WorldWideScience

Sample records for allergens

  1. Allergens and Irritants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Agents Acrylamide Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Environmental Agents Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Environmental Agents Allergens & Irritants Cigarette Smoke ...

  2. [Allergen analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental requirement when testing for and ensuring compliance with legally required labelling regulations is the reliable analysis of food allergens. This can be carried out by means of either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or protein detection. Protein detection has the advantage of directly detecting the allergenic component and can currently be carried out using immunological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA])/lateral flow devices [LFD]) or mass spectrometry-based techniques. DNA detection is indirect, but allows the presence of food allergens to be validated through the use of another marker. Each method has its pros and cons, which have to be considered on a case-by-case basis. ELISA is quantitative, quick and easy to carry out and has high sensitivity. LFD testing is ideal for industrial applications, as the tests can be carried out on-site. Both antibody-based tests may have problems with processed foods and false positive results. Mass-spectrometric techniques show a lot of promise, but are currently still time-consuming and complex to carry out. They also run into problems with processed foods and their degree of sensitivity is matrix and parameter dependent. For these reasons, this technique is only occasionally used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the highest specificity and, depending on the target sequence, a very good to good level of sensitivity. Despite the high stability of DNA, PCR is still subject to the influence of processing and matrix related factors. Due to natural variation and production-related changes in the structures relevant in the process of detection, all methods exhibit a relatively high level of uncertainty of measurement. At present, there is no method which provides the absolute correct quantification. However, by means of laboratory-based analyses it is possible to calibrate for the allergen in question and thus be able to make reliable measurements using methods that are already available. PMID

  3. Managing allergens in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, C.; Wichers, H.J.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling allergens in food is a matter of increasing importance for the food industry, especially in light of recent legislation. Effective handling of allergens depends on identifying allergenic ingredients, creating separate production lines for allergen-free products, and effective labelling t

  4. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  5. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven al...

  6. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  7. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  8. Fluorescence of atopic allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1967-01-01

    Purified atopic allergens have been found to emit flue fluorescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light of 365 mμ wavelength. The maximum of fluorescence is in the region 445–490 mμ and the intensity is of the same order of magnitude for different atopic allergens. Synthetic model compounds, inc

  9. Quantitation of latex allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosuo, Timo; Alenius, Harri; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2002-05-01

    Minimizing allergen concentration in latex goods to prevent sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) and thereby the development of clinical allergy is acknowledged as of mutual interest for rubber manufacturers and regulatory health authorities. However, measuring total protein, the principal currently available method, cannot be deemed a satisfactory regulatory measure to control allergen content. Specific methods based on human IgE-containing reagents, such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) inhibition, have been available in certain laboratories for demonstrating NRL allergens in rubber products but the methods lack standardization. Currently, one commercial test has become available for measuring individual NRL allergens by capture ELISA-based assays using monoclonal antibodies and purified or recombinant allergens. Such methods are specific, they can be properly standardized, and they are of sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Results from medical gloves collected in two national market surveys in Finland in 1995 and 1999, respectively, show that Hev b 6.02 and Hev b 5, the two major allergens for NRL-allergic adults, are the most abundant allergens regularly detectable in high- and moderate-allergen gloves. In addition, Hev b 3 and Hev b 1, the two major allergens for children with spina bifida, are also commonly found. In general, when the sum of the four allergens exceeded 1 microg/g, most NRL-allergic patients showed positive skin prick test reactions against them. Using these new methods assessment of threshold levels that could in due course become guidelines for the rubber industry and regulatory health authorities is becoming possible. Eventually, this progress is expected to lead to a declining incidence of latex allergy. PMID:12079417

  10. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  11. Allergens in the Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  12. Recombinant allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy: 10 years anniversary of immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, B; Swoboda, I; Niederberger, V

    2011-06-01

    The broad applicability of allergen-specific immunotherapy for the treatment and eventually prevention of IgE-mediated allergy is limited by the poor quality and allergenic activity of natural allergen extracts that are used for the production of current allergy vaccines. Today, the genetic code of the most important allergens has been deciphered; recombinant allergens equalling their natural counterparts have been produced for diagnosis and immunotherapy, and a large panel of genetically modified allergens with reduced allergenic activity has been characterized to improve safety of immunotherapy and explore allergen-specific prevention strategies. Successful immunotherapy studies have been performed with recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and will lead to the registration of the first recombinant allergen-based vaccines in the near future. There is no doubt that recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies will be generally applicable to most allergen sources, including respiratory, food and venom allergens and allow to produce safe allergy vaccines for the treatment of the most common forms of IgE-mediated allergies.

  13. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses in......-presenting cells (mostly Langerhans and myeloid dendritic cells) exhibit a tolerogenic phenotype, despite constant exposure to danger signals from food and microbes. This reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses leading to systemic allergic reactions. Oral tissues contain relatively few mast...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...

  14. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A;

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  15. Mechanisms of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Ozge U; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative approach in the treatment of allergic diseases defined up-to-date. Peripheral T-cell tolerance to allergens, the goal of successful allergen-SIT, is the primary mechanism in healthy immune responses to allergens. By repeated administration of increased doses of the causative allergen, allergen-SIT induces a state of immune tolerance to allergens through the constitution of T regulatory (Treg) cells, including allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells; induction of suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor β; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4 and IgA; and suppression of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and inflammatory dendritic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen-SIT with emphasis on the roles of Treg cells in allergen-SIT. PMID:21530813

  16. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  17. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  18. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  19. New strategies for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnés, Jerónimo; Robinson, Douglas S

    2008-06-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy, consisting in the administration of increasing amounts of offending allergens into sensitive patients was first used nearly one hundred years ago and remains in use worldwide for treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. It has been recognised as the only effective treatment for type I allergic diseases when the appropriate quantities of allergens are used. The immunological mechanisms by which specific immunotherapy is effective include the modulation of T cells and the response of B-cells and is accompanied by significant decreases of specific IgE and increases in allergen specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG4. While specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective and the most common way of administration other routes such as oral or intranasal ways have been considered as and alternative to subcutaneous injections. During the last century, allergenic vaccines have been prepared using individual allergens adsorbed to different adjuvant substances. These vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and good results in different clinical trials. However, many novel approaches to allergen immunotherapy have been developed in the last years in order to increase the safety and efficacy of allergenic vaccines. In that way, different and modern vaccines have been prepared including more purified products such as depigmented allergen extracts; allergoids, consisting on big molecules of thousands of kDa, which contain all the individual allergens and show a significant decrease in severe adverse reactions; peptides or small aminoacid sequences; recombinant allergens; hypoallergenic vaccines where the IgE binding sites have been modified; or allergen-CpG fusion molecules. New presentations are under study and new treatments will be developed in the near future with the objective that the prevention of allergic disease may become a reality. The review article also discuss recent patent related to the field. PMID:19075996

  20. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  1. Allergenicity assay of allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae in transgenic tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mingjuan; SHEN Ye; HU Yuanlei; CAO Lei; NI Ting; ZHANG Hongyu; LIN Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    Derf2 gene for one of mite allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae has been cloned and expressed under regulation of 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco. The transcriptional analysis showed that this mite complete gene structure in genomic sequence could be spliced at prediction site. Allergenicity assay with immunological sera indicated that the extracts from the transgenic tobacco gave obvious positive IgE binding reaction with specific serum pool. This work would be of potential use in allergenicity assessment of genetically modified food.

  2. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven al...

  3. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  4. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  5. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    An Goossens

    2016-01-01

    This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015) in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested ...

  6. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  7. Molecular Characteristics of Cockroach Allergens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chii-Huei Wu; Mey-Fann Lee

    2005-01-01

    Cockroaches, commonly found in urban dwellings worldwide, have long been considered vectors of various infectious diseases and cockroach allergens are one of the major etiologic risk factors for IgE-mediated allergic respiratory illness throughout the world. A high prevalence of cockroach hypersensitivity in atopic (20-55 %) and asthmatic (49-60%) populations has been documented. Cockroach allergens with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 120 kD have been identified by various standard immunochemical techniques. This article covers the characteristics of major cockroach allergens that have been purified, sequenced, cloned, and produced as recombinant proteins.

  8. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  9. Understanding Allergic Asthma from Allergen Inhalation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W Cockcroft

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation, advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma.

  10. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    : Seven allergens - parabens mix, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, sesquiterpene lactone mix, wool alcohols, potassium dichromate, Myroxylon pereirae, and cobalt chloride - showed statistically significant positive associations to polysensitization. Five allergens p-phenylenediamine, neomycin...

  11. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena

    2011-04-01

    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  12. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of the features believed...... to be a general characteristic of food allergens is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general are more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, concluding that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is for this reason a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. The association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has though been challenged in recent years...

  13. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of the features believed to be a general characteristicof food allergens is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general are more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with ...

  14. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  15. The Allergen Bank: a source of extra contact allergens for the dermatologist in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C; Carlsen, L

    1996-01-01

    concentrations available at the allergy laboratory and the patch test results. At the request of dermatologists in practice for Allergen Bank may supply special contact allergens for aimed patch testing of contact dermatitis patients. The organization of the Allergen Bank and the procedure of its use......The Allergen Bank was established to give dermatologists easy access to special test materials in order to make early diagnoses of special cases of allergic contact dermatitis. The Allergen Bank comprises a computer system to register several hundred contact allergens in appropriate patch test...... are described. During its first 23 months 28 dermatologists asked for 2,209 allergen samples for testing of 386 patients, an average of 6 allergens per patient and 14 patients per dermatologist. A total number of 164 positive reactions have been registered, and 440 of the 540 allergens have been in use. One...

  16. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-08-01

    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  17. Recent progress in allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with or without seasonal bronchial asthma and anaphylaxis caused by the sting of the hymenoptera class of insects has been clearly demonstrated in numerous well-designed, placebo-controlled trials. Immunotherapy whether by subcutaneous injection of allergen extract or by oral/sublingual routes modifies peripheral and mucosal TH2 responses in favour of TH1 responses and augments IL-10 synthesis by TRegs both locally and by peripheral T cells. Recent researches into the cellular and molecular basis of allergic reactions have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms involved in allergic diseases. They have also helped the development of innovative approaches that are likely to further improve the control of allergic responses in the future. Novel approaches to immunotherapy that are currently being explored include the use of peptide-based allergen preparations, which do not bind IgE and therefore do not activate mast cells, but reduce both Th1 and Th2-cytokine synthesis, while increasing levels of IL-10. Alternative strategies include the use of adjuvants, such as nucleotide immunostimulatory sequences derived from bacteria CpG or monophosphoryl lipid A that potentiate Th1 responses. Blocking the effects of IgE using anti-IgE such as omalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to IgE, has been shown to be a useful strategy in the treatment of allergic asthma and rhinitis. The combination of anti-IgE-monoclonal antibody omalizumab with allergen immunotherapy has proved beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases, offering improved efficacy, limited adverse effects, and potential immune-modifying effects. This combination may also accelerate the rapidity by which immunotherapy induces TReg cells. If allergic diseases are due to a lack of allergen-specific TReg cells, then effective therapies should target the induction and the

  18. Novel allergen preparations for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Neimert Andersson, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Allergy is a common disease in the industrialized countries, affecting approximately 25% of the population. Therefore, there is a need to find new treatment strategies to improve the quality of life for allergic individuals. Today the only treatment that gives long-lasting reduction of allergic symptoms is allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). However, despite successful clinical outcome, the method as it is performed today has some drawbacks such as therapy associated side...

  19. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome. PMID:26022861

  20. Anaphylaxis to Insect Venom Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to Hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe consequences of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, diagnostic tests are still hampered...... by a lack of specificity and venom immunotherapy by severe side effects and incomplete protection. In recent years, the knowledge about the molecular composition of Hymenoptera venoms has significantly increased and more and more recombinant venom allergens with advanced characteristics have become...... available for diagnostic measurement of specific IgE in venom-allergic patients. These recombinant venom allergens offer several promising possibilities for an improved diagnostic algorithm. Reviewed here are the current status, recent developments, and future perspectives of molecular diagnostics of venom...

  1. New routes for allergen immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M.; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the a...

  2. Understanding Allergic Asthma from Allergen Inhalation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Donald W Cockcroft; Hargreave, Fredrick E; Paul M O’Byrne; Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2007-01-01

    The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to alle...

  3. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating a

  4. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans : Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating a

  5. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  6. Recombinant expression systems for allergen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2006-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy of future is likely to be based on allergy vaccines that contain engineered allergens modified to abolish or substantially reduce their IgE-binding activity in order to remove the risk of unwanted anaphylactic responses. The development of efficient systems for the production of recombinant allergens in sufficient quantities is requirement for establishing use of engineered allergens as components of allergy vaccines. This review outlines relative advantages and disadvantages of various heterologous systems for production of recombinant allergens. Microbial systems are most convenient and cost effective platforms for the production of recombinant allergens. However, lack of post-translational processing implies that some allergens have to be expressed in eukaryotic systems for proper folding and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Yeast systems can yield high levels of recombinant allergens but often are associated with hyper- glycosylation problems. Mammalian cell culture systems offer suitable post -translational modifications but are nearly hundred fold more expensive than microbial systems. The use of plants as bio-factories for production of recombinant allergens is emerging as a very attractive option as plants-based production system offer several advantages over other expression systems such as post translational processing of proteins, low production costs, scale up ability and enhanced safety due to absence of animal or human pathogens.

  7. Computational analysis of the relationship between allergenicity and digestibility of allergenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ting

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified (GM food, with regard to allergenic potential of transgene-encoded xenoproteins, typically involves several different methods, evaluation by digestibility being one thereof. However, there are still debates about whether the allergenicity of food allergens is related to their resistance to digestion by the gastric fluid. The disagreements may in part stem from classification of allergens only by their sources, which we believe is inadequate, and the difficulties in achieving identical experimental conditions for studying digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF so that results can be compared. Here, we reclassify allergenic food allergens into alimentary canal-sensitized (ACS and non-alimentary canal-sensitized (NACS allergens and use a computational model that simulates gastric fluid digestion to analyze the digestibilities of these two types. Results The model presented in this paper is as effective as SGF digestion experiments, but more stable and reproducible. On the basis of this model, food allergens are satisfactorily classified as ACS and NACS types by their pathways for sensitization; the former are relatively resistant to gastric fluid digestion while the later are relatively labile. Conclusion The results suggest that it is better to classify allergens into ACS and NACS types when understanding the relationship between their digestibility and allergenicity and the digestibility of a target foreign protein is a parameter for evaluating its allergenicity during safety assessments of GM food.

  8. Influence of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Allergenic Properties of Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) Allergen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenxing; LIN Hong; CAO Limin

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0 ℃ or 50 ℃for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0 ℃. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50 ℃. In the determination of allergenicity with CiELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  9. Profilins: Mimickers of Allergy or Relevant Allergens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Santos; R. van Ree

    2011-01-01

    Profilins are ubiquitous proteins, present in all eukaryotic cells and identified as allergens in pollen, latex and plant foods. The highly conserved structure justifies the cross-reactive nature of IgE antibodies against plant profilins and their designation as pan-allergens. Primary sensitization

  10. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS § 680.1 Allergenic Products. (a) Definition. Allergenic... (b). (ii) Mold cultures shall be free of contaminating materials (including microorganisms) prior to... individual, that will ensure the identity of the seed culture, prescribe adequate processing of the mold,...

  11. Hymenoptera allergens: from venom to "venome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire "venome" as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function, and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of immunoglobulin E reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in HVA and may serve for monitoring, re-evaluation, and improvement of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:24616722

  12. From allergen genes to allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Ferreira, Fatima; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Niederberger, Verena; Swoboda, Ines; Vrtala, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. The structures of the most common allergens have been revealed through molecular cloning technology in the past two decades. On the basis of this knowledge of the sequences and three-dimensional structures of culprit allergens, investigators can now analyze the immune recognition of allergens and the mechanisms of allergic inflammation in allergic patients. Allergy vaccines have been constructed that are able to selectively target the aberrant immune responses in allergic patients via different pathways of the immune system. Here we review various types of allergy vaccines that have been developed based on allergen structures, results from their clinical application in allergic patients, and future strategies for allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergy prophylaxis.

  13. Effects of NO2 and ozone on pollen allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eFrank

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed.

  14. New routes for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  15. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L.; Peter D Sly; Stephanie J London; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort ...

  16. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita Hiroyuki; Soyka Michael B; Akdis Mübeccel; Akdis Cezmi A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a ro...

  17. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This....... Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned....

  18. Bioanalytical methods for food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection and new allergen discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new all...

  19. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...... in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically...... appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. CONCLUSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  20. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    (CS) and allergy following increased penetration of potential allergens. However, the relationship between common dermatoses such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and the development of contact allergy (CA) is complex, and depends on immunologic responses...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  1. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, Ulf; Forer, Ingeborg; Ring, Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Aeroallergens are relevant eliciting factors of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma but also of atopic eczema. The use of allergen-specific immunotherapy as in respiratory atopic diseases is controversial in patients with atopic eczema, but refined diagnostic methods to characterize subgroups of patients with relevant allergies and the results of smaller controlled studies give rise to new approaches in this field. This article reviews the theoretical problems and practical results associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema. PMID:21461718

  2. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    OpenAIRE

    Edzard eSpillner; Simon eBlank; Thilo eJakob

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extr...

  3. The human allergens of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Sue

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A computerized statistical analysis of allergy skin test results correlating patient reactivities initiated our interest in the cross-reactive allergens of mesquite tree pollen. In-vitro testing with mesquite-sensitized rabbits and a variety of deciduous tree pollens revealed so many cross-reactivities that it became apparent there could be more allergens in mesquite than previously described in the world literature. Our purpose was to examine the allergens of mesquite tree pollen (Prosopis juliflora which elicit an IgE response in allergic humans so that future research could determine if these human allergens cross-react with various tree pollens in the same manner as did the mesquite antiserum from sensitized rabbits. Methods Proteins from commercial mesquite tree pollen were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium-dodecyl-sulphate. These mesquite proteins were subjected to Western blotting using pooled sera from ten mesquite-sensitive patients and goat anti-human IgE. The allergens were detected using an Amplified Opti-4-CN kit, scanned, and then interpreted by Gel-Pro software. Results Thirteen human allergens of mesquite pollen were detected in this study. Conclusion The number of allergens in this study of mesquite exceeded the number identified previously in the literature. With the increased exposure to mesquite through its use in "greening the desert", increased travel to desert areas and exposure to mesquite in cooking smoke, the possible clinical significance of these allergens and their suggested cross-reactivity with other tree pollens merit further study.

  4. High pressure effects on allergen food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, Judit; Smeller, László

    2013-12-15

    There are several proteins, which can cause allergic reaction if they are inhaled or ingested. Our everyday food can also contain such proteins. Food allergy is an IgE-mediated immune disorder, a growing health problem of great public concern. High pressure is known to affect the structure of proteins; typically few hundred MPa pressure can lead to denaturation. That is why several trials have been performed to alter the structure of the allergen proteins by high pressure, in order to reduce its allergenicity. Studies have been performed both on simple protein solutions and on complex food systems. Here we review those allergens which have been investigated under or after high pressure treatment by methods capable of detecting changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins. We focus on those allergenic proteins, whose structural changes were investigated by spectroscopic methods under pressure in correlation with the observed allergenicity (IgE binding) changes. According to this criterion we selected the following allergen proteins: Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 (apple), Bos d 5 (milk), Dau c 1 (carrot), Gal d 2 (egg), Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 (peanut), and Gad m 1 (cod).

  5. Allergen specific immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one antigen has been used for immunotherapy of allergic disorders. So far less than five antigens have been employed with variable results. AIM: To evaluate effect of multiple antigens up to six in the immunotherapy of nasobronchial allergy. SETTING AND DESIGN: Based on clinical history, symptoms present for at least 3 years with set criteria of immunomodulation for asthma and rhinitis: documented IgE mediated asthma and rhinitis, failure in allergen avoidance and moderate to severe clinical manifestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred cases of various allergic disorders attending allergy clinic of Bombay hospital were screened. Allergen specific immunotherapy was initiated in 131 subjects (56 -rhinitis and 75 asthma with prior consent. Patients suffering from allergic disorders secondary to diseases or drug therapy were excluded. Multiple allergen immunotherapy was given at specific intervals up to a period of one year. Allergen extracts were prepared as per standard technique. For statistical analysis "students′t test" was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement in PEFR, reduction in skin sensitivity to allergens used in immunotherapy formulation and symptomatic relief without any untoward reaction show that multiple allergen immunotherapy is as effective as monoallergen immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.

  6. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  7. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

  8. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  9. Update in the Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotheraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a complex innate and adoptive immune response to natural environmental allergens with Th2-type T cells and allergen-specific IgE predominance. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective therapeutic approach for disregulated immune response towards allergens by enhancing immune tolerance mechanisms. The main aim of immunotherapy is the generation of allergen nonresponsive or tolerant T cells in sensitized patients and downregulation of predominant T cell- and IgE-mediated immune responses. During allergen-specific immunotherapy, T regulatory cells are generated, which secrete IL-10 and induce allergen-specific B cells for the production of IgG4 antibodies. These mechanisms induce tolerance to antigens that reduces allergic symptoms. Although current knowledge highlights the role of T regulatory cell-mediated immunetolerance, definite mechanisms that lead to a successful clinical outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy still remains an open area of research. PMID:21217920

  10. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S;

    2010-01-01

    Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being...... developed to improve the quality of diagnosis, and to reduce the need for food challenge tests. In addition, recombinant allergens are being evaluated as candidate vaccines for safe and efficacious specific immunotherapy. Pure allergens are indispensable as reference materials for the calibration...... and standardization of methods between different laboratories and operators for risk assessment in the food industry. Therefore, there is a need for well-defined purified food allergens. In this context, a panel of 46 food allergens from plant and animal sources has been purified, from either the food sources...

  11. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  12. T-cell response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Cevdet; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening IgE-dependent type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in which multiple organ systems are involved. The existence of allergen exposure and specific IgE are the major contributors to this systemic reaction. The decision of the immune system to respond to allergens is highly dependent on factors including the type and load of allergen, behavior and type of antigen-presenting cells, innate immune response stimulating substances in the same micromilieu, the tissue of exposure, interactions between T and B lymphocytes, costimulators, and genetic propensity known as atopy. Antigen-presenting cells introduce processed allergens to T-helper lymphocytes, where a decision of developing different types of T-cell immunity is given under the influence of several cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory signals and regulatory T cells. Among Th2-type cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are responsible for class switching in B cells, which results in production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies that bind to specific receptors on mast cells and basophils. After re-exposure to the sensitized allergen, this phase is followed by activation of IgE Fc receptors on mast cells and basophils resulting in biogenic mediator releases responsible for the symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis. Since the discovery of regulatory T cells, the concepts of immune regulation have substantially changed during the last decade. Peripheral T-cell tolerance is a key immunologic mechanism in healthy immune response to self antigens and non-infectious non-self antigens. Both naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible populations of allergen-specific, IL-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells inhibit allergen-specific effector cells and have been shown to play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and the establishment of controlled immune responses. On the other hand, Th17 cells are characterized by their IL-17 (or IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-6

  13. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Soyka, Michael B; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases. PMID:22409879

  14. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  15. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1 cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases.

  16. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331

  17. The current state of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Malling, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a well documented treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The majority of the disadvantages of the treatment are related to the poor quality of the natural allergen extracts which can contain varying amounts of individual allergens including allergens to which...

  18. Oxazolone (OXA) is a respiratory allergen in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Radonjic, M.; Triel, J. van; Stierum, R.; Groot, R.J. de; Arts, J.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxazolone (OXA) is a potent contact allergen in man, and it is used as a model Th1-allergen to test (Q)SAR's and screening assays for allergenic potential of chemicals. However, it elevates serum IgE levels and Thelper2 cytokines at relatively low doses in test animals, suggesting that it has also r

  19. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  20. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy and immune tolerance to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early desensitization effects, modulation of T- and B-cell responses and related antibody isotypes as well as inhibition of migration of eosinophils, basophils and mast cells to tissues and release of their mediators. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been identified as key regulators of immunological processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears as a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in AIT. Naturally occurring FoxP3(+) CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and inducible type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE, and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and suppression of effector T cell migration to tissues. New strategies for immune intervention will likely include targeting of the molecular mechanisms of allergen tolerance and reciprocal regulation of effector and regulatory T cell subsets. PMID:26023323

  1. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy and immune tolerance to allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Cezmi A Akdis; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early d...

  2. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eZahradnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day care centers and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors.Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended.

  3. Allergen-Specific CD4(+) T Cells in Human Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Morris F; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    In allergic asthma, aeroallergen exposure of sensitized individuals mobilizes robust innate and adaptive airway immune responses, stimulating eosinophilic airway inflammation and the activation and infiltration of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells into the airways. Allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells are thought to be central players in the asthmatic response as they specifically recognize the allergen and initiate and orchestrate the asthmatic inflammatory response. In this article, we briefly review the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of human allergic airway inflammation in allergic individuals, discuss the use of allergen-major histocompatibility complex class II tetramers to characterize allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells, and highlight current gaps in knowledge and directions for future research pertaining to the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in human asthma. PMID:27027948

  4. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  5. De allergene potentie van geneesmiddelen: literatuurstudie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Vleeming W; de Wildt DJ; van der Laan JW; de Waal EJ; van Loveren H; Garssen J; TOX; LGM; PAT

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de allergische reacties, die het gevolg zijn van geneesmiddelengebruik. De nadruk is gelegd op ernstige allergische reacties. Een overzicht -ingedeeld volgens de classificatie van Gell en Coombs wordt gegeven van geneesmiddelen met een allergene potentie. Daarn

  6. Developments in allergen-specific immunotherapy: from allergen extracts to allergy vaccines bypassing allergen-specific immunoglobulin E and T cell reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, M; Swoboda, I; Marth, K; Valenta, R

    2010-03-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific and disease-modifying approach for the treatment of allergy but several disadvantages have limited its broad applicability. We argue that the majority of the possible disadvantages of SIT such as unwanted effects, poor efficacy and specificity as well as inconvenient application are related to the poor quality of natural allergen extracts, which are the active ingredients of all currently available allergy vaccines. Because of the progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization, new allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergens, recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and allergen-derived T cell peptides have entered clinical testing and hold promise to reduce the side-effects and to increase the specificity as well as the efficacy of SIT. Here, we present a refined immunotherapy concept, which is based on the use of peptides derived from allergen surfaces that exhibit reduced, allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. These peptides when fused to non-allergenic carriers give rise to allergen-specific protective IgG responses with T cell help from a non-allergenic carrier molecule. We summarize the experimental data demonstrating that such peptide vaccines can bypass allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell activation and may be administered at high doses without IgE- and T cell-mediated side-effects. Should these peptide vaccines prove efficacious and safe in clinical trials, it may become possible to develop convenient, safe and broadly applicable forms of SIT as true alternatives to symptomatic, drug-based allergy treatment.

  7. Vaccine development for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant allergens and synthetic allergen peptides: Lessons from the past and novel mechanisms of action for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the char...

  8. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  9. Effects of nasal corticosteroids on boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production induced by nasal allergen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Egger

    Full Text Available Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear.Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure.Subjects (n = 48 suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1-4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter.Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects.In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure.http://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00755066.

  10. New Trends in Food Allergens Detection: Toward Biosensing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Barroso, M Fátima; González-García, María Begoña; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-25

    Food allergens are a real threat to sensitized individuals. Although food labeling is crucial to provide information to consumers with food allergies, accidental exposure to allergenic proteins may result from undeclared allergenic substances by means of food adulteration, fraud or uncontrolled cross-contamination. Allergens detection in foodstuffs can be a very hard task, due to their presence usually in trace amounts, together with the natural interference of the matrix. Methods for allergens analysis can be mainly divided in two large groups: the immunological assays and the DNA-based ones. Mass spectrometry has also been used as a confirmatory tool. Recently, biosensors appeared as innovative, sensitive, selective, environmentally friendly, cheaper and fast techniques (especially when automated and/or miniaturized), able to effectively replace the classical methodologies. In this review, we present the advances in the field of food allergens detection toward the biosensing strategies and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of this technology. PMID:25779935

  11. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: from therapeutic vaccines to prophylactic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, R; Campana, R; Marth, K; van Hage, M

    2012-08-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease.

  12. Mechanisms underlying allergy vaccination with recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-19

    Hundred years ago therapeutic vaccination with allergen-containing extracts has been introduced as a clinically effective, disease-modifying, allergen-specific and long-lasting form of therapy for allergy, a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Today, the structures of most of the disease-causing allergens have been elucidated and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with reduced allergenic activity have been engineered to reduce side effects during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). These recombinant hypoallergens have been characterized in vitro, in experimental animal models and in clinical trials in allergic patients. This review provides a summary of the molecular, immunological and preclinical evaluation criteria applied for this new generation of allergy vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms underlying SIT with recombinant hypoallergens which are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect.

  13. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  14. Footwear dermatitis - Clinical patterns and contact allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty patients suspected of contact dermatitis to footwear studied to evaluate various clinical presentations and possible sensitizers. ′V′ chappals and sandals were suspected alone in 12, a combination of open and closed shoes in 15 and closed shoes alone in 3 patients. Commonest affected sites were dorsa of feet and toes in 14 and dorsa of feet corresponding to the shape of footwear in 12 patients. Patch tests were done using a battery of sixteen allergens. Positive patch tests were seen in 29 patients. Rubber chemicals were the commonest allergens detected in 26 patients, dyes in 10,leather in 6, glues and neoprene cements in 4 and rubber material from suspected footwear as such in 4 patients respectively.

  15. Footwear dermatitis - Clinical patterns and contact allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Handa S; Sharma S; Sharma V; Kaur S.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty patients suspected of contact dermatitis to footwear studied to evaluate various clinical presentations and possible sensitizers. ′V′ chappals and sandals were suspected alone in 12, a combination of open and closed shoes in 15 and closed shoes alone in 3 patients. Commonest affected sites were dorsa of feet and toes in 14 and dorsa of feet corresponding to the shape of footwear in 12 patients. Patch tests were done using a battery of sixteen allergens. Positive patch tes...

  16. Lack of detectable allergenicity of transgenic maize and soya samples

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Rita; Nunes, Baltazar; Carmo, Manuela; Cardoso, Carlos; Helena, São José; Almeida, António Bugalho de; Manique, Alda; Bento, Leonor; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2005-01-01

    Background: The safety issues regarding foods derived from genetically modified (GM) plants are central to their acceptance into the food supply. The potential allergenicity of proteins newly introduced in GM foods is a major safety concern. Objective: We sought to monitor, in potentially sensitive human populations, the allergenicity effects of 5 GM materials obtained from sources with no allergenic potential and already under commercialization in the European Union. ...

  17. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  18. The Level of Sensitivity of Food Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Rengganis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occurrence of allergy continues to increase rapidly both domestically and globally. World Allergy Organization (WAO revealed that 22% of the world population suffers from allergies, and this number increases every year. Food allergy is a condition caused by the reaction of IgE against substances (chemicals in food. Food allergy can interfere with brain function and body organ systems as well as affect the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to know the level of sensitivity of food allergens in the Immunology Allergy Poly RSCM in 2007. Data were collected from 208 patients who have medical records and went through skin prick tests in the Immunology Allergy Clinic RSCM in 2007. Univariate analysis was performed to describe the types of food allergens within groups of children and adults. Around 49% of the respondents were sensitive to food allergens. The types of foods that caused the most allergies for children and adults are respectively shrimp, egg white and cornstarch. Cow's milk and wheat flour are the types of food that caused most allergies for children only, whereas for adults, the food that caused the most allergies is crab.

  19. What do we know about plant food allergens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, J. A.; Sancho, A. I.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard;

    2005-01-01

    databases has allowed their classification into families. This has shown that plant food allergens fall into four main families, with the prolamin superfamily (including the 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cc-amylase inhibitors) predominating, followed by the family of allergens related...... to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, and the cupin superfamily, including the I IS and 7S seed storage globulins. Future studies will be required to allow us to begin understand what it is about these protein families - whether it be their abundance, stability or some as yet unidentified factor...... - that is predisposing certain family members to becoming allergens....

  20. Wind-pollination and the roles of pollen allergenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songnuan, Wisuwat

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of understanding of the molecular nature of major allergens contained within pollens from the most important allergenic plant species. Most major allergens belong to only a few protein families. Protein characteristics, cross-reactivity, structures, and IgE binding epitopes have been determined for several allergens. These efforts have led to significant improvements in specific immunotherapy, yet there has been little discussion about the physiological functions of these proteins. Even with large amounts of available information about allergenic proteins from pollens, the incidence of pollen allergy continuously increases worldwide. The reason for this increase is unclear and is most likely due to a combination of factors. One important culprit might be a change in the pollen itself. Knowledge about pollen biology and how pollen is changing as a result of more extreme environmental conditions might improve our understanding of the disease. This review focuses on the characteristics of plants producing allergenic pollens that are relevant to pollen allergy, including the phylogenetic relationships, pollen dispersal distances, amounts of pollen produced, amounts of protein in each type of pollen, and how allergenic proteins are released from pollens. In addition, the physiological roles of major allergenic protein families will be discussed to help us understand why some of these proteins become allergens and why GMO plants with hypoallergenic pollens may not be successful.

  1. Functional Genomics of Allergen Gene Families in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maghuly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and proteomic tools. Since avoidance of fruits also negatively affects the quality of patients’ lives, biotechnological interventions are ongoing to produce low allergenic fruits by down regulating specific genes. In this respect, the control of proteins associated with allergenicity could be achieved by fine tuning the spatial and temporal expression of the relevant genes.

  2. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV, chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads, and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation.

  3. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.

  4. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M;

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity.......Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  5. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH tes

  6. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  7. Nanoparticulate Adjuvants and Delivery Systems for Allergen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana De Souza Rebouças

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  8. Protein families: implications for allergen nomenclature, standardisation and specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, Heimo

    2009-01-01

    Allergens are embedded into the protein universe as members of large families and superfamilies of related proteins which is a direct consequence of their shared evolution. The classification of allergens by protein families offers a valuable frame of reference that allows the design of experiments to study cross-reactivity and allergenic potency of proteins. Information on protein family membership also complements the current official IUIS allergen nomenclature. All presently known allergens belong to one of 140 (1.4%) of the 10,340 protein families currently described by version 23.0 of the Pfam database. This is indicative of a strong bias among allergens towards certain protein architectures that are able to induce an IgE response in an atopic immune system. However, even small variations in the structure of a protein alter its immunological characteristics. Various isoforms of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were shown to possess highly variant immunogenic and allergenic properties. Ber e 1 and SFA8, two 2S albumins, were revealed to display differential capacities to polarise an immune response. Such data will be exploited in the future for the design of allergy vaccines.

  9. Nanoparticulate adjuvants and delivery systems for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Rebouças, Juliana; Esparza, Irene; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María Luisa; Irache, Juan Manuel; Gamazo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  10. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Chun-Han, C.; Crevel, R.; Grimshaw, K.; Poms, R.; Schnadt, S.; Taylor, S.L.; Turner, P.; Allen, K,J.; Austin, M.; Baka, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Baumgartner, S.; Beyer, K.; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Grinter, K.; Houben, G.F.; Hourihane, J.; Kenna, F.; Kruizinga, AG; Lack, G; Madsen, CB; Mills, EN; Papadopoulos, N.G.; Alldrick, A.; Regent, L.; Sherlock, R.; Wal, J.M.; Roberts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counter-productive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to sum

  11. The current state of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Malling, H-J

    2010-01-01

    the patient may not be sensitized. Recombinant allergens offer a possibility to use well defined molecules with consistent pharmaceutical quality defined in mass units. The proof of concept of the clinical efficacy of recombinant allergens is based on two studies published as full articles....

  12. Current Overview of Allergens of Plant Pathogenesis Related Protein Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis related (PR proteins are one of the major sources of plant derived allergens. These proteins are induced by the plants as a defense response system in stress conditions like microbial and insect infections, wounding, exposure to harsh chemicals, and atmospheric conditions. However, some plant tissues that are more exposed to environmental conditions like UV irradiation and insect or fungal attacks express these proteins constitutively. These proteins are mostly resistant to proteases and most of them show considerable stability at low pH. Many of these plant pathogenesis related proteins are found to act as food allergens, latex allergens, and pollen allergens. Proteins having similar amino acid sequences among the members of PR proteins may be responsible for cross-reactivity among allergens from diverse plants. This review analyzes the different pathogenesis related protein families that have been reported as allergens. Proteins of these families have been characterized in regard to their biological functions, amino acid sequence, and cross-reactivity. The three-dimensional structures of some of these allergens have also been evaluated to elucidate the antigenic determinants of these molecules and to explain the cross-reactivity among the various allergens.

  13. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevel, R.W.R.; Baumert, J.L.; Baka, A.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Luccioli, S.; Taylor, S.L.; Madsen, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment

  14. Food allergens of plant origin - their molecular and evolutionary relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E. N. C.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Shewry, P. R.;

    2003-01-01

    Along with other forms of allergic disease, food allergies appear to be on the increase, with childhood allergies to foods such as peanuts being of particular concern. Around 7-10 foods are responsible for the majority of allergies, including several of plant origin, notably peanut. Allergies...... are usually triggered by the protein components in a food, which are also known as allergens. However, not all the proteins in an allergenic food like peanut are allergens. Why should this be? This question has been addressed by an EU-funded inter-disciplinary network of clinicians, food chemists and plant...... biochemists called Protall. From the groups considerations it is clear that, whilst the abundance of a protein in a food is one factor involved in determining its allergenic potential, this is not sufficient on its own to predict its allergenicity. Through an analysis of common properties of plant food...

  15. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production.

  16. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production. PMID:19557818

  17. Sensitization rates of causative allergens for dogs with atopic dermatitis: detection of canine allergen-specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific IgE serology tests became commercially available in the 1980s. Since then these tests have been widely used to diagnose and treat allergic skin diseases. However, the relationship between a positive reaction and disease occurrence has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate allergens using a serologic allergy test in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Dogs clinically diagnosed with AD (n = 101) were tested using an allergen-specific IgE immunoassay. Among the total 92 environmental and food allergens, house dust and house dust mites were the most common. Several allergens including airborne pollens and molds produced positive reactions, and which was considered increasing allergens relating to the climate changes. The presence of antibodies against staphylococci and Malassezia in cases of canine AD was warranted in this study. Additionally, strong (chicken, turkey, brown rice, brewer's yeast, and soybean) and weakly (rabbit, vension, duck, and tuna) positive reactions to food allergens could be used for avoidance and limited-allergen trials. PMID:24962408

  18. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  19. Vaccine development for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant allergens and synthetic allergen peptides: Lessons from the past and novel mechanisms of action for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena

    2016-02-01

    In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient. Furthermore, we discuss how new technologies can facilitate the reproducible manufacturing of vaccines of pharmaceutical grade for inhalant, food, and venom allergens. Allergy vaccines in clinical trials based on recombinant allergens, recombinant allergen derivatives, and synthetic peptides allow us to target selectively different immune mechanisms, and certain of those show features that might make them applicable not only for therapeutic but also for prophylactic vaccination.

  20. Exposure to indoor allergens and association with allergy symptoms of employees in a work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Brunetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens is an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the levels of mite, cat and latex allergens in dust collected from an indoor workplace and to assess whether the exposure to these allergens was associated with the allergy symptoms reported by employees. Sixty dust samples were collected. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody based ELISAs. All 144 participants compiled a questionnaire exploring possible symptoms of allergy. No association between latex allergen exposure and symptoms was found in spite of the high frequency of latex allergens. Mite allergens were detected in a minority of rooms. Cat allergen was the most important indoor allergen in the sampled workplace and exposure to this allergen could represent a risk for employees.

  1. Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, H; Ebner, C

    2000-07-01

    Molecular biology and biochemical techniques have significantly advanced the knowledge of allergens derived from plant foods. Surprisingly, many of the known plant food allergens are homologous to pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), proteins that are induced by pathogens, wounding, or certain environmental stresses. PRs have been classified into 14 families. Examples of allergens homologous to PRs include chitinases (PR-3 family) from avocado, banana, and chestnut; antifungal proteins such as the thaumatin-like proteins (PR-5) from cherry and apple; proteins homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (PR-10) from vegetables and fruits; and lipid transfer proteins (PR-14) from fruits and cereals. Allergens other than PR homologs can be allotted to other well-known protein families such as inhibitors of alpha-amylases and trypsin from cereal seeds, profilins from fruits and vegetables, seed storage proteins from nuts and mustard seeds, and proteases from fruits. As more clinical data and structural information on allergenic molecules becomes available, we may finally be able to answer what characteristics of a molecule are responsible for its allergenicity.

  2. [Hidden allergens in processed food. The consumer perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt, S

    2012-03-01

    Despite improved allergen-labeling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food are a substantial risk for unintended reactions in food allergy sufferers. Unpublished data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) show that 85% of 738 questioned food allergic patients have experienced at least one allergic reaction from each prepacked products as well as food sold loose. Almost half of the participants said to have not received information of a food allergen as an ingredient or possible trace on the label. Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens can be hidden in processed products, like incomprehensible labeling, labeling gaps, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as cross contaminations or allergens in loose products. To each of the seven highlighted sources of hidden allergens in food, practical examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation from consumer view. The aim is to indicate possibilities and measures for politics and industry by which allergic consumers and their social circle are able to make an informed choice concerning the safe consumption of a certain product and to protect themselves from unintentional reactions.

  3. Seed-based oral vaccines as allergen-specific immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-based vaccines have advantages over conventional vaccines in terms of scalability, lack of requirement for cold chain logistics, stability, safety, cost-effectiveness and needle-free administration. In particular, when antigen is expressed in seeds, high production is possible and immunogenicity is not lost even if stocked at ambient temperature for several years. Induction of immune tolerance (desensitization) to allergen is a principle strategy for controlling allergic diseases, and is generally carried out by subcutaneous injection. Seed-based oral administration offers a straightforward and inexpensive alternative approach to deliver vaccines effectively to the GALT without loss of activity. Consumption of transgenic seeds containing modified hypo-allergenic tolerogen or T-cell epitope peptides derived from allergens has no or very few severe side effects and can induce immune tolerance leading to reduction of allergen-specific IgE production, T-cell proliferation and release of histamine. Suppression of allergen-specific clinical symptoms results. Thus, seed-based allergy vaccines offer an innovative and convenient allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approach as an alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  4. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert;

    2016-01-01

    produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential......Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  5. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S;

    2010-01-01

    developed to improve the quality of diagnosis, and to reduce the need for food challenge tests. In addition, recombinant allergens are being evaluated as candidate vaccines for safe and efficacious specific immunotherapy. Pure allergens are indispensable as reference materials for the calibration...... or as recombinant forms, within the EU-funded EuroPrevall project. These allergens have been characterized by a battery of diagnostic tests demonstrating that they constitute an authentic, well-defined library of comparable quality. The review summarizes the applications, potentials and limitations of key...

  6. Enlarging the toolbox for allergen epitope definition with an allergen-type model protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Berkner

    Full Text Available Birch pollen-allergic subjects produce polyclonal cross-reactive IgE antibodies that mediate pollen-associated food allergies. The major allergen Bet v 1 and its homologs in plant foods bind IgE in their native protein conformation. Information on location, number and clinical relevance of IgE epitopes is limited. We addressed the use of an allergen-related protein model to identify amino acids critical for IgE binding of PR-10 allergens.Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS from meadow rue is structurally homologous to Bet v 1 but does not bind Bet v 1-reactive IgE. NCS was used as the template for epitope grafting. NCS variants were tested with sera from 70 birch pollen allergic subjects and with monoclonal antibody BV16 reported to compete with IgE binding to Bet v 1.We generated an NCS variant (Δ29NCSN57/I58E/D60N/V63P/D68K harboring an IgE epitope of Bet v 1. Bet v 1-type protein folding of the NCS variant was evaluated by 1H-15N-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. BV16 bound the NCS variant and 71% (50/70 sera of our study population showed significant IgE binding. We observed IgE and BV16 cross-reactivity to the epitope presented by the NCS variant in a subgroup of Bet v 1-related allergens. Moreover BV16 blocked IgE binding to the NCS variant. Antibody cross-reactivity depended on a defined orientation of amino acids within the Bet v 1-type conformation.Our system allows the evaluation of patient-specific epitope profiles and will facilitate both the identification of clinically relevant epitopes as biomarkers and the monitoring of therapeutic outcomes to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of allergies caused by PR-10 proteins.

  7. Prophylaxis and therapy of allergy by mucosal tolerance induction with recombinant allergens or allergen constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula

    2005-10-01

    The mucosal immune system, present along the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, has to discriminate between harmful pathogens and innocuous antigens, such as food, airborne antigens or the commensal bacterial flora. Therefore the mucosal immune system has acquired two opposing immunological functions, i.e. the induction of immunity and defence of mucosal pathogens, and the induction and maintenance of tolerance to environmental antigens and bacterial flora. As described for autoimmunity a breakdown or failure of tolerance induction is believed to lead also to allergies and food enteropathies. Based on the physiological role to prevent hypersensitivity reactions, tolerance induction via the mucosa has been proposed as a treatment strategy against inflammatory diseases, such as allergies. The aim of our research is to develop mucosal allergy vaccines based on the induction of mucosal tolerance and/or the induction of counter-regulatory immune responses with or without the use of certain mucosal antigen delivery systems, such as lactic acid bacteria. The use of recombinant allergens instead of allergen extracts with varying allergen content and composition may be essential for improvement of the treatment efficacy. In the present review we give examples of different animal models of type I allergy/asthma. Using these models we demonstrate that recombinant allergens or hypoallergenic variants thereof can be successfully used to induce mucosal tolerance in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic treatment regime. That the concept of mucosal tolerance induction/mucosal vaccine delivery may in principal also function in humans is supported by recent clinical trials with locally (sublingual) applied immunotherapy.

  8. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. PMID:25872439

  9. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species.

  10. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured. PMID:27313841

  11. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers

  12. Latex protein: a hidden "food" allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D H; Reschke, J E; Allen, J H; Kostyal, D A; Sussman, G L

    2000-01-01

    Avoidance of latex allergens is the primary method to prevent adverse reactions. Natural rubber latex is found in many different products in both the health care industry and in modern society, and consequently results in unexpected exposures of sensitized individuals. The use of latex gloves by food handlers provides one potential route for inadvertent exposure to latex allergens. In this study we have used two immunological methods to determine whether latex proteins are transferred to foods following contact with latex gloves. Direct transfer of latex protein to cheese was visualized using a modified immunoblot method. Sliced cheese was touched with a gloved finger. A nitrocellulose membrane was applied to lift the potential fingerprints and a rabbit anti-latex antiserum was used to visualize the transfer of any latex finger-prints. After handling lettuce with gloves, transferred protein was recovered by extracting the lettuce and quantified using an inhibition ELISA for latex proteins. Fingerprints of latex protein were readily detectable on cheese after contact with powdered latex gloves, but not with vinyl gloves. Furthermore, powdered latex glove use resulted in measurable amounts of latex protein on lettuce with an exposure-dependent increase in the latex protein levels. Lettuce alone or lettuce handled with vinyl gloves was negative for latex protein. The use of latex gloves by food handlers is the source of an indirect food additive in the form of latex proteins. It is recommended that food handlers avoid the use of latex gloves to eliminate inadvertent exposure of latex-sensitive individuals. PMID:11061040

  13. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard;

    2006-01-01

    The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room. The experimen......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room......, and a corridor between the racks and a curtain was present. The room was ventilated with air, which was blown into the room through the middle of the corridor, flowing downstream and passing through the holes in the curtain. This set-up resulted in air flow from the corridor through the curtain. Air samples were...

  14. Comparison of four variants of a major allergen in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Cor a 1.04 with the major hazel pollen allergen Cor a 1.01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttkopf, D; Müller, U; Skov, P S;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce the Bet v 1-related major hazelnut allergen Cor a 1.0401 and variants thereof as recombinant allergens, and to compare their immuno-reactivity with the major hazel pollen allergen using sera of patients whose hazelnut allergy recently was confirmed by double-b...

  15. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in 'Elstar' apple and the effect of grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krath, B.N.; Eriksen, F.D.; Pedersen, B.H.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2009-01-01

    Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross- allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may

  16. Airway responses to NO2 and allergen in asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Barck, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (N02), a gas produced by combustion, is a common environmental air pollutant. Individuals with asthma are more sensitive to N02 exposure than healthy subjects, according to results from controlled human-exposure studies. N02 can enhance the asthmatic response to inhaled allergen. The mechanisms for N02's enhancing effect on the asthmatic reaction to allergen appear to be related to an increased inflammatory reaction in the airways. The general aim of the ...

  17. Structural analysis of linear and conformational epitopes of allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Schein, Catherine H.; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Oezguen, Numan; Negi, Surendra S; Braun, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In many countries regulatory agencies have adopted safety guidelines, based on bioinformatics rules from the WHO/FAO and EFSA recommendations, to prevent potentially allergenic novel foods or agricultural products from reaching consumers. We created the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to combine data that had previously been available only as flat files on Web pages or in the literature. SDAP was designed to be user friendly, to be of maximum use...

  18. Hymenoptera Allergens: From Venom to “Venome”

    OpenAIRE

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single m...

  19. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H;

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties.......In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  20. Allergen and endotoxin exposure in a companion animal hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Samadi, S.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Krop, E. J. M.; Jamshidifard, A.R.; Willemse, T; Wouters, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to allergens, both in general and occupational environments, is known to result in sensitisation and exacerbation of allergic diseases, while endotoxin exposure might protect against allergic diseases. This may be important for veterinarians and co-workers. However, exposure levels are mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the allergen and endotoxin exposure levels of veterinary medicine students and workers in a companion animal hospital. METHODS: Airborne and surfa...

  1. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    OpenAIRE

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Catherine Tribouley; Zuzana Diamant; J. Diderik Boot; Cohen, Adam F; K. Van Dyck; De Lepeleire, I; Veronica M. Rivas; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Jacobus Burggraaf; Marcella K. Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives: To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints meas...

  2. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    OpenAIRE

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F; K. Van Dyck; De Lepeleire, I; Veronica M. Rivas; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Marcella K. Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects.Objectives: To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measu...

  3. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Perez-Riverol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA and specific immunotherapy (SIT have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  4. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  5. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  6. Thermal processing effects on peanut allergen Ara h 2 allergenicity in mice and its antigenic epitope structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenju; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhang, Tong; Cai, Qin; Chen, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Ara h 2 was purified from peanuts that were thermally treated by various processes, including boiling, glycation, frying and roasting. The allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice and the influence of thermal processing on the structural characteristics, and binding capacity of three core antigenic epitopes were studied. The results demonstrated that boiling, glycation and frying induced the down-regulation of the allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice, the collapse of its tertiary/secondary structure, and a reduction in the core epitope binding capacity; roasting showed a comparable allergenicity and the weakest inhibitory effect on core epitope binding capacity. These results indicate that thermal processing causes alteration of the protein structure and core epitopes of Ara h 2, and may affect its allergenicity. PMID:27374581

  7. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  8. In silico allergenicity prediction of several lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are common allergens and they are particularly widespread within the plant kingdom. They have a highly conserved three-dimensional structure that generate a strong cross-reactivity among the members of this family. In the last years several web tools for the prediction of allergenicity of new molecules based on their homology with known allergens have been released, and guidelines to assess potential allergenicity of proteins through bioinformatics have been established. Even if such tools are only partially reliable yet, they can provide important indications when other kinds of molecular characterization are lacking. The potential allergenicity of 28 amino acid sequences of LTPs homologs, either retrieved from the UniProt database or in silico deduced from the corresponding EST coding sequence, was predicted using 7 publicly available web tools. Moreover, their similarity degree to their closest known LTP allergens was calculated, in order to evaluate their potential cross-reactivity. Finally, all sequences were studied for their identity degree with the peach allergen Pru p 3, considering the regions involved in the formation of its known conformational IgE-binding epitope. Most of the analyzed sequences displayed a high probability to be allergenic according to all the software employed. The analyzed LTPs from bell pepper, cassava, mango, mungbean and soybean showed high homology (>70%) with some known allergenic LTPs, suggesting a potential risk of cross-reactivity for sensitized individuals. Other LTPs, like for example those from canola, cassava, mango, mungbean, papaya or persimmon, displayed a high degree of identity with Pru p 3 within the consensus sequence responsible for the formation, at three-dimensional level, of its major conformational epitope. Since recent studies highlighted how in patients mono-sensitized to peach LTP the levels of IgE seem directly proportional to the chance of developing cross

  9. Chapter 3: Allergen immunotherapy: definition, indication, and reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Mary S; Saltoun, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy is the administration of increasing amounts of specific allergens to which the patient has type I immediate hypersensitivity. It is a disease modifying therapy, indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and hymenoptera hypersensitivity. Specific IgE antibodies for appropriate allergens for immunotherapy must be documented. Indications for allergen immunotherapy include (1) inadequate symptom control despite pharmacotherapy and avoidance measures, (2) a desire to reduce the morbidity from allergic rhinitis and/or asthma or reduce the risk of anaphylaxis from a future insect sting, (3) when the patient experiences undesirable side effects from pharmacotherapy, and (4) when avoidance is not possible. Furthermore, patients may seek to benefit from economic savings of allergen immunotherapy compared with pharmacotherapy over time. Several studies have reported that immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis appears to prevent the development of new allergic sensitizations and/or new-onset asthma. Humoral, cellular, and tissue level changes occur with allergen immunotherapy including large increases in antiallergen IgG(4) antibodies, a decrease in the postseasonal rise of antiallergen IgE antibodies, reduced numbers of nasal mucosal mast cells and eosinophils, induction of Treg cells, and suppression of Th2 more than Th1 lymphocytes. There is a corresponding increase in IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta. In the United States, allergen immunotherapy is administered by the subcutaneous route in the physician's office, whereas primarily in some countries in Europe, it is administered for allergic rhinitis and asthma by the sublingual route by the patient at home. PMID:22794676

  10. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient. PMID:26433528

  11. Allergenic evaluation of Malassezia furfur crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, R F; Melo, T A; Matsumoto, F E; Pires, M F C; Croce, J; Gambale, W; Paula, C R

    2002-01-01

    Crude extracts of the lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur were obtained from 2, 6, 10 and 28 day old cultures. The in vitro cultivation periods corresponded, respectively, to the lag phase, middle of the log phase, end of log phase and the decline phase of the growth curve, which was based on viable cell counts obtained with a fluorescent viability test. Biochemical analyses showed that the protein and carbohydrate contents were greater in day 10 extracts. Seventy patients with different allergic manifestations and 30 healthy volunteers were skin prick tested using the extracts. Of these, thirteen (18.57%) patients gave positive responses. SDS PAGE gradient electrophoretic profiles of the preparations indicated that the 28 day extracts contained the greatest number of protein bands with molecular weights ranging mostly between 30 and 94 kDa. Immunoblots incubated with individual patient sera showed that four IgE binding M. furfur allergens of approximately 88, 61, 52 and 39 kDa were present in the 28 day extracts. The components identified could be used for detecting IgE mediated responses to M. furfur among individuals affected with different allergic conditions. PMID:12650593

  12. [House dust mites and their allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessot, J-C; Pauli, G

    2011-02-01

    The taxonomy, anatomy, life cycle and ecology of Pyroglyphidae mites and storage mites (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, B. tropicalis) are described. Pyroglyphidae and storage mites have similar morphologies: they are octopods, with characteristic gnathosoma and sensory hairs. Salivary glands and the mid gut produce most of the allergens excreted, which are enzymatic proteins. Biological cycles and development are similar, although fecundity is superior in storage mites compared to the Pyroglyphides. Relative humidity is the main parameter, which regulates mite development, with a higher degree of temperature and humidity required for storage mites. Bedding is the ecological niche of Pyroglyphidae, which feed on human skin. Moulds and food products are the storage mite biotope from which they spread in the dwelling. Initially considered as rural mites, storage mites are also present in urban dwellings. B. tropicalis, in tropical regions is a true domestic mite. Because of this, it is justified to denominate Pyroglyphidae "house dust mites" and storage mites "domestic mites". In addition to the respiratory allergic symptoms, the storage mites can also cause occupational contact dermatoses.

  13. Allergen sensitization and allergen exposure in Greenlander Inuit residing in Denmark and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsbjerg, C; Linstow, M L; Nepper-christensen, S C; Rasmussen, A; Korsgaard, J; Nolte, H; Backer, V

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of allergic sensitization and possible risk factors in a genetically homogenous Inuit population living under widely differing climatic and cultural conditions. A written questionnaire and skin prick test for 10 aeroallergens were obtained from 1119 adult Greenlanders residing in Denmark, Nuuk (main city in Southern Greenland) and Uummannaq (rural settlement in Northern Greenland). Allergen exposure was assessed by pollen counts, questions on pet keeping and counts of house dust mites in dust samples. The overall prevalence of at least one positive skin prick test was 22.8% in Denmark, 10.6% in Nuuk, and 6.4% in Uummannaq. In Denmark, the total birch pollen counts were 40-1000 times higher compared to Nuuk, whereas the grass pollen count was 13-30 times higher in Denmark compared to Nuuk. Dogs were held indoor with a similar frequency in Denmark and Nuuk, but much less frequently in Uummannaq. In Denmark, house dust mites were found in 72% of house holds (>10/0.1 g dust). Less than 15% of households in Greenland had measurable levels of house dust mites. The prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in Inuit Greenlanders differed significantly between Denmark, Nuuk and Uummannaq. These findings correlated with the observed differences in population allergen exposure in the three regions. Furthermore, differences in lifestyle factors such as educational level, stress and ethnic self-identification seemed to be associated with the risk of allergic sensitization in Greenland.

  14. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu...

  15. IgE sensitization against food allergens : Natural history, relation to airway inflammation and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Patelis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to recent studies in children, IgE sensitization not only against perennial allergens, but also against food allergens, is related to asthma risk and increased airway inflammation. During the last decade, a new technique for IgE determination based on allergen components has become available, but its use in epidemiological studies has been limited. Aims: To investigate the relationship between the pattern of IgE sensitization to allergen components and the prevalence of ...

  16. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests we

  17. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  18. Boiling peanut Ara h 1 results in the formation of aggregates with reduced allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Blanc; Y.M. Vissers; K. Adel-Patient; N.M. Rigby; A.R. Mackie; A.P. Gunning; N.K. Wellner; P.S. Skov; L. Przybylski-Nicaise; B. Ballmer-Weber; L. Zuidmeer-Jongejan; Z. Szepfalusi; J. Ruinemans-Koerts; A.P.H. Jansen; H. Bernard; J.M. Wal; H.F.J. Savelkoul; H.J. Wichers; E.N.C. Mills

    2011-01-01

    Scope: Roasting rather than boiling and Maillard modifications may modulate peanut allergenicity. We investigated how these factors affect the allergenic properties of a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1. Methods and results: Ara h 1 was purified from either raw (N-Ara h 1) or roasted (R-Ara h 1) peanu

  19. Allergen structures and biologic functions: the cutting edge of allergy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomés, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Studies of structure and function of allergens using state-of-the-art technologies have led to a better understanding of allergenicity, including aspects related to cross-reactivity, allergen nomenclature, and the identification of antigenic determinants. This information is being applied to the design and production of allergy vaccines, some of which already have proven efficacy and safety in clinical trials.

  20. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...

  1. Modification of house dust mite allergens by monomethoxypolyethylene glycol. Allergenicity measured by in vitro and in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbech, H; Dreborg, S; Påhlman, I; Stahl Skov, P; Steringer, I; Weeke, B

    1988-01-01

    In animal models, allergen modification by coupling to monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules can reduce allergenicity of the extract and makes the allergen capable of suppressing boosted IgE response. To investigate in a human system the degree of attenuation implied by a mPEG modification of a house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) extract, 55 adults with asthma caused by house dust mites were tested by skin prick test (SPT) and histamine release assay (HR). RAST inhibition was performed on sera from 6 additional patients. Modified extract containing 0.42 mmol mPEG/g protein was used for the analyses. In order to get the same response of the two extracts when assessed by HR and SPT, a median increase in concentration of 10-fold of the mPEG-modified extract compared to the unmodified extract was needed. Interindividual variation was limited. Sixty-four to 72% needed a dose increase within +/- half a decade from this value. In 42-49% of the patients, results from SPT and HR deviated less than half a decade. The relative potency of the modified extract as measured by RAST inhibition was reduced to 17-78% (mean 39%). Reduced allergenicity would by itself mean less side effects in immunotherapy. When planning such therapy it is important to know that mPEG modification reduces the allergenicity to a similar extent in a majority of patients. PMID:2448247

  2. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, Rene' W. R.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Baka, Athanasia;

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment...... approaches and methodologies. Food allergens possess some unique characteristics, which make a simple safety assessment approach based on the establishment of absolute population thresholds inadequate. Dose distribution modelling of MEDs permitted the quantification of the risk of reaction at the population...... level and has been readily integrated with consumption and contamination data through probabilistic risk assessment approaches to generate quantitative risk predictions. This paper discusses the strengths and limitations of this approach and identifies important data gaps, which affect the outcomes...

  3. [Proteolytic enzymes: potential allergens for the skin and respiratory tract?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1985-03-01

    Proteolytic enzymes of animal, bacterial, mould or plant origin are used in many industrial processes, e.g. in the detergent, food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in medicine. The allergenic potency of these enzymes should not be underestimated, for they cause, in particular, IgE-mediated respiratory allergies. The risk of sensitization to enzymes due to inhalation as a result of occupational exposure is very high (up to 50%), and therapeutic applications are also not without risk. Therefore, the utmost care should be taken in the production and handling of pulverized enzymes and their inhalation should be avoided. Papain and Bromelain are used as tenderizers of meat and to clarify beer. Therefore, these enzymes are also potential ingestive allergens and may represent an unrecognized cause of an allergic reaction following a meal. As contact allergens the enzymes play a minor role; biodetergents in particular present no increased risk of skin damage for the user. PMID:3888919

  4. Experimental approaches to predict allergenic potential of novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2013-01-01

    There are many unanswered questions relating to food allergy sensitization in humans. We don’t know under what circumstances sensitization takes place i.e. route (oral, dermal, respiratory), age, dose, frequencyof exposure, infection or by-stander effect of other allergens. In addition we don...... of understanding of the significance of dose for the development of food allergy or its counterpart oral tolerance makes risk assessment very difficult. In addition route of exposure and digestibility are relevant variables. Examples of the use and limitations of animal models for predicting the allergenicity......’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to designan animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food protein is a potential allergen. An even larger challenge is to predict its potency, a prerequisite...

  5. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  6. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity. PMID:9208050

  7. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health. PMID:26753435

  8. Allergen-specific immunotherapy and risk of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Madsen, Flemming; Skaaby, Tea

    2012-01-01

    After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic.......After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic....

  9. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

  10. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii,Akira

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlapped, and we considered these differences to be of little ecological significance, although the assay method itself is useful.

  11. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S;

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  12. Genetic engineering of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 6, to reduce allergenic activity and preserve immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, Susanne; Focke, Margarete; Kopec, Jolanta; Verdino, Petra; Hartl, Arnulf; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ball, Tanja; Almo, Steve; Valent, Peter; Thalhamer, Josef; Keller, Walter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    On the basis of IgE epitope mapping data, we have produced three allergen fragments comprising aa 1-33, 1-57, and 31-110 of the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 6 aa 1-110 by expression in Escherichia coli and chemical synthesis. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the purified fragments lack the typical alpha-helical fold of the complete allergen. Superposition of the sequences of the fragments onto the three-dimensional allergen structure indicated that the removal of only one of the four helices had led to the destabilization of the alpha helical structure of Phl p 6. The lack of structural fold was accompanied by a strong reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the three fragments as determined by basophil histamine release in allergic patients. Each of the three Phl p 6 fragments adsorbed to CFA induced Phl p 6-specific IgG Abs in rabbits. However, immunization of mice with fragments adsorbed to an adjuvant allowed for human use (AluGel-S) showed that only the Phl p 6 aa 31-110 induced Phl p 6-specific IgG Abs. Anti-Phl p 6 IgG Abs induced by vaccination with Phl p 6 aa 31-110 inhibited patients' IgE reactivity to the wild-type allergen as well as Phl p 6-induced basophil degranulation. Our results are of importance for the design of hypoallergenic allergy vaccines. They show that it has to be demonstrated that the hypoallergenic derivative induces a robust IgG response in a formulation that can be used in allergic patients.

  13. Allergen Micro-Bead Array for IgE Detection: A Feasibility Study Using Allergenic Molecules Tested on a Flexible Multiplex Flow Cytometric Immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Pomponi; Maria Livia Bernardi; Marina Liso; Paola Palazzo; Lisa Tuppo; Chiara Rafaiani; Mario Santoro; Alexis Labrada; Maria Antonietta Ciardiello; Adriano Mari; Enrico Scala

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergies represent the most prevalent non infective diseases worldwide. Approaching IgE-mediated sensitizations improved much by adopting allergenic molecules instead of extracts, and by using the micro-technology for multiplex testing. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To provide a proof-of-concept that a flow cytometric bead array is a feasible mean for the detection of specific IgE reactivity to allergenic molecules in a multiplex-like way. A flow cytometry Allergenic Molecule-based micr...

  14. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand; Ali Khodadadi; Mohammad-Ali Assarehzadegan; Seyed Hamid Borsi; Akram Amini

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-rea...

  15. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. PMID:23205714

  16. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop.

  17. Molecular characterization of recombinant T1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the Bet v 1 plant allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, Sylvia; Hamdi, Said; Lupinek, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Grote, Monika; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Scheiner, Otto; Kraft, Dietrich; Rideau, Marc; Valenta, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    More than 25% of the population suffer from Type I allergy, an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease. Allergens with homology to the major birch ( Betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. T1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the Bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T1 (rT1) did not react with IgE antibodies from allergic patients, and failed to induce basophil histamine release and immediate-type skin reactions in Bet v 1-allergic patients. Antibodies raised against purified rT1 could be used for in situ localization of natural T1 by immunogold electron microscopy, but did not cross-react with most of the Bet v 1-related allergens. CD analysis showed significant differences regarding secondary structure and thermal denaturation behaviour between rT1 and recombinant Bet v 1, suggesting that these structural differences are responsible for the different allergenicity of the proteins. T1 represents a non-allergenic member of the Bet v 1 family that may be used to study structural requirements of allergenicity and to engineer hypo-allergenic plants by replacing Bet v 1-related allergens for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:12656672

  18. Allergens of weed pollen: an overview on recombinant and natural molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Weeds represent a botanically unrelated group of plants that usually lack commercial or aesthetical value. Pollen of allergenic weeds are able to trigger type I reactions in allergic patients and can be found in the plant families of Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Plantaginaceae, Urticaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. To date, 34 weed pollen allergens are listed in the IUIS allergen nomenclature database, which were physicochemically and immunologically characterized to varying degrees. Relevant allergens of weeds belong to the pectate lyase family, defensin-like family, Ole e 1-like family, non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 family and the pan-allergens profilin and polcalcins. This review provides an overview on weed pollen allergens primarily focusing on the molecular level. In particular, the characteristics and properties of purified recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic derivatives are described and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy of weed pollen allergy is discussed.

  19. [Recombinant allergens for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy--value in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Rémy; Just, Jocelyne

    2013-03-01

    Identification of culprit allergens is important for prophylactic measures and specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT). Since the late 1980s, the use of molecular cloning technology has led to a major improvement in our knowledge of epitopes involved in IgE-mediated allergy, and has also allowed in vitro production of recombinant allergens of interest for the diagnosis of allergenic sensitization. It has also improved our understanding of allergen cross-reactivity, which can be responsible for severe clinical manifestations, particularly in children with food allergy and allergic asthma. Better knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergenic sensitization, based on the use of natural or modified recombinant allergens, has led to the development of effective SIT strategies which, in the foreseeable future, could provide genuine cure, therefore avoiding use of symptomatic therapeutics, starting very early in childhood. PMID:25163347

  20. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.

  1. Selected oxidized fragrance terpenes are common contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna;

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes are widely used fragrance compounds in fine fragrances, but also in domestic and occupational products. Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure. Previous studies have shown that limonene, linalool and caryophyllene are not allergenic themselves but readily form allerg...

  2. Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified crops - what makes sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Richard E.; Vieths, Stefan; Sampson, Hugh A.; Hill, David; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Taylor, Steve L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    GM crops have great potential to improve food quality, increase harvest yields and decrease dependency on certain chemical pesticides. Before yields and decrease dependency on certain chemical Before entering the market their safety needs to be This includes a detailed analysis of allergenic risks,

  3. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM

    2002-01-01

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe leath

  4. Allergen-specific immunotherapy and risk of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Madsen, Flemming; Skaaby, Tea

    2012-01-01

    After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic....

  5. STUDY OF AIRBORNE INSECT ALLERGEN IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀珍; 刘云; 周玎

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the variety of airborne allergenic insects and its sensibility in asthmatic patients. Methods 300 asthmatic patients and 100 normal controls underwent skin prick test (SPT) with 13 kinds of superior airborne insect vaccine, and sera sIgE of those whose SPT results were positive were tested by BSA-ELISA. Results The total positive rate of SPT with 13 kinds of insect vaccine in asthmatic patients was 58%, and it was significantly higher than that of normal control (P<0.01). The results of SPT with Stayridae, Heliothis armigera, Psilgramma menephorn and other 7 kinds of insects were more than 30% in asthmatic patients which meant these 10 kinds of insects were main allergenic insects to asthmatic patients. The positive rate of sIgE in asthmatic patients was more than 85%, while the normal control was only 6.0%. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion Stayridae, Heliothis armigera, Psilgramma menephorn and other 7 kinds of insects were main allergenic insects to asthmatic patients and perhaps they were the main allergens to the onset of asthma at the end summer or the early autumn.

  6. Review of statutory and voluntary labelling of food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Mark; Dadswell, Ruth; Hattersley, Sue

    2005-11-01

    Food allergy represents an increasingly important health problem, with prevalence in Western Europe continuing to rise. While some reactions are mild, others can include life-threatening anaphylactic shock. It is estimated that food allergies affect 1-2% of the adult population and foods are to blame for a large majority of allergic reactions to food in the UK, with most reactions being to milk, eggs, peanuts (Arachis hypogea), nuts, fish, shellfish, soyabean, sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and wheat. There is currently no cure for food allergy and the few available treatments are focused on relieving the specific symptoms. Consumers with food allergies and food intolerances rely on food labelling to enable them to make informed choices about the foods they eat. Whilst there have recently been important advances in the labelling of food allergens, these advances relate only to requirements for the labelling of the deliberate use of specified food allergens in foods sold pre-packed. In other areas the development of guidance for food manufacturers and retailers on how to assess the risks of possible allergen cross-contamination during food production and manufacture, and then to determine appropriate advisory labelling, is well advanced. Work to address the issue of how to provide appropriate allergen information for foods sold loose, or in catering establishments, is also in progress. PMID:16313690

  7. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselen, Ayfer

    2016-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  8. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources. PMID:27012375

  9. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in pediatric allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative way that can change the immunologic response to allergens and thus can modify the natural progression of allergic diseases. There are some important criteria which contributes significantly on efficacy of AIT, such as the allergen extract used for treatment, the dose and protocol, patient selection in addition to the severity and control of asthma. The initiation of AIT in allergic asthma should be considered in intermittent, mild and moderate cases which coexisting with other allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, and in case of unacceptable adverse effects of medications. Two important impact of AIT; steroid sparing effect and preventing from progression to asthma should be taken into account in pediatric asthma when making a decision on starting of AIT. Uncontrolled asthma remains a significant risk factor for adverse events and asthma should be controlled both before and during administration of AIT. The evidence concerning the efficacy of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for treatment of pediatric asthma suggested that SCIT decreases asthma symptoms and medication scores, whereas SLIT can ameliorate asthma symptoms. Although the effectiveness of SCIT has been shown for both seasonal and perennial allergens, the data for SLIT is less convincing for perennial allergies in pediatric asthma. PMID:27489785

  10. NUTIRTION LABELLING OF FOOD AND ALLERGEN IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The new regulation introduced mandatory nutrition labelling and ordering food manufacturers provide information on energy and six nutrients: fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt - in that order, and per 100 g or 100 ml. This information should be included in the nutritional table in one visual field (usually on the back cover, moreover, can also be expressed on per serving. It is important to realize that this regulation requires manufacturers indicate the nutritional value in one field of vision, usually on the "back cover" designation in the principal field (e.g. "on the front cover" remains voluntary. Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labelling of ‘‘priority allergens. Increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labelling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.doi:10.5219/230

  11. Assessment of protein allergenicity studies in brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there

  12. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  13. Comparison of immunoglobulin E measurements on IMMULITE and ImmunoCAP in samples consisting of allergen-specific mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies towards allergen extracts and four recombinant allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in vitro tests are performed on enzyme immunoassay systems. Poor agreement among systems has been reported and comparisons have been made exclusively with allergen extracts - not with recombinant allergens. Here we compare the ImmunoCAP and the IMMULITE...

  14. Current glimpse of airborne allergenic pollen in Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis have been steadily increasing all over the world, including India. Owing to its alarming trend, several aerobiological surveys have been undertaken in different parts of India to delineate the variety of pollen and spore load. In this review, we have reported the current state of aerobiological knowladge in India with particular reference to allergenic airborn pollen occurence in 2001–2015. Pollen have been found to contribute a significant proportion in the air and caused allergy symptoms in the local inhabitants. Aerobiological records, a questionnaire survey and hospitalization records have been employed for the analysis. Holoptelea integrifolia, Amaranthus spinosus in northern region, Sorghum vulgare, Pennisetum, Gynandropsis gynandra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Dolichandrone platycalyx in southern regions, and Parthenium hysterophorus from the western region; Cynodon dactylon, Cenchrus ciliaris in the central area; Acacia auriculiformis, Cleome gynandra, Catharanthus roseus, Phoenix sylvestris, Areca catechu, and Lantana camara in the eastern regions as potential aeroallergens in India. The statistical approach confirmed the correlation between hospitalization rate associated with allergy-related health troubles and the prevalent allergenic pollen in the air. The Poaceae group has been found to be dominant throughout India. Immuno-biochemical studies identified various protein with allergenic potential found in the pollen recorded. Epitope identification and homology of the major allergenic protein Cat r1 of Catharanthus sp and Par j 1 of Parietaria judaica have been found. Identification of allergenic pollen grains and the modern approach concerning cross-reactivity and epitope revelation of dominant airborne pollen have important clinical implications for the prevention, diagnosis and treatments of allergic diseases in India.

  15. Cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2015-06-26

    In patients with respiratory allergy, cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and foods may induce food allergy, symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Clinical entities due to IgE sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are described for many sources of plant origin (pollen-food syndromes and associations, such as birch-apple, cypress-peach and celery-mugwort-spice syndromes, and mugwort-peach, mugwort-chamomile, mugwort-mustard, ragweed-melon-banana, goosefoot-melon associations), fungal origin (Alternaria-spinach syndrome), and invertebrate, mammalian or avian origin (mite-shrimp, cat-pork, and bird-egg syndromes). Clinical cases of allergic reactions to ingestion of food products containing pollen grains of specific plants, in patients with respiratory allergy to Asteraceae pollen, especially mugwort and ragweed, are also mentioned, for honey, royal jelly and bee polen dietary supplements, along with allergic reactions to foods contaminated with mites or fungi in patients with respiratory allergy to these aeroallergens. Medical history and diagnosis approach may be guided by the knowledge about the diverse cross-reacting allergens involved, and by the understanding of these clinical entities which may vary significantly or may be overlapping. The association between primary IgE sensitization with respiratory symptoms to inhaled allergens and food allergy due to cross-reactive allergen components is important to assess in allergy practice. The use of molecular-based diagnosis improves the understanding of clinically relevant IgE sensitization to cross-reactive allergen components from aeroallergen sources and foods. PMID:26140270

  16. The direct peptide reactivity assay: selectivity of chemical respiratory allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalko, Jon F; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank; Foertsch, Leslie M; Api, Anne Marie; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that some chemicals are capable of causing allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract. Commonly, though not exclusively, chemical allergens are associated with the selective development of skin or respiratory sensitization. The reason for this divergence is unclear, although it is hypothesized that the nature of interactions between the chemical hapten and proteins is influential. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) has been developed as a screen for the identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals, and here we describe the use of this method to explore whether differences exist between skin and respiratory allergens with respect to their peptide-binding properties. Known skin and respiratory sensitizers were reacted with synthetic peptides containing either lysine (Lys) or cysteine (Cys) for 24 h. The samples were analyzed by HPLC/UV, and the loss of peptide from the reaction mixture was expressed as the percent depletion compared with the control. The potential for preferential reactivity was evaluated by comparing the ratio of Lys to Cys depletion (Lys:Cys ratio). The results demonstrate that the majority of respiratory allergens are reactive in the DPRA, and that in contrast to most skin-sensitizing chemicals, preferentially react with the Lys peptide. These data suggest that skin and respiratory chemical allergens can result in different protein conjugates, which may in turn influence the quality of induced immune responses. Overall, these investigations reveal that the DPRA has considerable potential to be incorporated into tiered testing approaches for the identification and characterization of chemical respiratory allergens. PMID:22713598

  17. Biochemical and molecular biological aspects of silverfish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Bianca; Di Felice, Gabriella; Pini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Insects and insect-derived materials have been implicated as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchial asthma. During the last decades, insects other than those known as allergenic, were investigated for their potential role in inducing and triggering an IgE immune response. Among these, the silverfish, an insect belonging to the Thysanura order, appeared to be of particular interest. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is the most primitive living insect, and represents a descendent of the ancestral wingless insects. They are 3-12 mm long, have three tail feelers and are covered with shiny scales. They shun light and need a humid environment and their diet consists of carbohydrate materials such as paper and book-binding glue, crumbs of bread and flour. Because of these features, silverfish finds an optimal habitat both in dwellings and workplaces and in spite of its antiquity, silverfish has succeeded in exploiting the new opportunity created by man. Although its importance significantly increased when it has been demonstrated that house dust contains significant silverfish levels even in houses where the inhabitants were unaware of its presence, no silverfish extract for diagnosis of allergic diseases is commercially available yet. Identification of optimal extraction conditions and characterization of allergenic extracts are the first steps to obtain an effective allergen preparation suitable for diagnosis and therapy, and will be useful as a reference preparation for assessing silverfish exposure in different indoor environments. It has been cloned and characterized a silverfish tropomyosin, named Lep s 1, which represents the first allergen identified in silverfish extract and can be regarded as a molecule cross-reactive among inhalant and edible invertebrates allergenic sources. rLep s 1 displayed biological activity, suggesting that it could be regarded as a useful tool to study the role of silverfish

  18. Immunochemical characterization of acacia pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the common allergenic pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  19. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora.

  20. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Patrick; Vieths, Stefan; Wangorsch, Andrea; Nerkamp, Jörg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-06-16

    The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.

  1. Allergy vaccines: a need for standardisation in mass units of major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Dorpema, J W; Vieths, S

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of respiratory allergies can be performed with allergen-specific immunotherapy using allergen extracts. These products are biologicals with an extremely complex and variable composition. Only a few components are of major importance for the disease, the so-called major allergens. At present, standardisation of allergen extracts is dominated by techniques that aim at establishing their overall IgE-binding potencies using pooled sera of allergic patients. Each company in the market uses its own type of units to express potencies, thus hampering comparability. Another disadvantage is that the major allergen composition is not determined. Most companies have introduced assays for the measurement of major allergens in their quality control systems, but these data are not yet used for labelling purposes. The need to include major allergen content in standardisation protocols is now widely accepted. To support future labelling on the basis of major allergen content the European Union has funded the multidisciplinary multicentre project CREATE. This project aims at developing international certified references for the most important major respiratory allergens and at evaluating the performance of available ELISA for their measurement. The project will facilitate expression of potencies by active ingredient (major allergen) content and will allow direct comparison of competitor products.

  2. Allergen micro-array detection of specific IgE-reactivity in Chinese allergy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi-wu; ZHONG Nan-shan; Michael D Spangfort; LI Jing; LAI Xu-xin; ZHAO De-yu; LIU Xiao-fan; LIN Xiao-ping; Birgitte Gjesing; Paola Palazzo; Adriano Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergen micro-arrays are powerful tools for screening of serum IgE-reactivity.In this study allergen micro-arrays were used to identify dominating IgE-binding allergens and cross-reactivity patterns among selected Chinese allergy patients.Methods The study was conducted using patient sera from the cities of Guangzhou,Nanjing,Chengdu and Shenyang.In total 100 sera with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) specific IgE-levels higher than 50 kU/L were selected for testing against 103 individual allergens.Results Among 100 selected patients, 95% showed IgE-reactivity towards house-dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) 1,Der f 2 and Der p 2 and 94% were IgE positive against Der p 1,and 60% of sera contained IgE reacting against allergen Euroglyphus maynei (Eur m) 2.IgE against cat allergen,Felisdomesticus (Fel d)1,was seen in 20%.Only 2% showed specific IgE-reactivity to Der p 10,a panallergen belonging to the tropomyosin family.Serum IgE-reactivity towards other allergens was in general low.IgE-reactivity against pollen allergens showed geographic differences.Conclusions This study clearly confirms that group 1 and group 2 are major allergens of house dust mites.These selected house-dust mite allergy patients are close to being mono-sensitized.Der p 10 is not an important allergen for cross-reactivity.Specific IgE-sensitization towards pollen allergens is low in southern China compared to other regions.The prevalence of food and stinging insect allergens known to give rise to IgE-mediated cross-reactivity is 2% or less.

  3. Digestion of atopic allergens with trypsin α-chymotrypsin and pancreatic kallikrein, and influence of the allergens upon the proteolytic and esterolytic activity of these enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1968-01-01

    The action of bovine trypsin, α-chymotrypsin and pancreatic kallikrein upon a number of atopic allergens has been studied by pH-stat measurements during short-term incubation. Most atopic allergens proved chemically resistant towards these enzymes. Graphs of enzyme susceptibility vs. the ratio of ex

  4. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  5. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy to...... fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (> 100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed to...

  6. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Chan, C. -H.; Crevel, R.;

    2015-01-01

    . The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated...... and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices......Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims...

  7. Recent advances using rodent models for predicting human allergenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential allergenicity of newly introduced proteins in genetically engineered foods has become an important safety evaluation issue. However, to evaluate the potential allergenicity and the potency of new proteins in our food, there are still no widely accepted and reliable test systems. The best-known allergy assessment proposal for foods derived from genetically engineered plants was the careful stepwise process presented in the so-called ILSI/IFBC decision tree. A revision of this decision tree strategy was proposed by a FAO/WHO expert consultation. As prediction of the sensitizing potential of the novel introduced protein based on animal testing was considered to be very important, animal models were introduced as one of the new test items, despite the fact that non of the currently studied models has been widely accepted and validated yet. In this paper, recent results are summarized of promising models developed in rat and mouse

  8. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...

  9. Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Ann G.; Cass, Glen R.; Glovsky, M. Michael; Weiss, Jay

    1999-01-01

    Paved road dust present on the surface of streets in Southern California consists of a complex mixture of soil dust, deposited motor vehicle exhaust particles, tire dust, brake lining wear dust, plant fragments, and other biological materials. The research presented here shows that allergens from at least 20 different source materials are found in the paved road dust. These include pollens and pollen fragments, animal dander, and molds. When paved road dust is resuspended into the atmosphere ...

  10. Occupational exposure to allergens in oxidative hair dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Lunder, Tomaž; Bilban, Marjan; Zaletel, Polona

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative hair dyes are the most important hair dying products. Hairdressers are exposed to the allergens found in oxidative hair dyes during the process of applying dyes to the hair, when cutting freshly dyed hair, or as a consequence of prior contamination of the working environment. pphenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulphate are the most common ingredients in oxidative hair dyes that cause allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers. Cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine with...

  11. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  12. Ragweed as an Example of Worldwide Allergen Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswalt Matthew L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors are contributing to the expansion of ragweed on a worldwide scale. This review seeks to examine factors that may contribute to allergen expansion with reference to ragweed as a well-studied example. It is our hope that increased surveillance for new pollens in areas not previously affected and awareness of the influence the changing environment plays in allergic disease will lead to better outcomes in susceptible patients.

  13. A review of the materials and allergens in protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rebecca F; Lyons, Paul; Horne, Helen; Mark Wilkinson, S

    2009-09-01

    The ingredients previously reported to cause protective glove allergy are presented and evaluated for strength of evidence. Allergens that have caused both delayed hypersensitivity and contact urticaria are considered for rubber, plastic, leather, and textile gloves. The current guidelines regarding glove manufacture are described. A list of materials confirmed by the industry to be used in glove production is presented together with a suggested series for investigating patients with delayed type hypersensitivity and contact urticaria secondary to glove use. PMID:19780770

  14. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU.

  15. Allergen specific immunotherapy: The future cure for allergic asthma. Mechanisms and improvement in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a disease characterized by persistent allergen-driven airway inflammation, remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). CD4+ T-cells, in particular T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells, play a critical role in orchestrating the disease process through the release of cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is currently the only disease-modifying treatment with long-term suppression of allergen-induced complaints. However, although IT is effective...

  16. The human allergens of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora)

    OpenAIRE

    Killian Sue; McMichael John

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background A computerized statistical analysis of allergy skin test results correlating patient reactivities initiated our interest in the cross-reactive allergens of mesquite tree pollen. In-vitro testing with mesquite-sensitized rabbits and a variety of deciduous tree pollens revealed so many cross-reactivities that it became apparent there could be more allergens in mesquite than previously described in the world literature. Our purpose was to examine the allergens of mesquite tre...

  17. Exposure of Laboratory Animal Care Workers to Airborne Mouse and Rat Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Glueck, Joshua T; Huneke, Richard B; Perez, Hernando; Burstyn, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Urine of rats and mice is the main source of allergenic proteins that can enter the respiratory tract of laboratory animal care workers. Little is known about the levels and determinants of these exposures in the United States. We investigated the relationship between activities in animal facilities and levels of personal exposure to allergen by collecting personal breathing zone dust samples from 7 caretakers during full workdays for 1 wk. Mice and rat urinary allergens in inhalable dust wer...

  18. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU

  19. Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Prem L Bhalla; Swoboda, Ines; Singh, Mohan B.

    1999-01-01

    Type 1 allergic reactions, such as hay fever and allergic asthma, triggered by grass pollen allergens are a global health problem that affects ≈20% of the population in cool, temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens because of its prodigious production of airborne pollen. Lol p 5 is the major allergenic protein of ryegrass pollen, judging from the fact that almost all of the individuals allergic to grass pollen show presence of serum IgE antibodies against this protein...

  20. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Babu, Bheemanapalli N; Yeldur P Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature ...

  1. Mammal-derived respiratory lipocalin allergens do not exhibit dendritic cell-activating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, S; Kinnunen, T; Rytkönen-Nissinen, M; Nieminen, A; Liukko, A; Virtanen, T

    2013-03-01

    Most mammal-derived respiratory allergens belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. Determinants of their allergenic capacity are still unknown. Innate immune cells, in particular dendritic cells, have been shown to be involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. As recognition by dendritic cells is one of the few plausible mechanisms for the allergenicity of proteins, we wanted to investigate their role in the allergenicity of lipocalin allergens. Therefore, we first incubated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with immunologically functional recombinant allergens mouse Mus m 1, dog Can f 1 and 2, cow Bos d 2, horse Equ c 1 and natural Bos d 2. Then, the surface marker expression and cytokine production of dendritic cells and their capacity to promote T cell proliferation and Th2 immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells were examined in vitro. We found that near to endotoxin-free lipocalin allergens had no effect on the activation, allostimulatory capacity or cytokine production of dendritic cells. The dendritic cells could not induce immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide activated the dendritic cells efficiently. However, lipocalin allergens were not able to modify the lipopolysaccharide-induced responses. We conclude that an important group of mammal-derived respiratory allergens, lipocalins, appear not to be able to activate dendritic cells, a major component involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. It is conceivable that this incapacity of lipocalin allergens to arouse innate immunity may be associated with their poor capacity to induce a strong T cell response, verified in several studies.

  2. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Acevedo; Jens Mohr; Josefina Zakzuk; Martin Samonig; Peter Briza; Anja Erler; Anna Pomés; Huber, Christian G.; Fatima Ferreira; Luis Caraballo

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and compa...

  3. Multiplex component-based allergen microarray in recent clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, A; Borres, M P; Kober, A; Berthold, M

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades component-resolved diagnostics either as singleplex or multiplex measurements has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing important information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate clinical applications of the multiplex microarray technique in the diagnosis and risk assessment of allergic patients, and its usefulness in studies of allergic diseases. The usefulness of ImmunoCAP ISAC has been validated in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy and anaphylaxis. ISAC provides a broad picture of a patient's sensitization profile from a single test, and provides information on specific and cross-reactive sensitizations that facilitate diagnosis, risk assessment, and disease management. Furthermore, it can reveal unexpected sensitizations which may explain anaphylaxis previously categorized as idiopathic and also display for the moment clinically non-relevant sensitizations. ISAC can facilitate a better selection of relevant allergens for immunotherapy compared with extract testing. Microarray technique can visualize the allergic march and molecular spreading in the preclinical stages of allergic diseases, and may indicate that the likelihood of developing symptomatic allergy is associated with specific profiles of sensitization to allergen components. ISAC is shown to be a useful tool in routine allergy diagnostics due to its ability to improve risk assessment, to better select relevant allergens for immunotherapy as well as detecting unknown sensitization. Multiplex component testing is especially suitable for patients with complex symptomatology. PMID:27196983

  4. Reactivity measurement in estimation of benzoquinone and benzoquinone derivatives' allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiya, Wilbes; Chipinda, Itai; Simoyi, Reuben H; Siegel, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Benzoquinone (BQ) and benzoquinone derivatives (BQD) are used in the production of dyes and cosmetics. While BQ, an extreme skin sensitizer, is an electrophile known to covalently modify proteins via Michael Addition (MA) reaction whilst halogen substituted BQD undergo nucleophilic vinylic substitution (SNV) mechanism onto amine and thiol moieties on proteins, the allergenic effects of adding substituents on BQ have not been reported. The effects of inserting substituents on the BQ ring has not been studied in animal assays. However, mandated reduction/elimination of animals used in cosmetics testing in Europe has led to an increased need for alternatives for the prediction of skin sensitization potential. Electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents on BQ were assessed for effects on BQ reactivity toward nitrobenzene thiol (NBT). The NBT binding studies demonstrated that addition of EWG to BQ as exemplified by the chlorine substituted BQDs increased reactivity while addition of EDG as in the methyl substituted BQDs reduced reactivity. BQ and BQD skin allerginicity was evaluated in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). BQD with electron withdrawing groups had the highest chemical potency followed by unsubstituted BQ and the least potent were the BQD with electron donating groups. The BQD results demonstrate the impact of inductive effects on both BQ reactivity and allergenicity, and suggest the potential utility of chemical reactivity data for electrophilic allergen identification and potency ranking. PMID:26612505

  5. Frequency of Mold Allergens in Allergic Rhinitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonyadi, MR. (PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Allergic rhinitis can be stimulated by several allergens. Molds are among these allergens and it is important to assess their frequency in different geographic area. Hence, we aimed at determining the frequency of mold allergens in allergic rhinitis patients referred to specialized clinics of Tabriz Imam Reza hospital, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the serums of 90 rhinitis patients diagnosed by specialized physician. Using Immunoblotting method, the level of specific IgE against four molds including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Cladosporium were investigated. Results: Of 90 Patients, 40 were men (44.4% and 50 were women (55.6%. The participants were between 6 to 53 years and the most were 28-31years. The allergy was related to Penicillium (3.3%, Aspergillus (5.6%, Alternaria (13.3% and Cladosporium (4.4%. There was a significant statistical relation between age and allergic rhinitis to Alternaria (P=0.011. Conclusion: Molds can grow and proliferate in very humid environments. Because of low humidity climate in Tabriz (in the northwest of Iran, allergy to molds is relatively low in this region. Key words: Rhinitis Allergic; Mold; Allergy

  6. Allergen source materials: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    A variety of positive outcomes can be realized from validation and risk management activities (see Table 4). They are dependent on the participation of multiple functional groups including the quality unit, regulatory and legal affairs, engineering and production operations, research and development, and sales and marketing. Quality risk management is receiving increased attention in the area of public health, pharmacovigilance, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recent examples of its regulatory use in our industry include the assessment of the potential risks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) agents through contaminated products], the risks of precipitates in allergenic extracts, and the revision of the potency limits for standardized dust mite and grass allergen vaccines. Its application to allergen source material process validation activities allowed for a practical strategy, especially in a complex manufacturing environment involving hundreds of products with multiple intended uses. In addition, the use of tools such as FMEA was useful in evaluating proposed changes made to manufacturing procedures and product specifications, new regulatory actions, and customer feedback or complaints. The success of such a quality assurance programs will ultimately be reflected in the elimination or reduction of product failures, improvement in the detection and prediction of potential product failures, and increased confidence in product quality.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p hypoallergenic food extracts.

  8. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient's serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen.

  9. Prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fouladseresht

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of various environmental allergens is the major challenge in allergic diseases and the only treatment is avoiding these allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients using Skin Prick Test (SPT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on clinically confirmed patients of atopic-dermatitis (n=54, allergenic-rhinitis (n=64 and chronic-urticaria (n=39 who referred to asthma and allergy clinic at Afzali-Pour hospital in Kerman during 2008-2010. Skin prick test was done using allergen extracts to determine the patients' sensitivity to food and airborne antigens. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients responded to at least one allergen. Allergy to airborne and food allergens was 55.9 % and 21.7%, respectively. Chenopodiaceae (22.9% and egg white (10.2% were most prevalent airborne and food allergens. Allergy to cockroach, egg white, egg yolk and tomato was significantly higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that allergy to food and airborne allergens is different depending on the nutrition and environmental conditions.

  10. Sensitization and exposure to pet allergens in asthmatics versus non-asthmatics with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, A H; Holmen, T L; Bjermer, L

    2001-02-01

    In sensitized subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) or asthma, allergen exposure provokes symptoms. Among non-asthmatics with AR, an association between allergen sensitization, pollen season and lower airway inflammation has been demonstrated. Our aims were to compare AR and asthma with regard to patterns of allergen sensitization, the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and levels of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO). Finally, we wanted to relate our findings to previous or current exposure to household pets. Four hundred and thirty-one adolescents with different clinical phenotypes were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey. They were investigated with allergy screening, measurements of ENO and a methacholine bronchoprovocation test. Sensitization to pet allergens (cat, dog and horse) was associated with increased AHR and ENO both in asthmatics and non-asthmatics with AR. The risk of being sensitized to cat allergens was significantly reduced in those who had kept cats vs. those who had never kept them. Keeping dogs or horses did not influence the risk of being sensitized to the respective allergens. Only in steroid-naive, non-smoking asthmatics, a trend towards increased ENO in those sensitized and exposed to cat or dog allergens was seen. Although sensitization towards pet allergens was associated with inflammation in the lower airways irrespective of clinical phenotype, keeping pets did not increase the risk of being sensitized to pet allergens. PMID:11217908

  11. Changes in the antigenicity and allergenicity of ovalbumin in chicken egg white by N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Yoon, Taek Joon; Kim, Ha Hyung; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-02-15

    Ovalbumin (OVA), an (hen) egg allergen, is one of the most abundant glycoprotein allergens associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity through the T-helper type 2 immune response. The effect of deglycosylation of the N-terminal glycan in OVA on allergenicity and antigenicity after N-acetylglucosaminidase treatment was studied. N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated OVA (N-OVA) evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. N-OVA significantly (pN-OVA decreased the antigenicity of OVA 1000-fold. These results suggest that the degree of allergenicity and antigenicity reduced with deglycosylation of N-terminal glycan in OVA.

  12. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu......Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo......-glutaronitrile formulated in ethosomes enhanced the patch test reactions in sensitized human volunteers. The relationship between the percutaneous penetration/absorption and sensitization/elicitation phases of contact allergy is not well elucidated....

  13. Prediction of allergenicity of gene-modified foods by serum-based testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    threshold doses depending on whether it is introduced via the inhalation or oral route, we propose that double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges be performed in all cases of inhalation allergens being present in foods. Even proteins never previously ingested may cause IgE binding and elicit......On the basis of applying the IFBC/ILSI decision tree in a number of cases, a refinement of the scheme is suggested. Large differences in allergenic potential may be obtained by altering the route of administration of an allergen. Because an inhalation allergen can induce symptoms at different...

  14. The Reactivity and Allergenic Potential of Hazelnut Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina Calinoiu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to focus on proteins present in some food products, like hazelnuts and to investigate their allergenic potential. Several techniques were used to characterize these extracted proteins, with respect to their composition, degradability by digestive proteolytic enzymes and their reactivity with specific antibodies. It was important to analyse which proteins were present in the hazelnuts, to see if there were proteins present to trigger an allergic reaction and if the digestion enzymes trypsin and pepsin influence the presence of the (allergic protein compounds. Allergies to tree nuts and seeds can cause life-threatening and sometimes fatal reactions. To examine the properties of Hazelnut protein it was important to solubilize it by extraction. After extraction, it was investigated how hazelnut protein can be modified by proteases and what the effect was on the immune reaction. The Bradford method is a fast and sensitive method to determine the concentration of soluble protein. When the Bradford reagent (Coomassie Brilliant Blue binds to the protein, the colour changes from red to purple and the absorption maximum changes from 495 to 595 nm. The value obtained as the final concentration of proteins was 7.3495. SDS-PAGE is a method to separate mixtures of proteins by electrophoresis. Protein molecules are negatively charged by binding of SDS molecules; subsequently they are separated in an electric field. Their differences in size (molecular weight leads to separation. In this case the method is used to follow proteolytic degradation of hazelnut proteins (allergens by intestinal proteases (trypsin, pepsin. A different, more specific and sensitive method is immunoblotting (Western Blot in which the SDS-PAGE separated proteins are transferred from the gel to a membrane and specific antibodies are used in a series of reactions to visualize specific allergens on this membrane. The remarked spots represented a positive

  15. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.;

    2009-01-01

    of Mal d 1 mRNA were produced by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ten genetically modified (GM) apple lines were selected. In vitro plantlets were first transferred to a greenhouse, then grafted onto wild-type M.9 rootstock to promote the development of fruit-producing trees. Levels of Mal d 7 gene......Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  16. Purification and characterization of the main allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabozo, B; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2001-02-01

    English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen is an important cause of pollinosis in the temperate regions of North America, Australia and Europe. However, very little is known about its allergen composition. The aim of this study was to identify plantain allergens, and to isolate and characterize a major allergen. Allergens were identified by immunoblotting with individual allergic patients' sera. Isolation of the major allergen was achieved by sequential reverse-phase and size-exclusion HPLC. Allergenic characterization was performed by ELISA and immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE with sera from plantain-allergic patients. N-terminal amino acid sequence was established by Edman degradation. Allergograms showed that 13 out of the 14 sera assayed had IgE to a group of proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 16-20 kd, that turned out to be different isoforms or variants of the major allergen Pla l l. Eighteen amino acid residues from the N-terminal end of one of the isoforms, and 10 of three others, were sequenced, and a partial sequence identity with Ole e 1 was found. Prevalence of specific IgE to purified Pla l 1 in plantain allergic patients was 86%, and represents about 80% of the total IgE-binding capacity of the plantain extract. The most relevant allergen from P.lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1, has been purified and characterized. This contributes to a greater knowledge of the allergen composition of this important weed, and clears the way for the standardization of plantain allergen products in terms of major allergen content.

  17. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Protects Lungs from Cockroach Allergen-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen-treated AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-)) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice as compared with WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR, and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of i.v.-injected GFP(+) MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared with WT. The AhR-mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium prepared from cockroach extract-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migration, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity. PMID:26561548

  18. Impact of Wild Loci on the Allergenic Potential of Cultivated Tomato Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Citterio, Sandra; Raiola, Assunta; Asero, Riccardo; Barone, Amalia; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4). We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa), one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa); both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii) in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato. PMID:27182705

  19. Impact of Wild Loci on the Allergenic Potential of Cultivated Tomato Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ghiani

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4. We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa, one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa; both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato.

  20. Vagotomy Reverses Established Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperreactivity to Methacholine in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the role of vagal reflexes in a mouse model of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Mice were actively sensitized to ovalbumin then exposed to the allergen via inhalation. Prior to ovalbumin inhalation, mice also received intratracheally-instilled particulate ma...

  1. Isolation, cloning, and characterization of the 2S albumin: A new allergen from hazelnut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Garino; L. Zuidmeer; J. Marsh; A. Lovegrove; M. Morati; S. Versteeg; P. Schilte; P. Shewry; M. Arlorio; R. van Ree

    2010-01-01

    Scope: 2S albumins are the major allergens involved in severe food allergy to nuts, seeds, and legumes. We aimed to isolate, clone, and express 2S albumin from hazelnut and determine its allergenicity. Methods: 2S albumin from hazelnut extract was purified using size exclusion chromatography and RP-

  2. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R;

    2014-01-01

    dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy....

  3. A systematic review of the effect of thermal processing on the allergenicity of tree nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masthoff, L.J.; Hoff, R.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Michelsen-Huisman, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Pasmans, S.G.; Meijer, Y.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergenicity of foods can be influenced by processing. Tree nuts are an important source of nutrition and increasingly consumed; however, processing methods are quite variable and data are currently lacking on the effects of processing on allergenicity. Objective To perform a systematic

  4. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity. PMID:26618608

  5. Allergen Ara h 1 occurs in peanuts as a large oligomer rather than as a trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Beers, M.M.C. van; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure w

  6. Peanut allergen Ara h 3: Isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Knol, E.F.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Gruppen, H.; Piersma, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 has been the subject of investigation for the last few years. The reported data strongly depend on recombinant Ara h 3, since a purification protocol for Ara h 3 from peanuts was not available. Methods: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 (glycinin), was purified and its post

  7. Allergen Ara h 1 Occurs in Peanuts as a Large Oligomer Rather Than as a Trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Beers, van M.M.C.; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure w

  8. An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air-oxidized R-limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus; Bruze, Magnus;

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a common fragrance terpene that, in its pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. Oxidized R-limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies, giving 2-3...

  9. Structure, Stability, and IgE Binding of the Peach Allergen Peamaclein (Pru p 7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuppo, Lisa; Spadaccini, Roberta; Alessandri, Claudia; Wienk, Hans; Boelens, Rolf; Giangrieco, Ivana; Tamburrini, Maurizio; Mari, Adriano; Picone, Delia; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the structural properties of allergenic proteins is a necessary prerequisite to better understand the molecular bases of their action, and also to design targeted structural/functional modifications. Peamaclein is a recently identified 7 kDa peach allergen that has been associated with

  10. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: towards combination vaccines for allergic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an antigen-specific and disease-modifying form of treatment. It is based on the therapeutic administration of the disease-causing allergens to allergic patients. However, the fact that only allergen extracts of insufficient quality are currently available and the possible occurrence of side effects during treatment limit the broad use of SIT and prophylactic vaccination is has not yet been performed. In the last 20 years the DNA sequences of the most common allergens have been isolated and the corresponding allergens have been produced as recombinant allergens. Based on the progress made in the field of allergen characterization it is possible to improve the quality and safety of allergy vaccines and to develop new, more effective strategies for a broad application of SIT and even for prophylactic treatment. Here we discuss the development of combination vaccines for allergy and infectious diseases. This approach is based on the selection of allergen-derived peptides with reduced IgE- and T cell reactivity in order to minimize IgE- and T cell-mediated side effects as well as the potential of the vaccine to induce allergic sensitization. These peptides are fused by recombinant technology onto a viral carrier protein to obtain a combination vaccine which induces protective immunity against allergy and viral infections. The application of such combination vaccines for therapy and prophylaxis of allergy and infectious diseases is discussed.

  11. Risk assessment and food allergy: the probabilistic model applied to allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, M.Q.I.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rennen, M.A.J.; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of unintended exposure to food allergens, traditional deterministic risk assessment is usually applied, leading to inconsequential conclusions as 'an allergic reaction cannot be excluded'. TNO therefore developed a quantitative risk assessment model for allergens based on

  12. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T;

    1999-01-01

    were analysed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Target substances were the fragrance allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other fragrance substances, most of which have been described as contact allergens. The fragrance mix ingredients were either not present in children's shampoos...

  13. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided.

  14. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  15. Research on Preparation of Human Immune Cell in vitro with Response to Shrimp Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most important food allergens. Tropomyosin is its major allergen. Wherein Pen a 1, contains five antibody binding regions, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. However, the study on IgE with response to shrimp allergen is still a serious lack, compared with the allergenic proteins. Particularly in the aspects of the preparation of IgE in vitro, it is restricted and can only obtain the complete IgE molecules by polyclonal or monoclonal technology. As for the preparation of small molecule IgE to the shrimp allergen has not yet been reported. This study attempts to carry out research on obtaining of cell materials that are used to clone. It sets up a convenient and efficient immune system in vitro which combines dendritic cell differentiation, allergens immune, mixed lymphocyte culture and so on. Finally the system successfully activates the proliferation of specific B cells and the secretion of a large number of specific IgE antibodies to shrimp allergen.

  16. Allergen specific responses in cord and adult blood are differentially modulated in the presence of endotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiwegger, T.; Mayer, E.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix;

    2008-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are common contaminants in allergen preparations and affect antigen-specific cellular responses. Distinct effects of endotoxin on cells in human umbilical cord and adult blood are poorly defined. Objectives To examine the effect of endotoxins in allergen preparations...

  17. Is there a threshold concentration of cat allergen exposure on respiratory symptoms in adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Zock, J.P.; Villani, S.; Olivieri, M.; Modig, L.; Jarvis, D.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the ast

  18. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  19. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio;

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients a...

  20. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force report on 'dose-response relationship in allergen-specific immunotherapy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Larenas, D; Kleine-Tebbe, J;

    2011-01-01

    For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen prod...

  1. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  2. Structural and functional localization of airway effects from episodic exposure of infant monkeys to allergen and/or ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both allergen and ozone exposure increase asthma symptoms and airway responsiveness in children. Little is known about how these inhalants may differentially modify airway responsiveness in large proximal as compared to small distal airways. We evaluated whether bronchi and respiratory bronchioles from infant monkeys exposed episodically to allergen and/or ozone differentially develop intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and whether eosinophils and/or pulmonary neuroendocrine cells play a role. Infant monkeys were exposed episodically for 5 months to: (1) filtered air, (2) aerosolized house dust mite allergen, (3) ozone 0.5 ppm, or (4) house dust mite allergen + ozone. Studying the function/structure relationship of the same lung slices, we evaluated methacholine airway responsiveness and histology of bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, intrinsic responsiveness was increased by allergen exposure, an effect reduced by bombesin antagonist. In respiratory bronchioles, intrinsic airway responsiveness was increased by allergen + ozone exposure. Eosinophils were increased by allergen and allergen + ozone exposure in bronchi and by allergen exposure in respiratory bronchioles. In both airways, exposure to allergen + ozone resulted in fewer tissue eosinophils than did allergen exposure alone. In bronchi, but not in respiratory bronchioles, the number of eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells correlated with airway responsiveness. We conclude that episodically exposing infant monkeys to house dust mite allergen with or without ozone increased intrinsic airway responsiveness to methacholine in bronchi differently than in respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells may play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness

  3. [Are amylases in bakery products and flour potential food allergens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Jansen, A; Czuppon, A B

    1994-05-21

    The enzyme alpha-amylase from the mould Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o II) routinely used for the production of bread, cakes and pastries has in recent years been identified as an inhalative allergen for occupational diseases (bakers' asthma). It is doubtful whether this amylase in the final product, i.e. after the baking procedure, can still be regarded as an allergen. To clarify this question, detailed case histories on 138 subjects were recorded (98 allergics, 20 patients suffering form chronic intestinal diseases, 20 healthy controls). The clinical examinations included prick skin test and IgE antibody determination using one of the customary enzyme preparations. EAST showed a few of these 138 bread consumers to be weakly sensitized to the enzyme. One of the subjects displayed a significant reaction to alpha-amylase heated to 200 degrees C. As expected, eleven bakers sensitized to alpha-amylase by inhaling it in the workplace (positive prick test, positive case history) predominantly exhibited specific IgE antibodies to the native enzyme. Apart from one weakly positive finding, heated alpha-amylase yielded negative results in this collective. Baking conditions vary widely, especially with regard to single components, temperature and duration. Thus, further investigations as to residual allergenicity or the feasible occurrence of new antigenic determinants during the production of bread, cake and pastries are required. 27% of bakers examined and 9% of atopics showed antibodies to a flour inherent enzyme, a beta-amylase. On the whole, the selected conditions hinted at a weakly sensitizing potential inherent in baking flour and in added amylase. PMID:8209207

  4. Antigenic and allergenic analysis of psyllium seed components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Vyszenski-Moher, D L; Lawrence, A T; Schrotel, K R; Ritz, H L

    1992-04-01

    The outer portions (husk) of psyllium seeds are a concentrated source of natural fiber used in some bulk-fiber laxatives and cereals. They are known to elicit respiratory allergic reactions after inhalation or ingestion among sensitized individuals. Antigenic and allergenic characterization of three psyllium-seed fractions (husk, endosperm, and embryo) was conducted with crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the source of psyllium allergenicity. Homologous CIE demonstrated psyllium endosperm and embryo extracts contained seven and four antigens, respectively. Husk extracts were too gelatinous to react by CIE. However, heterologous CIE profiles of endosperm or embryo extracts, reacted with antihusk antibodies, resulted in antigen-antibody precipitin peaks that matched the heavy staining precipitin lines of homologous reactions for endosperm and embryo, respectively. These results indicated that commercial-grade husk, endosperm, and embryo contained similar antigens. Extracts of all three seed components contained antigens that bound IgE antibodies in the sera of 11 psyllium RAST-positive individuals, as determined by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis. The few prominent husk protein/peptide bands resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were common in either embryo or endosperm. Immunoblots revealed common IgE reactive bands in all three seed fractions. Microscopic examination of the powdered commercial-grade psyllium (95% pure) revealed it contained endosperm and embryo particles. These immunologic, biochemical, and microscopic findings suggest that other contaminating seed components are primarily responsible for the allergenicity of commercial-grade psyllium-husk powder rather than the husk itself. PMID:1560169

  5. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded.

  6. Data on mass spectrometry based identification of allergens from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nandini; Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Allergy is a type of abnormal immune reactions, which is triggered by environmental antigens or allergens and mediated by IgE antibodies. Now-a-days mass spectrometry is the method of choice for allergen identification based on homology searching. Here, we provide the mass spectrometry dataset associated with our previously published research article on identification of sunflower pollen allergens (Ghosh et al., 2015 [1]). In this study allergenicity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollen grains were primarily investigated by clinical studies followed by detailed immunobiochemical and immunoproteomic analyses. The mass spectrometry data for the identification of allergens were deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002397. PMID:27054187

  7. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded. PMID:20574602

  8. Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Romina Pedreschi; Jørgen Nørgaard; Alain Maquet

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via...

  9. Effect of Formaldehyde on Asthmatic Response to Inhaled Allergen Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ezratty, Véronique; Bonay, Marcel; Neukirch, Catherine; Orset-Guillossou, Gaëlle; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Background Exposure to formaldehyde may lead to exacerbation of asthma. Objectives Our aim in this study was to investigate whether exposure to a low level (500 μg/m3) of formaldehyde enhances inhaled allergen responses. Methods Twelve subjects with intermittent asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed, at rest, in a double-blind crossover study to either formaldehyde or purified air for 60 min. The order of exposure to formaldehyde and air-only was randomized, and exposures were separated b...

  10. [Hemodynamic response to cotton allergen exposure in the industrial environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, N S; Usol'tsev, B G; Orlova, O A

    1983-03-01

    The methods of functional diagnosis (mechanocardiography, rheoencephalography) were used to examine the responses of the central and craniocerebral hemodynamics to inhalations of specific cotton allergens in female workers of a textile factory with different grades of sensitization. It was discovered that both the initial level and response pattern on the part of the cardiovascular system and craniocerebral circulation depend to a certain measure on the level of background reactivity. The data obtained enable prognosing the status of the cardiovascular system and taking measures aimed at its correction in subjects sensitized to cotton dust, who continue working in cotton industry. PMID:6830989

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Halken, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    in the prevention of allergic disease. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using......BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  12. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C.; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; T. Bergman; Grönlund, H.; Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n...

  13. Pectate lyase pollen allergens: sensitization profiles and cross-reactivity pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Pichler

    Full Text Available Pollen released by allergenic members of the botanically unrelated families of Asteraceae and Cupressaceae represent potent elicitors of respiratory allergies in regions where these plants are present. As main allergen sources the Asteraceae species ragweed and mugwort, as well as the Cupressaceae species, cypress, mountain cedar, and Japanese cedar have been identified. The major allergens of all species belong to the pectate lyase enzyme family. Thus, we thought to investigate cross-reactivity pattern as well as sensitization capacities of pectate lyase pollen allergens in cohorts from distinct geographic regions.The clinically relevant pectate lyase pollen allergens Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1, Jun a 1, and Cry j 1 were purified from aqueous pollen extracts, and patients' sensitization pattern of cohorts from Austria, Canada, Italy, and Japan were determined by IgE ELISA and cross-inhibition experiments. Moreover, we performed microarray experiments and established a mouse model of sensitization.In ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments specific sensitization pattern were discovered for each geographic region, which reflected the natural allergen exposure of the patients. We found significant cross-reactivity within Asteraceae and Cupressaceae pectate lyase pollen allergens, which was however limited between the orders. Animal experiments showed that immunization with Asteraceae allergens mainly induced antibodies reactive within the order, the same was observed for the Cupressaceae allergens. Cross-reactivity between orders was minimal. Moreover, Amb a 1, Art v 6, and Cry j 1 showed in general higher immunogenicity.We could cluster pectate lyase allergens in four categories, Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1/Jun a 1, and Cry j 1, respectively, at which each category has the potential to sensitize predisposed individuals. The sensitization pattern of different cohorts correlated with pollen exposure, which should be considered for future allergy

  14. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Meulenbroeks

    Full Text Available The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus. We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder.

  15. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  16. Consumer Preferences for Written and Oral Information about Allergens When Eating Out.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Begen

    Full Text Available Avoiding food allergens when eating outside the home presents particular difficulties for food allergic (FA and intolerant (FI consumers and a lack of allergen information in restaurants and takeaways causes unnecessary restrictions. Across Europe, legislation effective from December 2014, aims to improve allergen information by requiring providers of non-prepacked foods to supply information related to allergen content within their foods.Using in-depth interviews with 60 FA/FI adults and 15 parents/carers of FA/FI children, we aimed to identify FA/FI consumers' preferences for written and/or verbal allergen information when eating out or ordering takeaway food.A complex and dynamic set of preferences and practices for written and verbal allergen information was identified. Overwhelmingly, written information was favoured in the first instance, but credible personal/verbal communication was highly valued and essential to a good eating out experience. Adequate written information facilitated implicit trust in subsequent verbal information. Where written information was limited, FA/FIs depended on social cues to assess the reliability of verbal information resources, and defaulted to tried and tested allergen avoidance strategies when these were deemed unreliable.Understanding the subtle negotiations and difficulties encountered by FA/FIs when eating out can serve as a guide for legislators and food providers; by encouraging provision of clear written and verbal allergen information, and training of proactive, allergen-aware staff. This, in tandem with legal requirements for allergen information provision, paves the way for FA/FIs to feel more confident in eating out choices; and to experience improved eating out experiences.

  17. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  18. Preparation of studies on antibody production against food allergens in mice and effect of flavonoids in simultaneous injection into mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We had tried to evaluate antibody production against food allergens in mouse models. Some food allergens, which were beta-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, and peanut allergen Ara h 1, were used as immunoges in this experiment. Under the same conditions these allergens were immunized as emulsion with freund...

  19. Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velden Joanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House dust mite (HDM allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. Methods Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. Results Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. Conclusion This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the

  20. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  1. Nuclear techniques to identify allergenic metals in orthodontic brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study determines the elementary alloy composition of ten commercial brands of brackets, especially related to Ni, Cr, and Co metals, confirmed allergenic elements. The nuclear techniques applied in the analyses were X-ray fluorescence (XRF) - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France (National Center of Scientific Research), and X-ray energy spectrometry (XRES), and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) - CDTN/CNEN, Brazil. The XRES and XRF techniques identified Cr in the 10 samples analyzed and Ni in eight samples. The INAA technique identified the presence of Cr (14% to 19%) and Co (42% to 2400 ppm) in all samples. The semi-quantitative analysis performed by XRF also identified Co in two samples. The techniques were effective in the identification of metals in orthodontic brackets. The elements identified in this study can be considered one of the main reason for the allergic processes among the patients studied. This finding suggests that the patients should be tested for allergy and allergenic sensibility to metals prior to the prescription of orthodontic device. (author)

  2. Protease activity in cockroach and basidiomycete allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E

    1993-01-01

    Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.

  3. Difficulties in avoiding exposure to allergens in cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics. The questi......The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics....... The questionnaire included questions about the level of difficulty in reading labels of ingredients on cosmetics and about patients' strategies to avoid substances they were allergic to. It also included questions about eczema severity as well as about educational level. 46% of the patients found it difficult...... or extremely difficult to read the ingredient labelling of cosmetics, and this finding was significantly related to low educational level. Patients allergic to formaldehyde and methyldibromo glutaronitrile experienced the worst difficulties, while patients with fragrance allergy found ingredient label reading...

  4. Characterization of allergens in four South American snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Mauro F; Gámez, Cristina; Madero, Mauro A; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old herpetologist developed rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and anaphylaxis when handling 4 different viper snake venoms. Allergen characterizations were done using SDS-PAGE, IgE immunoblotting and IgE inhibition experiments. The most prominent immunoreactive proteins were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and peptide identity was demonstrated by homology with known peptide sequences. SDS-PAGE showed several protein bands ranging from 5 to 99 kDa in each of the 4 snake venoms. Immunoblotting demonstrated 4 IgE-binding bands in the Bothrops extract of about 60, 28, 14 and 7 kDa. The bands of 28 and 14 kDa were also present in Lachesis muta. Two IgE-binding proteins of about 50 and 35 kDa were found in Bothrops atrox and L. muta, respectively. A strong inhibition of IgE binding to immobilize Bothrops asper proteins was observed after preabsorption of sera with B. asper, B. atrox,Bothrops xanthograma and L. muta extracts. MALDI-TOF analysis showed a 14-kDa phospholipase and the 60- and 28-kDa proteins showed significant similarity with metalloproteinases. In this report we have characterized the snake venom allergens that can elicit IgE-mediated symptoms. PMID:19494529

  5. Peptide-based allergen specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Qutob, David; Reche, Pedro; Subiza, José L; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT) and environmental control are the only etiologic treatments of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. The clinical benefit of ASIT relies on the selection of the patients and the identification and administration of the allergen, or allergens. Different routes of administration have been investigated, including subcutaneous, intradermal, epicutaneous, sublingual, inhaled, or intra-lymphatic. While subcutaneous and sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy may require from 3 to 5 years of treatment, clinical efficacy with intra-lymphatic treatment can be achieved after 3 injections. The most severe side effect of ASIT is anaphylaxis. Novel approaches are being investigated to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy vaccines, maintaining immunogenicity. Peptide immunotherapy has been directed mostly against autoimmune diseases, but the use of synthetic peptides for ASIT is a promising field in basic science, applied immunology and in clinical development. Short synthetic peptides bear allergen-specific CD4 T-cell epitopes which induce tolerance by stimulating regulatory (Treg) and Th1 cells. In the present patent review, we describe new trends in allergen immunotherapy using peptides, which, from a clinical point of view, are promising. PMID:25760734

  6. Expression, purification and identification of Pla a1 in a codon-optimized Platanus pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Sun, Xiuzhen; Wang, Guizuo; Tao, Ailin; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Manxiang; Shi, Hongyang; Xie, Mei

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to express, purify and identify the major allergen gene, Pla a1, in Platanus pollen. According to previous studies, the major gene sequences of the Pla a1 allergen were obtained and codon optimization and synthesis of the genome were performed using DNAStar software. Following binding of the target gene fragment and the pET-44a vector, the JM109 cells were transfected to produce positive clones. The vectors were then transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta cells to induce the expression of the target protein. The exogenous protein was purified using affinity chromatography and was identified by western blot analysis. Pla a1, the major allergen protein in Platanus pollen, was successfully isolated and this exogenous protein was purified using affinity chromatography. The present study was the first, to the best of our knowledge, to obtain expression of the allergen recombinant protein, Pla a1, fused with a Strep-TagII via codon optimization and provided the basis for the preparation of allergens with high purity, recombinant hypoallergenic allergens and allergen nucleic acid vaccines. PMID:25902014

  7. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2, and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  8. [Hidden allergens in processed food : An update from the consumer's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt, Sabine; Pfaff, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    Despite improved allergen labelling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food remain a substantial risk for unintended reactions for consumers with food allergies. New data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund - DAAB) shows a slight decrease in the number of consumers that report allergic reactions to prepacked food. Still, 75 % (compared to 85 % in 2008) have experienced at least one allergic reaction after eating a prepacked food. In more than half of the cases, the reaction was classified as severe (with airway and/or cardiovascular symptoms such as respiratory distress, loss of blood pressure or anaphylactic shock). Again, more than 40 % (2008: 47 %, 2015: 42 %) reported that no information on the presence of the food allergens had been present on the label either as ingredients or as precautionary allergen labelling (PAL). Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens may not be recognized or recognizable by consumers with food allergies, such as allergen labelling that is not easy to understand, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as recipe changes in known foods. Examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation in order to better meet the goals of food information regulations to enable consumers with food allergies to make "informed choices which are safe for them" (Quote Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 - Reason 24).

  9. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content. PMID:27457754

  10. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

  11. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients. PMID:26635049

  12. Glycoproteomic Analysis of Seven Major Allergenic Proteins Reveals Novel Post-translational Modifications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C.; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L.; Wandall, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM1 characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines. PMID:25389185

  13. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L; Wandall, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM(1) characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines.

  14. Responsiveness of basophil granulocytes of horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to various allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, P; Grabner, A; Buschmann, H

    1993-10-01

    As basophils are the major effector cells of allergic reactions, confirmation of the allergic etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was sought by the demonstration of a specific in vitro response of equine basophilic blood cells to some potential allergens (Aspergillus, Cladosporidium, Mucor, Penicillium, extracts of dust particles of hay and straw). The allergen induced degranulation of basophils and the histamine and protease release from basophils during incubation with the allergens were tested. By evaluating the results obtained from 14 COPD horses and eight controls it could be shown that the sensitivity of the basophils of affected horses was increased, particularly against the allergen extract of Mucor mucedo and Mucor spinosus. Further a greater percentage of COPD horses reacted positively with the Mucor allergen extract. The mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes by PHA and by the allergen extracts used gave comparable results in affected and control horses. Thus the in vitro stimulation of basophils may be an easily to perform testing device for the identification of potential allergens involved in the pathogenesis of equine COPD.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of DNA Vaccine on Allergen-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mouse Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Li; Zhigang Liu; Nanshan Zhong; Bin Liao1; Ying Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination with DNA encoding Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2 (Der p 2) allergen previously showed its effects of immunologic protection on Der p 2 allergen-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. In present study, we investigated whether DNA vaccine encoding Der p 2 could exert therapeutic role on allergen-induced allergic airway inflammation in mouse model and explored the mechanism of DNA vaccination in asthma specific-allergen immunotherapy. After sensitized and challenged by Der p 2, the BALB/c mice were immunized with DNA vaccine. The degrees of cellular infiltration were scored. IgE levels in serum and IL-4/lL-13 levels in BALF were determined by ELISA. The lung tissues were assessed by histological examinations. Expressions of STAT6 and NF-κB in lung were determined by immunohistochemistry staining. Vaccination of mice with DNA vaccine inhibited the development of airway inflammation and the production of mucin induced by allergen, and reduced the level of Der p 2-specific IgE level. Significant reductions of eosinophii infiltration and levels of IL-4and IL-13 in BALF were observed after vaccination. Further more, DNA vaccination inhibited STAT6 and NF-κBexpression in lung tissue in Der p 2-immunized mice. These results indicated that DNA vaccine encoding Der p 2allergen could be used for therapy of allergen-induced allergic airway inflammation in our mouse model.

  16. The Prokaryotic Expression and Bioactivity of the Recombinant Red Fire Ant Venom Allergen Soli4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xue-qing; LIN Xiang-mei; CHEN Hong-jun; ZHANG Yong-guo; YE Gui-sheng; WU Shao-qiang; LI Jian; CHEN Nai-zhong; CHEN Yan; ZHU Shui-fang

    2009-01-01

    The sting of red imported fire ant (RIFA) could cause serious allergic response in fraction of people. These allergic reactions are mainly caused by its venom, especially venom allergen Sol I 1-4. To produce large amount of RIFA venom allergen Sol I 4 for diagnosis of RIFA allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy, the gene encoding this protein was amplified and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET43, la. The recombinant plasmid was used to transform competent cells and the recombinant proteins were expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis indicated that high-level expression of Sol I 4 protein was successfully achieved. Allergenic activity analysis of the recombinant allergen Sol I 4 was then performed on rabbit. The result showed that the recombinant protein obtained had significant allergenic activity. It indicated that the recombinant allergen Sol I 4 of RIFA venom was successfully expressed in E. Coli, which provided foundation for further developing therapeutic and diagnosis reagents of RIFA allergy.

  17. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  18. Studies on BN rats model to determine the potential allergenicity of proteins from genetically modified foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Dong Jia; Ning Li; Yong-Ning Wu; Xiao-Guang Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop a Brown Norway (BN) rat model to determine the potential allergenicity of novel proteins in genetically modified food.METHODS: The allergenicity of different proteins were compared, including ovalbumin (OVA), a potent respiratory and food allergen, bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein that is considered to have a lesser allergenic potential,and potato acid phosphatase (PAP), a non-allergenic protein when administered to BN rats via different routes of exposure (intraperitoneally or by gavage). IgG and IgE antibody responses were determined by ELISA and PCA,respectively. An immunoassay kit was used to determine the plasma histamine level. In addition, possible systemic effect of allergens was investigated by monitoring blood pressure.RESULTS: OVA provoked very vigorous protein-specific IgG and IgE responses, low grade protein-specific IgG and IgE responses were elicited by BSA, while by neither route did PAP elicit anything. In either routes of exposure,plasma histamine level in BN rats sensitized with OVA was higher than that of BSA or PAP. In addition, an oral challenge with BSA and PAP did not induce any effect on blood pressure, while a temporary drop in systolic blood pressure in few animals of each routes of exposure was found by an oral challenge with OVA.CONCLUSION: BN rat model might be a useful and predictive animal model to study the potential allergenicity of novel food proteins.

  19. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen. PMID:21198410

  20. Identification of IgE-binding peptide and critical amino acids of Jatropha curcas allergen involved in allergenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Livia Maia; de Oliveira, Natalia Deus; Damatta, Renato Augusto; do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Soares, Thais Pacheco; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Increasing energy demand has spurred interest in the use of biofuels. Jatropha curcas (physic nut), an inedible oilseed, is a potential source of bioenergy. The seeds, however, contain allergens such as Jat c 1, a 2S albumin that can induce hypersensitivity reactions in humans and result in allergic diseases. Recent advances in identifying and characterizing plant allergens and, in particular, their immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding epitopes have produced a wealth of information. We identified IgE-binding regions and the critical amino acids involved in the degranulation of mast cells and the release of histamine, preliminary steps for the prevention and treatment of this allergy. Four IgE-binding regions were identified in the sequence of Jat c 1. We identified and demonstrated the fundamental role of two glutamic acid residues in IgE binding. The sequence LEKQLEEGEVGS produces a random loop on the most exposed part of Jat c 1. This region is important to the stimulation of the allergic response. The possibility of using this information to produce vaccines and other pharmacological agents for allergy treatment is discussed. PMID:27119058

  1. Exposure to positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions impairs IgE-binding capacity of indoor cat and fungal allergens

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIKAWA, Kazuo; Fujimura, Takashi; Ota, Yasuhiro; Abe, Takuya; ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Nakano, Miyako; Takado, Tomoaki; Uenishi, Akira; Kawazoe, Hidechika; Sekoguchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Akihiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental control to reduce the amount of allergens in a living place is thought to be important to avoid sensitization to airborne allergens. However, efficacy of environmental control on inactivation of airborne allergens is not fully investigated. We have previously reported that positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions (PC-ions) reduce the IgE-binding capacity of crude allergens from Japanese cedar pollen as important seasonal airborne allergens. Cat (Felis do...

  2. A microfluidic biosensor using graphene oxide and aptamer-functionalized quantum dots for peanut allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xuan; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2016-11-15

    The increasing prevalence of food allergies and the intake of packing foods in the past two decades urge the need for more rapid, accurate, and sensitive assays to detect potential allergens in food in order to control the allergen content. Most of the commercial analytical tools for allergen detection rely on immunoassays such as ELISA. As far as disadvantages, ELISA can be time-consuming and expensive. Biosensors appear as a suitable alternative for the detection of allergens because they are rapid, highly sensitive, selective, less expensive, environmentally friendly, and easy to handle. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system integrated with a quantum dots (Qdots) aptamer functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nano-biosensor for simple, rapid, and sensitive food allergen detection. The biosensor utilized Qdots-aptamer-GO complexes as probes to undergo conformational change upon interaction with the food allergens, resulting in fluorescence changes due to the fluorescence quenching and recovering properties of GO by adsorption and desorption of aptamer-conjugated Qdots. This one-step 'turn on' homogenous assay in a ready-to-use microfluidic chip took ~10min to achieve a quantitative detection of Ara h 1, one of the major allergens appearing in peanuts. The results suggested this system had remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. The integration of a microfluidics platform in a homemade miniaturized optical analyzer provides a promising way for the rapid, cost-effective, and accurate on-site determination of food allergens. This biosensor can also be extended to the detection of other food allergens with a selection of corresponding aptamers. PMID:27240012

  3. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  4. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian

    2009-09-01

    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels. PMID:19728217

  5. Allergenic protein from plants%植物源过敏蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 郭彦飞; 闫倩

    2011-01-01

    植物过敏原是最普遍的一类过敏原,也是与人类关系最密切的一类过敏原.本文简单介绍了植物中蛋白质类过敏原的种类、特性及低敏植物性食品开发等研究新进展.%The class of plant allergens, which is the most common class of allergens, has an intimate connection with human. This article introduces the species and characteristics of plant allergenic proteins, and new research progress of hypoallergenic plant foods at molecular level.

  6. Haemoglobin, a new major allergen of Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Juan; Daschner, Alvaro; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L; Frutos, Consolación De; Valls, Ana; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-allergic anisakiasis and Anisakis sensitisation associated chronic urticaria are diseases which differ in their IgE and IgG4 responses against both crude extract and specific allergens. Anisakis and Ascaris are closely related nematodes that usually cause problems with specificity in immunodiagnostics. In this study we measured IgE and IgG4 antibodies against Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s. l.) and Ascaris suum haemoglobins in sera of 21 gastro-allergic anisakiasis and 23 chronic urticaria patients. We used a capture ELISA with the anti-Anisakis haemoglobin monoclonal antibody 4E8g, which also recognises Ascaris haemoglobin. In addition, we determined specific IgE and IgG4 to both nematodes by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. Anti-A. simplex s. l. haemoglobin IgE and IgG4 levels were higher in gastro-allergic anisakiasis than in chronic urticaria patients (P=0.002 and 0.026, respectively). Surprisingly, no patient had detectable IgE levels against A. suum haemoglobin. Finally, we carried out an in silico study of the B-cell epitopes of both haemoglobin molecules. Five epitopes were predicted in Anisakis pegreffii and four in A. suum haemoglobin. The epitope propensity values of Anisakis haemoglobin in the equivalent IgE binding region of the allergenic haemoglobin Chi t 1 from Chironomus thummi, were higher those of the Ascaris haemoglobin. In conclusion, we describe A. simplex haemoglobin as a new major allergen (Ani s 13), being recognised by a large number (64.3%) of sensitised patients and up to 80.9% in patients with gastro-allergic anisakiasis. The presence of a specific epitope and the different values of epitope propensity between Anisakis and Ascaris haemoglobin could explain the lack of cross-reactivity between the two molecules. The absence of IgE reactivity to Ascaris haemoglobin in Anisakis patients makes Anisakis haemoglobin (Ani s 13) a potential candidate for developing more specific diagnosis tools. PMID:25683373

  7. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of 60Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such

  8. Carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and lupus-inducibility of arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King-Thom

    2016-01-01

    Arylamines are widely used in food, drugs, and cosmetics as well as other industries. These chemicals are present ubiquitously in cigarette smoke, smoke emitted from cooking fume hoods as well as are generated by diverse industries. Arylamines can be generated by cleavage of azo dyes by intestinal and skin microbiota. Some arylamines are used as drugs while others are constituents of human metabolism. Many of the arylamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic. They are generally recognized as the major cause of human bladder cancer, but arylamines can induce cancers of other organs in humans and animals. Some arylamines are allergenic, causing lupus like syndrome, or other maladies. In view of their unbiquitious nature and the diseases they cause, arylamines are probably the most important chemicals causing health problems.

  9. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  10. Food allergen-mediated exacerbations of oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H X; Yount, W J; Culton, D A

    2016-10-01

    Erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune condition of unknown aetiology, characterized by periods of exacerbation and quiescence. Many patients with OLP report triggers of flares that overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome (OAS), an IgE-mediated food allergy. We report a case that, to our knowledge, is the first reported case of concurrent OLP and OAS diagnoses, which provides insight into the triggers of OLP and the role of trigger avoidance. A woman in her 60s presented with erosive OLP refractory to prednisone and azathioprine. She reported that certain food exposures triggered flares of her OLP. She was subsequently diagnosed with concurrent OAS, and avoidance of food allergens resulted in a clinically significant improvement in her OLP, eventually allowing her to taper off systemic treatment altogether. Further studies are needed to pinpoint common triggers and examine the role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy for OLP. PMID:27663157

  11. Ultrasensitive aptamer based detection of β-conglutin food allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodova, Marketa; Mairal, Teresa; Nadal, Pedro; Bermudo, M Carmen; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-12-15

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, there has been a response to the increasing number of severe cases of lupine allergies reported during the last decade, and as a result lupine was recently added to the list of substances requiring mandatory advisory labelling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union. In this paper we report the robust and ultrasensitive detection of the anaphylactic β-conglutin allergen using Apta-PCR achieving a detection limit of 85 pM (25 ng mL(-1)). No cross-reactivity with other conglutins or plant species potentially used in lupine containing foodstuffs was observed. This robust method provides an effective analytical tool for the detection and quantification of the toxic β-conglutin subunit present in lupine flour. PMID:25038695

  12. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Baird

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of Gardasil™ against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilised in the near future.

  13. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma

  14. Allergen-Experienced Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Acquire Memory-like Properties and Enhance Allergic Lung Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Mathä, Laura; Steer, Catherine A; Ghaedi, Maryam; Poon, Grace F T; Takei, Fumio

    2016-07-19

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung are stimulated by inhaled allergens. ILC2s do not directly recognize allergens but they are stimulated by cytokines including interleukin (IL)-33 released by damaged epithelium. In response to allergens, lung ILC2s produce T helper 2 cell type cytokines inducing T cell-independent allergic lung inflammation. Here we examined the fate of lung ILC2s upon allergen challenges. ILC2s proliferated and secreted cytokines upon initial stimulation with allergen or IL-33, and this phase was followed by a contraction phase as cytokine production ceased. Some ILC2s persisted long after the resolution of the inflammation as allergen-experienced ILC2s and responded to unrelated allergens more potently than naive ILC2s, mediating severe allergic inflammation. The allergen-experienced ILC2s exhibited a gene expression profile similar to that of memory T cells. The memory-like properties of allergen-experienced ILC2s may explain why asthma patients are often sensitized to multiple allergens. PMID:27421705

  15. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Cheng Muh

    Full Text Available Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738, performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter.

  16. Differences in the presence of allergens among several types of indoor environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Brunetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens can occur both at home and in public places such as schools and workplaces. To investigate and compare the presence of indoor allergens in different kind of environments (schools, offices and homes, dust samples were collected from furniture, desks, mattresses and floors with a standardized procedure. Samples were analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, Mite group 2 (mites and Fel d 1(cat by monoclonal antibody ELISA assay. Mite allergens were detected with low frequencies in schools and workplaces and with high frequency in homes. Fel d 1 was found with high frequency in every examined environment. Homes rather than public places can represent the environment where people can easier incur in mite allergy. All environments could be at risk for cat allergen exposure.

  17. Difficulties in using Material Safety Data Sheets to analyse occupational exposures to contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on the occurrence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are important sources of information concerning exposures in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: From a medical viewpoint...

  18. Brachypodium distachyon as a model for defining the allergen potential of non-prolamin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, A; Gell, Gy; Sebestyén, E; Haraszi, R; Tamás, L; Balázs, E

    2012-08-01

    Epitope databases and the protein sequences of published plant genomes are suitable to identify some of the proteins causing food allergies and sensitivities. Brachypodium distachyon, a diploid wild grass with a sequenced genome and low prolamin content, is the closest relative of the allergen cereals, such as wheat or barley. Using the Brachypodium genome sequence, a workflow has been developed to identify potentially harmful proteins which may cause either celiac disease or wheat allergy-related symptoms. Seed tissue-specific expression of the potential allergens has been determined, and intact epitopes following an in silico digestion with several endopeptidases have been identified. Molecular function of allergen proteins has been evaluated using Gene Ontology terms. Biologically overrepresented proteins and potentially allergen protein families have been identified.

  19. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahtela, T.; Burbach, G. J.; Bachert, C.;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWithin a large prospective study, the Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) has collected skin prick test (SPT) data throughout Europe to make recommendations for SPT in clinical settings. ObjectiveTo improve clinical interpretation of SPT results for inhalant allergens...... by providing quantitative decision points. MethodsThe GA(2)LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis......) to 87-89% (grass, mites) of the positive SPT reactions (wheal size3mm) were associated with patient-reported clinical symptoms when exposed to the respective allergen. The risk of allergic symptoms increased significantly with larger wheal sizes for 17 of the 18 allergens tested. Children with positive...

  20. The effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on shrimp Penaeus vannamei allergenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yongchao; LI Zhenxing; LIN Hong

    2009-01-01

    Pen a 1 is a major shrimp allergen that induces an allergy. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of simulated gastrointestinal fluids on the allergenicity of Pen a 1. Purified Pen a 1 from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) was subjected to digestion in SGF (simulated gastric fluid) and SIF (simulated intestinal fluid) for a set time. The allergenicity of digestive Pen a 1 was analyzed by immunoblotting and Ci-ELISA, using pool sera from patients with shrimp specific IgE. The results showed that Pen a 1 exhibited a decrease in allergenicity with increasing digestion time in the SGF and SIF. However, Pen a l exhibited strong resistance to digestive fluids, and all yielded fragments (33 kD, 23 kD, and 14 kD) showed allergic activity. Therefore, anti-digestion may be an important factor for Pen a 1 to induce an allergy.

  1. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the residual allergenicity of partially hydrolysed infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Knipping, Karen; Jeurink, Prescilla; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; Willemsen, Linette E. M.; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Leon M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are commonly used for genetically predisposed children and infants diagnosed with cow's milk allergy. This study describes both in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess residual allergenicity of partially hydrolysed infant formulas. Electrophoretic patterns indicated

  2. Changes in the antigenicity and allergenicity of ovalbumin in chicken egg white by N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Yoon, Taek Joon; Kim, Ha Hyung; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-02-15

    Ovalbumin (OVA), an (hen) egg allergen, is one of the most abundant glycoprotein allergens associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity through the T-helper type 2 immune response. The effect of deglycosylation of the N-terminal glycan in OVA on allergenicity and antigenicity after N-acetylglucosaminidase treatment was studied. N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated OVA (N-OVA) evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. N-OVA significantly (p<0.05) OVA-specific IgE and histamine levels. In addition, N-OVA decreased the antigenicity of OVA 1000-fold. These results suggest that the degree of allergenicity and antigenicity reduced with deglycosylation of N-terminal glycan in OVA. PMID:27664643

  3. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic...... ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using...... a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...

  4. Recent trends in epidemiology, sensitization and legal requirements of selected relevant contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the last 5 years, a comprehensive review of methylisothiazolinone, chromium, cobalt, rubber accelerators and fragrance ingredients were conducted. Of each allergen we discuss in detail the temporal trend of prevalence, source of exposure, clinical manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis...

  5. Protease Allergens Induce the Expression of IL-25 via Erk and p38 MAPK Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hak Sun; Angkasekwinai, Pornpimon; Chang, Seon Hee; Chung, Yeonseok; Dong, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Allergic diseases, including asthma, are characterized by T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated inflammations, coupled with tissue infiltration by eosinophils. In this study, we demonstrate that multiple protease allergens, including papain and DerP1, efficiently induce interleukin (IL)-25 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) gene expression, and this phenomenon is dependent on the protease activities of these allergens. The IL-25 cytokine level in bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) was also pr...

  6. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  7. Sensitization to silk allergen among workers of silk filatures in India: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gowda, Giriyanna; Shivalingaiah, Anwith Huluvadi; Vijayeendra, Anagha Manakari; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nagaraj, Chitra; Masthi, Nugehally Raju Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Sericulture plays an eminent role in development of rural economy in India. Silk filature is a unit where silk is unwound from the cocoons and the strands are collected into skeins. During the process workers are exposed to the high molecular weight proteins like Sericin and Fibroin which are potent allergens leading to sensitization over a period of time and subsequently occupational related health disorders. Objective To identify and compare the magnitude of silk allergen sensiti...

  8. Potential, pitfalls, and prospects of food allergy diagnostics with recombinant allergens or synthetic sequential epitopes

    OpenAIRE

    Steckelbroeck, S; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; S. Vieths

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to critically review developments in food allergy diagnostics with regard to the verification of specific IgE antibodies and the identification of the responsible allergens. Results of IgE-binding tests with food extracts are hampered by cross-reactive proteins, low-quality test agents, or both. Specificity can be increased by defining adequate cutoff values, whereas sensitivity can be improved by using high-quality test agents. IgE-binding tests with purified allergens enab...

  9. Enzymatic treatment of soy protein isolates: effects on the potential allergenicity, technofunctionality, and sensory properties

    OpenAIRE

    Meinlschmidt, Pia; Sussmann, Daniela; Schweiggert‐Weisz, Ute; Eisner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soybean allergy is of great concern and continues to challenge both consumer and food industry. The present study investigates the enzyme‐assisted reduction in major soybean allergens in soy protein isolate using different food‐grade proteases, while maintaining or improving the sensory attributes and technofunctional properties. SDS‐PAGE analyses showed that hydrolysis with Alcalase, Pepsin, and Papain was most effective in the degradation of the major soybean allergens with proteol...

  10. Development of a Novel Strategy to Isolate Lipophilic Allergens (Oleosins) from Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schwager; Skadi Kull; Susanne Krause; Frauke Schocker; Arnd Petersen; Wolf-Meinhard Becker; Uta Jappe

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins. Methods and Results A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was ...

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Allergen of Acacia farnesiana (Aca f 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Sepahi; Ali Khodadadi; MohammadAli Assarehzadegan; Akram Amini; Farnoosh Zarinhadideh; Hosein Ali-Sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of pollens from different species of Acacia is a common cause of respiratory allergy in tropical areas of the world. Acacia farnesiana is commonly used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. This study aimed to produce and purify the A. farnesiana pollen profilin (Aca f 2) and evaluate its nucleotide sequence homology with profilins of common allergenic plants to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.Thi...

  12. 19 Proteomic Analysis of Major and Minor Allergens From Isolated Pollen Cytoplasmic Granules

    OpenAIRE

    Chakra, Oussama Abou; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Thomas, Emmanuelle Demey; Vinh, Joëlle; Poncet, Pascal; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Sénéchal, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important vectors of aeroallergens. Under atmospheric conditions, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). The allergens associated with these intrinsic sub-fractions induce, in laboratory animals as well as in asthmatic patients allergic and inflammatory responses. The aims of this study were to characterize and identify the intrinsic allergens of PCGs, to compare them with those of pollen grains. Methods PCGs were isolated from...

  13. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Mathiesen, Caroline Benedicte K;

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their po...... disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines....

  14. Bystander immunotherapy as a strategy to control allergen-driven airway inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Séverine; Lazzari, Anne; Kanda, Akira; Fleury, Sébastien; Dombrowicz, David; Glaichenhaus, Nicolas; Julia, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    International audience Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung infiltration of Th2 cells, and high levels of IgE. To date, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment that effectively alleviates clinical symptoms and has a long-term effect after termination. Unfortunately, SIT is unsuitable for plurisensitized patients, and highly immunogenic allergens cannot be used. To overcome these hurdles, we sought to i...

  15. 167 Allergen Sensitization in Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rigalt, Ann Michelle; Maselli, Juan Pablo; Alvarado, Ninotchka; Carpio, Paola; Chur, Víctor; Mayén, Patricia; Morán, Edgar; Pinto, Mario; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no previous studies published reporting allergen sensitizations in the population of most Central American countries, including Guatemala. There are many types of climates in different regions, with variable altitude, humidity, etc. The purpose of this study was to determine the most common allergen sensitizations in children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in 4 different regions. Methods The study was performed on 461 children aged 5 to 15 years, from 4 different regio...

  16. Measurement and analysis of the common food allergens specific IgE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the positive distribution characteristics and analyse the correlation of common food allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) with suspected food allergy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University.Methods Using fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the serum sIgE antibody of 854 patients,including 7 kinds of food allergens (milk,egg white,egg yolk,shrimp,crab,peanut and soybean) from July 2006 to January 2013.

  17. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    -allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  18. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 μg/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 μg/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for ≥10.0 μg/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  19. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef; Hartl, Arnulf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits t...

  20. New Allergens of Relevance in Tropical Regions: The Impact of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    One of the many aspects of the relationships between parasite infections and allergic diseases is the possibility that allergens from parasites enhance the TH2 responses, especially IgE production, in allergic diseases such as asthma. In this review we discuss about the allergenic composition of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and their potential impact on allergy sensitization and asthma pathogenesis and prevalence in populations living in the tropics and naturally exposed to both, mite al...

  1. The Effect of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Allergenic Potential of Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Adina TODEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is associated with atmospheric warming due to continuous increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentration following the industrial revolution. The urban areas are more responsible for these changes. Europe for example has experienced a progressive warming +0.9°C for 1901-2005. Climate change is unequivocal and represents a possible threat for patients affected by allergic conditions because it is related with an increased distribution and concentration of pollen. Higher temperature, wet condition (especially thunderstorms, wind speed, transition of cold fronts, environmental changes (allergenic pollens arrived in new areas, are mechanisms which involve changes of production, dispersion and allergen content of pollen. Prolonged and more severe pollen seasons are leading to worsened asthma and allergies. The interaction of pollen with urban air pollutants could also lead to an increased effect of aero allergens on allergic patients, with a greater likelihood of the development of an allergic respiratory disease in sensitized subjects and exacerbation of symptomatic patients. Air pollution could induce damage to airways mucosa, thus promoting sensitization of the airways; also it could increase the expression of allergenic proteins (allergen contents of pollen produce by plants is increased by higher temperature and CO2 enriched atmosphere. By increasing pollen concentration or making the airways susceptible to allergens, the climate change and air pollution have a negative impact on human health.

  2. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen.

  3. Allergens stimulate store-operated calcium entry and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H; Schleimer, Robert P; Prakriya, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca(2+) elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca(2+) elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca(2+) entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412

  4. Proteomic analysis of major and minor allergens from isolated pollen cytoplasmic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Oussama R; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Demey Thomas, Emmanuelle; Vinh, Joëlle; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Poncet, Pascal; Sénéchal, Hélène

    2012-02-01

    Grass pollen is one of the most important vectors of aeroallergens. Under atmospheric conditions, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). The allergens associated with these intrinsic subfractions induce, in laboratory animals as well as in asthmatic patients, allergic and inflammatory responses. The objectives of this study were to characterize the PCGs' intrinsic allergens and to compare them with those of pollen grains. The water-soluble proteins were extracted from pollen grains and their PCGs. IgE-binding proteins were analyzed and characterized through an allergomic strategy: 1- and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE and 2-DE), immunoblotting, using grass-pollen-sensitized patient sera, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, and database searching. Several of the allergens listed in the IUIS nomenclature, Phl p 1, 4, 5, 6, and 12, were detected in pollen and PCG extracts, whereas Phl p 11 was found only in PCGs, and Phl p 2 as well as Phl p 13 were found only in pollen extract. Some other allergens not listed in the IUIS nomenclature were also characterized in both pollen and PCG extracts. Since the major grass pollen allergens were found in PCGs and because of their small size, these submicronic particles should be considered as very potent sensitizing and challenging respirable vectors of allergens. PMID:22188203

  5. Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy and Novel Ways for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only available curative treatment of allergic diseases. Recent evidence provided a plausible explanation to its multiple mechanisms inducing both rapid desensitization and long-term allergen-specific immune tolerance, and suppression of allergic inflammation in the affected tissues. During SIT, peripheral tolerance is induced by the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T cells, which suppress proliferative and cytokine responses against the allergen of interest. Regulatory T cells are characterized by IL-10 and TGF-beta secretion and expression of important cell surface suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1 that directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Regulatory T cells and particularly IL-10 also have an influence on B cells, suppressing IgE production and inducing the production of blocking type IgG4 antibodies. In addition, development of allergen-specific B regulatory cells that produce IL-10 and develop into IgG4 producing plasma cells represent essential players in peripheral tolerance. These findings together with the new biotechnological approaches create a platform for development of the advanced vaccines. Moreover, reliable biomarkers could be selected and validated with the intention to select the patients who will benefit most from this immune-modifying treatment. Thus, allergen-SIT could provide a complete cure for a larger number of allergic patients and novel preventive approaches need to be elaborated.

  6. Allergen micro-bead array for IgE detection: a feasibility study using allergenic molecules tested on a flexible multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Pomponi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergies represent the most prevalent non infective diseases worldwide. Approaching IgE-mediated sensitizations improved much by adopting allergenic molecules instead of extracts, and by using the micro-technology for multiplex testing. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To provide a proof-of-concept that a flow cytometric bead array is a feasible mean for the detection of specific IgE reactivity to allergenic molecules in a multiplex-like way. A flow cytometry Allergenic Molecule-based micro-bead Array system (ABA was set by coupling allergenic molecules with commercially available micro-beads. Allergen specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, as well as samples from 167 allergic patients, characterized by means of the ISAC microarray system, were used as means to show the feasibility of the ABA. Three hundred and thirty-six sera were tested for 1 or more of the 16 selected allergens, for a total number of 1,519 tests on each of the two systems. RESULTS: Successful coupling was initially verified by detecting the binding of rabbit polyclonal IgG, mouse monoclonal, and pooled human IgE toward three allergens, namely nDer s 1, nPen m 1, and nPru p 3. The ABA assay showed to detect IgE to nAct d 1, nAct d 11, rAln g 1, nAmb a 1, nArt v 3, rBet v 1, rCor a 1, nCup a 1, nDer p 1, nDer s 1, rHev b 5, nOle e 1, rPar j 2, nPen m 1, rPhl p 1, and nPru p 3. Results obtained by ABA IgE testing were highly correlated to ISAC testing (r = 0.87, p<0.0001. No unspecific binding was recorded because of high total IgE values. CONCLUSION: The ABA assay represents a useful and flexible method for multiplex IgE detection using allergenic molecules. As also shown by our initial experiments with monoclonals and polyclonals, ABA is suitable for detecting other human and non-human immunoglobulins.

  7. A DNA vaccine encoding a chimeric allergen derived from major group 1 allergens of dust mite can be used for specific immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tong; Yin, Kang; Wu, Lu-Yi; Jin, Wen-Jie; Li, Yang; Sheng, Bin; Jiang, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Immunization with DNA-based constructs has been shown to be against the antigen and the response is skewed in such a way as to ameliorate the symptoms of allergic disease. This approach is particularly useful in the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. The major group 1 allergen from house dust mites is one of the triggers of allergic asthma. This study explores whether a chimeric gene R8, derived from the major group 1 allergen of house dust mite species (Dermatophago...

  8. Mimotope mapping as a complementary strategy to define allergen IgE-epitopes: peach Pru p 3 allergen as a model.

    OpenAIRE

    Pacios, Luis F.; Tordesillas Villuendas, Leticia; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Compes, Esther; Sánchez-Monge Laguna de Rins, Rosa; Palacín Gómez, Aranzazu; Salcedo Duran, Gabriel; Díaz Perales, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are the major allergens of Rosaceae fruits in the Mediterranean area. Pru p 3, the LTP and major allergen of peach, is a suitable model for studying food allergy and amino acid sequences related with its IgE-binding capacity. In this work, we sought to map IgE mimotopes on the structure of Pru p 3, using the combination of a random peptide phage display library and a three-dimensional modelling approach. Pru p 3-specific IgE was purified from 2 different pools o...

  9. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance. PMID:1722776

  10. Intralymphatic immunotherapy induces allergen specific plasmablasts and increases tolerance to skin prick testing in a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Nezam, Homaira; Madsen, Hans Henrik Torp;

    2016-01-01

    medication score, response in skin prick test and nasal allergen provocation. ILIT deposits allergen in an inguinal lymph node to elicit a strong immune stimulus. This allowed us to monitor appearance of allergen specific plasmablasts 7 days after allergen injection. FINDINGS: In an open trial of seven...... a trend toward improvement in symptom and medication score and rhinoconjunctivitis-related quality of life during the grass pollen season 2013 and significantly raised the threshold in nasal allergen challenge and titrated skin prick testing. Mild side-effects were recorded after 3 of the 21 of injections...... (14 %). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows that ILIT may induce allergen specific plasmablasts, and confirms an effect on provocation of mast cells in skin and nasal mucosa during the ensuing winter....

  11. Spectrum of allergenic pollen in Karachi and their characterization using conventional and electron microscopy: Potential candidates for allergy vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the distribution of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and study their pollen morphology in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: We performed field surveys of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and studied their pollen morphology using conventional (light) as well as scanning electron microscopy. Results: About 80 allergenic pollen producing species were identified which are distributed in 45 genera and 9 angiospermic families. Grasses belonging to Graminae are most abundant followed by plants from family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Highly allergenic weeds were also found widely growing in the city areas belonging to Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. Conclusion: Our study provides an updated information about the allergenic plants growing in Karachi city. All desensitization efforts should be designed in accordance to the available information regarding the prevalent allergens in the environment so that appropriate therapy can be given to the affected population. (author)

  12. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M;

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... as sensitized using results of the new Pan-European GA(2)LEN skin prick test study. Method: In a large Pan-European multicenter (17 centers in 14 countries) patient based study, a standardized panel of 18 allergens has been prick tested using a standardized procedure. Conditional approach allowed to determine...... or Alternaria]). According to country, up to 13 allergens were needed to identify all sensitized subjects. Conclusion: Eight to ten allergens allowed the identification of the majority of sensitized subjects. For clinical care of individual patients, the whole battery of 18 allergens is needed to appropriately...

  13. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N = 26) or non-allergens (N = 22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2 to 5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (≥1.5-fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity.

  14. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 μg/g and Can f 1>1.2 μg/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 μg/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 μg/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: ► Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. ► Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens. ► Homes were sampled for these allergens and asthma

  15. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tsai, Eling, E-mail: tsai.umiami@gmail.com [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Li, De-Wei, E-mail: DeWei.Li@ct.gov [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States); Leaderer, Brian P., E-mail: brian.leaderer@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  16. ALIMENTOS TRANSGÉNICOS Y ALERGENICIDAD Transgenic foods and allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta Losada

    2007-12-01

    nongovernment organizations (ONGs, consumers and media regarding their potential toxicity, allergenicity and impaired nutrition. We present a critical review of the recent literature about the adverse immune responses to food proteins. This review includes the physical and chemical characteristics of allergens, the heterogeneity in the prevalence of food allergy and the progress made in the understanding of food-based allergic disorders. We present a description of the clinical spectrum of the food-induced allergic reactions which are responsible for a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. The test methods used for the safety assessment of foods derived from GM crops are also presented and discussed. It is concluded that the potential allergenic risks introduced by GM food are no higher than those of food derived from genetically modified crops by conventional methods.

  17. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yong-Qian; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Ji, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups – A, B, C and D. To indu...

  18. Identification of two metallothioneins as novel inhalative coffee allergens cof a 2 and cof a 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Peters

    Full Text Available Dust of green coffee beans is known to be a relevant cause for occupational allergic disorders in coffee industry workers. Recently, we described the first coffee allergen (Cof a 1 establishing an allergenic potential of green coffee dust.Our aim was to identify allergenic components of green coffee in order to enhance inhalative coffee allergy diagnosis.A Coffea arabica pJuFo cDNA phage display library was created and screened for IgE binding with sera from allergic coffee workers. Two further coffee allergens were identified by sequence analysis, expressed in E. coli, and evaluated by Western blots. The prevalence of sensitization to recombinant Cof a 1, Cof a 2, and Cof a 3 and to commercially available extract was investigated by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively CAP (capacity test screening in 18 sera of symptomatic coffee workers.In addition to the previously described chitinase Cof a 1, two Coffea arabica cysteine-rich metallothioneins of 9 and 7 kDa were identified and included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature as Cof a 2 and Cof a 3. Serum IgE antibodies to at least one of the recombinant allergens were found in 8 out of 18 symptomatic coffee workers (44%. Only 2 of the analysed sera (11% had reacted previously to the commercial allergy test.In addition to the previously described Cof a 1 we have identified two further coffee proteins to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3 which may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis and/or therapy of coffee allergy.

  19. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1 has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  20. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with

  1. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Pro J 1: A New Allergen of Prosopis Juliflora Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousti, Fatemeh; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Morakabati, Payam; Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Akbari, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    Pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) is one of the important causes of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The aim of present study is to produce and purify the recombinant form of allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this allergenic tree. Immunological and cross-inhibition assays were performed for the evaluation of IgE-binding capacity of purified recombinant protein. For molecular cloning, the coding sequence of the mesquite Ole e 1-like protein was inserted into pTZ57R/T vector and expressed in Escherichia coli using the vector pET-21b(+). After purification of the recombinant protein, its immunoreactivity was analysed by in vitro assays using sera from twenty one patients with an allergy to mesquite pollen. The purified recombinant allergen was a member of Ole e 1-like protein family and consisted of 150 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 16.5 kDa and a calculated isoelectric point (pI) of 4.75. Twelve patients (57.14%) had significant specific IgE levels for this recombinant allergen. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that the purified recombinant allergen might be the same as that in the crude extract. Herein, we introduce an important new allergen from P. juliflora pollen (Pro j 1), which is a member of the Ole e 1-like protein family and exhibits significant identity and similarity to other allergenic members of this family.

  2. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  3. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Poulsen Lars K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results The proteins were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating allergen-specific histamine release from human basophils. Conclusions All the three major wasp venom allergens were expressed on the yeast surface. A high-level expression, which was observed only for antigen 5, was needed for detection of IgE binding by FACS and for induction of histamine release. The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy as the cells can serve as good adjuvant and can be produced in large amounts at a low price.

  4. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. PMID:27436445

  5. Induction of allergic responses to peanut allergen in sheep.

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    Jenna L Van Gramberg

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA or house dust mite (HDM extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40-50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy.

  6. Effects of Flavin7 on allergen induced hyperreactivity of airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franova S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some studies have suggested that the polyphenolic compounds might reduce the occurrence of asthma symptoms. The aim of our experiments was to evaluate the effects of 21 days of the flavonoid Flavin7 administration on experimentally induced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. We assessed tracheal smooth muscle reactivity by an in vitro muscle-strip method; changes in airway resistance by an in vivo plethysmographic method; histological picture of tracheal tissue; and the levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and interleukin 5 (IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Histological investigation of tracheal tissue and the concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were used as indices of airway inflammation. Administration of Flavin7 caused a significant decrease of specific airway resistance after histamine nebulization and a decline in tracheal smooth muscle contraction amplitude in response to bronchoconstricting mediators. Flavin7 minimized the degree of inflammation estimated on the basis of eosinophil calculation and IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations. In conclusion, administration of Flavin7 showed bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects on allergen-induced airway inflammation.

  7. Enhanced Approaches for Identifying Amadori Products: Application to Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katina L; Williams, Jason G; Maleki, Soheila J; Hurlburt, Barry K; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2016-02-17

    The dry roasting of peanuts is suggested to influence allergic sensitization as a result of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on peanut proteins. Identifying AGEs is technically challenging. The AGEs of a peanut allergen were probed with nano-scale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Amadori product ions matched to expected peptides and yielded fragments that included a loss of three waters and HCHO. As a result of the paucity of b and y ions in the MS/MS spectrum, standard search algorithms do not perform well. Reactions with isotopically labeled sugars confirmed that the peptides contained Amadori products. An algorithm was developed on the basis of information content (Shannon entropy) and the loss of water and HCHO. Results with test data show that the algorithm finds the correct spectra with high precision, reducing the time needed to manually inspect data. Computational and technical improvements allowed for better identification of the chemical differences between modified and unmodified proteins. PMID:26811263

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  10. Allergenicity assessment of genetically-modified tobacco expressing salt tolerance cbl gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Tuteja, Narendra; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-09-01

    It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there was no significant sequence homology with known allergens. Also, no difference between the protein digestibility profiles of GM and WT tobacco was found. Rapid digestion of CBL protein (Mol Wt 35 kDa) by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated reduced chances of this protein to induce allergenicity. In addition, BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of WT and GM tobacco protein showed comparable levels of clinical score, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine level, similar effect on different organs as well as IgE binding proteins. These findings indicate that insertion of cbl gene in tobacco did not cause any additional allergic risk to consumer and the GM and native tobacco proteins behave similarly in both in vitro and in vivo situations even after genetic modification.

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  12. Orchestration of an uncommon maturation cascade of the house dust mite protease allergen quartet

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    Marie-Eve eDumez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite (HDM allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, groups 1 are cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6 and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6 and 9 through complex intra- or intermolecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6 and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation and interconnection.

  13. Development of a novel strategy to isolate lipophilic allergens (oleosins from peanuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwager

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins.A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was developed comprising a stepwise removal of seed storage proteins from oil bodies. Further separation of the oil body constituents, including the allergens Ara h 10, Ara h 11, the presumed allergen oleosin 3 and additional oleosin variants was achieved by a single run on a preparative electrophoresis cell. Protein identification realized by N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and homology search revealed the presence of oleosins, steroleosins and a caleosin. Immunoblot analysis with sera of peanut-allergic individuals illustrated the IgE-binding capacity of peanut-derived oleosins.Our method is a novel way to isolate all known immunologically distinct peanut oleosins simultaneously. Moreover, we were able to provide evidence for the allergenicity of oleosins and thus identified peanut oleosins as probable candidates for component-resolved allergy diagnosis.

  14. Preventive capacity of allergen immunotherapy on the natural history of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, C

    2013-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the practice of administering gradually increasing doses of the specific causative allergen to reduce the clinical reactivity of allergic subjects. A bulk of literature demonstrates that AIT is an effective and safe treatment to reduce allergic symptoms and the use of drugs. The preventive capacity of AIT is less investigated. The studies thus far available showed that this treatment, in both forms of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is able to prevent the development of asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of new sensitizations in patients monosensitized. Such outcomes demonstrate the ability of AIT to change the natural history of respiratory allergy. Of particular importance, SCIT with Hymenoptera venom has an invaluable role in preventing potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions to the culprit sting in venom-allergic patients. Ongoing studies are aimed at evaluating the possible capacity of AIT in primary prevention of allergy. All these capabilities are related to the mechanisms of action of AIT. In fact, both SCIT and SLIT are able to modify the allergen presentation by dendritic cells that in turn modify the phenotype of allergen-specific T cells, switching from the Th2-type response, typical of allergic inflammation, to a Th1-type response. An important role is played by allergen-specific T regulatory (Treg) cells, which produce suppressive cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. PMID:24396984

  15. Worldwide food allergy labeling and detection of allergens in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of allergenic foods is an important public health measure to assist food-allergic consumers in avoiding foods that can cause allergic reactions. The regulatory framework for such labeling depends upon the selection of priority allergenic foods, which vary among countries. Most countries include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, soybeans, and cereal sources of gluten on the priority allergenic foods list, as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. However, a variety of other foods appear on the priority lists of some countries but not on others. Sesame seeds, molluscan shellfish, buckwheat, and mustard are identified in two or more countries. In most countries, all ingredients derived from these priority allergen sources must also be declared on labels by source. However, exemptions exist for some ingredients in some countries but not in others. Detection methods are critical for the enforcement of allergen labeling regulations and for the investigation of allergic reactions in the community by public health officials. The development of detection methods has advanced considerably over the past several decades and will be briefly reviewed in this chapter. Because of the emphasis on labeling and the development of detection methods, the ingredient statement on packaged food labels now contains more information than ever before to assist food-allergic consumers.

  16. Comparative Study on the Allergenicity of Different Litopenaeus vannamei Extract Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lisha; LIN Haixin; WANG Guoying; LU Zongchao; CHEN Guanzhi; LIN Hong; LI Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Allergen extracts are widely used for allergy diagnosis and treatment. The application of shrimp extract is hampered due to the low protein concentration and the inconsistent allergenicity. Extracting solutions are considered to be the primary limiting factor of protein extraction from crustaceans. This study aimed to select an optimal solution for shrimp protein extraction by com-paring the allergenicity of different shrimp extracts. The effect of 7 existing or modified extracting solutions were evaluated, includ-ing the glycerol-NaCl solution, the glycerol Cocaine’s solution, the buffered saline solution, the Cocaine’s solution, the Glucose leaching solution, 1 mol L-1 KCl solution, and 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate buffered saline solution with and without dithiothreitolor (DTT). The quantitative (protein concentration) and qualitative parameters (SDS-PAGE protein patterns and immuno-reactivity) were deter-mined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assay. Results showed that the 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DTT was optimal for shrimp protein extraction, which yielded high con-centration and allergenicity in the protein extract, including major and minor allergens. The 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DDT is pro-posed for preparation of shrimp extract and associated allergy diagnosis, as well as potential applications for other crustaceans.

  17. The peanut allergy epidemic: allergen molecular characterisation and prospects for specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria P; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2007-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, with increasing prevalence worldwide. To date, there is no cure for peanut allergy, and, unlike many other food allergies, it usually persists through to adulthood. Prevention of exposure to peanuts is managed through strict avoidance, which can be compromised by the frequent use of peanuts and peanut products in food preparations. Conventional subcutaneous-injection allergen immunotherapy using crude peanut extract is not a recommended treatment because of the risk of severe side effects, largely as a result of specific IgE antibodies. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a suitable peanut allergen preparation that can induce specific clinical and immunological tolerance to peanuts in allergic individuals without adverse side effects. This requires detailed molecular and immunological characterisation of the allergenic components of peanut. This article reviews current knowledge on clinically relevant peanut allergens, in particular Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, together with options for T-cell-reactive but non-IgE-binding allergen variants for specific immunotherapeutic strategies. These include T-cell-epitope peptide and hypoallergenic mutant vaccines. Alternative routes of administration such as sublingual are also considered, and appropriate adjuvants for delivering effective treatments at these sites examined. PMID:17210088

  18. Food allergen selective thermal processing regimens may change oral tolerance in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosti, R I; Triga, M; Tsabouri, S; Priftis, K N

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy can be considered a failure in the induction of oral tolerance. Recently, great interest has been focused on understanding the mechanisms and the contributing factors of oral tolerance development, hoping for new definitive interventions in the prevention and treatment of food allergy. Given that food processing may modify the properties and the nature of dietary proteins, several food processing methods could affect the allergenicity of these proteins and consequently may favour oral tolerance induction to food allergic children. Indeed, effective thermal food processing regimens of altering food proteins to reduce allergenicity have been recently reported in the literature. This article is mainly focused on the effect of selective thermal processing regimens on the main infant allergenic foods, with a potential clinical relevance on their allergenicity and therefore on oral tolerance induction. In the light of recent findings, the acquisition of tolerance in younger age and consequently the ability of young children to "outgrow" food allergy could be achieved through the application of selective thermal processing regimens on certain allergenic foods. Therefore, the ability of processed foods to circumvent clinical disease and at the same time to have an impact on the immune system and facilitate tolerance induction could be invaluable as a component of a successful therapeutic strategy. The opening in the new avenues of research in the use of processed foods in clinical practice for the amelioration of the impact on the quality of life of patients and possibly in food allergy prevention is warranted.

  19. Characterization of low molecular weight allergens from English walnut (Juglans regia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Melanie L; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Simpson, Angela; Bartra, Joan; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Rigby, Neil M; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Mills, E N Clare

    2014-12-01

    Although English walnut is a commonly allergenic tree nut, walnut allergens have been poorly characterized to date. The objective of this work was to characterize the natural, low molecular weight (LMW) allergens from walnut. A protocol was developed to purify LMW allergens (specifically 2S albumins) from English walnuts. In addition to 2S albumins, a series of peptides from the N-terminal region of the 7S seed storage globulin proprotein were also identified and characterized. These peptides comprised a four-cysteine motif (C-X-X-X-C-X10-12-C-X-X-X-C) repeated throughout the 7S N-terminal region. Upon IgE immunoblotting, 3/11 and 5/11 sera from walnut-allergic subjects showed IgE reactivity to the 7S N-terminal fragments and 2S albumin, respectively. The mature 7S protein and the newly described 7S N-terminal peptides represent two distinct types of allergens. Because the proteolytic processing of 7S globulins has not been elucidated in many edible plant species, similar protein fragments may be present in other nuts and seeds.

  20. Synthesis and Degradation of the Major Allergens in Developing and Germinating Soybean Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Mei Wu; Rong-Xia Guan; Zhang-Xiong Liu; Run-Zhi Li; Ru-Zhen Chang; Li-Juan Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Gly m Bd 28K,Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) allergens limiting the consumption of a good protein source for sensitive individuals.However,little is known about their temporal-spatial expression during seed development and upon germination.The present data shows that soy allergens accumulated in both the embryonic axes and cotyledon,but expression patterns differed depending on the specific allergen.Allergens accumulated sooner and to a greater level in cotyledons than in embryonic axes.Gly m Bd 28 began at 14 d after flowering,7 to 14 d earlier than Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K.Comparatively,their degradation was faster and more profound in embryonic axes than in cotyledons.Gly m Bd 60K began to decline at 36 h after imbibition and remained detectable up to 108 h in cotyledons.In contrast,the Glym Bd 60K protein was reduced at 24 h,and eventually disappeared at 96 h.In cotyledons Gly m Bd 28K first declined at 24 h,then increased from 36 h to 48 h,followed by its large reduction at 72 h after seed germination.These findings provide useful information on soy allergen biosynthesis and will help move forward towards developing a hypoallergenic soybean for safer food.

  1. The distribution of dust mite allergen in the houses of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an inhibition radioimmunoassay for the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (antigen P1), we studied the distribution of this dust allergen in the houses of patients with asthma. Both bed and floor dust samples contained a wide range of antigen P1, 100 to 100,000 ng/g of fine dust, and this concentration correlated well with the number of mite bodies (r . 0.81, p less than 0.001). We were unable to detect antigen P1 in the air of undisturbed rooms. However, during domestic activity, between 1 and 30 ng were collected on a filter than sampled air for 45 min at 17 L/min. Using a cascade impactor it was shown that greater than 80% of the airborne antigen P1 was associated with particles greater than 10 mu in diameter. Some of the particles containing allergen could be identified because they formed precipitin rings when impacted onto agarose containing rabbit antimite antiserum. These particles had the physical appearance of mite feces, which are the major source of antigen P1 in mite cultures. The results suggested that natural exposure to this dust allergen allows occasional fecal particles to enter the lungs and that these particles contain very concentrated allergen

  2. Identification and Characterization of a New Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Allergen, Car i 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Lee, BoRam; Du, Wen-Xian; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Grauke, Larry J; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; McHugh, Tara H

    2016-05-25

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods from the "big eight" food allergen groups. Here, for the first time, pecan vicilin was found to be a food allergen. Western blot experiments revealed that 30% of 27 sera used in this study and 24% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo controlled clinical pecan allergy contained IgE antibodies specific to pecan vicilin. This allergen consists of a low-complexity region at its N-terminal and a structured domain at the C-terminal that contains two cupin motifs and forms homotrimers. The crystal structure of recombinant pecan vicilin was determined. The refined structure gave R/Rfree values of 0.218/0.262 for all data to 2.65 Å. There were two trimeric biological units in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Pecan vicilin is also a copper protein. These data may facilitate the understanding of the nutritional value and the allergenicity relevance of the copper binding property of seed storage proteins in tree nuts. PMID:27128197

  3. Mass spectrometric investigation of molecular variability of grass pollen group 1 allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenaille, François; Nony, Emmanuel; Chabre, Henri; Lautrette, Aurélie; Couret, Marie-Noëlle; Batard, Thierry; Moingeon, Philippe; Ezan, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Natural grass pollen allergens exhibit a wide variety of isoforms. Precise characterization of such microheterogeneity is essential to improve diagnosis and design appropriate immunotherapies. Moreover, standardization of allergen vaccine production is a prerequisite for product safety and efficiency. Both qualitative and quantitative analytical methods are thus required to monitor and control the huge natural variability of pollens, as well as final product quality. A proteomic approach has been set up to investigate in depth the structural variability of five group 1 allergens originating from distinct grass species (Ant o 1, Dac g 1, Lol p 1, Phl p 1, and Poa p 1). Whereas group 1 is the most conserved grass pollen allergen, great variations were shown between the various isoforms found in these five species using mass spectrometry, with many amino acid exchanges, as well as variations in proline hydroxylation level and in main N-glycan motifs. The presence of O-linked pentose residues was also demonstrated, with up to three consecutive units on the first hydroxyproline of Ant o 1. In addition, species-specific peptides were identified that might be used for product authentication or individual allergen quantification. Lastly, natural or process-induced modifications (deamidation, oxidation, glycation) were evidenced, which might constitute useful indicators of product degradation. PMID:19572759

  4. Effect of environmental intervention on mouse allergen levels in homes of inner-city Boston children with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Beth; Wood, Robert A.; Eggleston, Peyton A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Song, Leslie; Tachdjian, Raffi; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that mouse allergen exposure and sensitization are common in urban children with asthma. The effectiveness of environmental intervention in reducing mouse allergen exposure has not been established. Objective: To evaluate whether environmental intervention of mouse extermination and cleaning results in a reduction in mouse allergen levels. Methods: Eighteen homes of children with positive mouse allergen skin test results and at least mild persistent asthma in urban Boston, MA, with evidence of mouse infestation or exposure were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (12 intervention and 6 control homes). The intervention homes received an integrated pest management intervention, which consisted of filling holes with copper mesh, vacuuming and cleaning, and using low-toxicity pesticides and traps. Dust samples were collected and analyzed for major mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 months after the intervention was started and compared with control homes. Results: Mouse allergen levels were significantly decreased compared with control homes by the end of the intervention period at month 5 in the kitchen and bedroom (kitchen intervention, 78.8% reduction; control, 319% increase; P = .02; bedroom intervention, 77.3% reduction; control, 358% increase; P < .01; and living room intervention, 67.6% reduction; control, 32% reduction; P = .07). Conclusions: Mouse allergen levels were significantly reduced during a 5-month period using an integrated pest management intervention. PMID:15104193

  5. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  6. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  7. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis diagnosed by a systematic stepwise exposure assessment of allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann;

    2013-01-01

    Information on the presence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Ingredient lists and Material Safety DataSheets (MSDSs) may be incomplete.......Information on the presence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Ingredient lists and Material Safety DataSheets (MSDSs) may be incomplete....

  8. Is immunotherapy-induced birch-pollen-specific IgG4 a marker for decreased allergen-specific sensitivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Ejrnaes, A M; Hummelshoj, L;

    2005-01-01

    The role of IgG4 during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is still controversial. The available studies present paramount differences in in vitro techniques, allergens, and clinical outcome parameters. By implementing a sensitive method, and pivotal clinical outcome parameters, we wanted to...

  9. Screening for Compositae sensitization with pure allergens: implications of molecular structure, strength of reaction, and time of testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-01-01

    The sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is the only commercial Compositae allergy screening agent that consists of pure allergens; its detection rate is lower than that of Compositae plant extracts.......The sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is the only commercial Compositae allergy screening agent that consists of pure allergens; its detection rate is lower than that of Compositae plant extracts....

  10. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Garcia, A.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we desc

  11. IgG antibodies in food allergy influence allergen-antibody complex formation and binding to B cells: a role for complement receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, L.A.; Jong, R.J.; Hartog Jager, den C.F.; Monsuur, H.N.; Wouters, D.; Nauta, A.; Knippels, L.M.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Ruiter, B.; Leusen, J.H.; Hack, C.E.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.; Knulst, A.C.; Garssen, J.; Hoffen, van E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergen-IgE complexes are more efficiently internalized and presented by B cells than allergens alone. It has been suggested that IgG Abs induced by immunotherapy inhibit these processes. Food-allergic patients have high allergen-specific IgG levels. However, the role of these Abs in complex format

  12. Mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens: role of IL-10 and Tregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A.; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-01-01

    During the past 20 years, major advances have been made in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergen tolerance in humans. The demonstration of T cell tolerance, particularly that mediated by the immune-suppressive functions of IL-10, led to a major conceptual change in this area. Currently, the known essential components of allergen tolerance include the induction of allergen-specific regulatory subsets of T and B cells, the immune-suppressive function of secreted factors, such as IL-10 and TGF-β, the production of IgG4 isotype allergen–specific blocking antibodies, and decreased allergic inflammatory responses by mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils in inflamed tissues. PMID:25365074

  13. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, B. M.; Søndergaard, Ib;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results: The proteins...... their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating...

  14. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N;

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days...... untreated, prechallenge noses was 400 micrograms/L. (3) The ECP level did not increase during the early phase response. (4) There was a late occurring increase in the ECP concentration (6 to 24 hours). (5) This increase was completely inhibited by budesonide pretreatment. (6) The glucocorticoid therapy also...... reduced the prechallenge ECP concentration. In conclusion, allergen provocation in the nose results in a late occurring increase of ECP in nasal lavage fluid, and one of the therapeutic effects of topical glucocorticoid therapy may be an inhibition of the allergen-induced increase of this cytotoxic...

  15. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A;

    1998-01-01

    subjects allergic to only one of the same two fragrance substances. The test and matched control subject were patch tested in exactly the same way with two allergens applied in serial dilution in separate chambers on one side and combined in one chamber on the other side of the upper back. The assessment......Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15...... of reactions was carried out on day 3 by clinical grading and laser Doppler flowmetry, and the extent of the reaction was measured in millimetres. The data were analysed by logistic dose-response models. It was found that the combination of two allergens in individuals allergic to both substances had...

  16. Primary structure of Lep d I, the main Lepidoglyphus destructor allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J; Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Barbas, J A; Gimenez-Gallego, G; Polo, F

    1994-10-01

    The most relevant allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been characterized. Lep d I is a monomer protein of 13273 Da. The primary structure of Lep d I was determined by N-terminal Edman degradation and partially confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Sequence polymorphism was observed at six positions, with non-conservative substitutions in three of them. No potential N-glycosylation site was revealed by peptide sequencing. The 125-residue sequence of Lep d I shows approximately 40% identity (including the six cysteines) with the overlapping regions of group II allergens from the genus Dermatophagoides, which, however, do not share common allergenic epitopes with Lep d I. PMID:7925475

  17. Information provision for allergic consumers - where are we going with food allergen labelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Valovirta, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard;

    2004-01-01

    , InformAll, focusing on developing strategies for the provision of credible, reliable sources of information for food allergy sufferers, regulators and the food industry, have been considering these matters with respect to food labelling. This paper presents an overview of the genesis of the new EU......As the current treatment for food allergy involves dietary exclusion of the problem food, information for food-allergic consumers provided on food labels about the nature of allergenic ingredients is important to the management of their condition. The members of an EU-funded networking project...... directive on food labelling, its relevance to food-allergic consumers and the problems that might arise if precautionary labelling becomes more widespread in response to concerns regarding inadvertent allergen contamination in foods. International efforts to define threshold levels of allergens able...

  18. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants. PMID:20362336

  19. Miconidin and miconidin methyl ether from Primula obconica Hance: new allergens in an old sensitizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    Several chemical and clinical observations have suggested the presence of at least one more allergen in addition to primin in Primula obconica. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity of the primin precursor miconidin and the related miconidin methyl ether, both isolated from P....... obconica. 12 primin-positive persons were patch tested with miconidin 0.01% petrolatum (pet.), miconidin in 96% ethanol incorporated into 0.01% pet., and miconidin methyl ether 1.0% pet. All persons were positive to miconidin 0.01% pet., with the strength of reactions very similar to those...... of the individual primin reactions, and remained inexplicably negative while testing with miconidin in 96% ethanol and pet., while miconidin methyl ether elicited 7 positive reactions. Although both miconidin and miconidin methyl ether may be allergenic only due to their conversion to primin in the skin...

  20. Peel LTP (Pru p 3)--the major allergen of peach--is methylated. A proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Marilena; Martelli, Giuseppe; Grossi, Gerarda; Padula, Maria Carmela; Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP, Pru p 3) is the major allergen of peach (Prunus persica), and is in a greater abundance in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. Peel LTP is more allergenic than pulp LTP, but it is not clear whether this is due to its specific allergenic properties or to its higher concentration. In this study, we have used a new one-step, rapid procedure for the purification of LTP from peel and pulp of four peach varieties [Gladys (white flesh), California (nectarine yellow flesh), Plusplus (yellow flesh), Red Fair (nectarine yellow flesh)] harvested in a field grown in Southern Italy. Purification was based on miniature reversed-phase chromatography, a procedure suitable for proteomic study. Proteomic analysis of purified LTPs revealed that the amino acid sequence of LTP was identical in all peach genotypes but, for the first time, peel LTP was found to be methylated. PMID:23871022

  1. Limitations and possibilities of animal models for human allergenic risk evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    -response relationship. The outcome of the test is sensitization measured as cell proliferation in the regional lymph node. Animal models in food allergy can be used to increase our understanding of food allergens and food allergy sensitization e.g. the influence of digestion or processing or to compare closely related......’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to design an animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food allergen is not only a potential allergen but also predict its potency, a prerequisite for risk...... evaluation. One of the pitfalls may be the premise that an animal model needs to mimic the disease. Chemical contact sensitizers may be predicted in an animal test, the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). This assay is based on detailed mechanistic knowledge of contact sensitization including knowledge on dose...

  2. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. ► The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. ► Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. ► Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  3. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chun-Hua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Liu, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Huang, Shelly [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, Peng-Yuan, E-mail: medp7123@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yang, Ping-Chang, E-mail: yangp@mcmaster.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  4. Analysis of Allergens in 5473 Patients with Allergic Diseases in Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Man Li; SHAO Bing; LIU Yan Hong; LI Lu Lu; PEI Li Chun; WANG Bin You

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the allergic status to common inhalant allergens and food allergens in clinical patients in Harbin in northeastern China and provide evidence to develop the prevention strategy of allergic disease. Methods The data were collected from 5 473 patients with clinical suspected allergic diseases seeking medical care in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Among these patients, 2 530 (46.2%) were males aged 0-86 years, the youngest was only 1 month old and 2 579 (47.1%) were young children and teenagers. The serum specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to 14 kinds of common allergens and serum total IgE were detected by using AllergyScreen test (Mediwiss Analytic GmbH, Moers, Germany). Results In 5 473 subjects the positive rate of sIgE was 33.1%(n=1 813). Cow milk (6.9%) and wheat (3.1%) were the most common food allergens, followed by house dust mite mix (12.5%) and mould mix (9.4%) and the age and gender specific differences in the positive rate were significant. For the children aged Conclusion The results from this study showed that the food allergens in Harbin had geographic characteristics, which support the viewpoint that the environment factors play an important role in the incidence of allergic diseases. Also, the detection of sIgE and total IgE are essential to identify relevant allergens for the purpose of early diagnosis, management and prevention of allergic disease.

  5. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy: T-regulatory cells and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Johan; Blaser, Kurt; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2006-05-01

    Activation-induced cell death, anergy, or immune response modulation by regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential mechanisms of peripheral T-cell tolerance. Genetic predisposition and environmental instructions tune thresholds for the activation of T cells, other inflammatory cells, and resident tissue cells in allergic diseases. Skewing allergen-specific effector T cells to a Treg-cell phenotype seems to be crucial in maintaining a healthy immune response to allergens and successful allergen-specific immunotherapy. The Treg-cell response is characterized by an abolished allergen-specific T-cell proliferation and the suppressed secretion of T-helper 1- and T-helper 2-type cytokines. Suppressed proliferative and cytokine responses against allergens are induced by multiple suppressor factors, including cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and cell surface molecules such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed death-1, and histamine receptor 2. The increased levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta produced by Treg cells potently suppress IgE production while simultaneously increasing the production of noninflammatory isotypes IgG4 and IgA, respectively. In addition, Treg cells directly or indirectly suppress the activity of effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. In conclusion, peripheral tolerance to allergens is controlled by multiple active suppression mechanisms on T cells, regulation of antibody isotypes, and suppression of effector cells. The application of current knowledge of Treg cells and related mechanisms of peripheral tolerance may soon lead to more rational and safer approaches to the prevention and cure of allergic disease. PMID:16701141

  6. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir; Rosmilah Misnan; Noormalin Abdullah; Faizal Bakhtiar; Masita Arip; Shahnaz Murad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15-250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients’ sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.

  7. Evaluation of the Allergenicity Potential of TcPR-10 Protein from Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne; Noronha, Fátima Soares Motta; Alves, Andréa Catão; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10), obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa) and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium). The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S) were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8–12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants) via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties. PMID:22768037

  8. NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase, a major allergen of Cladosporium herbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Denk, Ursula; Schneider, Peter Bernhard; Radauer, Christian; Teige, Markus; Crameri, Reto; Hawranek, Thomas; Lang, Roland; Richter, Klaus; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Nobbe, Stephan; Hartl, Arnulf; Breitenbach, Michael

    2006-06-16

    Cladosporium herbarum is an important allergenic fungal species that has been reported to cause allergic diseases in nearly all climatic zones. 5-30% of the allergic population displays IgE antibodies against molds. Sensitization to Cladosporium has often been associated with severe asthma and less frequently with chronic urticaria and atopic eczema. However, no dominant major allergen of this species has been found so far. We present cloning, production, and characterization of NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase of C. herbarum (Cla h 8) and show that this protein is a major allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies of approximately 57% of all Cladosporium allergic patients. This is the highest percentage of patients reacting with any Cladosporium allergen characterized so far. Cla h 8 was purified to homogeneity by standard chromatographic methods, and both N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of protein fragments were determined. Enzymatic analysis of the purified natural protein revealed that this allergen represents a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase that interconverts mannitol and d-fructose. It is a soluble, non-glycosylated cytoplasmic protein. Two-dimensional protein analysis indicated that mannitol dehydrogenase is present as a single isoform. The cDNA encoding Cla h 8 was cloned from a lambda-ZAP library constructed from hyphae and spores. The recombinant non-fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Its immunological and biochemical identity with the natural protein was shown by enzyme activity tests, CD spectroscopy, IgE immunoblots with sera of patients, and by skin prick testing of Cladosporium allergic patients. This protein therefore is a new major allergen of C. herbarum.

  9. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity

  10. Comparisons of Allergenic and Metazoan Parasite Proteins: Allergy the Price of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Nidhi; Farnell, Edward J; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Ryan, Stephanie; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Maizels, Rick M; Dunne, David W; Thornton, Janet M; Furnham, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Allergic reactions can be considered as maladaptive IgE immune responses towards environmental antigens. Intriguingly, these mechanisms are observed to be very similar to those implicated in the acquisition of an important degree of immunity against metazoan parasites (helminths and arthropods) in mammalian hosts. Based on the hypothesis that IgE-mediated immune responses evolved in mammals to provide extra protection against metazoan parasites rather than to cause allergy, we predict that the environmental allergens will share key properties with the metazoan parasite antigens that are specifically targeted by IgE in infected human populations. We seek to test this prediction by examining if significant similarity exists between molecular features of allergens and helminth proteins that induce an IgE response in the human host. By employing various computational approaches, 2712 unique protein molecules that are known IgE antigens were searched against a dataset of proteins from helminths and parasitic arthropods, resulting in a comprehensive list of 2445 parasite proteins that show significant similarity through sequence and structure with allergenic proteins. Nearly half of these parasite proteins from 31 species fall within the 10 most abundant allergenic protein domain families (EF-hand, Tropomyosin, CAP, Profilin, Lipocalin, Trypsin-like serine protease, Cupin, BetV1, Expansin and Prolamin). We identified epitopic-like regions in 206 parasite proteins and present the first example of a plant protein (BetV1) that is the commonest allergen in pollen in a worm, and confirming it as the target of IgE in schistosomiasis infected humans. The identification of significant similarity, inclusive of the epitopic regions, between allergens and helminth proteins against which IgE is an observed marker of protective immunity explains the 'off-target' effects of the IgE-mediated immune system in allergy. All these findings can impact the discovery and design of molecules

  11. Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens (Lour) Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-lin TAO; Shao-heng HE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To clone the pollen allergen genes in Humulus scandens (Lour) Merr (LüCao in Chinese) and short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L) for recombinant allergen production and immunotherapy. Methods: The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure. Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method. The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET-44 RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity. Results: Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences were 83% identical to each other and 56%-90% identical to panallergen profilins from other species. Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity.Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8(D03) derived from A artemisiifolia, but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1(LCM9) derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources. Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species. The recombinant allergens obtained might be useful for the immunotherapeutic treatment of H scandens and/or A artemisiifolia pollen allergies.

  12. Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pereira Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10, obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium. The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8-12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties.

  13. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruna Khurana

    Full Text Available German cockroach (GCr allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency.Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts.Single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA.Chicken scFv's generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv's recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target.An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts.

  14. Enquiring About Tolerance (EAT) study: Feasibility of an early allergenic food introduction regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Michael R.; Logan, Kirsty; Marrs, Tom; Radulovic, Suzana; Craven, Joanna; Flohr, Carsten; Lack, Gideon; Young, Louise; Offord, Victoria; DeSousa, Mary; Cullen, Jason; Taylor, Katherine; Tseng, Anna; Raji, Bunmi; Nesbeth, Sarah; Regis, Gillian; Bigwood, Charlie; Stedman, Charlotte; Tonner, Sharon; Banks, Emily; Kahnum, Yasmin; Babic, Rachel; Stockwell, Ben; Thompson, Erin; Wheatley, Lorna; Patkunam, Devi; Richards, Kerry; Pietraszewicz, Ewa; Stephens, Alick; Sudra, Asha; Turcanu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of early exposure to allergenic foods on the subsequent development of food allergy remains uncertain. Objective We sought to determine the feasibility of the early introduction of multiple allergenic foods to exclusively breast-fed infants from 3 months of age and the effect on breastfeeding performance. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial. The early introduction group (EIG) continued breastfeeding with sequential introduction of 6 allergenic foods: cow's milk, peanut, hard-boiled hen's egg, sesame, whitefish (cod), and wheat; the standard introduction group followed the UK infant feeding recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding for around 6 months with no introduction of allergenic foods before 6 months of age. Results One thousand three hundred three infants were enrolled. By 5 months of age, the median frequency of consumption of all 6 foods was 2 to 3 times per week for every food in the EIG and no consumption for every food in the standard introduction group (P < .001 for every comparison). By 6 months of age, nonintroduction of the allergenic foods in the EIG was less than 5% for each of the 6 foods. Achievement of the stringent per-protocol consumption target for the EIG proved more difficult (42% of evaluable EIG participants). Breastfeeding rates in both groups significantly exceeded UK government data for equivalent mothers (P < .001 at 6 and at 9 months of age). Conclusion Early introduction, before 6 months of age, of at least some amount of multiple allergenic foods appears achievable and did not affect breastfeeding. This has important implications for the evaluation of food allergy prevention strategies. PMID:26896232

  15. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  16. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  17. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    storage conditions. Methods. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport...... during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under...

  18. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Moises A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy. Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in

  19. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Bousquet, Jean; Sheikh, Aziz; Frew, Anthony; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Malling, Hans J; Valenta, Rudolph; Bilo, Beatrice; Nieto, Antonio; Akdis, Cezmi; Just, Jocelyne; Vidal, Carmen; Varga, Eva M; Alvarez-Cuesta, Emilio; Bohle, Barbara; Bufe, Albrecht; Canonica, Walter G; Cardona, Victoria; Dahl, Ronald; Didier, Alain; Durham, Stephen R; Eng, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Jacobsen, Lars; Jutel, Marek; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Lötvall, Jan; Moreno, Carmen; Mosges, Ralph; Muraro, Antonella; Niggemann, Bodo; Pajno, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Rak, Sabina; Senna, Gianenrico; Senti, Gabriela; Valovirta, Erkka; van Hage, Marianne; Virchow, Johannes C; Wahn, Ulrich; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals' quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a

  20. Characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kruse Fæste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. A. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. Protein extracts of A. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and IgE-immunostaining. In the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from A. simplex-sensitised patients and proteome data obtained by mass spectrometry. A. simplex proteins were homologous to allergens in other nematodes, insects, and shellfish indicating cross-reactivity. Characteristic marker peptides for relevant A. simplex proteins were described.

  1. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...

  2. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ok-Nam [College of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung [College of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Young-Jin [College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ai-Young, E-mail: leeay@duih.org [Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang 410-773 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoo@alum.mit.edu [College of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human

  3. The effect of a new communication template on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B;

    2015-01-01

    of prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end...... to validate the new communication template and to assess its impact on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy. RESULTS: We surveyed a total of 261 patients (France: 57; Germany: 51; Spain: 52; USA: 51; Russia: 50), comprising 127 "early abandoners" and 134 "non...

  4. Production of recombinant peanut allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenting, J.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Kato, K.;

    2007-01-01

    Background: Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/ or unacceptable levels of side effects...... lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some...

  5. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  6. Where are we in risk assessment of food allergens? The regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    these procedures when assessing the risk of food allergens. It is concluded that hazard identification is not a problem. The medical literature is full of descriptions of cases of food allergy where the offending food or even allergen is identified. More knowledge on the relationship between dose and response...... is needed and the possibility of using a safety factor. If we do not manage to establish thresholds for elicitation of allergic response in food allergy, risk assessment and management will be very difficult. It will be difficult to avoid labeling like "May contain peanuts" used with and without reason...

  7. The panel of egg allergens, Gal d 1-Gal d 5: Their improved purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Have, T. T.;

    2008-01-01

    Egg proteins represent one of the most important sources evoking food allergic reactions. In order to improve allergy diagnosis, purified and well-characterized proteins are needed. Although the egg white allergens Gal d 1, 2, 3 and 4 (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme) are comme......Egg proteins represent one of the most important sources evoking food allergic reactions. In order to improve allergy diagnosis, purified and well-characterized proteins are needed. Although the egg white allergens Gal d 1, 2, 3 and 4 (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme...

  8. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human

  9. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  10. Expression of the major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 in tobacco plants and cell cultures: problems and perspectives for allergen production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Marc; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ferreira, Fatima; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    An economic and cheap production of large amounts of recombinant allergenic proteins might become a prerequisite for the common use of microarray-based diagnostic allergy assays which allow a component-specific diagnosis. A molecular pharming strategy was applied to express the major allergen of Artemisia vulgaris pollen, Art v 1, in tobacco plants and tobacco cell cultures. The original Art v 1 with its endogenous signal peptide which directs Art v 1 to the secretory pathway, was expressed in transiently transformed tobacco leaves but was lost in stable transformed tobacco plants during the alternation of generations. Using a light-regulated promoter and "hiding" the recombinant Art v 1 in the ER succeeded in expression of Art v 1 over three generations of tobacco plants and in cell cultures generated from stable transformed plants. However, the amounts of the recombinant allergen were sufficient for analysis but not high enough to allow an economic production. Although molecular pharming has been shown to work well for the production of non-plant therapeutic proteins, it might be less efficient for closely related plant proteins. PMID:22159963

  11. Expression of the major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 in tobacco plants and cell cultures: problems and perspectives for allergen production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Marc; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ferreira, Fatima; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    An economic and cheap production of large amounts of recombinant allergenic proteins might become a prerequisite for the common use of microarray-based diagnostic allergy assays which allow a component-specific diagnosis. A molecular pharming strategy was applied to express the major allergen of Artemisia vulgaris pollen, Art v 1, in tobacco plants and tobacco cell cultures. The original Art v 1 with its endogenous signal peptide which directs Art v 1 to the secretory pathway, was expressed in transiently transformed tobacco leaves but was lost in stable transformed tobacco plants during the alternation of generations. Using a light-regulated promoter and "hiding" the recombinant Art v 1 in the ER succeeded in expression of Art v 1 over three generations of tobacco plants and in cell cultures generated from stable transformed plants. However, the amounts of the recombinant allergen were sufficient for analysis but not high enough to allow an economic production. Although molecular pharming has been shown to work well for the production of non-plant therapeutic proteins, it might be less efficient for closely related plant proteins.

  12. Multi-allergen Quantitation and the Impact of Thermal Treatment in Industry-Processed Baked Goods by ELISA and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S

    2015-12-16

    Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products.

  13. A hypoallergenic hybrid molecule with increased immunogenicity consisting of derivatives of the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 2 and Phl p 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Vrtala, Susanne; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently based on the administration of allergen extracts containing natural allergens. However, its broad application is limited by the poor quality of these extracts. Based on recombinant allergens, well-defined allergy vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy can be produced. Furthermore, they can be modified to reduce their allergenic activity and to avoid IgE-mediated side effects. Here, we demonstrate that the immunogenicity of two grass pollen-derived hypoallergenic allergen derivatives could be increased by engineering them as a single hybrid molecule. We used a hypoallergenic Phl p 2 mosaic, generated by fragmentation of the Phl p 2 sequence and reassembly of the resulting peptides in an altered order, and a truncated Phl p 6 allergen, to produce a hybrid protein. The hybrid retained the reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of its components as shown by ELISA and basophil activation assays. Immunization with the hybrid molecule demonstrated the increased immunogenicity of this molecule, leading to higher levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies compared to the single components. These antibodies could inhibit patients' IgE binding to the wild-type allergens. Thus, the described strategy allows the development of safer and more efficacious vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy.

  14. Value of eight-amino-acid matches in predicting the allergenicity status of proteins: an empirical bioinformatic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThirumalaiswamySekhar Arvind

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of biotechnological techniques to introduce novel proteins into food crops (transgenic or GM crops has motivated investigation into the properties of proteins that favor their potential to elicit allergic reactions. As part of the allergenicity assessment, bioinformatic approaches are used to compare the amino-acid sequence of candidate proteins with sequences in a database of known allergens to predict potential cross reactivity between novel food proteins and proteins to which people have become sensitized. Two criteria commonly used for these queries are searches over 80-amino-acid stretches for >35% identity, and searches for 8-amino-acid contiguous matches. We investigated the added value provided by the 8-amino-acid criterion over that provided by the >35%-identity-over-80-amino-acid criterion, by identifying allergens pairs that only met the former criterion, but not the latter criterion. We found that the allergen-sequence pairs only sharing 8-amino-acid identity, but not >35% identity over 80 amino acids, were unlikely to be cross reactive allergens. Thus, the common search for 8-amino-acid identity between novel proteins and known allergens appears to be of little additional value in assessing the potential allergenicity of novel proteins.

  15. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated NO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Elkelish, Amr; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian; Winkler, J Barbro; Ruёff, Franziska; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Holzinger, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Braun, Paula; von Toerne, Christine; Hauck, Stefanie M; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe. Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed. Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree. Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health. PMID:26177592

  16. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nuts are included in a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergies. IgE binding to allergens within the nuts can cause allergic reactions that can be severe. Foods containing cashew nuts must be labeled to prevent accidental exposure to people who suffer from allergy to cashew nuts....

  17. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergensYongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  18. Allergenic pollen season variations in the past two decades under changing climate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Mi, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ting; Robock, Alan; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2015-04-01

    Many diseases are linked with climate trends and variations. In particular, climate change is expected to alter the spatiotemporal dynamics of allergenic airborne pollen and potentially increase occurrence of allergic airway disease. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in pollen season timing and levels is thus important in assessing climate impacts on aerobiology and allergy caused by allergenic airborne pollen. Here, we describe the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in the seasonal timing and levels of allergenic airborne pollen for multiple taxa in different climate regions at a continental scale. The allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass during the past decade (2001-2010) across the contiguous United States have been observed to start 3.0 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.1-4.9] days earlier on average than in the 1990s (1994-2000). The average peak value and annual total of daily counted airborne pollen have increased by 42.4% (95% CI, 21.9-62.9%) and 46.0% (95% CI, 21.5-70.5%), respectively. Changes of pollen season timing and airborne levels depend on latitude, and are associated with changes of growing degree days, frost free days, and precipitation. These changes are likely due to recent climate change and particularly the enhanced warming and precipitation at higher latitudes in the contiguous United States.

  19. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  20. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS

  1. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    P>Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with O

  2. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Vlieg-Boerstra; W.E. van de Weg; S. van der Heide; M. Kerkhof; P. Arens; G. Heijerman-Peppelman; A.E.J. Dubois

    2011-01-01

    Background:  As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods:  Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with O

  3. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  4. Isoeugenol is an important contact allergen: can it be safely replaced with isoeugenyl acetate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, I R; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arnau, E G;

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the fragrance mix in individuals with eczema is up to 10%. Within the mix, isoeugenol (CAS 97-54-1) is an important individual allergen. Until May 1998, the IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines suggested that isoeugenol could safely be used at...

  5. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahali, Y; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Zare, A [Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Medical Sciences/ University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majd, A, E-mail: youcef.shahali@espci.f [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  6. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Matsui; G.B. Diette; E.J.M. Krop; R.C. Aalberse; A.L. Smith; P.A. Eggleston

    2006-01-01

    Background High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. Objective To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a d

  7. Allergens and β-glucans in dutch homes and schools : Characterizing airborne levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, Esmeralda J M; Jacobs, José H.; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Heederik, Dick J J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indoor air quality has an effect on respiratory health. Children are more vulnerable to a decreased indoor air quality as their lungs are still developing. We measured levels of allergens and β-(1,3)-glucans in 19 school buildings and determined whether measured levels could be reproduce

  8. Allergen specific immunotherapy: The future cure for allergic asthma. Mechanisms and improvement in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a disease characterized by persistent allergen-driven airway inflammation, remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). CD4+ T-cells, in particular T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells, play a critical role in orchestrating the disease process through the release of cytokines like IL-4

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  10. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbell Alice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1 in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk. About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals.

  11. Roasted hazelnuts--allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K Skamstrup; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Lüttkopf, D;

    2003-01-01

    Allergy to hazelnuts is a common example of birch pollen related food allergy. Symptoms upon ingestion are often confined to the mouth and throat, but severe systemic reactions have been described in some patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in allergenicity by roasting of...

  12. Effects of alcohol consumption on the allergen-specific immune response in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Roursgaard, Martin; Hersoug, Lars-Georg;

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that chronic alcohol consumption impairs the T-helper 1 (Th1) lymphocyte-regulated cell-mediated immune response possibly favoring a Th2 deviation of the immune response. Moreover, a few epidemiological studies have linked alcohol consumption to allergen-specific IgE sensitization....

  13. Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in allergic asthma : immunologic mechanisms and improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, Yousef A.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a disease characterized by persistent allergen-driven airway inflammation, remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. CD4(+) T-cells, especially T-helper type 2 cells, play a critical role in orchestrating the disease process through the release of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and I

  14. Efficacy of a House Dust Mite Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy Tablet in Adults With Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled corticos...

  15. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  16. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin. PMID:19054059

  17. Towards development of incurred materials for quality assurance purposes in the analysis of food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugyi, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Judit; Török, Kitti; Hajas, Lívia; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2010-07-01

    Food allergy and intolerance became very important problems in food safety and healthcare during the last few decades. Beside the pharmaceutical treatment of the symptoms, effective cure of these illnesses is the avoidance of the problematic food proteins. According to this reason, proper legislation is crucial for protecting sensitive people. In the European Union 14 allergenic components must be labelled which requires introduction of properly validated analytical methods for the appropriate quantification of allergenic proteins. The aim of our work is studying such parameters which may affect the analytical results, therefore have to be taken into account during the validation process. For investigating these issues, an incurred sample matrix was produced, namely a wheat flour based cookie, which contains allergenic proteins (milk or egg) in a dedicated amount. Using these samples the effects of food processing steps and the analytical performance of the applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods were studied. A major finding of our work is that heat treatment caused a large-scale decrease in the amount of measurable allergen content of the samples. The background of this phenomenon has not been clarified yet. Besides, the gathered data indicates that the performance of the ELISA method is highly related to the state of the sample matrix. These problems altogether must be taken into consideration for making a proper validation protocol and revealing their background also has a great importance in further evaluation of the analytical methods. PMID:20579485

  18. Proteomic identification of allergenic seed proteins, napin and cruciferin, from cold-pressed rapeseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puumalainen, T J; Puustinen, A; Poikonen, S; Turjanmaa, K; Palosuo, T; Vaali, K

    2015-05-15

    In Finland and France atopic children commonly react to seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape in skin prick tests (SPT) and open food challenges. These seeds are not as such in dietary use and therefore the routes of sensitization are unknown. Possible allergens were extracted from commercial cold-pressed and refined rapeseed oils and identified by gel-based tandem nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Napin (a 2S albumin), earlier identified as a major allergen in the seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape, and cruciferin (an 11S globulin), a new potential seed allergen, were detected in cold-pressed oils, but not in refined oils. Pooled sera from five children sensitized or allergic to oilseed rape and turnip rape seeds reacted to these proteins from cold-pressed oil preparations and individual sera from five children reacted to these proteins extracted from the seeds when examined with IgE immunoblotting. Hence cold-pressed rapeseed oil might be one possible route of sensitization for these allergens. PMID:25577095

  19. Exploring the temporal development of childhood IgE profiles to allergen components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önell Annica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children often develop allergies that may or not persist into adulthood. Although the different allergic symptoms over time have been well documented, the underlying pattern of sensitization to various proteins and subsequent allergy development is unexplored. The aim was to study the sensitization pattern to allergen components over time from infancy to adulthood in a group of infants with heredity for allergic diseases. Methods IgE profiles were monitored in a group of 67 children from 6 months to 18 years using a microarray chip (ImmunoCAP® ISAC containing 103 allergen components derived from 47 allergen sources. The chip IgE profile was compared with clinical history, skin prick test results and diagnoses (atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis at each time point for each child. Results IgE profiles were unique for each child and showed broad agreement with the results of skin prick tests and doctors’ diagnoses. In addition, close examination of the IgE profiles often revealed early indication of subsequent allergies. IgE profiles also facilitated the examination of cross-reactivity contra co-sensitization, thereby greatly enhancing the possibility for managing patients. Conclusion This explorative description indicates that sensitization pattern to allergen components differs over time as well as among allergic individuals when examined with microarray technology.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate, a new cosmetic allergen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, H; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2001-01-01

    Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate (trade name Dragophos S 2/918501) was identified as a contact allergen in a herbal moisturizing cream causing severe acute contact dermatitis on the hands and face of a 41-year-old woman. Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate is a complex mixture of phosphate esters of d...

  1. Exposure-response relationships for inhalant wheat allergen exposure and asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R; Meijster, T; Heederik, D; Jeebhay, M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have investigated exposure-response relationships for sensitisation to wheat, work-related symptoms and wheat allergen exposure. IgG4 is suggested to protect against the development of allergic sensitisation. The main aim of this current study was to explore the nature of e

  2. The anti-vaccination movement and resistance to allergen-immunotherapy: a guide for clinical allergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-09-15

    Despite over a century of clinical use and a well-documented record of efficacy and safety, a growing minority in society questions the validity of vaccination and fear that this common public health intervention is the root-cause of severe health problems. This article questions whether growing public anti-vaccine sentiments might have the potential to spill-over into other therapies distinct from vaccination, namely allergen-immunotherapy. Allergen-immunotherapy shares certain medical vernacular with vaccination (e.g., allergy shots, allergy vaccines), and thus may become "guilty by association" due to these similarities. Indeed, this article demonstrates that anti-vaccine websites have begun unduly discrediting this allergy treatment regimen. Following an explanation of the anti-vaccine movement, the article aims to provide guidance on how clinicians can respond to patient fears towards allergen-immunotherapy in the clinical setting. This guide focuses on the provision of reliable information to patients in order to dispel misconceived associations between vaccination and allergen-immunotherapy, and the discussion of the risks and benefits of both therapies in order to assist patients in making autonomous decisions about their choice of allergy treatment.

  3. Information provision for allergic consumers : where are we going with food allergen labelling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Valovirta, E.; Madsen, C.; Taylor, S.L.; Vieths, S.; Anklam, E.; Baumgartner, S.; Koch, P.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    As the current treatment for food allergy involves dietary exclusion of the problem food, information for food-allergic consumers provided on food labels about the nature of allergenic ingredients is important to the management of their condition. The members of an EU-funded networking project, Info

  4. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. 4.32a Section 4.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE...

  5. 27 CFR 4.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling. 4.32b Section 4.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF...

  6. 27 CFR 5.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. 5.32a Section 5.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED...

  7. 27 CFR 5.32b - Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for exemption from major food allergen labeling. 5.32b Section 5.32b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING...

  8. Inter-laboratory optimization of protein extraction, separation, and fluorescent detection of endogenous rice allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Kitta, Kazumi;

    2016-01-01

    In rice, several allergens have been identified such as the non-specific lipid transfer protein-1, the α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors, the α-globulin, the 33 kDa glyoxalase I (Gly I), the 52-63 kDa globulin, and the granule-bound starch synthetase. The goal of the present study was to define optima...

  9. From Allergen Back to Antigen:. a Rational Approach to New Forms of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Paolo; Trapani, Antonino; Geraci, Domenico; Golino, Massimiliano; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Bonura, Angela

    2007-12-01

    Mapping an epitope on a protein by gene fragmentation and/or point mutations is often expensive and time consuming. Analysis of a 3D model can be utilized to detect the amino acids residues which are exposed to the solvent surface and thus represent potential epitope residues. Parj1 and Parj2 are the two major allergens of the Parietaria judaica pollen belonging to the Lipid Transfer Protein family. Using their three-dimensional structures as a guide, a head to tail dimer expressing disulphide bond variants of the major allergens was generated by means of DNA recombinant technology. The hybrid was expressed in E.coli and its immunological activity studied in vivo and in vitro. Our results demonstrate that a hybrid polypeptide expressing disulphide bond variants of the major allergens of the Parietaria pollen displayed reduced allergenicity and enhanced T cell reactivity for induction of protective antibodies able to block human IgE induced during the natural course of sensitization against the Parietaria pollen.

  10. Towards development of incurred materials for quality assurance purposes in the analysis of food allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugyi, Zsuzsanna, E-mail: bugyi@mail.bme.hu [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem rkp. 3, Building K 210 (Hungary); Nagy, Judit; Toeroek, Kitti; Hajas, Livia; Toemoeskoezi, Sandor [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem rkp. 3, Building K 210 (Hungary)

    2010-07-05

    Food allergy and intolerance became very important problems in food safety and healthcare during the last few decades. Beside the pharmaceutical treatment of the symptoms, effective cure of these illnesses is the avoidance of the problematic food proteins. According to this reason, proper legislation is crucial for protecting sensitive people. In the European Union 14 allergenic components must be labelled which requires introduction of properly validated analytical methods for the appropriate quantification of allergenic proteins. The aim of our work is studying such parameters which may affect the analytical results, therefore have to be taken into account during the validation process. For investigating these issues, an incurred sample matrix was produced, namely a wheat flour based cookie, which contains allergenic proteins (milk or egg) in a dedicated amount. Using these samples the effects of food processing steps and the analytical performance of the applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods were studied. A major finding of our work is that heat treatment caused a large-scale decrease in the amount of measurable allergen content of the samples. The background of this phenomenon has not been clarified yet. Besides, the gathered data indicates that the performance of the ELISA method is highly related to the state of the sample matrix. These problems altogether must be taken into consideration for making a proper validation protocol and revealing their background also has a great importance in further evaluation of the analytical methods.

  11. Concentration and determinants of molds and allergens in indoor air and house dust of French dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, Arnaud; Le Cann, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Chevrier, Cécile; Costet, Nathalie; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blanchard, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Molds and allergens are common indoor biocontaminants. The aims of this study were to assess the concentrations of common molds in indoor air and floor dust and the concentrations of house dust mite, cat and dog allergens in mattress dust in French dwellings, and to assess predictors of these concentrations. A sample of 150 houses in Brittany (western France) was investigated. Airborne Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in more than 90% of the dwellings, Aspergillus in 46% and Alternaria in only 6% of the housings. Regarding floor dust samples, Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in 92 and 80% of the housings respectively, Aspergillus in 49% and Alternaria in 14%. House dust mite allergens Der p1 and Der f1 were detected in 90% and 77% of the mattress dust samples respectively and Can f1 and Fel d1 in 37% and 89% of the homes. Airborne and dustborne mold concentrations, although not statistically correlated (except for Aspergillus) shared most of their predictors. Multivariate linear models for mold levels, explaining up to 62% of the variability, showed an influence of the season, of the age of the dwelling, of aeration habits, presence of pets, smoking, signals of dampness, temperature and relative humidity. Allergens in the dust of the mattress were strongly related to the presence of pets and cleaning practices of bedsheets, these factors accounting for 60% of the variability. This study highlights ubiquitous contamination by molds and underlines complex interaction between outdoor and indoor sources and factors. PMID:26094801

  12. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, S.; Illa, E.; Song, L.; Wu, S.; Howad, W.; Arus, P.; Weg, van de W.E.; Chen, K.; Gao, Z.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background - Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These fa

  13. Expression of yellow jacket and wasp venom Ag5 allergens in bacteria and in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, R I; Lu, G; King, T P

    1999-01-01

    Antigen 5 (Ag5), of unknown biological function, is one of the major venom allergens of vespids and fire ants. We have compared the expression of Ag5 in bacteria and in yeast. Recombinant Ag5 from bacteria formed an insoluble intracellular product, which was not properly folded, but that produced in Pichia pastoris was secreted to the extracellular medium. Immunochemical characterizations showed the secreted Ag5 to have the native structure of the natural protein. This is of interest since the B cell epitopes of Ag5 are mainly of the discontinuous type. These studies were made with Ag5s from yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) and paper wasp (Polistes annularis), and with hybrid Ag5 molecules that contained partial sequences of these two species. In vitro allergenicity studies with sera from yellow jacket-sensitive patients showed that some of these hybrid molecules had a greatly reduced allergenicity but retained the immunogenicity of the natural allergen. This could be of importance for immunotherapy of this type of allergy. PMID:11487873

  14. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  15. Financial burden of allergen free food preparation in the catering business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, A.R.; Fels, van der Ine; Bonanno, A.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify costs and benefits of allergen free food (food not containing ingredients that fall under the European labelling regime) production at a catering business under two scenarios. In scenario 1 the caterer provides information to the consumer regarding the presence of all

  16. Workshop overview : Approaches to the assessment of the allergenic potential of food from genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Holsapple, M.P.; Astwood, J.D.; Kimber, I.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Helm, R.M.; Dong, W.

    2003-01-01

    There is a need to assess the safety of foods deriving from genetically modified (GM) crops, including the allergenic potential of novel gene products. Presently, there is no single in vitro or in vivo model that has been validated for the identification or characterization of potential food allerge

  17. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  19. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    -delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium...

  20. Evaluation of scientific criteria for identifying allergenic foods of public health importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Ronsmans, S.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Rona, R.J.; Przyrembel, H.; Penninks, A.H.; Contor, L.; Houben, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of allergenic foods of public health importance should be based on well-defined criteria. Björkstén et al. (2008) proposed that the criteria should assess the evidence for an IgE mechanism, the reaction, the potency and the severity of the effect of the food and its prevalence. This s

  1. The effect of marimastat, a metalloprotease inhibitor, on allergen-induced asthmatic hyper-reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pilot study was designed to assess whether a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor has anti-inflammatory properties in mild asthma. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) has been shown to be an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammatory responses, and its release can be inhibited by MMP inhibitors. Twelve atopic asthmatic subjects received the MMP inhibitor marimastat (5 mg) or placebo, twice daily for 3 weeks, separated by a 6-week washout period in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over manner. All subjects underwent an allergen inhalation provocation test to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus before and after each study phase. Spirometry, exhaled NO (eNO) levels, differential sputum cell counts, an asthma symptom questionnaire, peak flow, and β2-agonist usage were measured. Nine subjects completed the study, and, when compared with placebo, marimastat reduced bronchial hyper-responsiveness to inhaled allergen in these subjects from an allergen PC20 of 22.2 AU/ml (95%CI 11.7-32.6) to 17.0 AU/ml (95%CI 7.6-26.4, P = 0.02). The marimastat phase showed a nonsignificant fall in sputum inflammatory cells. Marimastat did not modify eNO, FEV1, asthma symptoms, or albuterol usage. In conclusion, airway responsiveness to allergen may be modified by a MMP inhibitor, perhaps via TNFα playing a role in airway inflammation and remodeling

  2. Increasing time interval and decreasing allergen dose interval improves ex vivo desensitization of human blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting Christensen, Sara K; Krohn, Inge Kortekaas; Thuraiaiyah, Jani;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desensitization is a method for inducing temporary tolerance to allergen. The mechanism underlying desensitization is yet to be established. METHODS: Basophil granulocytes in whole blood from grass pollen allergic subjects were desensitized ex vivo by sequential addition of increasing...... for investigation of the mechanism of desensitization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  3. Efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, Ronald; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; deMonchy, Jan G. R.; Rak, Sabina; Emminger, Waltraud; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Ribel, Mette; Durham, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Allergen immunotherapy (desensitization) by injection is effective for seasonal allergic rhinitis and has been shown to induce long-term disease remission. The sublingual route also has potential, although definitive evidence from large randomized controlled trials has been lacking. Obje

  4. Enhanced sensitization and elicitation responses caused by mixtures of common fragrance allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Rubin, Ingrid Maria Cecilia;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Perfumes are complex mixtures composed of many fragrance ingredients, many of which are known to be only weak allergens when tested individually. It is therefore surprising that fragrance contact allergy is one of the most common forms of contact allergy. Objectives. To investigate...

  5. Towards development of incurred materials for quality assurance purposes in the analysis of food allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food allergy and intolerance became very important problems in food safety and healthcare during the last few decades. Beside the pharmaceutical treatment of the symptoms, effective cure of these illnesses is the avoidance of the problematic food proteins. According to this reason, proper legislation is crucial for protecting sensitive people. In the European Union 14 allergenic components must be labelled which requires introduction of properly validated analytical methods for the appropriate quantification of allergenic proteins. The aim of our work is studying such parameters which may affect the analytical results, therefore have to be taken into account during the validation process. For investigating these issues, an incurred sample matrix was produced, namely a wheat flour based cookie, which contains allergenic proteins (milk or egg) in a dedicated amount. Using these samples the effects of food processing steps and the analytical performance of the applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods were studied. A major finding of our work is that heat treatment caused a large-scale decrease in the amount of measurable allergen content of the samples. The background of this phenomenon has not been clarified yet. Besides, the gathered data indicates that the performance of the ELISA method is highly related to the state of the sample matrix. These problems altogether must be taken into consideration for making a proper validation protocol and revealing their background also has a great importance in further evaluation of the analytical methods.

  6. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  7. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...

  8. Effect of phenolic compounds on the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...

  9. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  10. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  11. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  12. Bridging PCR and partially overlapping primers for novel allergen gene cloning and expression insert decoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Lin Tao; Shao-Heng He

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To obtain the entire gene open reading frame (ORF)and to construct the expression vectors for recombinant allergen production.METHODS: Gene fragments corresponding to the gene specific region and the cDNA ends of pollen allergens of short ragweed (Rg, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) were obtained by pan-degenerate primer-based PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), and the products were mixed to serve as the bridging PCR (BPCR) template. The full-length gene was then obtained. Partially overlapping primer-based PCR (POP-PCR) method was developed to overcome the other problem, i.e., the non-specific amplification of the ORF with routine long primers for expression insert decoration.Northern blot was conducted to confirm pollen sources of the gene. The full-length coding region was evaluated for its gene function by homologue search in GenBank database and Western blotting of the recombinant protein Amb a 8 (D106) expressed in Escherichia colipET-44 system.RESULTS: The full-length cDNA sequence of Amb a 8(D106)was obtained by using the above procedure and deduced to encode a 131 amino acid polypeptide. Multiple sequence alignment exhibited the gene D106sharing a homology as high as 54-89% and 79-89% to profilin from pollen and food sources, respectively. The expression vector of the allergen gene D106was successfully constructed by employing the combined method of BPCR and POP-PCR. Recombinant allergen rAmb a 8(D106) was then successfully generated.The allergenicity was hallmarked by immunoblotting with the allergic serum samples and its RNA source was confirmed by Northern blot.CONCLUSION: The combined procedure of POP-PCR and BPCR is a powerful method for full-length allergen gene retrieval and expression insert decoration, which would be useful for recombinant allergen production and subsequent diagnosis and immunotherapy of pollen and food allergy.

  13. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  14. Acaroid mite allergens from the filters of air-conditioning system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Pin; Guo, Wei; Zhan, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Li, Na; He, Lian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of acaroid mites in the filters of air-conditioners is harmful to human health. It is important to clarify the allergen components of mites from the filters of local air-conditioning system. The present study was to detect the allergen types in the filters of air-conditioners and assesse their allergenicity by asthmatic models. Sixty aliquots of dust samples were collected from air conditioning filters in civil houses in Wuhu area. Total protein was extracted from the dust samples using PBS and quantified by Bradford method. Allergens I and II were also detected by Western blot using primary antibody (anti-Der f1/2, Der p1/Der f2/Der p2, respectively). Ten aliquots of the positive samples were randomly selected for homogenization and sensitized the mice for developing asthmatic animal models. Total serum IgE level and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The allergenicity of the extraction was assessed using pathological sections developed from the mouse pulmonary tissues. The concentration of extract from the 60 samples was ranged from 4.37 μg/ml to 30.76 μg/ml. After analyzing with Western blot, 31 of 60 samples were positive for 4 allergens of acaroid mites, and yet 16 were negative. The levels of total IgE from serum IL-4 and IL-5 from the BALF in the experimental group were apparently higher than that of negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). However,the IFN-γ level in BALF was lower compared with the negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). The pathological changes were evidently emerged in pulmonary tissues, which were similar to those of OVA group, compared with the PBS ground and negative controls. The air-conditioner filters in human dwellings of Wuhu area potentially contain the major group allergen 1 and 2 from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, which may be associated with seasonal prevalence of allergic disorders in this area.

  15. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Carballeda-Sangiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown.To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization.Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients.Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level.IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level.Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can increase the specific IgE level in some sensitized

  16. Target Identification in Ory S1 Pollen Protein Allergen from Oryza sativa in the Course of Construction of Hypoallergenic Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity, such as hypoallergens. Recombinant allergens represent promising tools for diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy. This approach was probably feasible with every allergen with known amino acid sequence. Approach: The primary aim of this study was to determine the consensus epitope from twenty homologous protein sequences of Ory S1 allergenic protein sequence from Oryza sativa (indica group pollen. Molecular modeling calculations had been used to investigate the allergenic protein models for the epitope. Results: Oryza sativa (japonica, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Dactylis glomerata and Zea mays were found more closely related (alignment score 1145-812 among all the homologs and investigated further. The major binding pocket comprised an area of 604.5 Å2 and 970 Å3 volume and another key binding pocket had 425.6 Ų area and 658.8 ų volume. The residues found in the key site included ile2, lys13, cys14, ser15, lys16, pro17, ala25, leu26, ile27, tyr40, his41, phe42, asp43, leu44, ser45, gly46, leu47, ala48, met49, ala50, asp55, leu58, arg59, ala61, gly62, ile63, ile64, asp65, gln67, phe68; corresponding to the allergen binding site and the IgE binding epitope given in the title. Conclusion: These are the functional sites on the allergenic proteins that can be mutated to develop hypoallergenic vaccine. These sites can be rationalized on the basis of simple arguments that lead to vaccine development, by predicting the structure of the allergenic epitopes and comparative analysis.

  17. Fuzzy logic for personalized healthcare and diagnostics: FuzzyApp--a fuzzy logic based allergen-protein predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vijayakumar; Lakshmi, P T V

    2014-09-01

    The path to personalized medicine demands the use of new and customized biopharmaceutical products containing modified proteins. Hence, assessment of these products for allergenicity becomes mandatory before they are introduced as therapeutics. Despite the availability of different tools to predict the allergenicity of proteins, it remains challenging to predict the allergens and nonallergens, when they share significant sequence similarity with known nonallergens and allergens, respectively. Hence, we propose "FuzzyApp," a novel fuzzy rule based system to evaluate the quality of the query protein to be an allergen. It measures the allergenicity of the protein based on the fuzzy IF-THEN rules derived from five different modules. On various datasets, FuzzyApp outperformed other existing methods and retained balance between sensitivity and specificity, with positive Mathew's correlation coefficient. The high specificity of allergen-like putative nonallergens (APN) revealed the FuzzyApp's capability in distinguishing the APN from allergens. In addition, the error analysis and whole proteome dataset analysis suggest the efficiency and consistency of the proposed method. Further, FuzzyApp predicted the Tropomyosin from various allergenic and nonallergenic sources accurately. The web service created allows batch sequence submission, and outputs the result as readable sentences rather than values alone, which assists the user in understanding why and what features are responsible for the prediction. FuzzyApp is implemented using PERL CGI and is freely accessible at http://fuzzyapp.bicpu.edu.in/predict.php . We suggest the use of Fuzzy logic has much potential in biomarker and personalized medicine research to enhance predictive capabilities of post-genomics diagnostics.

  18. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  19. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  20. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.