patients underwent treatment with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy, using four vaccine vials for desensitization, associated with environmental hygiene. The authors analyzed conditions of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion throughout the treatment, and assigned them with a score ranging from zero (0), meaning absence of these symptoms to three (3), for severe cases. The symptoms were statistically compared in the beginning, during, and after treatment. Results In this study, authors analyzed the cases distribution according to age and the evolution of symptomatology according to the scores, comparing all phases of treatment. The average score for the entire population studied was 2.08 before treatment and 0.44 at the end. These results represent an overall improvement of ∼79% in symptomatology of allergic rhinitis in the studied population. Conclusion The subcutaneous immunotherapy as treatment of allergic rhinitis led to a reduction in all symptoms studied, improving the quality of life of patients, proving itself as an important therapeutic tool for these pathological conditions. PMID:26722338

  4. Nano-dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  5. UV Damage of the Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Šebetić, Klaudija; Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Čavka, Vlatka; Biljan, Darko; Krolo, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Hair is a very important for our self-confidence as well as a very important part of appearance and self-concept. It reflects our personality and hair loss or hair damages are considered aesthetic imperfections and social handicap. Outward part of the hair is a »hair shaft« keratin fiber structure sensible to external effects whether they are mechanical, physical or chemical. Excessive sun exposition is the most frequent cause of hair shaft’s structural impairment. Photochemical i...

  6. Immunology of the hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Doğan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicles are accepted as a component of skin in mammals. Considering the continuous contact with environment and microorganisms in the normal flora, it is crucial that various elements of immune system are necessary to reside within hair follicles. On the contrary, the protection of hair follicles from the intense anti-infective elements and autoimmunity is mandatory; hence some antigens are not expressed in hair follicle and construct an immune privileged area. In this review, immunologic functions of hair follicle and hair follicle immunology’s effect in pathogenesis of dermatological diseases are discussed in the light of recent studies.

  7. Aging changes in hair and nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are structures in the skin that make and grow hair. With aging, the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair. Graying often begins ...

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  9. The biology of hair diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  10. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  11. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  12. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness) is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category) wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and ...

  13. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  14. Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158581.html Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss Black women who prefer scalp-pulling hairdos ... News) -- Black women who like to wear their hair pulled back tightly may be increasing their risk ...

  15. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  16. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  17. The role of fungi in allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta A.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, asthma, airborne dermatitis, or allergic conjunctivitis, can be caused or aggravated by components of bioaerosol from natural environment or from indoor environment in enclosed spaces, workplaces and homes. The main components of bioaerosol are fungi and their metabolites, which are common in the environment.

  18. The Growth of Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  19. Future horizons in hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

  20. Geochemical environment and its influence on trace element content of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Evidences that geochemical environment can influence the elemental composition of the human hair have been searched for on the croatian island Krk in the northern Adriatic sea. All of the the collected environmental samples (soil, water, plant material) and human hair were analysed for 14 chemical elements by using EDXRF as an analytical tool. The contour maps for elemental concentration levels were produced by kriging gridding method with a linear variogram. Altogether, some 2,200 hair samples have been collected simultaneously with the recording of the answers to the questionnaire. Concentrations of the twelve chemical elements and nine variables from the questionnaire, i.e. age, sex, living place, transportation, medication, hair colour, hair type, type of shampoo used, hair treatment, were considered in the statistical analysis. The results of canonical correlation analysis show that from the nine variables used the three of them (sex, hair colour and hair treatment) have the greatest influence on the elemental concentrations measured in the hair samples. Analysis of variance shows that elements Mg, S, Ca and Ni are strongly sex dependent. Female's hairs have 2-4 times greater concentrations of these elements compared to the male's hair. Concentrations of Mg, S, Ca and Cr were mostly dependent on hair colour in the both sexes. Mg and S content significantly increase with hair darkness, while concentrations of Ca and Cr decrease from the black to the blond hair. It was also found that hair treatment (dyeing, bleaching, and permanent waving) results in the significant increase of Ca, S and Zn content in the hair. Concentrations maps for the chemical elements measured are also used in the evaluation of chemical elements transfer from soils to plants, and eventually through food chain to the inhabitants of the island. It has been demonstrated that some of diseases (i.e. goiter) can be related to the chemical composition of the soil. The influence of

  1. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  2. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AI...

  3. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  4. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ...

  5. Anacreon's pubic hair

    OpenAIRE

    Giangrande, Giusseppe

    1995-01-01

    Un análisis de Anacr. 13 Gent. demuestra que allen tina del verso 8 se refiere al vello púbico del poeta. An analysis of Anacr. 13 Gent. demonstrates that ᾶλλην τινά in line 8 denotes the poets's pubic hair.

  6. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adolescents may be teased, have low self esteem, anxiety or depression. Parents can become frustrated, as it is very difficult ... can’t simply stop pulling their hair. Neither parents nor children are to ... with self-esteem. In order to avoid punishment or embarrassment, children ...

  7. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Herget

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  8. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls......Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young...

  9. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  10. Black hole's 1/N hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers

  11. Element profiles of mouse hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Element profile patterns of growth and nongrowth phase hair were obtained for the C57L/J male mouse using a proton microprobe. Growth phase hair profiles of Cl, S, K and P show that these elements are concentrating in regions of higher pigmentation. Calcium is restricted to the medulla region in the hair shaft. For nongrowth phase hair, the profiles of Cl and S are essentially unchanged, whereas K and P are depleted in the hair shaft and are concentrating in the cornified root sheath. The element patterns found for the nongrowth phase profiles of mouse hair show striking similarities to previously reported patterns for growth profiles of human hair. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  13. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dyes, followed by aerobic transfo...

  14. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-01-01

    Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair ...

  15. Determination of seven aromatic amines in hair dyes by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking%毛细管电泳-场强放大样品堆积法检测染发剂中的7种苯胺类物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玉超; 王海燕; 宋萍萍; 刘书慧

    2011-01-01

    建立了毛细管电泳-场强放大样品堆积测定染发剂中4,4′-二氨基二苯甲烷、苯胺、邻甲氧基苯胺、对氨基苯甲醚、3,4-二甲基苯胺、间氨基苯酚、1-萘胺7种苯胺类物质的分析方法.在优化的缓冲溶液体系(0.15 mol/L NaH2PO4,0.015 mol/L 三乙醇胺,pH 2.3)下7种分析物在6.5 min内实现基线分离.考察了样品中添加的磷酸浓度和乙腈浓度、水柱长度、电动进样时间与电压对场强放大富集效率及重现性的影响.最佳的富集条件为:水柱注入3.45 kPa(0.5 psi)×6 s,样品中添加40%(v/v)乙腈和0.6×10-3 mol/L 磷酸,进样电压与进样时间为10 kV×10 s.线性范围为3~1000 μg/L(R2>0.996),检出限为0.26~2.75 μg/L,将已有方法的检测灵敏度提高了1~3个数量级.在2种市售黑色染发剂中均检测到间氨基苯酚,含量分别为7.32 mg/g和1.34 mg/g.平均加标回收率为74% ~108%.该方法灵敏度高、快速、重现性好、成本低,可供多种样品基质中痕量苯胺类污染物及其他阳离子物质的测定借鉴使用.%A method for the determination of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, aniline, o-anisidine, 3, 4-dimethylaniline, p-anisidine, 3-aminophenol, 1-naphthylamine in hair dyes was established by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking. The optimum running buffer was an aqueous solution containing 0. 15 mol/L NaH2PO4 and 0.015 mol/L trolamine ( pH 2. 3 ), and the baseline separation was achieved within 6. 5 min. The effects of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile concentration in the sample matrix, the length of the preinjection water plug, and the sample injection voltage and time on the stacking efficiency were investigated. The optimum stacking conditions for the real samples included a water plug of 3. 45 kPa (0. 5 psi) × 6 s, the addition of 40%( v/v ) acetonitrile and 0. 6 × 10 -3 mol/L phosphoric acid to the sample solution and a sample injection of 10 kV × 10 s. The seven

  16. Dye Hair%染发 别染皮炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    再芬; 陆洪光

    2005-01-01

    染发是都市女性钟爱的一种时尚方式,它带给人们的美感与自信是众多女性所认同的。不过,通过梁发受益与受害仅一步之差,如果没有遵从梁染发的正确原则,无疑,你将成为染发的受害者。

  17. Nutritional factors and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, D H

    2002-07-01

    The literature reveals what little is known about nutritional factors and hair loss. What we do know emanates from studies in protein-energy malnutrition, starvation, and eating disorders. In otherwise healthy individuals, nutritional factors appear to play a role in subjects with persistent increased hair shedding. Hård, 40 years ago, demonstrated the importance of iron supplements in nonanaemic, iron-deficient women with hair loss. Serum ferritin concentrations provide a good assessment of an individual's iron status. Rushton et al. first published data showing that serum ferritin concentrations were a factor in female hair loss and, 10 years later, Kantor et al. confirmed this association. What level of serum ferritin to employ in subjects with increased hair shedding is yet to be definitively established but 70 micro g/L, with a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (factors affect the hair directly, one should not forget that they also affect the skin. In the management of subjects with hair loss, eliminating scaling problems is important as is good hair care advice and the need to explain fully the hair cycle. Many individuals reduced their shampooing frequency due to fear of losing more hair but this increases the amount seen in subsequent shampoos fuelling their fear of going bald and adversely affecting their quality of life. PMID:12190640

  18. Study on dyeing performance of natural hematoxylin pigment%天然苏木色素染发性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海燕; 汪茹; 侯秀良; 张龄方; 薛文娟

    2009-01-01

    Hair dyes were prepared taking natural hematoxylin as main raw material. The impacts of dyeing temperature,time,pH value and mordant concentration on dyeing to white yak hair were inspected. The results show that this natural pigment for white yak hair dyeing performs a direct effect. Temperature is the most important factor. Aluminum and zinc ion can dye hair brown,while hair color turns to be black under iron ion. Temperature and concentration of mordant are important factors. This test provides preparation of hair dyes in different colors with theoretical knowledge.%以天然苏木色素为主要原料配制染发剂,考察染色温度、时间、pH值及媒染剂浓度等对白色牦牛毛染色效果的影响.结果表明,天然苏木色素对白色牦牛毛具有直接染色效果,其中温度是最重要的影响因素.铝离子与锌离子可使毛发颜色偏向棕色,铁离子可使毛发颜色偏向黑色,其中温度与媒染剂浓度是影响颜色的重要因素.本实验为不同颜色染发剂的配制提供了理论依据.

  19. Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" ...

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, D M; Watchorn, R B

    2000-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in dentistry may affect dentists and orthodontists, technicians, nurses and patients. Changes to dental practice in recent years have altered the reported frequencies of allergens causing ACD in both dental personnel and patients. Allergic contact dermatitis to medicaments, metals and glutaraldehyde were previously common allergens in dentistry; however, widespread adoption of rubber gloves by staff has resulted in a significant increase in ACD to glove allergens in both dental staff and their patients, while affording protection against the traditional allergens. Both public concerns about potential toxicity of metals in oral restorations and a greater demand for cosmetic dentistry, have resulted in greater use of acrylics and resins by dental personnel, exposing them to highly allergenic materials. Dermatologists need to be aware of the newer allergenic materials used in dentistry in order to correctly manage skin diseases in this high-risk group. PMID:10812698

  1. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.;

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  2. Slimy hairs: Hair sensors made with slime mould

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible by unaided eye. We design a slime mould implementation of a tactile hair, where the slime mould responds to repeated deflection of hair by an immediate high-amplitude spike and a prolonged increase in amplitude and width of its oscillation impulses. We demonstrate that signal-to-noise ratio of the Physarum tactile hair sensor averages near six for the immediate response and two for the prolonged response.

  3. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  4. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  5. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  6. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Scadding, G K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and ...

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  8. Immunologic principles of allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Marco; Gebhardt, Carl; Emmrich, Frank; Treudler, Regina; Simon, Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Allergy either results from a pathological excessive immune reaction, or from the defective induction of tolerance to otherwise harmless antigens. Allergic reactions are mounted by mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity. The development of an allergic response can be divided in sensitization and elicitation phases. Immediate type allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis, urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis allergica, allergic asthma) are mediated by IgE antibodies which are produced by B cells stimulated by allergen-specific Th2 cells. Crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE on membrane surfaces of mast cells and basophilic granulocytes leads to release of soluble mediators which may cause systemic symptoms within minutes to hours. The following infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes and Th2 cells directs chronic inflammation. Humoral cytotoxic immune reactions (e.g. drug induced cytopenia) are mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies which are directed against membrane associated antigens. IgG and IgM antibodies directed against soluble antigens elicit immune complex mediated cytotoxicity (e.g.drug induced vasculitis). Delayed type immune reactions (e.g.contact dermatitis) are based on the activation of antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and need 24 h to 48 h to develop. Upon recurrent contact with identical antigens, recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cause inflammation and cytotoxic induced apoptosis in target cells as well as cytokine mediated leukocyte infiltration. Subsequent immigration of CD4(+) Th2 cells provides anti-inflammatory mechanisms leading to resolution of the inflammatory response and tissue repair. PMID:17976144

  9. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  10. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  11. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  12. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    sensitization, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy...... associated inflammation. Only children with allergic rhinitis had increased bronchial responsiveness and elevated FeNO suggesting different endotypes of asthma symptoms in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. We also found bronchial hyperresponsiveness and raised values of FeNO in...... children with allergic rhinitis without asthma suggesting sub-clinical bronchial inflammation and supporting the allergic disease process to involve both upper and lower airways. In conclusion, these observations objectively show marked differences in nasal pathology in young children with allergic- and...

  13. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  14. Severe inflammatory and keloidal, allergic reaction due to para-phenylenediamine in temporary tattoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasti Suhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring with henna has been popular in Turkey for years. In recent years since the tattoos are applied by the street vendors in most of the beach places in Turkey, skin coloring with henna has also increased. Henna can be used alone or in combination with other coloring agents. Henna alone can be safe but due to additives such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, p-toluenediamine and various essential oils, allergic contact reactions may occur. We report a 22-year-old man who developed severe inflammatory and keloidal, moderately bullous allergic reaction after henna paint-on tattoo. We did a patch test separately with these painting products (henna powder, PPD and with the European standard series. PPD was strongly positive (+++ on day 2 and remained positive for following days. After treating with topical clobetasol-17 butyrate, resolution was obtained in two weeks. But some keloidal reaction remained.

  15. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair. PMID:26736913

  16. ARE WE ALLERGIC TO OUR WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental materials and medicines possess high allergic potential. They provoke different allergic reactions in patients and staff. The sensibilization of the staff begins still in the dental school. There are several risk groups – the atopic individuals and these with other allergies. The aim of the study is to follow up the development and the connection between the allergic state and the professional etiology and to determine whether allergy is an obstacle for studying and practicing dental medicine.

  17. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Nemat Allah Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Iman Eftekharzadeh Mashhadi; Farahzad Jabari Azad; Jalil Tavakol Afshari; Mohammad-Taghi Shakeri

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test) and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methy...

  18. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Jeffrey L; Levy Michael B; Zacharisen Michael C; Kurup Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  19. VITAMIN C STATUS IN ALLERGIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess vitamin C status in allergic children. Twenty-six allergic patients and 46 apparently healthy controls aged 7-16 years of both sexes were introduced. All patients were diagnosed being allergic based on their histories, physical examinations and laboratory findings. Blood samples were obtained between 09.00-11.00 to determine total serum immunoglobulin E, histamine, plasma vitamin C and complete blood cell count. Stool examinations and urinealysis were also ...

  20. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    showed that element adsorption or desorption occurs due to the dye. Analysis of hair samples collected from different regions of the head presented significant differences for the elements Fe, Sc, Se and Cr, indicating the importance of defining head regions for hair sample collection. Results of hair analysis from individuals residing in Sao Paulo metropolitan area showed individual differences for age, gender and natural hair color. Results obtained in this population also showed, that the mean element concentrations found are within the literature values. (author)

  1. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that com...

  2. Realistic Hair from a Sketch

    OpenAIRE

    Wither, Jamie; Bertails, Florence; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a sketch-based interface for quickly yet accurately creating visually realistic hair for virtual characters. Recently, physically-based models have proved successful for generating a wide variety of hair types, but they do not provide a straightforward method for designing target hairstyles. The contribution of this paper is to propose a user-friendly method for controlling such a physically-based model, requiring no specific knowledge of mechanics or hair styling: the use...

  3. Hair whorls in the horse

    OpenAIRE

    Baxová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This bachelor thesis is focused primaly on an assessment of hair whirls in the horses due to thein temperament, nature, behavior and movement mechanics. There is explained the biology of the hair growth, its structure, composition and pigmentation and its functions which are very important for the whole organism in the literature review. It is also explained how the hair whirls arise and why the breeders have long been showing interest and attach great importance to them....

  4. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on hu...

  5. Optical properties of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Ilyasov, Ildar K.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.

    1995-01-01

    Optical properties of human hair are the subject of great interest for the realization of any possible cosmetic applications. This paper represents the results of hair microstructure as an optical substance investigation, indicates melanin and keratin absorption spectra, and shows experimentally discovered anisotropia of optical properties of human hair. Radiation weakening coefficient value at the range from 450 up to 800 nm is estimated. Thresholds of hair destruction by Nd, Ho, Cu, and Er laser radiation are obtained. Perspectives of laser application for epilation and other medical purposes are evaluated.

  6. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  7. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 October 2015. + ... safety guidelines if you decide to remove pubic hair. Removing pubic hair is a personal preference. Some girls trim ...

  8. Removal of Color from Different Dye Wastewater by Using Ferric Oxide as an Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Kartik H. Gonawala; Mehali J. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Dyes are colored organic compounds that are used to impart colour to various substrates including paper, leather, fur, hair, drugs, cosmetics, waxes, greases, plastics and textile materials. The discharges of industrial wastewater containing dyes cause serious environmental problems. There are many colour removal techniques amongst which adsorption process is popular. Many removal techniques have been applied. But, adsorption process is inexpensive and readily available to con...

  9. Woolly Hair with Systematized Epidermal Nevus

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwaniya, Sarita; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Jain, Suresh Kumar; Nyati, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Woolly hair is a hair shaft disorder characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Woolly hair could be syndromic (associated with systemic disease) or non-syndromic (not associated with any systemic disease). Woolly hair is described in association with many skin, dental, ophthalmic and cardiac anomalies but association of woolly hair with bilateral systematized epidermal nevus described in our case is first of its kind.

  10. Hair follicle stem cells and intrafollicular homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Alp Can

    2014-01-01

    A hair follicle is the primary unit that produces a single outgrowing visible hair shaft. All hair follicles have a regeneration cycle consisting growth, destruction and resting phase, all of which are controlled by several intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. All hair forming cell populations arise from hair follicle stem cells that are located in bulge and hair germ. Epithelial progenitors themselves surround a core cluster of mesenchymal cells, the dermal papilla, which is thought to provid...

  11. Review of hair follicle dermal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Cotsarelis, George

    2010-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis during development and in hair reconstitution assays. Dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells express ...

  12. Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers with Vat Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hang; ETTERS J. Nolan; LEONAS Karen K

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene fibers have been extensively used in a variety of products, including carpets and upholstery, due to their non-absorbency, good weather resistance, good resistance to microorganisms and so on. Because of their hydrophobic and highly crystalline nature, those well-established conventional dyeing processes are difficult to apply to unmodified polypropylene. Colors of polypropylene fibers are primarily obtained by mass coloration which has the disadvantages of limited number of colors available and difficulties in inventory control due to the rapidly changing color needs of the market. In this paper, the use of vat dyes to dye polypropylene fabrics is investigated. Seventeen vat dyes were screened and factors influencing uptake of dyes by polypropylene fabrics were studied.

  13. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  14. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  15. The preshaving protocol in body hair-to-scalp transplant to identify hair in anagen phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of body donor hair for transplanting to the bald scalp is termed body hair transplant. In recent times, robust body hair has been used as an adjunct to scalp donor hair to augment the donor hair supply. A large percentage of body hair are in telogen and, as single hair units. Aims: To devise a non invasive protocol to identify the body donor hair in anagen phase prior to extraction. Materials and Methods: Hairs are shaved flush with the skin, four days prior to extraction. On fourth day, the actively growing hair follicles as well as non growing hairs were extracted and phase of hair growth determined. Results: Nineteen out 22 extracted hair follicles in nongrowing phase were found to be the telogen phase. Conclusion: Preshaving the body donor areas is a simple non invasive method of isolating the hair in anagen phase.

  16. Robotic hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  17. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A;

    2015-01-01

    procedures has often limited the comparison of data at national and international level. The European-funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES developed and tested a harmonized European approach to Human Biomonitoring in response to the European Environment and Health Action Plan. Herein we describe the quality...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  18. Scalp micropigmentation: a useful treatment for hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

    2013-08-01

    Scalp micropigmentation (SMP) is a highly sophisticated medical tattoo process for balding or thinning hair. SMP looks amazingly simple, but this novel technique must be customized for each patient because the skin in each patient differs with regard to how the scalp reacts as it holds on to the tattoo dye. There are many variables involved with performing SMP that makes this process more of an art form than a science. SMP is a very labor-intensive process that could require multiple sessions and up to 20 hours of procedural time to satisfy the patient. This review discusses applications and technical considerations of the SMP process. PMID:24017991

  19. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  20. "Evaluation of Six Years Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis and Allergic Asthma "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Reza Farid

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of gradually increasing quantities of specific allergens to patients with IgE-mediated conditions until a dose is reached that is effective in reducing disease severity from natural exposure. In the present study we evaluated a period of six years immunotherapy allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma patients with positive skin prick test of common aeroallergen. The immunotherapy was performed on 156 patients. One hundred twenty of the cases were allergic rhinitis (80%, 29 cases had allergic asthma and 7 cases were mixed (4.5%. 70% in allergic rhinitis group, 75% in allergic asthma group and 42.8% in mixed group completely improved. Immunotherapy, an older therapeutic method, has now been updated, and with appropriate indications, precautions and methods, has been clearly shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and in some cases of asthma and insect hypersensitivity.

  1. Hair regrowth after cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florid scalp hair regrowth following the depilatory effects of both whole cranial radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy is described in a patient who simultaneously exhibited acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa in the head and neck region. The regrowth of more youthful and more senile scalp hair following cranial radiotherapy are exemplified in two further case reports. (author)

  2. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  3. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  4. Human Hair: An Educational Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

  5. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavmurthy A Adya; Inamadar, Arun C.; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair.

  6. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...... random stores in Copenhagen, Denmark to detect the proportion of items that may result in nickel allergy. METHODS: Inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps were purchased from 36 stores and street vendors in Copenhagen and were later tested for nickel release using the DMG test. RESULTS: The study showed......BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...

  7. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  8. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  10. The preshaving protocol in body hair-to-scalp transplant to identify hair in anagen phase

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The use of body donor hair for transplanting to the bald scalp is termed body hair transplant. In recent times, robust body hair has been used as an adjunct to scalp donor hair to augment the donor hair supply. A large percentage of body hair are in telogen and, as single hair units. Aims: To devise a non invasive protocol to identify the body donor hair in anagen phase prior to extraction. Materials and Methods: Hairs are shaved flush with the skin, four days prior to ex...

  11. THE PRESHAVING PROTOCOL IN BODY HAIR-TO-SCALP TRANSPLANT TO IDENTIFY HAIR IN ANAGEN PHASE

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The use of body donor hair for transplanting to the bald scalp is termed body hair transplant. In recent times, robust body hair has been used as an adjunct to scalp donor hair to augment the donor hair supply. A large percentage of body hair are in telogen and, as single hair units. Aims: To devise a non invasive protocol to identify the body donor hair in anagen phase prior to extraction. Materials and Methods: Hairs are shaved flush with the skin, four days prior to extractio...

  12. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  13. Evaluation of human hair sources for the in vitro hair perforation test.

    OpenAIRE

    Salkin, I F; Hollick, G E; Hurd, N J; Kemna, M E

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro hair perforation test for dermatophytes was evaluated with hair from males and females aged 6 months to 67 years, including hair of various natural colors and hair which had been bleached, tinted, curled, sprayed, or subjected to various combinations of these treatments. In contrast to published recommendations, the source of hair had no effect on this diagnostic procedure.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  15. Genuine Cosmic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    We show that asymptotically future deSitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry 'genuine' cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new 'cosmological tension' charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential deSitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a 'cosmological volume' contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference i...

  16. Body hair transplantation in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavish Chouhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation has been used to repigment a stable vitiligo patch. Body hair transplant was done for a 28-year-old male with stable vitiligo with scarring. Peri-folllicular repigmentation was noted at 4 weeks and complete repigmentation of vitiligo patch was achieved at 12 weeks. No recurrence was noted at the end of 3-month follow-up with a good colour match with surrounding skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report highlighting the effectiveness of body hair transplantation by FUE in focal vitiligo patch with leukotrichia.

  17. Body Hair Transplantation in Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Kavish Chouhan; Amrendra Kumar; Kanwar, Amrinder J

    2013-01-01

    Hair transplantation has been used to repigment a stable vitiligo patch. Body hair transplant was done for a 28-year-old male with stable vitiligo with scarring. Peri-folllicular repigmentation was noted at 4 weeks and complete repigmentation of vitiligo patch was achieved at 12 weeks. No recurrence was noted at the end of 3-month follow-up with a good colour match with surrounding skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report highlighting the effectiveness of body hair tr...

  18. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Dua; Kapil Dua

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ′no visible scarring′ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the ...

  19. Trace analysis in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hair has been used as a readily available tissue for the trace analysis. It can supply the medical diagnosis and environmental studied. Hair tissue is, potentially, a remarkable diagnostic tool to complement blood serum and urine analysis. The CDTN/CNEN-BH has a large experience on determining the elements within the various ranges of concentration in several kinds of matrices by using neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry. This experience has made possible the development of methods using hair so as to determine the detections limits of Al, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mn and Zn. (author)

  20. Complications in hair restoration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Meza, David; Niedbalski, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Hair loss affects more than 1.2 billion people worldwide. As the technology and artistry of hair restoration surgery has improved including natural results, so too has the popularity of this procedure. As with any other surgical procedure, complications may occur and this presents a major challenge for the surgeon and the patient. This article provides an overview of the complications most likely to occur during the pre, intra, and postoperative periods with modern hair transplant surgery (single follicular unit or multifollicular unit) including scalp surgery, and discusses their treatment and most importantly their prevention. PMID:19185800

  1. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  2. Controversy: Synthetic Hairs and their Role in Hair Restoration?

    OpenAIRE

    Mysore, Venkataram

    2010-01-01

    The subject of artifical hair fibers is controversial, in view of their chequered history and the ban by federal drug administration (FDA) on their use. This article analyzes different aspects of their use.

  3. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    OpenAIRE

    Draelos, Zoe D.

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

  4. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Gérald E. Piérard

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relat...

  5. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expand...

  6. Clock genes, hair growth and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Andersen, Bogi

    2010-01-01

    Hair follicles undergo continuous cycles of growth, involution and rest. This process, referred to as the hair growth cycle, has a periodicity of weeks to months. At the same time, skin and hair follicles harbor a functional circadian clock that regulates gene expression with a periodicity of approximately twenty four hours. In our recent study we found that circadian clock genes play a role in regulation of the hair growth cycle during synchronized hair follicle cycling, uncovering an unexpe...

  7. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: 3. Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Ari L.

    2009-01-01

    Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples...

  8. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Célia F.; Fernandes, Margarida M.; Gomes, Andreia; Coderch, L.; Martí, M.; Méndez, Sandra; Gales, Luís; Azóia, Nuno G.; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2013-01-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins, and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, speci...

  9. Synchrotron radiation XRF analysis of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace elements distribution along scalp hair is measured by SR excited XRF. The results of repeat scanning of a single hair and a strand of five hairs from the same person show that precision of the experiments is very well. The content change tendencies of most elements for 3 different hairs taken from the same area of one person are basically the same and a similar concentration gradient is presented. But the tendencies for different person's hair are quite different

  10. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  11. Dyes Waste Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Teng Ong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyes waste represent one of the problematic groups of pollutants because their presence can be easily identified by the human eye and they are not easily biodegradable. This literature review paper highlights and provides an overview of dyes waste treatments for 3 years period, from 2008–2010. The noteworthy treatment processes for dyes waste include biological treatment, catalytic oxidation, filtration, sorption process and combination treatments.

  12. HvEXPB7, a novel β-expansin gene revealed by the root hair transcriptome of Tibetan wild barley, improves root hair growth under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Jianbin; Cao, Fangbin; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zhang, Guoping; Vincze, Eva; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Tibetan wild barley is a treasure trove of useful genes for crop improvement including abiotic stress tolerance, like drought. Root hair of single-celled structures plays an important role in water and nutrition uptake. Polyethylene-glycol-induced drought stress hydroponic/petri-dish experiments were performed, where root hair morphology and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes (drought-tolerant XZ5 and drought-sensitive XZ54) and drought-tolerant cv. Tadmor were compared. Drought-induced root hair growth was only observed in XZ5. Thirty-six drought tolerance-associated genes were identified in XZ5, including 16 genes specifically highly expressed in XZ5 but not Tadmor under drought. The full length cDNA of a novel β-expansin gene (HvEXPB7), being the unique root hair development related gene in the identified genes, was cloned. The sequence comparison indicated that HvEXPB7 carried both DPBB_1 and Pollon_allerg_1 domains. HvEXPB7 is predominantly expressed in roots. Subcellular localization verified that HvEXPB7 is located in the plasma membrane. Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) of HvEXPB7 led to severely suppressed root hairs both under control and drought conditions, and significantly reduced K uptake. These findings highlight and confer the significance of HvEXPB7 in root hair growth under drought stress in XZ5, and provide a novel insight into the genetic basis for drought tolerance in Tibetan wild barley. PMID:26417018

  13. Allergic skin diseases : Studies on mechanisms in experimental atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    LehtimÀki, Sari

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, characterized by relapsing eczema, dry skin and chronic skin inflammation. A large proportion of AD patients develop other allergies or asthma later in life. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in turn, is one of the leading occupational diseases worldwide. Therefore, allergic skin diseases not only impair the quality of life of patients but also cause a great economical burden for the society. This thesis investigates some of the mechanisms b...

  14. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  15. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  16. Hair Loss in New Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  17. Follicular unit extraction hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Dua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ′no visible scarring′ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant.

  18. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  19. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet. PMID:18173213

  20. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    OpenAIRE

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of heal...

  1. Hair transplant: a basic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Amy; Lucas, Valentina S

    2015-01-01

    The hairline is an important aspect of beauty. Loss of the hairline can contribute to poor self-esteem. Alopecia, or hair loss, has many different causes and can have devastating outcomes to the patient. The plastic surgery team may play a role in restoring the hairline and thus improving one's image of self. This article identifies the different causes of hair loss and then reviews steps and options for hairline restoration. PMID:26020470

  2. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  3. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  4. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  5. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  6. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Mahendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    OpenAIRE

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic h...

  8. Assessment of disease control in allergic rhinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises; Casale, Thomas; Scadding, Glenis; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Delaisi, Bertrand; Haddad, Thierry; Malard, Olivier; Trébuchon, Florence; Serrano, Elie

    2013-01-01

    International audience The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative has had a significant impact, by raising awareness of allergic rhinitis (AR) and improving the diagnosis and treatment of AR sufferers. ARIA classifies the severity of AR as "mild" or "moderate/severe" on the basis of "yes"/"no" answers to four questions. This two-point classification has been criticized as providing little guidance on patient management; patients with "mild" AR are unlikely to consult ...

  9. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  10. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  11. Gamma irradiation of natural dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyes play an important role in textile industry. Synthetic dyes of various classes are normally used for dyeing fabrics. Recently, considerable attention is focussed on the use of natural dyes all over the world in the context of German ban on some of synthetic azo dye due to their allergenic or carcinogenic potential. However natural dyes and their solution in aqueous medium show microbial contamination on storage. The present study deals with effect of gamma radiation on the microbial load, tinctorial value and dye uptake of natural dyes. (author)

  12. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo

  13. Oxazine laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  14. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  15. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  16. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  17. Specific IgE antibodies to reactive dye-albumin conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypersensitivity to reactive dye powders has been recognised for a number of years, although the extent of sensitisation amongst dye house operatives and the immunochemistry of the dye molecules has not been investigated. The authors have developed a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) to detect specific IgE to reactive dye-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates. From a total of 19 dye-HSA conjugates, positive RASTs were found in six workers with allergic symptoms associated with dye exposure, while six asymptomatic case-matched controls were negative. Sera with raised total IgE (up to 4300 kU/l) from unexposed workers gave negative results except for two conjugates which gave a weak positive at 4300 kU/l and one which gave weak positives at all concentrations tested (750-4300 kU/l). RAST inhibition studies demonstrated that the antibody was specific for the complete dye-HSA conjugate. Substitution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for HSA in the conjugate markedly reduced immunoreactivity and free hapten gave lower inhibition than the complete conjugate. Comparison of the dye-HSA RAST with a RAST using dyed discs showed that the latter did not correlate well with symptoms and was influenced by the total IgE concentration. (Auth.)

  18. Permeation of Fluorophore-Conjugated Phalloidin into Live Hair Cells of the Inner Ear Is Modulated by P2Y Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Thiede, Benjamin R.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Phalloidin, a toxin isolated from the death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides, binds to filamentous actin with high affinity, and this has made fluorophore-conjugated phalloidin a useful tool in cellular imaging. Hepatocytes take up phalloidin via the liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptide 1b2, but phalloidin does not permeate most living cells. Rapid entry of styryl dyes into live hair cells has been used to evaluate function, but the usefulness of those fluorescence dyes is li...

  19. Surfactant and allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Carla; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of unique proteins and lipids that covers the airway lumen. Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and maintains airway patency by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, it provides a defence against antigen uptake by binding foreign particles and enhancing cellular immune responses. Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and presents with episodes of airway narrowing. The pulmonary inflammation and bronchoconstriction can be triggered by exposure to allergens or pathogens present in the inhaled air. Pulmonary surfactant has the potential to interact with various immune cells which orchestrate allergen- or pathogen-driven episodes of airway inflammation. The complex nature of surfactant allows multiple sites of interaction, but also makes it susceptible to external alterations, which potentially impair its function. This duality of modulating airway physiology and immunology during inflammatory conditions, while at the same time being prone to alterations accompanied by restricted function, has stimulated numerous studies in recent decades, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:23896983

  20. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  1. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    generalized diminished airway dimensions as a novel susceptibility factor for concurrent symptoms of asthma and rhinitis in early childhood and supports the notion of a common pathophysiology in asthma and rhinitis. The clinical interpretation of these findings is that all children presenting either rhinitis...... sensitization, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy...... associated inflammation. Only children with allergic rhinitis had increased bronchial responsiveness and elevated FeNO suggesting different endotypes of asthma symptoms in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. We also found bronchial hyperresponsiveness and raised values of FeNO in...

  2. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose PT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul T RoseHair Transplant Institute of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, hair transplant, surgical procedure

  3. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  4. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  5. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223

  6. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeine, R; Owens, T

    1992-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate demyelinating pathology. We have used flow cytometry to directly analyse the migration to the CNS of MBP-reactive CD4+ T cells labelled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye...

  7. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  8. Airborne Biogenic Particles in the Snow of the Cities of the Russian Far East as Potential Allergic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill S. Golokhvast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm–1 mm found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010–2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods. In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk, the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.

  9. Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms. PMID:25140327

  10. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  11. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 15 October 2014. +Related Content Some guys trim their pubic hair, others prefer to shave or wax, and most ...

  12. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most women have changes in their skin, hair, and nails during pregnancy. Most of these are normal and go away after pregnancy. ... changes in the texture and growth of your hair and nails during pregnancy. Some women say that ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of each hair, which contains some of the pigment that contributes the hair's color, is missing. The ... have milder immune deficiency, experience infections of the respiratory system , ears, and sinuses . In particular, the chicken ...

  14. Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair There is no need to worry if chewing gum gets stuck in your child’s hair. Simply follow ... butter, the oils in the product make the chewing gum base stiffer and less sticky. Wait a few ...

  15. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  16. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  17. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated. PMID:27367659

  18. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  19. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xinghai; Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a ...

  20. A functional analysis of hair pulling.

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, J T; Miltenberger, R G; Galensky, T L; Ellingson, S A; Long, E S

    1999-01-01

    We experimentally assessed the functions of hair pulling and hair manipulation of a 19-year-old woman (Kris) with moderate mental retardation and cerebral palsy. In Phase 1 a functional analysis revealed that Kris pulled and manipulated hair for the greatest amount of time in the alone condition, suggesting that the behaviors were maintained by some form of automatic reinforcement (Vaughan & Michael, 1982). In Phase 2 we assessed the nature of the sensory stimulation that maintained hair pull...

  1. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan Narendra; Mysore Venkataram

    2008-01-01

    Hair transplantation is a surgical method of hair restoration. Physician qualification : The physician performing hair transplantation should have completed post graduation training in dermatology; he should have adequate background training in dermatosurgery at a centre that provides education training in cutaneous surgery. In addition, he should obtain specific hair transplantation training or experience at the surgical table(hands on) under the supervision of an appropriately trained and ...

  2. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirabl...

  3. Notch signaling and the developing hair follicle

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin Houzelstein, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Notch function in the hair follicle has been mainly studied by use of transgenic mice carrying either loss or gain of function mutations in various members of the pathway. These studies revealed that whereas embryonic development of the hair follicle can be achieved without Notch, its postnatal development requires an intact Notch signaling in the hair bulb and the outer root sheath. Among the many roles played by Notch in the hair follicle, two can be highlighted: in the bulge, Notch control...

  4. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Rosen; Angelo Landriscina; Friedman, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic ...

  5. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  6. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  7. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  8. Allergic sensitization and the environment: latest update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being common allergens in humans, we still do not fully understand who will develop sensitization and to which allergens. Environmental exposure to these allergens is essential for the development of sensitization, but what has emerged clearly in the literature in the recent years is that the adjuvants to which an individual is exposed at the same time as the allergen are probably an equally important determinant of the immune response to the allergen. These adjuvants act on all steps in the development of sensitization from modifying epithelial barriers, to facilitating antigen presentation, to driving T-cell responses, to altering mast cell and basophil hyperreactivity. The adjuvants come from biogenic sources, including microbes and the plants and animals that produce the allergens, and from man-made sources (anthropogenic), including unintended by-products of combustion and chemicals now ubiquitous in modern life. As we better understand how individuals are exposed to these adjuvants and how the exposure influences the likelihood of an allergic response, we may be able to design individual and community-level interventions that will reverse the increase in allergic disease prevalence, but we are not there yet. PMID:25149167

  9. Prevention of allergic disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    The development and phenotypic expression of atopic diseases depends on a complex interaction between genetic factors, environmental exposure to allergens,and non-specific adjuvant factors, such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and infections. Preventive measures may include both exposure to aller...... review was to evaluate possible preventive measures as regards prevention of development of allergic disease in childhood--primary prevention--and also some aspects of the effect of specific allergy treatment as regards secondary prevention in children with allergic asthma and allergic...... allergic manifestations e.g. CMA and atopic dermatitis can be reduced significantly by simple dietary measures for the first4 months of life. In all infants breastfeeding should beencouraged for at least 4-6 months, and exposure to tobacco smoke should be avoided during pregnancy and early childhood. In HR......-specific treatment may influence both the symptoms and the prognosis. Allergen avoidance can reduce the need for pharmacological treatment, SIT may have the potential for preventing the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. and it may be possible to interfere with the natural course of...

  10. Promotive effect of topical ketoconazole, minoxidil, and minoxidil with tretinoin on hair growth in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A; Hadi, Najah R; Ghafil, Fadaa A

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

  11. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. PMID:26080054

  12. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Główka, Eliza; Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrzębska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  13. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Hair transplant and local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-10-01

    Hair restoration is an art and a science that requires an experienced and dedicated surgeon and team to achieve consistently superior outcomes. In addition to discussion of local anesthetic in use for hair restoration, this article emphasizes the pearls and pitfalls that are involved at every phase of the procedure including judgment, hairline design, donor harvesting, recipient-site creation, graft preparation, and graft placement. Two recent advances in the field are highlighted: the use of regenerative medicine (platelet-rich plasma and ACell), and developments in follicular-unit extraction as an alternative to traditional linear donor harvesting. PMID:24093656

  15. Dermascopic hair disocclusion using inpainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighton, Paul; Lee, Tim K.; Atkins, M. Stella

    2008-03-01

    Inpainting, a technique originally used to restore film and photographs, is used to disocclude hair from dermascopic images of skin lesions. The technique is compared to the conventional software DullRazor, which uses linear interpolation to perform disocclusion. Comparison was performed by simulating occluding hair on a dermascopic image, applying DullRazor and inpainting and calculating the error induced. Inpainting is found to perform approximately 33% better than DullRazor's linear interpolation, and is more stable under heavy occlusion. The results are also compared to published results from two other alternatives: auto-regressive (AR) model signal extrapolation and band-limited (BL) signal interpolation.

  16. Human hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair is the unique biological material which, because of its growth, reflects the biomedical and environmental history of the subject. Because of convenience in handling and sampling and relatively high concentrations of metals, trace-element analysis of human hair has been applied widely for different purposes. Although even the measurements of the bulk trace element levels contain some information, the real meaning is contained in longitudinal and radial concentration profiles. This is best achievable by X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements. (author) 98 refs

  17. Hair loss in cancer chemotherapeutic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadha V

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The hair loss in 8 cancer patients aged between 18 and 60 years on chemotherapy was studied. All had diffuce moderate alopecio within 1 month of starting treatment. Of the 8, 3 had only telogen hairs and 3 had high dystrophic hair count. Both anagen and telogen effluvium are implicated.

  18. Automatic Hair Segmentation in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour. Th...

  19. High efficiency genetic modification of hair follicles and growing hair shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Norimitsu; ZHAO Ming; Li, Lingna; Baranov, Eugene; Yang, Meng; Ohta, Yukinori; Katsuoka, Kensei; Penman, Sheldon; Robert M. Hoffman

    2002-01-01

    A technique for genetic modification of hair follicles was developed which results in efficient alteration of the hair shaft phenotype. High-level in vivo transgene expression was maintained in hair follicles such that growing hair shafts were phenotypically altered. Mouse anagen skin fragments, maintained in histoculture, were genetically modified at high efficiency with adenoviral-GFP. The histocultured skin fragments were treated with collagenase which made hair follicles accessible to the...

  20. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that c...

  1. The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai; Lee, Won-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populati...

  2. Allergic rhinitis is associated with otitis media with effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye;

    2012-01-01

    Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....

  3. Role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzko, Marco; Pitchford, Simon; Page, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for platelets and their products (e.g., platelet factor 4, β-thromboglobulin, RANTES, thromboxane, or serotonin) in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A variety of changes in platelet function have been observed in patients with asthma, such as alterations in platelet secretion, expression of surface molecules, aggregation, and adhesion. Moreover, platelets have been found to actively contribute to most of the characteristic features of asthma, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. This review brings together the current available data from both experimental and clinical studies that have investigated the role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation and asthma. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of asthma might lead to novel promising therapeutic approaches in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:26051948

  4. Recovery of mechano-electrical transduction in rat cochlear hair bundles after postnatal destruction of the stereociliar cross-links

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, J.; Fink, S.; Koitschev, A; P. Walther; Langer, M G; Lehmann-Horn, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mechano-electrical transduction (MET) in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs) was studied in newborn Wistar rats using scanning electron microscopy to investigate the stereociliar cross-links, Nomarski laser differential interferometry to investigate stereociliar stiffness and by testing the functionality of the MET channels by recording the entry of fluorescent dye, FM1-43, into stereocilia. Preparations were taken from rats on their day of birth (P0) or 1–4 days later (P1–P4). Hair bu...

  5. Removal of Color from Different Dye Wastewater by Using Ferric Oxide as an Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik H. Gonawala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are colored organic compounds that are used to impart colour to various substrates including paper, leather, fur, hair, drugs, cosmetics, waxes, greases, plastics and textile materials. The discharges of industrial wastewater containing dyes cause serious environmental problems. There are many colour removal techniques amongst which adsorption process is popular. Many removal techniques have been applied. But, adsorption process is inexpensive and readily available to control the various pollutants from the water and wastewater. The practical performance evaluation in batch reactor is carried out because of its feasibility and simplicity in action and also involving less economic aspects. Present work is carried out on colarane blue BGFS Anthraquinone dye. Powdered Fe2O3 has been used for dye removal practical. It was observed that maximum dye removal efficiency at pH 2 with Fe2O3 dosage of 0.3 gm and initial concentration is 125 ppm. Practicals were also carried out on actual wastewater. The work is right now done with the synthetic dye wastewater and will be focused with different parameters. The percentage removal efficiency by powdered Fe2O3, the dye waste water under experiment will be calculated. Kinetic study and adsorption study for dye wastewater under consideration.

  6. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ying Lan; Guo-She Lee; An-Suey Shiao; Jen-Hung Ko; Chih-Hung Shu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic reco...

  7. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methylene Blue stain and culture in Sabourad dextrose agar. Severity of the disease was determined according to  the ARIA classification. Pearson chi-square test was applied to compare the proportional difference between the study groups for detection of Alternaria in the nasal cavity, and sensitization to Alternaria.Relation between detection of Alternaria and allergic rhinitis was significant [OR = 18.18 (4.02-82.50] In addition, sensitization to Alternaria showed a significant relation with the disease [OR  =  2.8 (2.1-3.8]. There  was a significant relation between the  presence  of Alternaria in the nasal cavity and sensitization to Alternaria [OR =  10.4 (3.8-28.3]. Both sensitization to  Alternaria and presence of Alternaria in the nasal cavity did not  have a significant relation with the severity of allergic rhinitis. This study suggests Alternaria as a major  allergen that  its  presence  in  the  nasal  cavity and  subsequent  development  of sensitization have significant role in the induction of allergic rhinitis.

  8. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  9. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  10. [Natural dyes and dyeing from the XVIIth century to the birth of synthetic dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Claude

    2005-01-01

    After historical considerations on the state and evolution of French dyeing industry in the end of the XVIIth century to the beginning of XIXth, we find this presentation a résumé of the different states of tissues dyeing. We easily note that the techniques of dyeing. We easily note that the techniques of dyeing were very brought forward the end of the XVIIIth century before that synthetic dyes appeared in the second half of the XIXth century. PMID:16358458

  11. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  12. Rupatadine in allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, J; Bousquet, J; Bachert, C; Canonica, W G; Gimenez-Arnau, A; Kowalski, M L; Martí-Guadaño, E; Maurer, M; Picado, C; Scadding, G; Van Cauwenberge, P

    2008-04-01

    Histamine is the primary mediator involved the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria, and this explains the prominent role that histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists have in the treatment of these disorders. However, histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory cascade. There is an emerging view that drugs which can inhibit a broader range of inflammatory processes may prove to be more effective in providing symptomatic relief in both allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. This is an important consideration of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative which provides a scientific basis for defining what are the desirable properties of an 'ideal' antihistamine. In this review of rupatadine, a newer dual inhibitor of histamine H(1)- and PAF-receptors, we evaluate the evidence for a mechanism of action which includes anti-inflammatory effects in addition to a powerful inhibition of H(1)- and PAF-receptors. We assess this in relation to the clinical efficacy (particularly the speed of onset of action) and safety of rupatadine, and importantly its longer term utility in everyday life. In clinical trials, rupatadine has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). It has a fast onset of action, producing rapid symptomatic relief, and it also has an extended duration of clinical activity which allows once-daily administration. In comparative clinical trials rupatadine was shown to be at least as effective as drugs such as loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine and ebastine in reducing allergic symptoms in adult/adolescent patients with seasonal, perennial or persistent allergic rhinitis. Importantly, rupatadine demonstrated no adverse cardiovascular effects in preclinical or extensive clinical testing, nor negative significant effects on cognition or psychomotor performance (including a practical driving study). It improved the

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  14. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  15. 553 Correlation between Severity of Allergic Rhinitis and Impairment of Quality of Life in Allergic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Eric Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Background Determine severity of the disease and its correlation with the degree of impairment in quality of life in adolescent patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods Were captured 124 adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, attending the outpatient Allergy Service at Social Security Hospital in Mexico, diagnosed with Allergic Rhinitis (AR). Before the clinical evaluation to confirm the diagnosis, severity of Allergic Rhinitis were classified according to criteria of Allergic Rhinitis and its Impa...

  16. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  17. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  18. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  19. Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

    2010-07-01

    Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

  20. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.