WorldWideScience

Sample records for allergenic molecules recognized

  1. A hypoallergenic hybrid molecule with increased immunogenicity consisting of derivatives of the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 2 and Phl p 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Vrtala, Susanne; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently based on the administration of allergen extracts containing natural allergens. However, its broad application is limited by the poor quality of these extracts. Based on recombinant allergens, well-defined allergy vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy can be produced. Furthermore, they can be modified to reduce their allergenic activity and to avoid IgE-mediated side effects. Here, we demonstrate that the immunogenicity of two grass pollen-derived hypoallergenic allergen derivatives could be increased by engineering them as a single hybrid molecule. We used a hypoallergenic Phl p 2 mosaic, generated by fragmentation of the Phl p 2 sequence and reassembly of the resulting peptides in an altered order, and a truncated Phl p 6 allergen, to produce a hybrid protein. The hybrid retained the reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of its components as shown by ELISA and basophil activation assays. Immunization with the hybrid molecule demonstrated the increased immunogenicity of this molecule, leading to higher levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies compared to the single components. These antibodies could inhibit patients' IgE binding to the wild-type allergens. Thus, the described strategy allows the development of safer and more efficacious vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy.

  2. Allergens of weed pollen: an overview on recombinant and natural molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Weeds represent a botanically unrelated group of plants that usually lack commercial or aesthetical value. Pollen of allergenic weeds are able to trigger type I reactions in allergic patients and can be found in the plant families of Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Plantaginaceae, Urticaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. To date, 34 weed pollen allergens are listed in the IUIS allergen nomenclature database, which were physicochemically and immunologically characterized to varying degrees. Relevant allergens of weeds belong to the pectate lyase family, defensin-like family, Ole e 1-like family, non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 family and the pan-allergens profilin and polcalcins. This review provides an overview on weed pollen allergens primarily focusing on the molecular level. In particular, the characteristics and properties of purified recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic derivatives are described and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy of weed pollen allergy is discussed.

  3. Allergens, sources, particles, and molecules: Why do we make IgE responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Commins, Scott P; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-10-01

    Allergens are foreign proteins or glycoproteins that are the target of IgE antibody responses in humans. The relationship between subsequent exposure and the allergic symptoms is often or usually obvious; however, there is increasing evidence that in asthma, atopic dermatitis and some forms of food allergy the induction of symptoms is delayed or chronic. The primary exposure to inhaled allergens is to the particles, which are capable of carrying allergens in the air. Thus, the response reflects not only the properties of the proteins, but also the biological properties of the other constituents of the particle. This is best understood in relation to the mite fecal particles in which the contents include many different immunologically active substances. Allergic disease first became a major problem over 100 years ago, and for many years sensitization to pollens was the dominant form of these diseases. The rise in pediatric asthma correlates best with the move of children indoors, which started in 1960 and was primarily driven by indoor entertainment for children. While the causes of the increase are not simple they include both a major increase in sensitization to indoor allergens and the complex consequences of inactivity. Most recently, there has also been an increase in food allergy. Understanding this has required a reappraisal of the importance of the skin as a route for sensitization. Overall, understanding allergic diseases requires knowing about the sources, the particles and the routes of exposure as well as the properties of the individual allergens.

  4. A B Cell Epitope Peptide Derived from the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Boosts Allergen-Specific Secondary Antibody Responses without Allergen-Specific T Cell Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Meena; Freidl, Raphaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Baranyi, Ulrike; Wekerle, Thomas; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Phl p 1, the major timothy grass pollen allergen, belongs to the cross-reactive group 1 grass pollen allergens that are thought to initiate allergic sensitization to grass pollen. Repeated allergen encounter boosts allergen-specific IgE production and enhances clinical sensitivity in patients. To investigate immunological mechanisms underlying the boosting of allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses and the allergen epitopes involved, a murine model for Phl p 1 was established. A B cell epitope–derived peptide of Phl p 1 devoid of allergen-specific T cell epitopes, as recognized by BALB/c mice, was fused to an allergen-unrelated carrier in the form of a recombinant fusion protein and used for sensitization. This fusion protein allowed the induction of allergen-specific IgE Ab responses without allergen-specific T cell help. Allergen-specific Ab responses were subsequently boosted with molecules containing the B cell epitope–derived peptide without carrier or linked to other allergen-unrelated carriers. Oligomeric peptide bound to a carrier different from that which had been used for sensitization boosted allergen-specific secondary IgE responses without a detectable allergen-specific T cell response. Our results indicate that allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses can be boosted by repetitive B cell epitopes without allergen-specific T cell help by cross-linking of the B cell epitope receptor. This finding has important implications for the design of new allergy vaccines. PMID:28093528

  5. The galactose-recognizing system of rat peritoneal macrophages; identification and characterization of the receptor molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, S; Schauer, R

    1988-08-01

    Resident rat peritoneal macrophages express a galactose-recognizing system, which mediates binding and uptake of cells and glycoproteins exposing terminal galactose residues. Here we describe the identification, isolation, and characterization of the corresponding receptor molecule. Using photoaffinity labelling of adherent peritoneal macrophages with the 4-azido-6-125I-salicylic acid derivative of anti-freeze glycoprotein 8 followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, we identified the receptor of these cells as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa. Furthermore, cell surface receptors were radioiodinated by an affinity-supported labelling technique using the conjugate of asialoorosomucoid and lactoperoxidase, followed by extraction and isolation by affinity chromatography. Finally, the native receptor was isolated and analysed. To estimate its binding activity in solutions, a suitable binding assay was developed, using the precipitation of receptor-ligand complex with polyethylene glycol to separate bound from unbound 125I-asialoorosomucoid, which was used as ligand. It is shown that the isolated receptor binds to galactose-exposing particles and distinguishes between sialidase-treated and -untreated erythrocytes, similar to peritoneal macrophages. The binding characteristics of the membrane-bound and the solubilized receptor are described in the following paper of Lee et al.

  6. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance.

  7. Bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrins: host membranes that recognize guest molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, Patrick; Lim, Choon Woo; Darcy, Raphael; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Lazar, Adina; Coleman, Anthony W; Reinhoudt, David N; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2005-02-04

    A family of amphiphilic cyclodextrins (6, 7) has been prepared through 6-S-alkylation (alkyl=n-dodecyl and n-hexadecyl) of the primary side and 2-O-PEGylation of the secondary side of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)). These cyclodextrins form nonionic bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. The bilayer vesicles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, dye encapsulation, and capillary electrophoresis. The molecular packing of the amphiphilic cyclodextrins was investigated by using small-angle X-ray diffraction of bilayers deposited on glass and pressure-area isotherms obtained from Langmuir monolayers on the air-water interface. The bilayer thickness is dependent on the chain length, whereas the average molecular surface area scales with the cyclodextrin ring size. The alkyl chains of the cyclodextrins in the bilayer are deeply interdigitated. Molecular recognition of a hydrophobic anion (adamantane carboxylate) by the cyclodextrin vesicles was investigated by using capillary electrophoresis, thereby exploiting the increase in electrophoretic mobility that occurs when the hydrophobic anions bind to the nonionic cyclodextrin vesicles. It was found that in spite of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) substituents, the beta-cyclodextrin vesicles retain their characteristic affinity for adamantane carboxylate (association constant K(a)=7.1 x 10(3) M(-1)), whereas gamma-cyclodextrin vesicles have less affinity (K(a)=3.2 x 10(3) M(-1)), and alpha-cyclodextrin or non-cyclodextrin, nonionic vesicles have very little affinity (K(a) approximately 100 M(-1)). Specific binding of the adamantane carboxylate to beta-cyclodextrin vesicles was also evident in competition experiments with beta-cyclodextrin in solution. Hence, the cyclodextrin vesicles can function as host bilayer membranes that recognize small guest molecules by specific noncovalent interaction.

  8. The T-cell accessory molecule CD4 recognizes a monomorphic determinant on isolated Ia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, D; Buus, S; Pasternak, J;

    1988-01-01

    The membrane protein CD4 is commonly found on mature T cells specific for antigen in association with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC; Ia) proteins. This correlation has led to the suggestion that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule on the antigen-presenting cell...... proteins into a planar membrane system, we show that different Ia molecules can greatly enhance the ability of a CD4+ but not a CD4- variant of this class I-restricted T hybrid to respond to isolated class I molecules. T-cell responses can be strongly augmented by the concurrent expression of CD4 on the T...... cell and any of four different Ia proteins on planar membranes, thus supporting the idea that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule and increases the avidity with which the T cell can interact with its target....

  9. Reduction of the in vivo allergenicity of Der p 2, the major house-dust mite allergen, by genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Fuchs, Gudrun; Sonneck, Karoline; Gieras, Anna; Swoboda, Ines; Douladiris, Nikolas; Linhart, Birgit; Jankovic, Marija; Pavkov, Tea; Keller, Walter; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2008-05-01

    The major allergen of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p 2, is recognized by approximately 90% of mite-allergic patients. We have produced two recombinant fragments of Der p 2 comprising aa 1-53 and aa 54-129 and a hybrid molecule (aa 54-129+1-53), combining the two fragments in inverse order, by genetic engineering. The recombinant Der p 2 derivatives were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. rDer p 2 derivatives (fragments and hybrid) showed a considerably reduced beta sheet structure and IgE reactivity compared to the Der p 2 wild-type allergen. The allergenic activity of the Der p 2 derivatives was reduced more than tenfold as evaluated in vitro in basophil activation assays and in vivo by skin prick testing of mite-allergic patients. Immunization of mice and rabbits with rDer p 2 derivatives induced Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited the binding of allergic patients' IgE to Der p 2. Immunization of mice with rDer p 2 derivatives induced less allergenic IgE responses than immunization with rDer p 2. Thus the rDer p 2 derivatives exhibited less in vivo allergenic activity and allergenicity than the Der p 2 allergen but preserved immunogenicity and may hence represent candidates for specific immunotherapy of house-dust mite allergy.

  10. Allergens of mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  11. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  12. 50 The Allergic March Resolved at Allergen Component Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melioli, Giovanni; Marcomini, Laura; Agazzi, Alessia; Bazurro, Gyada; Rossi, Lucilla; Tosca, Mariangela; Minale, Paola; Rossi, Renato; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background The allergic march is well known at the level of pattern of sensitisation, but there is no information of its evolution in term of sensitzation to single allergenic molecules. We investigated the evolution of the IgE repertoire by means of a microarray allergen assay. Methods Serum samples from allergic patients of a wide age range were analyzed by a micorarray chip, which allow to identify in a single assay the presence of specific IgE towards 103 allergenic molecules. Total IgE were also evaluated as an internal control. Patients were stratified in 6 groups according to their age (0–2; 3–5; 6–9; 10–13; 14–17 and >17 years). Results Samples from 609 patients were analysed. The behaviour of total IgE according to age strictly paralleled that of the sum of specific IgE. Food-related components were the more frequently recognized in the first ages, whereas specific IgE to plant allergens appeared later. Nonetheless, mite-specific IgE were the most represented in all age classes. Specific IgE against cross-reacting allergens were virtually absent in the first years and tended to appear after the age of 6. Conclusions The molecular pattern of allergen recognition according to age well reflects the clinical characteristics of the allergic march.

  13. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-08-01

    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  14. Recombinant allergens for pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Michael; Pichler, Ulrike; Ferreira, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Specific immunotherapy (IT) represents the only potentially curative therapeutic intervention of allergic diseases capable of suppressing allergy-associated symptoms not only during treatment, but also after its cessation. Presently, IT is performed with allergen extracts, which represent a heterogeneous mixture of allergenic, as well as nonallergenic, compounds of a given allergen source. To overcome many of the problems associated with extract-based IT, strategies based on the use of recombinant allergens or derivatives thereof have been developed. This review focuses on recombinant technologies to produce allergy therapeuticals, especially for allergies caused by tree, grass and weed pollen, as they are among the most prevalent allergic disorders affecting the population of industrialized societies. The reduction of IgE-binding of recombinant allergen derivatives appears to be mandatory to increase the safety profile of vaccine candidates. Moreover, increased immunogenicity is expected to reduce the dosage regimes of the presently cumbersome treatment. In this regard, it has been convincingly demonstrated in animal models that hypoallergenic molecules can be engineered to harbor inherent antiallergenic immunologic properties. Thus, strategies to modulate the allergenic and immunogenic properties of recombinant allergens will be discussed in detail. In recent years, several successful clinical studies using recombinant wild-type or hypoallergens as active ingredients have been published and, currently, novel treatment forms with higher safety and efficacy profiles are under investigation in clinical trials. These recent developments are summarized and discussed.

  15. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  16. Occupational allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Allergens are substances that may cause a hypersensitivity (allergy) of the immune system. After acquiring this hypersensitivity, further exposure to the same substance may result in allergic skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis, or allergic airway disease such as allergic rhinitis or as

  17. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants.

  18. Structural aspects of dog allergies: the crystal structure of a dog dander allergen Can f 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Merja H; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Four out of six officially recognized dog allergens are members of the lipocalin protein family. So far, a three-dimensional structure has been determined for only one dog allergen, Can f 2, which is a lipocalin protein. We present here the crystal structure of a second lipocalin allergen from dog, a variant of Can f 4. Moreover, we have compared and analyzed the structures of these two weakly homologous (amino acid identity 21%) dog allergens. The size and the amino acid composition of the ligand-binding pocket indicate that Can f 4 is capable of binding only relatively small hydrophobic molecules which are different from those that Can f 2 is able to bind. The crystal structure of Can f 4 contained both monomeric and dimeric forms of the allergen, suggesting that Can f 4 is able to form transient (weak) dimers. The existence of transient dimers in solution was confirmed by use of native mass spectrometry. The dimeric structure of Can f 4 is formed when the ends of four β-strands are packed against the same strands from the second monomer. The residues in the interface are mainly hydrophobic and the formation of the dimer is similar to the major horse allergen Equ c 1. Interestingly, the crystal structure of dog Can f 2 has been reported to show a different type of dimer formation. The capability of these allergens to form dimers may be important for the development of immediate allergic reaction (mast cell activation) because oligomeric allergens can effectively present multivalent epitopes.

  19. Fungal allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immuno...

  20. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  1. The current state of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Malling, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a well documented treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The majority of the disadvantages of the treatment are related to the poor quality of the natural allergen extracts which can contain varying amounts of individual allergens including allergens to which...... the patient may not be sensitized. Recombinant allergens offer a possibility to use well defined molecules with consistent pharmaceutical quality defined in mass units. The proof of concept of the clinical efficacy of recombinant allergens is based on two studies published as full articles....

  2. Managing allergens in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, C.; Wichers, H.J.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling allergens in food is a matter of increasing importance for the food industry, especially in light of recent legislation. Effective handling of allergens depends on identifying allergenic ingredients, creating separate production lines for allergen-free products, and effective labelling t

  3. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...

  4. Sensitive detection of major food allergens in breast milk: first gateway for allergenic contact during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Vargas, C; Maroto, A S; Díaz-Perales, A; Villaba, M; Casillas Diaz, N; Vivanco, F; Cuesta-Herranz, J

    2015-08-01

    Food allergy is recognized as a major public health issue, especially in early childhood. It has been hypothesized that early sensitization to food allergens maybe due to their ingestion as components dissolved in the milk during the breastfeeding, explaining reaction to a food, which has never been taken before. Thus, the aim of this work has been to detect the presence of the food allergens in breast milk by microarray technology. We produced a homemade microarray with antibodies produced against major food allergens. The antibody microarray was incubated with breast milk from 14 women collected from Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital. In this way, we demonstrated the presence of major foods allergens in breast milk. The analysis of allergens presented in breast milk could be a useful tool in allergy prevention and could provide us a key data on the role of this feeding in tolerance induction or sensitization in children.

  5. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: from therapeutic vaccines to prophylactic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, R; Campana, R; Marth, K; van Hage, M

    2012-08-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease.

  6. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 elevates the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in co-culture of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun K; Li, Mandy L Y; Wang, Cheng B; Ip, Wai K; Tian, Ya P; Lam, Christopher W K

    2006-08-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is a common allergen of allergic asthma. Eosinophils are principal effector cells of allergic inflammation and their adhesion onto human bronchial epithelial cells is mediated by a CD18-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent interaction. We studied the effects of HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 on the activation of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Cytokines and adhesion molecules were measured using flow cytometry. Transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were analyzed using electromobility shift assay and western blot, respectively. Der p 1 protein was found to potently induce the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor from eosinophils. Such induction was further up-regulated for IL-6 and IL-10, and down-regulated for TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in eosinophil-BEAS-2B cells co-culture. Surface expression of CD18 and ICAM-1 on eosinophils was greatly increased by Der p 1; such inductive effect on ICAM-1 was also found to be more prominent on BEAS-2B cells from the co-culture than BEAS-2B cells alone. Der p 1 was found to activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity in eosinophils alone and in co-culture and BEAS-2B cells in co-culture. Moreover, Der p 1 could activate p38 MAPK in BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils alone and in co-culture. Selective inhibition of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p38 MAPK resulted in differential suppression of the Der p 1-induced cytokine release and adhesion molecule expression. As an allergen, HDM could therefore induce the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules from the interaction of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells.

  7. Immunotherapy with Allergen Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Larché Mark

    2007-01-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is disease-modifying and efficacious. However, the use of whole allergen preparations is associated with frequent allergic adverse events during treatment. Many novel approaches are being designed to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy preparations whilst maintaining immunogenicity. One approach is the use of short synthetic peptides which representing dominant T cell epitopes of the allergen. Short peptides exhibit markedly reduced capacity to cro...

  8. Allergens in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies pr...

  9. New tree nut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  10. Characterization and standardization of allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løwenstein, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the extraction and characterization of allergens responsible for the induction of immunoglobulin (lg) E-induced allergies from the beginning of the 20th century, including the nomenclature of allergens. The majority of papers characterizing allergens and allergen extracts state that the lack of standardization of allergen extracts is the reason for the paper, and so it has been for more than 100 years. A natural part of that process might be the isolation of an allergen molecule and this starts the speculation of 'what makes that allergen an allergen?' To achieve the perfect standardization is a desirable end that is still awaited. So far none of these problems have been finally solved. I started in allergy shortly after the discovery of IgE in 1967. Since that time the history as I remember it is based on the literature, my interpretation of it, and of course may be a little biased due to personal prejudice! The history of the last 10-15 years has still not matured and it might be a little early to draw conclusions. However, at the end of this chapter I do dare to make a few conclusions after having followed the development in this field for 40 years. As this is history it is not meant to be either comprehensive or technically and scientifically precise in all aspects, but rather draws on some thoughts as to what in my mind have been important developments until now. Specific techniques are only mentioned by name and not intended to be discussed in depth. This activity has, however, pushed me to reflect on my hopes and speculations at the time of my introduction to the field of allergen chemistry. To my surprise I realize that far more than I ever expected at that time has been fulfilled. It has been extremely exciting to be a part of that development.

  11. Preparation of patient-related allergens for hyposensitization. Qualitative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Søndergaard, I; Weeke, B

    1988-01-01

    An affinity chromatography method for preparation of patient-related antigens from commercially available allergen extracts has been investigated. IgG1,2,4 from a patient previously hyposensitized with dog hair and dandruff allergen was bound to protein A-sepharose. Secondly, commercial allergen...... found in immune complexes with a molecular weight of greater than 300 kdalton equivalent to 2 or more molecules of IgG. The possibility of employing a similar method with IgE instead of IgG for preparation of patient-related allergens instead of antigens, is discussed....

  12. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  13. Developments in allergen-specific immunotherapy: from allergen extracts to allergy vaccines bypassing allergen-specific immunoglobulin E and T cell reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, M; Swoboda, I; Marth, K; Valenta, R

    2010-03-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific and disease-modifying approach for the treatment of allergy but several disadvantages have limited its broad applicability. We argue that the majority of the possible disadvantages of SIT such as unwanted effects, poor efficacy and specificity as well as inconvenient application are related to the poor quality of natural allergen extracts, which are the active ingredients of all currently available allergy vaccines. Because of the progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization, new allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergens, recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and allergen-derived T cell peptides have entered clinical testing and hold promise to reduce the side-effects and to increase the specificity as well as the efficacy of SIT. Here, we present a refined immunotherapy concept, which is based on the use of peptides derived from allergen surfaces that exhibit reduced, allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. These peptides when fused to non-allergenic carriers give rise to allergen-specific protective IgG responses with T cell help from a non-allergenic carrier molecule. We summarize the experimental data demonstrating that such peptide vaccines can bypass allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell activation and may be administered at high doses without IgE- and T cell-mediated side-effects. Should these peptide vaccines prove efficacious and safe in clinical trials, it may become possible to develop convenient, safe and broadly applicable forms of SIT as true alternatives to symptomatic, drug-based allergy treatment.

  14. Why are some proteins allergenic? Implications for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, S B; Horner, W E; Reese, G

    1996-07-01

    In recent years, a number of agricultural crops have been developed with recombinant DNA technology. Because the transferred genes code for proteins that are ordinarily not present in these particular foods, there is concern about the potential allergenicity of these new crop varieties. Foods contain many proteins; however, only a small fraction are allergens. Although the structural properties of proteins that cause allergic reactions have not been characterized completely, known food allergens in general have molecular weights between 10 and 70 kDa, stimulate the immune response (induce the production of allergen-specific IgE), and are stable molecules that are resistant to processing, cooking, and digestion. Although any type of food is potentially allergenic, the majority of food allergies are caused by a small group of foods (cows' milk, nuts, legumes, eggs, seafood). Cross-reactivities occur within a given food group and between foods and seemingly unrelated proteins. Even though most transgenic foods are considered safe, biotechnological manipulation can affect crop allergenicity. The safety evaluation of transgenic foods is relatively easy when the allergenicity of the gene sources are known. The recombinant food can be assayed using traditional in vitro inhibition assays. Recently, reduced allergen content of biotechnologically altered rice was shown. In contrast, increased allergenicity was demonstrated in transgenic soybeans after a methionine- and cystine-rich protein from Brazil nuts, identified as a major Brazil nut allergen, was expressed in soybean to increase its content of sulfur-rich amino acids. The most difficult issue regarding transgenic food allergenicity is the effect of transfer of proteins of unknown allergenicity. The challenge is to determine whether these proteins are allergenic as there is no generally accepted, established, definitive procedure to define or predict a protein's allergenicity. Comparing the structures of the

  15. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...... allergic to hazelnut but not to birch....

  16. Immunotherapy with Allergen Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larché Mark

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT is disease-modifying and efficacious. However, the use of whole allergen preparations is associated with frequent allergic adverse events during treatment. Many novel approaches are being designed to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy preparations whilst maintaining immunogenicity. One approach is the use of short synthetic peptides which representing dominant T cell epitopes of the allergen. Short peptides exhibit markedly reduced capacity to cross link IgE and activate mast cells and basophils, due to lack of tertiary structure. Murine pre-clinical studies have established the feasibility of this approach and clinical studies are currently in progress in both allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  17. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  18. Food allergens and mucosal immune systems with special reference to recognition of food allergens by gut-associated lymphoid tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kaminogawa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy, triggered by an aberrant immune response elicited by orally ingested food allergens, is generated through a complicated mechanism because the allergen interacts with the mucosal immune system (the gut- associated lymphoid tissue, GALT and the resulting immune response affects the generation of allergy. This review will describe the process by which antigens or allergens are recognized by the GALT and the characteristic immune responses induced thereafter. Orally administered antigens induce distinct immune responses in the Peyer's patches, lamina propria and the intestinal epithelium. In addition to these local immune responses in the gut, ingested antigens are known to affect systemic immunity. These may induce a suppressed state of systemic immune responsiveness, which is called oral tolerance, or in some cases they may elicit a systemic IgE antibody response which may lead to allergic reactions. Information on the regions on food allergens recognized by T cells and IgE antibodies is important in understanding the fates of food allergens after being recognized by the GALT. The structure of T and B cell epitopes on food allergens and the possibility of modulation of allergic reactions by amino-acid substituted analogs of allergen- derived peptides will also be discussed.

  19. Cloning, expression, and immunological characterization of recombinant Lolium perenne allergen Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, A; Tamborini, E; Giuntini, I; Levi, S; Volonté, G; Paini, C; De Lalla, C; Siccardi, A G; Baralle, F E; Galliani, S

    1993-10-15

    The molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding for an isoallergenic form of Lol p II, a major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification on mRNA extracted from pollen. The amino acid sequence derived from the cDNA was truncated by 4 and 5 residues at the NH2- and COOH-terminal ends, respectively, and differed only in one position from that previously reported. This cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion to the carboxyl terminus of the human ferritin H-chain. The molecule was produced in high yields as a soluble protein and was easily purified. The protein retains the multimeric quaternary structure of ferritin, and it exposes on the surface the allergenic moiety, which can be recognized in Western blotting and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments by specific IgE from allergic patients. The recombinant allergen was used to analyze the sera of 26 patients allergic to L. perenne compared with control sera. The results were in good agreement with the values obtained with the radioallergosorbent test assay. In addition, histamine release experiments in whole blood from an allergic patient and skin prick tests showed that the recombinant allergen retains some of the biological properties of the natural compound. These findings indicate that the availability of homogeneous recombinant allergens may be useful for the development of more specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Moreover, this expression system may be of more general interest for producing large amounts of soluble protein domains in E. coli.

  20. Allergenic proteins of natural rubber latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, H Y; Arif, Siti Arija M; Yusof, Faridah; Sunderasan, E

    2002-05-01

    As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy.

  1. Allergenic Proteins in Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies can be defined as immunologically mediated hypersensitivity reactions; therefore, a food allergy is also known as food hypersensitivity. The reactions are caused by the immune system response to some food proteins. The eight most common food allergens are proteins from milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soya, wheat, fish and shellfish. However, many other foods have been identified as allergens for some people, such as certain fruits or vegetables and seeds. It is now recognized that food allergens are an important food safety issue. A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system reacts to otherwise harmless substances in certain foods. For these reasons, one of the requirements from the European Union is that allergenic food ingredients should be labelled in order to protect allergic consumers. According to the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations, about 8 % of children and 4 % of adults suffer from some type of food allergy. Food allergies often develop during infant or early childhood ages, affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines. In some cases, the allergy may persist in adult age, for example, coeliac disease, which is an abnormal immune response to certain proteins present in gluten, a type of protein composite found in wheat and barley. Almost all allergens are proteins, and highly sensitive analytical methods have been developed to detect traces of these compounds in food, such as electrophoretic and immunological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purpose of this review is to describe the allergenic components of the most common causes of food allergies, followed by a brief discussion regarding their importance in the food industry and for consumer safety. The most important methods used to detect allergenicity in food will also be discussed.

  2. Fluorescence of atopic allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1967-01-01

    Purified atopic allergens have been found to emit flue fluorescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light of 365 mμ wavelength. The maximum of fluorescence is in the region 445–490 mμ and the intensity is of the same order of magnitude for different atopic allergens. Synthetic model compounds, inc

  3. Inhaled allergen bronchoprovocation tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Cockcroft, Don W.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Sterk, Peter J.; Jongh, de Frans H.C.; Dahlen, Barbo; O'Byrne, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The allergen bronchoprovocation test is a long-standing exacerbation model of allergic asthma that can induce several clinical and pathophysiologic features of asthma in sensitized subjects. Standardized allergen challenge is primarily a research tool, and when properly conducted by qualified and ex

  4. Tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  5. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses...... in allergic patients. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been approved, notably in the European Union, as an effective alternative to subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) for allergic rhinitis patients. Compared with SCIT, SLIT has a better safety profile. This is possibly because oral antigen...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...

  6. Allergen Specific Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Çekiç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only treatment that can provide a cure for allergic disorders. This treatment is based on development of immune tolerance by exposure to allergen in repetitive and increasing doses. It is tertiary to avoidance of allergen and pharmacotherapy. Allergens used for immunotherapy, must be confirmed by skin prick test or specific IgE and must be applied in supervision of allergy specialists. Studies show that immunotherapy, improve asthma symptoms, decreases drug consumption, prevent development of asthma in rhinitis patients and reduce new sensitizations. Common side effects diminished with the usage of standardized allergen solutions. It is contraindicated in severe asthma. Though it is recommended to avoid immunotherapy in patients using beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, immunotherapy can be considered in mandatory situations regarding possible benefits and harms. Most common ways of administration are subcutaneous and sublingual; new methods such as epicutaneous and intralymphatic injections are currently being studied.

  7. Advances in the quantification of relevant allergens in allergenic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, T; Nony, E; Hrabina, M; Chabre, H; Frati, F; Moingeon, P

    2013-10-01

    Relevant allergens are major contributors to the safety and efficacy of allergenic extracts used in allergen immunotherapy (AIT). As such, they should be accurately quantified, as recommended by the 2008 European guidelines on allergen products. Until now, the quantification of relevant allergens was mainly performed by using immunoassays (e.g. ELISA) that relying upon specific antibodies. Although antibody-based quantification is commonly used to assess the concentration of relevant allergens in allergenic extracts, results must be taken with caution in the light of the inherent limitations of such techniques. In the present study, we discuss how those limitations can be overcome by using comprehensive mass spectrometry-based techniques.

  8. Mapping of IgE-binding regions on recombinant Cyn d 1, a major allergen from Bermuda Grass Pollen (BGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Prem L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon; subfamily Chloridoideae is an important source of seasonal aeroallergens in warm tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Improved approaches to diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases require a thorough understanding of the structure and epitopes on the allergen molecule that are crucial for the antigen-antibody interaction. This study describes the localization of the human IgE-binding regions of the major group 1 pollen allergen Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass. Methods A cDNA library was constructed from Bermuda grass pollen (BGP using a Lambda gt11 expression vector. The gene encoding the Cyn d 1 allergen was isolated by screening the library with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against grass group 1 allergen. In order to characterize the IgE epitopes on Cyn d 1, seven overlapping fragments and three deletion mutants were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli. The recombinant fragments and deletion mutants were evaluated for their comparative IgE reactivity with sera of non atopic individuals and grass pollen allergic patients by ELISA and a dot-blot assay. Results Analysis of IgE binding regions by overlapping fragments and deletion mutants identified two major allergenic regions corresponding to amino acids 120–170 and 224–244. Deletion of either or both regions led to a significant reduction in IgE binding, emphasizing the importance of the C-terminal region on Cyn d 1 in epitope-IgE interaction. Conclusion Anti-Cyn d 1 IgE antibodies from allergic human sera recognize two epitopes located at the C-terminal end of the molecule. These data will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for BGP hypersensitivity.

  9. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  10. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGENS ON ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic eczematous skin disease that develops in a patient with atopic diathesis, which is characterized by an increased liability to produce IgE antibodies for allergens mostly derived from environmental or inhalant allergens and food allergens. They are produced by cell-mediated allergic contact reactions, and recently contact sensitivity to various environmental allergens has been demonstrated in patients with AD. Atopic patients are recognized by their ability to produce large amounts of specific IgE antibodies to common substances as environmental allergens, i.e. house dust mites, grass pollens, animal danders, molds, food, etc. These antibodies can be detected by skin prick test. The aim of this study was to identify the sensitization against environmental or inhalants allergens through skin prick tests in the patients with atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive study. We revised all medical records of patients with AD since January 2002 to December 2004 in the Out Patients Unit of Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. The variables studied were: gender, age, work related, diagnosis associates to AD, and prick test of environmental allergens. Results: In 3 years periods we had revised 46 of patients with AD that was done skin prick tests. The median age was 38 years (range 29-54 years, 34/46 (73.9 % of these were male and 12 (26.1 % female. Twenty nine patients presented pure AD, and 17 patients had AD with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Only 16 (34.7% of patients had no history of allergic disease. Thirsty six of 46 (78.20% of all tested AD patients had a positive skin prick tests against inhalant (aeroallergens 16 patients and food allergens 21 patients. Sixteen patients with positive of skin test include; dust mite in 12 patients, animal dander in 10 patients, grass pollen in 9 patients and cockroach in 6 patients. Conclusion: We concluded that

  11. Current Overview of Allergens of Plant Pathogenesis Related Protein Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis related (PR proteins are one of the major sources of plant derived allergens. These proteins are induced by the plants as a defense response system in stress conditions like microbial and insect infections, wounding, exposure to harsh chemicals, and atmospheric conditions. However, some plant tissues that are more exposed to environmental conditions like UV irradiation and insect or fungal attacks express these proteins constitutively. These proteins are mostly resistant to proteases and most of them show considerable stability at low pH. Many of these plant pathogenesis related proteins are found to act as food allergens, latex allergens, and pollen allergens. Proteins having similar amino acid sequences among the members of PR proteins may be responsible for cross-reactivity among allergens from diverse plants. This review analyzes the different pathogenesis related protein families that have been reported as allergens. Proteins of these families have been characterized in regard to their biological functions, amino acid sequence, and cross-reactivity. The three-dimensional structures of some of these allergens have also been evaluated to elucidate the antigenic determinants of these molecules and to explain the cross-reactivity among the various allergens.

  12. Current Overview of Allergens of Plant Pathogenesis Related Protein Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mau; Singh, Rashmi Prabha; Kushwaha, Gajraj Singh; Iqbal, Naseer; Singh, Avinash; Kaushik, Sanket; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are one of the major sources of plant derived allergens. These proteins are induced by the plants as a defense response system in stress conditions like microbial and insect infections, wounding, exposure to harsh chemicals, and atmospheric conditions. However, some plant tissues that are more exposed to environmental conditions like UV irradiation and insect or fungal attacks express these proteins constitutively. These proteins are mostly resistant to proteases and most of them show considerable stability at low pH. Many of these plant pathogenesis related proteins are found to act as food allergens, latex allergens, and pollen allergens. Proteins having similar amino acid sequences among the members of PR proteins may be responsible for cross-reactivity among allergens from diverse plants. This review analyzes the different pathogenesis related protein families that have been reported as allergens. Proteins of these families have been characterized in regard to their biological functions, amino acid sequence, and cross-reactivity. The three-dimensional structures of some of these allergens have also been evaluated to elucidate the antigenic determinants of these molecules and to explain the cross-reactivity among the various allergens. PMID:24696647

  13. Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, H; Ebner, C

    2000-07-01

    Molecular biology and biochemical techniques have significantly advanced the knowledge of allergens derived from plant foods. Surprisingly, many of the known plant food allergens are homologous to pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), proteins that are induced by pathogens, wounding, or certain environmental stresses. PRs have been classified into 14 families. Examples of allergens homologous to PRs include chitinases (PR-3 family) from avocado, banana, and chestnut; antifungal proteins such as the thaumatin-like proteins (PR-5) from cherry and apple; proteins homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (PR-10) from vegetables and fruits; and lipid transfer proteins (PR-14) from fruits and cereals. Allergens other than PR homologs can be allotted to other well-known protein families such as inhibitors of alpha-amylases and trypsin from cereal seeds, profilins from fruits and vegetables, seed storage proteins from nuts and mustard seeds, and proteases from fruits. As more clinical data and structural information on allergenic molecules becomes available, we may finally be able to answer what characteristics of a molecule are responsible for its allergenicity.

  14. Kiwifruit as a food allergen source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its first appearance on the market kiwifruit has become very popular in the human diet due to its pleasant taste, low caloric value and high content of vitamin C. However, kiwifruit allergy has become a frequent cause of type I hypersensitivity in the western society. Molecular basis for kiwifruit allergy has been ascribed to up-to-now 11 identified IgE reactive molecules. They are proteins and glycoproteins with a molecular mass between 50 and 10 kDa. The major kiwifruit allergen is a cysteine protease denoted as Act d 1, which represents 50% of the soluble protein extract. Due to a difference in the abundance of protein components and biological activity, the quality of kiwifruit extracts intended for allergy diagnosis can vary in content and amount of IgE reactive molecules. In addition, the quality of allergen extracts for allergy diagnosis depends on the fruit ripening stage and storage conditions. In terms of clinical reactivity it has become evident that kiwifruit allergy is not a homogeneous disorder. Different patterns of IgE reactivity accompany several clinical subgroups that have been identified in different geographical regions. In the last decade an enormous progress has been made in isolation and characterization of kiwifruit allergens. This paper will give an overview of the structural features of kiwifruit allergens. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049

  15. Allergens in the Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  16. Plant food allergens--structural and functional aspects of allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, Heimo; Clare Mills, E N

    2005-09-01

    The three dominating plant food allergen groups belong to the prolamin and cupin superfamilies and to the family 10 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The prolamin superfamily comprises allergenic 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. These allergens have related structures and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. The cupin superfamily comprises the allergenic 7S and 11S globulin storage proteins from peanuts, soybean and tree nuts which are heat stable and can form immunogenicity enhancing aggregates. The Bet v 1 family of allergens includes tree pollinosis-associated food allergens with low stability which induce the symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome.

  17. Role of Allergen Source-Derived Proteases in Sensitization via Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease activity is a characteristic common to many allergens. Allergen source-derived proteases interact with lung epithelial cells, which are now thought to play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Allergen source-derived proteases act on airway epithelial cells to induce disruption of the tight junctions between epithelial cells, activation of protease-activated receptor-2, and the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin. These facilitate allergen delivery across epithelial layers and enhance allergenicity or directly activate the immune system through a nonallergic mechanism. Furthermore, they cleave regulatory cell surface molecules involved in allergic reactions. Thus, allergen source-derived proteases are a potentially critical factor in the development of allergic sensitization and appear to be strongly associated with heightened allergenicity.

  18. Recombinant allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy: 10 years anniversary of immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, B; Swoboda, I; Niederberger, V

    2011-06-01

    The broad applicability of allergen-specific immunotherapy for the treatment and eventually prevention of IgE-mediated allergy is limited by the poor quality and allergenic activity of natural allergen extracts that are used for the production of current allergy vaccines. Today, the genetic code of the most important allergens has been deciphered; recombinant allergens equalling their natural counterparts have been produced for diagnosis and immunotherapy, and a large panel of genetically modified allergens with reduced allergenic activity has been characterized to improve safety of immunotherapy and explore allergen-specific prevention strategies. Successful immunotherapy studies have been performed with recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and will lead to the registration of the first recombinant allergen-based vaccines in the near future. There is no doubt that recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies will be generally applicable to most allergen sources, including respiratory, food and venom allergens and allow to produce safe allergy vaccines for the treatment of the most common forms of IgE-mediated allergies.

  19. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  20. IgE recognition patterns of profilin, PR-10, and tropomyosin panallergens tested in 3,113 allergic patients by allergen microarray-based technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Scala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE recognition of panallergens having highly conserved sequence regions, structure, and function and shared by inhalant and food allergen sources is often observed. METHODS: We evaluated the IgE recognition profile of profilins (Bet v 2, Cyn d 12, Hel a 2, Hev b 8, Mer a 1, Ole e 2, Par j 3, Phl p 12, Pho d 2, PR-10 proteins (Aln g 1, Api g 1, Bet v 1.0101, Bet v 1.0401, Cor a 1, Dau c 1 and Mal d 1.0108 and tropomyosins (Ani s 3, Der p 10, Hel as 1, Pen i 1, Pen m 1, Per a 7 using the Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC microarray system. The three panallergen groups were well represented among the allergenic molecules immobilized on the ISAC. Moreover, they are distributed in several taxonomical allergenic sources, either close or distant, and have a route of exposure being either inhalation or ingestion. RESULTS: 3,113 individuals (49.9% female were selected on the basis of their reactivity to profilins, PR-10 or tropomyosins. 1,521 (48.8% patients were reactive to profilins (77.6% Mer a 1 IgE(+, 1,420 (45.6% to PR-10 (92.5% Bet v 1 IgE(+ and 632 (20.3% to tropomyosins (68% Der p 10 IgE(+. A significant direct relationship between different representative molecules within each group of panallergens was found. 2,688 patients (86.4% recognized only one out of the three distinct groups of molecules as confirmed also by hierarchical clustering analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Unless exposed to most of the allergens in the same or related allergenic sources, a preferential IgE response to distinct panallergens has been recorded. Allergen microarray IgE testing increases our knowledge of the IgE immune response and related epidemiological features within and between homologous molecules better describing the patients' immunological phenotypes.

  1. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  2. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals.

  3. Recombinant house dust mite allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are a globally important source of allergen responsible for the sensitization of more than 50% of allergic patients. Specific immunotherapy with HDM extracts is effective but allergen extracts cannot be fully standardized and severe side-effects can occur during the protracted course of treatment. The introduction of molecular biological techniques into allergy research allowed the indentification of more than 20 groups of HDM allergens. Recombinant HDM allergens can be...

  4. Molecular profiles: a new tool to substantiate serum banks for evaluation of potential allergenicity of GMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D; Rodríguez, R; Salcedo, G

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of the allergenicity of GMOs involves performing a test with a panel of sera obtained from allergic donors. However, there is no clear indication of how to characterize the above-mentioned panel. The patient selection criteria should take into account the geographical location of patients, the intensity and nature of the environmental allergens in the area and the potential cross-reactivity among allergenic molecules. Sera for serum banks, obtained from patients with demonstrated food allergy, should be subjected to a further characterization by screening with a panel of relevant allergenic molecules. A representative panel of these sera should be used in the allergenicity assessment. Finally, the "in vitro" methodologies should have the adequate specificity and sensitivity, and the integrity of the molecules tested should be guaranteed.

  5. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...

  6. Serological identification of house dust mite allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E.S. Cunha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available House dust mite antigens have been used for decades to diagnose allergic diseases in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to identify allergens in commercial Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts by immunoblotting using sera from allergic dogs and anti-dog IgE conjugate. The analysis of antigens present in the D. farinae extract (FDA Allergenic using sera from 10 dogs allergic to D. farinae showed that eight sera recognized a band of approximately 102 kDa, eight recognized two bands of 52 to 76 kDa, five recognized one band of approximately 76 kDa, four recognized one band of 31 to 38 kDa, and two recognized one band of 12 to 17 kDa. Immunoblot assays of the B. tropicalis extract (FDA Allergenic using sera from 10 animals allergic to B. tropicalis showed that five sera recognized two bands of 52 to 76 kDa. These results demonstrate the importance of the two house dust mite species for the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis in Brazil. In addition, the results indicate which allergens should be present in allergenic extracts used for diagnosis and allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  7. A Pitfall to Avoid When Using an Allergen Microarray: The Incidental Detection of IgE to Unexpected Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia; Makrì, Eleni; Montagni, Marcello; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new laboratory techniques to detect specific IgE antibodies against single allergen molecules rather than whole extracts represents a significant advance in allergy diagnostics. The advantages of such component-resolved diagnosis can be summarized as follows: (1) the ability to identify the truly responsible allergens in polysensitized patients, whether they be genuine (causing specific sensitization to their corresponding allergen source) or primary (the original sensitizing molecule); (2) distinguishing these allergens from simply cross-reactive components; (3) improving the appropriateness of the prescribed specific immunotherapy; and (4) identifying a risk profile for food allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis is performed using either a singleplex (1 assay per sample) platform or a multiplex (multiple assays per sample) platform. Using an immuno solid-phase allergen chip microarray that falls into the latter category--it currently tests sensitivity to 112 allergens--may lead to a pitfall: detecting IgE to unexpected allergens, such as Hymenoptera venom. In fact, testing insect venom sensitivity in individuals with no history of reactions to stings is contrary to current guidelines and presents the physician with the dilemma of how to manage this information; moreover, this may become a legal issue. Based on what is currently known about venom allergy, it remains likely that a positive sensitization test result will have no clinical significance, but the possibility of reacting to a future sting cannot be completely ruled out. Because this problem has not been previously encountered using the more common allergy tests, no indications are currently available on how to effectively manage these cases.

  8. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  9. Food processing and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Feys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, N. van der; Wichers, H.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat tre

  10. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  11. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  12. Allergenicity assay of allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae in transgenic tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mingjuan; SHEN Ye; HU Yuanlei; CAO Lei; NI Ting; ZHANG Hongyu; LIN Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    Derf2 gene for one of mite allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae has been cloned and expressed under regulation of 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco. The transcriptional analysis showed that this mite complete gene structure in genomic sequence could be spliced at prediction site. Allergenicity assay with immunological sera indicated that the extracts from the transgenic tobacco gave obvious positive IgE binding reaction with specific serum pool. This work would be of potential use in allergenicity assessment of genetically modified food.

  13. Allergenic study and epitope analysis of Indo-American hybrid Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Jamakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies have high negative impact on nutritional balance of human body. Allergic response is seen high to vegetables such as tomatoes, capsicum and spinach, next to fish, eggs and nuts. Allergen molecules and epitope regions of Indo- American hybrid variety tomatoes is not well studied. The present work shows the presence of putative allergen molecules in two Indio-American hybrid tomatoes, which are identified in 7 patient sera by SDS - Immunoblotting method and further identification of epitopes, putative peptides and cross reactivity of these putative allergens by Immunoinformatics tools. Linear B-cell epitopes predicted by 3 combined immunoinformatics tools viz. DNASTAR protean, ABC pred and IEDB Bipred. Cross reactivity of these allergens determined by sequence alignment method against the allergen online database and Allermatch databases, which shows significant cross reactivity to Capsicum annum, Hevea brasiliensi, archis hypogaea, pollen, actinidia chinesis and prunus avium.

  14. Mining Novel Allergens from Coconut Pollen Employing Manual De Novo Sequencing and Homology-Driven Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Sircar, Gaurab; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-11-06

    Coconut pollen, one of the major palm pollen grains is an important constituent among vectors of inhalant allergens in India and a major sensitizer for respiratory allergy in susceptible patients. To gain insight into its allergenic components, pollen proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotted with coconut pollen sensitive patient sera, followed by mass spectrometry of IgE reactive proteins. Coconut being largely unsequenced, a proteomic workflow has been devised that combines the conventional database-dependent analysis of tandem mass spectral data and manual de novo sequencing followed by a homology-based search for identifying the allergenic proteins. N-terminal acetylation helped to distinguish "b" ions from others, facilitating reliable sequencing. This led to the identification of 12 allergenic proteins. Cluster analysis with individual patient sera recognized vicilin-like protein as a major allergen, which was purified to assess its in vitro allergenicity and then partially sequenced. Other IgE-sensitive spots showed significant homology with well-known allergenic proteins such as 11S globulin, enolase, and isoflavone reductase along with a few which are reported as novel allergens. The allergens identified can be used as potential candidates to develop hypoallergenic vaccines, to design specific immunotherapy trials, and to enrich the repertoire of existing IgE reactive proteins.

  15. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  16. Identification of two distinct allergenic sites on ryegrass-pollen allergen, Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H

    1989-04-01

    Lol p IV is an important allergen of ryegrass pollen. For the immunochemical identification of antigenic and/or allergenic site(s), murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against Lol p IV. The hybridoma cell-culture supernatants were screened for anti-Lol p IV antibodies by a combination of ELISA and Western immunoblot analyses. The MAbs were finally purified from ascites on a Mono Q ion-exchange column. In a competitive radioimmunoassay with Lol p IV as the solid phase and 125I-labeled MAbs, it was established that MAbs 90, 91, 92, 93, and 94, although they differed in their relative affinities, recognized in common with one another an epitope designated as antigenic site A, whereas MAb 12 recognized a different epitope referred to as site B. Sites A and B were also demonstrated to constitute allergenic determinants of Lol p IV. Differences in the repertoire of specificities of the human IgE antibodies directed to Lol p IV were also demonstrated. Interestingly, it was found that sera from both allergic as well as from nonatopic individuals had IgG antibodies to sites A and/or B.

  17. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  18. Research on Preparation of Human Immune Cell in vitro with Response to Shrimp Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most important food allergens. Tropomyosin is its major allergen. Wherein Pen a 1, contains five antibody binding regions, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. However, the study on IgE with response to shrimp allergen is still a serious lack, compared with the allergenic proteins. Particularly in the aspects of the preparation of IgE in vitro, it is restricted and can only obtain the complete IgE molecules by polyclonal or monoclonal technology. As for the preparation of small molecule IgE to the shrimp allergen has not yet been reported. This study attempts to carry out research on obtaining of cell materials that are used to clone. It sets up a convenient and efficient immune system in vitro which combines dendritic cell differentiation, allergens immune, mixed lymphocyte culture and so on. Finally the system successfully activates the proliferation of specific B cells and the secretion of a large number of specific IgE antibodies to shrimp allergen.

  19. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  20. Current codex guidelines for assessment of potential protein allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, G S

    2008-10-01

    A rigorous safety assessment process exists for GM crops. It includes evaluation of the introduced protein as well as the crop containing such protein with the goal of demonstrating the GM crop is "as-safe-as" non-transgenic crops in the food supply. One of the major issues for GM crops is the assessment of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. Currently, no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity. Therefore, a weight-of-evidence approach, which takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential, is conducted [Codex Alimentarious Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarious Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity, pp. 47-60]. This assessment is based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; protein structure (e.g., amino acid sequence identity to human allergens); stability to pepsin digestion in vitro [Thomas, K. et al., 2004. A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39, 87-98]; an estimate of exposure of the novel protein(s) to the gastrointestinal tract where absorption occurs (e.g., protein abundance in the crop, processing effects); and when appropriate, specific IgE binding studies or skin prick testing. Additional approaches may be considered (e.g., animal models; targeted sera screening) as the science evolves; however, such approaches have not been thoroughly evaluated or validated for predicting protein allergenicity.

  1. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  2. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal, ski

  3. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  4. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  5. Molecular Characteristics of Cockroach Allergens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chii-Huei Wu; Mey-Fann Lee

    2005-01-01

    Cockroaches, commonly found in urban dwellings worldwide, have long been considered vectors of various infectious diseases and cockroach allergens are one of the major etiologic risk factors for IgE-mediated allergic respiratory illness throughout the world. A high prevalence of cockroach hypersensitivity in atopic (20-55 %) and asthmatic (49-60%) populations has been documented. Cockroach allergens with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 120 kD have been identified by various standard immunochemical techniques. This article covers the characteristics of major cockroach allergens that have been purified, sequenced, cloned, and produced as recombinant proteins.

  6. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    . This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition...... the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore...

  7. Allergen-specific Th2 cells as targets for immune intervention in allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Finally, it is shown that IL-4-driven allergen-specific Th2 cell differentiation can be redirected into a Th0 and Thl cell differentiation pathway by stimulating these IL-4-driven allergen-specific Th cell populations in the presence of IL-12, or by co-stimulating these cells via a novel T cell receptor, designated signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM. The clinical implications of these approaches are discussed.

  8. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  9. [Hidden allergens in processed food : An update from the consumer's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt, Sabine; Pfaff, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    Despite improved allergen labelling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food remain a substantial risk for unintended reactions for consumers with food allergies. New data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund - DAAB) shows a slight decrease in the number of consumers that report allergic reactions to prepacked food. Still, 75 % (compared to 85 % in 2008) have experienced at least one allergic reaction after eating a prepacked food. In more than half of the cases, the reaction was classified as severe (with airway and/or cardiovascular symptoms such as respiratory distress, loss of blood pressure or anaphylactic shock). Again, more than 40 % (2008: 47 %, 2015: 42 %) reported that no information on the presence of the food allergens had been present on the label either as ingredients or as precautionary allergen labelling (PAL). Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens may not be recognized or recognizable by consumers with food allergies, such as allergen labelling that is not easy to understand, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as recipe changes in known foods. Examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation in order to better meet the goals of food information regulations to enable consumers with food allergies to make "informed choices which are safe for them" (Quote Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 - Reason 24).

  10. Allergen recognition by innate immune cells: critical role of dendritic and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSalazar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. Dendritic cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in orchestrating allergic diseases. Using different C-type lectin receptors dendritic cells are able to recognize and internalize a number of allergens from diverse sources leading to sensitization. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence highlighting the role of epithelial cells in triggering and modulating immune responses to allergens. As well as providing a physical barrier, epithelial cells can interact with allergens and influence dendritic cells behaviour through the release of a number of Th2 promoting cytokines. In this review we will summarise current understanding of how allergens are recognised by dendritic cells and epithelial cells and what are the consequences of such interaction in the context of allergic sensitisation and downstream events leading to allergic inflammation. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allergen recognition and associated signalling pathways could enable developing more effective therapeutic strategies that target the initial steps of allergic sensitisation hence hindering development or progression of allergic diseases.

  11. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Annette eKuehn; Ines eSwoboda; Karthik eArumugam; Christiane eHilger; François eHentges

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  12. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  13. Mapping of Lol p I allergenic epitopes by using murine monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, W; Bernier, D; Jobin, M; Hébert, J

    1989-11-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three non-overlapping epitopes of Lol p I allergen were previously produced and subsequently used for purification of the allergen. In the present study, these MAbs were further characterized, and the biological activity of the purified allergen assessed. The three MAbs were of the IgG isotype and carried a kappa light chain. Their affinity constants were in the range of 7.4-15.1 x 10(-9) mol/l. Purified Lol p I kept its biological activity, as shown by its ability to induce histamine release by basophils of Lol p I-sensitive patients. The profiles of histamine release induced by either Lol p I or crude Lolium perenne extracts were comparable. This observation suggests that human IgE bound to basophils are polyspecific which has been confirmed by immunoblot and inhibition assay. Our data indicated also that Lol p I possesses a major allergenic epitope recognized by all human serum IgE tested. This epitope seems to be partially shared by those recognized by the three MAbs. Finally, preincubation of Lol p I with either one of the Mabs did not affect significantly the basophil-histamine release induced by the purified allergen. This suggests that Lol p I possesses allergenic sites other than the one shared by MAbs and IgE Abs.

  14. NUTIRTION LABELLING OF FOOD AND ALLERGEN IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The new regulation introduced mandatory nutrition labelling and ordering food manufacturers provide information on energy and six nutrients: fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt - in that order, and per 100 g or 100 ml. This information should be included in the nutritional table in one visual field (usually on the back cover, moreover, can also be expressed on per serving. It is important to realize that this regulation requires manufacturers indicate the nutritional value in one field of vision, usually on the "back cover" designation in the principal field (e.g. "on the front cover" remains voluntary. Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labelling of ‘‘priority allergens. Increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labelling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.doi:10.5219/230

  15. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  16. Component-resolved diagnosis of pollen allergy based on skin testing with profilin, polcalcin and lipid transfer protein pan-allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in patients suffering from pollen polysensitization due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. OBJECTIVE To evaluate new diagnostic strategies by comparing skin responses to pan-allergens and conventional allergenic extracts with specific IgE (sIgE) to purified allergen molecules. METHODS One thousand three hundred and twenty-nine pollen-allergic patients were diagnosed by a combination of an in vitro method...

  17. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora.

  18. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  19. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  20. Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velden Joanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House dust mite (HDM allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. Methods Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. Results Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. Conclusion This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the

  1. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena

    2011-04-01

    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  2. Understanding allergic asthma from allergen inhalation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Donald W; Hargreave, Fredrick E; O’Byrne, Paul M; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation), advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma. PMID:17948142

  3. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    : Seven allergens - parabens mix, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, sesquiterpene lactone mix, wool alcohols, potassium dichromate, Myroxylon pereirae, and cobalt chloride - showed statistically significant positive associations to polysensitization. Five allergens p-phenylenediamine, neomycin...

  4. Identification of tropomyosin and arginine kinase as major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Zailatul, H M Y; Noormalin, A; Normilah, I

    2012-09-01

    Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.

  5. Dermatophagoides farinae Allergens Diversity Identification by Proteomics*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1–3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13–18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDN...

  6. Chemical and Biological Properties of Food Allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedrychowski, L.; Wichers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    This book provides epidemiological data on food allergens and information on the incidence of food allergies. It discusses the link between hypersensitivity and immune system health and covers methods used for assays on allergenic components, animal models for allergen analysis, and clinical methods

  7. Characterization of plant food allergens: an overview on physicochemical and immunological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Andrea; Egger, Matthias; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Erler, Anja; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Himly, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Allergy to plant-derived foods is a highly complex disorder with clinical manifestations ranging from mild oral, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening systemic conditions. This heterogeneity in clinical manifestations has been attributed to different properties of allergenic molecules. Based on this fact, symptom elicitors were grouped into class I and pollinosis-associated class II food allergens, but clear distinction is rather ambiguous. Moreover, mechanisms underlying food sensitization are not fully understood yet, and food allergy management most often relies on patient's compliance to avoid suspected foods. Therefore, recent efforts aim at the investigation of plant food allergies at the molecular level. This review provides an overview on currently available techniques for allergen characterization and discusses their application for investigation of plant food allergens. Data obtained by an array of physicochemical analyses, such as allergen structure, integrity, aggregation, and stability, need to be linked to results from immunological methods at the level of IgE and T-cell reactivity. Such knowledge allows the development of computational algorithms to predict allergenicity of novel foods being introduced by biotechnological industry. Furthermore, molecular characterization is an indispensable tool for molecule-based diagnosis and future development of safer patient-tailored specific immunotherapy in plant food allergy.

  8. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  9. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  10. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  11. Hardware bitstream sequence recognizer

    OpenAIRE

    Karpin, Oleksandr; Sokil, Volodymyr

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how to implement in hardware a bistream sequence recognizer using the PSoC Pseudo Random Sequence Generator (PRS) User Module. The PRS can be used in digital communication systems with the serial data interface for automatic preamble detection and extraction, control words selection, etc.

  12. Dermatophagoides farinae allergens diversity identification by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-07-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.

  13. The Allergen Bank: a source of extra contact allergens for the dermatologist in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C; Carlsen, L

    1996-01-01

    The Allergen Bank was established to give dermatologists easy access to special test materials in order to make early diagnoses of special cases of allergic contact dermatitis. The Allergen Bank comprises a computer system to register several hundred contact allergens in appropriate patch test...... concentrations available at the allergy laboratory and the patch test results. At the request of dermatologists in practice for Allergen Bank may supply special contact allergens for aimed patch testing of contact dermatitis patients. The organization of the Allergen Bank and the procedure of its use...... are described. During its first 23 months 28 dermatologists asked for 2,209 allergen samples for testing of 386 patients, an average of 6 allergens per patient and 14 patients per dermatologist. A total number of 164 positive reactions have been registered, and 440 of the 540 allergens have been in use. One...

  14. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  15. Biochemical and molecular biological aspects of silverfish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Bianca; Di Felice, Gabriella; Pini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Insects and insect-derived materials have been implicated as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchial asthma. During the last decades, insects other than those known as allergenic, were investigated for their potential role in inducing and triggering an IgE immune response. Among these, the silverfish, an insect belonging to the Thysanura order, appeared to be of particular interest. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is the most primitive living insect, and represents a descendent of the ancestral wingless insects. They are 3-12 mm long, have three tail feelers and are covered with shiny scales. They shun light and need a humid environment and their diet consists of carbohydrate materials such as paper and book-binding glue, crumbs of bread and flour. Because of these features, silverfish finds an optimal habitat both in dwellings and workplaces and in spite of its antiquity, silverfish has succeeded in exploiting the new opportunity created by man. Although its importance significantly increased when it has been demonstrated that house dust contains significant silverfish levels even in houses where the inhabitants were unaware of its presence, no silverfish extract for diagnosis of allergic diseases is commercially available yet. Identification of optimal extraction conditions and characterization of allergenic extracts are the first steps to obtain an effective allergen preparation suitable for diagnosis and therapy, and will be useful as a reference preparation for assessing silverfish exposure in different indoor environments. It has been cloned and characterized a silverfish tropomyosin, named Lep s 1, which represents the first allergen identified in silverfish extract and can be regarded as a molecule cross-reactive among inhalant and edible invertebrates allergenic sources. rLep s 1 displayed biological activity, suggesting that it could be regarded as a useful tool to study the role of silverfish

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  17. Recognizing occluded MSTAR targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for recognizing occluded vehicle targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Using quasi-invariant local features, SAR scattering center locations and magnitudes, a recognition algorithm is presented that successfully recognizes highly occluded versions of actual vehicles from the MSTAR public data. Extensive experimental results are presented to show the effect of occlusion on recognition performance in terms of Probability of Correct Identification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and confusion matrices. The effect of occlusion on performance of this recognition algorithm is accurately predicted. Combined effects such as occlusion and measured positional noise, as well as occlusion and other observed extended operating conditions (e.g., articulation) are also addressed. Although excellent forced recognition results can be achieved at very high (70%) occlusion, practical limitations are found due to the similarity of unoccluded confuser vehicles to highly occluded targets.

  18. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-07-03

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned.

  19. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  20. Ligand binding modulates the structural dynamics and compactness of the major birch pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Freier, Regina; Kofler, Stefan; Bibi, Marium; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2014-12-16

    Pathogenesis-related plant proteins of class-10 (PR-10) are essential for storage and transport of small molecules. A prominent member of the PR-10 family, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, is the main cause of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the northern hemisphere. Bet v 1 binds various ligand molecules to its internal cavity, and immunologic effects of the presence of ligand have been discussed. However, the mechanism of binding has remained elusive. In this study, we show that in solution Bet v 1.0101 is conformationally heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single structure. NMR relaxation data suggest that structural dynamics are fundamental for ligand access to the protein interior. Complex formation then leads to significant rigidification of the protein along with a compaction of its 3D structure. The data presented herein provide a structural basis for understanding the immunogenic and allergenic potential of ligand binding to Bet v 1 allergens.

  1. Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy and Novel Ways for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only available curative treatment of allergic diseases. Recent evidence provided a plausible explanation to its multiple mechanisms inducing both rapid desensitization and long-term allergen-specific immune tolerance, and suppression of allergic inflammation in the affected tissues. During SIT, peripheral tolerance is induced by the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T cells, which suppress proliferative and cytokine responses against the allergen of interest. Regulatory T cells are characterized by IL-10 and TGF-beta secretion and expression of important cell surface suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1 that directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Regulatory T cells and particularly IL-10 also have an influence on B cells, suppressing IgE production and inducing the production of blocking type IgG4 antibodies. In addition, development of allergen-specific B regulatory cells that produce IL-10 and develop into IgG4 producing plasma cells represent essential players in peripheral tolerance. These findings together with the new biotechnological approaches create a platform for development of the advanced vaccines. Moreover, reliable biomarkers could be selected and validated with the intention to select the patients who will benefit most from this immune-modifying treatment. Thus, allergen-SIT could provide a complete cure for a larger number of allergic patients and novel preventive approaches need to be elaborated.

  2. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen.

  3. The antigenicity and allergenicity of microparticulated proteins: Simplesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, H A; Cooke, S

    1992-10-01

    New technologies are allowing the food industry to develop products from standard foods which may not be recognized in its modified form by food allergic patients. One such product, Simplesse, has been formulated by microparticulation of egg white and/or cows' milk proteins and is used as a fat substitute in many fat-laden foods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the process of microparticulation altered the allergenicity/antigenicity of egg white and cows' milk proteins compared to the starting materials. Soluble protein fractions of Simplesse and its respective starting materials were compared to egg white, cows' milk protein, an ultra-filtered egg white/condensed milk mixture, and/or a whey concentrate by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, sera from 16 patients with documented egg and/or cows' milk hypersensitivity and two controls who were not allergic to egg or milk were used to assess potential allergenicity/antigenicity of these products by immunoblot (Western blot) analysis. There were heterogeneous IgE and IgG binding patterns to the food fractions among these food allergic patients suggesting differing sensitivity patterns among the individuals tested. However, utilizing both SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses, the major allergens in the microparticulated products were the same as those found in the starting materials, egg and cows' milk. In addition, there was no evidence of 'novel' protein fractions in the Simplesse test materials compared to the starting materials.

  4. Comparative identification of protein profiles and major allergens of saliva, salivary gland and whole body extracts of mosquito species in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkamchai, Sirichit; Khongtak, Pacharee; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Komalamisra, Narumon; Junsong, Nujorn; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Boitano, John J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic reactions to mosquito bites, such as generalized urticaria or severe local reactions are common problems worldwide. The diverse sources of allergen prepared from different mosquito body parts usage are a major obstacle to obtaining safe and effective tests and immunotherapy for mosquito bite allergy. Thus, the reactions are often not recognized and allergen immunotherapy is seldom used for severe reaction to mosquito bites. In a search for appropriate allergen sources, the protein profiles of saliva, salivary glands and whole body extracts were comparatively analyzed from 4 common mosquito species of Thailand and/or South East Asia; viz. Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and a zoophilic strain, Anopheles minimus. The major allergens in the extracts which elicited specific IgE responses in the pooled sera of subjects allergic to mosquito bites were identified. It was concluded that mosquito saliva was the best source of allergens. Additionally, both species-specific and species-shared allergens of the 4 mosquito species were identified. The major saliva allergens having MWs of 36, 32 and 22 kDa were identified. The identificstion of major allergens should facilitate the production of specific recombinant allergens and contribute to improvement in the diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of Thai mosquito bite allergy patients.

  5. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  6. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome.

  7. The Reactivity and Allergenic Potential of Hazelnut Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina Calinoiu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to focus on proteins present in some food products, like hazelnuts and to investigate their allergenic potential. Several techniques were used to characterize these extracted proteins, with respect to their composition, degradability by digestive proteolytic enzymes and their reactivity with specific antibodies. It was important to analyse which proteins were present in the hazelnuts, to see if there were proteins present to trigger an allergic reaction and if the digestion enzymes trypsin and pepsin influence the presence of the (allergic protein compounds. Allergies to tree nuts and seeds can cause life-threatening and sometimes fatal reactions. To examine the properties of Hazelnut protein it was important to solubilize it by extraction. After extraction, it was investigated how hazelnut protein can be modified by proteases and what the effect was on the immune reaction. The Bradford method is a fast and sensitive method to determine the concentration of soluble protein. When the Bradford reagent (Coomassie Brilliant Blue binds to the protein, the colour changes from red to purple and the absorption maximum changes from 495 to 595 nm. The value obtained as the final concentration of proteins was 7.3495. SDS-PAGE is a method to separate mixtures of proteins by electrophoresis. Protein molecules are negatively charged by binding of SDS molecules; subsequently they are separated in an electric field. Their differences in size (molecular weight leads to separation. In this case the method is used to follow proteolytic degradation of hazelnut proteins (allergens by intestinal proteases (trypsin, pepsin. A different, more specific and sensitive method is immunoblotting (Western Blot in which the SDS-PAGE separated proteins are transferred from the gel to a membrane and specific antibodies are used in a series of reactions to visualize specific allergens on this membrane. The remarked spots represented a positive

  8. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    to be a general characteristic of food allergens is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general are more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, concluding that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic......, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis and GPC. To study the sensitising capacity groups of BN rats were immunised with the intact allergen or digestion products hereof by i.p. immunisation and specific antibody responses were examined by ELISAs, RBL-assay or avidity measurements. Comparison...... of aggregates is suggested by the epitope mapping study, where survival of conformational epitopes is demonstrated. This together with the findings, that fractionation of digestion products leads to a loss of the sensitising potential, reveals that the allergenicity had to be more than simply a result...

  9. Allergenic Characterization of 27-kDa Glycoprotein, a Novel Heat Stable Allergen, from the Pupa of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm.

  10. Characterization of Allergen Exposure in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-17

    dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...Monoclonal Antibodies to the Major Feline Allergen Fel d 1. 1I. Single Step Affinity Purification of Fel d 1, N-Terminal Sequence Analysis, and Development of

  11. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating a

  12. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans : Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating a

  13. Peanut Allergens Attached With p-Aminobenzamidine Are More Resistant to Digestion than Native Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undigested foods are excreted rather than absorbed and therefore, peanut allergens, if undigested, may not cause an allergic reaction in peanut-allergic individuals. Our objective was to make peanut allergens more resistant to digestion by preparing allergen conjugates and demonstrating that the con...

  14. Effective Allergen Management : Precautionary (may contain) allergen labeling; when to apply?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort. M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    When do you label food products as having been possibly cross contaminated by allergens? TNO can help you to develop a quantitative risk management guidance for food allergens, based on a unique method that quantifies the risk of food allergen traces in products and validated data on thresholds. Thi

  15. Identification of Aspergillus (A flavus and A niger Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients’ IgE Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Vermani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species (A flavus and A niger are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current  diagnostic  modalities  employ  crude  Aspergillus  extracts  which  only  indicate  the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients’ IgE response to them.Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergicrhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients’ sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST. Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients’ IgE response to them.Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A flavusand A niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A niger extract, major allergens being49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients’ IgE in A flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa. The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients.These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients’ IgE response to major/minorAspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  16. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  17. Indoor allergens: identification and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, C.E.; Swanson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    A large number of allergens occur in the air of the home and many work sites. Almost any organic dust or volatile chemical reactive with proteins can cause allergic respiratory disease: allergic rhinitis, asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis). If the exposure continues several years after the disease begins there may be permanent disability, so recognition and control of exposure are important. Techniques now exist to sample the particulate antigens suspended in the air and assay them by sensitive immunochemical methods.

  18. Recombinant expression systems for allergen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2006-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy of future is likely to be based on allergy vaccines that contain engineered allergens modified to abolish or substantially reduce their IgE-binding activity in order to remove the risk of unwanted anaphylactic responses. The development of efficient systems for the production of recombinant allergens in sufficient quantities is requirement for establishing use of engineered allergens as components of allergy vaccines. This review outlines relative advantages and disadvantages of various heterologous systems for production of recombinant allergens. Microbial systems are most convenient and cost effective platforms for the production of recombinant allergens. However, lack of post-translational processing implies that some allergens have to be expressed in eukaryotic systems for proper folding and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Yeast systems can yield high levels of recombinant allergens but often are associated with hyper- glycosylation problems. Mammalian cell culture systems offer suitable post -translational modifications but are nearly hundred fold more expensive than microbial systems. The use of plants as bio-factories for production of recombinant allergens is emerging as a very attractive option as plants-based production system offer several advantages over other expression systems such as post translational processing of proteins, low production costs, scale up ability and enhanced safety due to absence of animal or human pathogens.

  19. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  20. Study of the epitope structure of purified Dac G I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne pollens, using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, W; Mécheri, S; Peltre, G; David, B; Hébert, J

    1988-11-15

    The use of mAb allowed us to further analyze the cross-reactivity between purified Dac g I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Lolium perenne (Rye grass), respectively. It was first shown, using IEF, followed by immunoprinting, that serum IgE antibodies from most grass-sensitive patients recognize both Dac g I and Lol p I. Second, three different anti-Lol p I mAb, 290A-167, 348A-6, and 539A-6, and one anti-Dac g I mAb, P3B2 were all shown to react with Dac g I and Lol p I, indicating that the two molecules share common epitopes. Epitope specificity of the mAb was determined by competitive binding inhibition of a given labeled mAb to solid phase fixed Dac g I or Lol p I by the mAb. The results indicated that the four mAb are directed against four different and non-overlapping epitopes present on both allergens. Using double-binding RIA, our data strongly suggest that the common epitopes are not repetitive on both molecules. In addition to their similar physicochemical characteristics, such as isolectric points and m.w., Dac g I and Lol p I share four identical epitopes. Binding inhibition of human IgE to Lol p I and Dac g I by the mAb was also assessed. The results indicated that each mAb was able to inhibit such reactions to variable degree but no additive inhibition was observed when two mAb of different specificities were used in combination, suggesting that the human IgE binding site is partially shared by each epitope recognized by the four mAb.

  1. Influence of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Allergenic Properties of Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) Allergen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenxing; LIN Hong; CAO Limin

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0 ℃ or 50 ℃for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0 ℃. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50 ℃. In the determination of allergenicity with CiELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  2. The allergenic significance of certain fungi rarely reported as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, E H; Northey, W T; Leathers, C R

    1975-12-01

    The allergenic significance of seven different species of fungi was investigated. Included were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Podaxis pistillaris, Stemonitis ferruginea, Lycogala epidendrum, Fuligo septica, Ustilago maydis and Puccinia cynodontis. All of these fungi have wide distribution patterns and aerially disseminated spores but, because of their unique growth characteristics, are usually not reported in atmospheric fungal surveys. Seventy-eight patients were treated for dermal sensitivity to extracts of the organisms after the spores were extracted in 50% glycerinated Coca's solution. The results represent a six-month test period. Forty-four patients, representing 56% of the total number tested, demonstrated dermal reactivity toward one or more of the extracts.

  3. Kiwifruit Allergy in Children: Characterization of Main Allergens and Patterns of Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno Álvarez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit allergy has been described mostly in the adult population, but immunoglobulin (IgE-mediated allergic reactions to kiwifruit appear to be occurring more frequently in children. To date, 13 allergens from kiwifruit have been identified. Our aim was to identify kiwifruit allergens in a kiwifruit allergic-pediatric population, describing clinical manifestations and patterns of recognition. Twenty-four children were included. Diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy was based on compatible clinical manifestations and demonstration of specific IgE by skin prick test (SPT and/or serum-specific IgE determination. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting were performed with kiwifruit extract, and proteins of interest were further analyzed by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. For component-resolved in vitro diagnosis, sera of kiwifruit-allergic patients were analyzed by an allergen microarray assay. Act d 1 and Act d 2 were bound by IgE from 15 of 24 children. Two children with systemic manifestations recognized a protein of 15 kDa, homologous to Act d 5. Act d 1 was the allergen with the highest frequency of recognition on microarray chip, followed by Act d 2 and Act d 8. Kiwifruit allergic children develop systemic reactions most frequently following ingestion compared to adults. Act d 1 and Act d 2 are major allergens in the pediatric age group.

  4. Profilins: Mimickers of Allergy or Relevant Allergens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Santos; R. van Ree

    2011-01-01

    Profilins are ubiquitous proteins, present in all eukaryotic cells and identified as allergens in pollen, latex and plant foods. The highly conserved structure justifies the cross-reactive nature of IgE antibodies against plant profilins and their designation as pan-allergens. Primary sensitization

  5. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS § 680.1 Allergenic Products. (a) Definition. Allergenic... (b). (ii) Mold cultures shall be free of contaminating materials (including microorganisms) prior to... individual, that will ensure the identity of the seed culture, prescribe adequate processing of the mold,...

  6. New structural information on food allergens (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small number of protein families are responsible for food allergies suffered by the majority of allergy patients. What properties of these proteins make them allergens is not clear at present. Reliable methods for allergen prediction and mitigation are lacking. Most the immediate type of food alle...

  7. From allergen genes to allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Ferreira, Fatima; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Niederberger, Verena; Swoboda, Ines; Vrtala, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. The structures of the most common allergens have been revealed through molecular cloning technology in the past two decades. On the basis of this knowledge of the sequences and three-dimensional structures of culprit allergens, investigators can now analyze the immune recognition of allergens and the mechanisms of allergic inflammation in allergic patients. Allergy vaccines have been constructed that are able to selectively target the aberrant immune responses in allergic patients via different pathways of the immune system. Here we review various types of allergy vaccines that have been developed based on allergen structures, results from their clinical application in allergic patients, and future strategies for allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergy prophylaxis.

  8. Target Identification in Ory S1 Pollen Protein Allergen from Oryza sativa in the Course of Construction of Hypoallergenic Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity, such as hypoallergens. Recombinant allergens represent promising tools for diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy. This approach was probably feasible with every allergen with known amino acid sequence. Approach: The primary aim of this study was to determine the consensus epitope from twenty homologous protein sequences of Ory S1 allergenic protein sequence from Oryza sativa (indica group pollen. Molecular modeling calculations had been used to investigate the allergenic protein models for the epitope. Results: Oryza sativa (japonica, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Dactylis glomerata and Zea mays were found more closely related (alignment score 1145-812 among all the homologs and investigated further. The major binding pocket comprised an area of 604.5 Å2 and 970 Å3 volume and another key binding pocket had 425.6 Ų area and 658.8 ų volume. The residues found in the key site included ile2, lys13, cys14, ser15, lys16, pro17, ala25, leu26, ile27, tyr40, his41, phe42, asp43, leu44, ser45, gly46, leu47, ala48, met49, ala50, asp55, leu58, arg59, ala61, gly62, ile63, ile64, asp65, gln67, phe68; corresponding to the allergen binding site and the IgE binding epitope given in the title. Conclusion: These are the functional sites on the allergenic proteins that can be mutated to develop hypoallergenic vaccine. These sites can be rationalized on the basis of simple arguments that lead to vaccine development, by predicting the structure of the allergenic epitopes and comparative analysis.

  9. Effects of NO2 and ozone on pollen allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eFrank

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed.

  10. Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, S; Grote, M; Duchêne, M; van Ree, R; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Valenta, R

    1993-01-01

    In this study we reinvestigated the kinetics of allergen release from birch pollen (Betula verrucosa) and timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) using different protein extraction procedures, immunoblotting with specific antibodies and immune electron microscopy. Pollen allergens such as the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, the major timothy grass pollen allergens, Phl p I and Phl p V, group-II/III allergens from timothy grass and profilins were released rapidly and in large amounts from hydrated pollen. Within a few minutes pollen allergens could be detected in aqueous supernatants prepared from birch and grass pollen with serum IgE or specific antibodies. In parallel the allergen content in the pollen pellet fractions decreased. A nonallergenic protein such as heat shock protein 70 can be extracted in sufficient amounts only with harsh extraction procedures. Immune electron microscopy of dry and rehydrated birch pollens showed that after short hydration, the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, migrated into the exine and to the surface of intact pollen grains, whereas profilin, against which a lower percentage of patients is sensitized, was retained in the pollen grain. Comparing the amino acid composition and hydrophilicity of the tested allergens with a nonallergenic protein such as heat shock protein 70, no significant difference was noted. In agreement with earlier observations we conclude that the allergenic properties of proteins are rather linked to the amount and speed of solubility from airborne particles than to intrinsic properties.

  11. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  12. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca X. M. Rego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5% had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%, B. tropicalis (53.4%, T. putrescentiae (15.0%, E. maynei (12.3%, L. destructor (8.2%, B. germanica (20.5%, P. americana (21.9%, Felis catus (10.9%, C. herbarium (2.7%, A. alternata (4.1%, and P. notatun (1.3%. The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks.

  13. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  14. Beneficial cross-protection of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway eosinophilia using unrelated or a partial repertoire of allergen(s) implicated in experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol; Lee-Fowler, Tekla; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Cohn, Leah; Declue, Amy

    2012-06-01

    The study hypothesis was that in experimentally asthmatic cats rush immunotherapy (RIT) using allergens not completely matched with sensitizing allergen(s) would at least partially attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and modulate the aberrant immune response. In phase I, cats sensitized to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA), house dust mite allergen (HDMA) or placebo received BGA RIT. In phase II, cats dually sensitized to BGA and HDMA received RIT using BGA, HDMA or placebo. Efficacy of RIT was assessed using percentage bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophils. Additionally, a variety of immunologic assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation significantly decreased over time in asthmatic cats given RIT using sensitizing allergen or unrelated allergen (P<0.001). In dually sensitized cats, single allergen RIT but not placebo reduced airway eosinophilia (P=0.038). Differences in allergen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, in the number of IL-10 producing cells and in the percentage T regulatory cells were detected between asthmatic cats getting RIT and controls. Cross-protection manifested by reduced airway eosinophilia was noted in cats treated with RIT allergens which did not completely match allergen used in asthma induction. However, the mechanism of immunologic tolerance may differ when improperly matched allergens to the sensitizing allergens are used in RIT.

  15. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2–12, 55–67, 98–120, 125–133, 149–160, 170–182, 201–208 and 223–227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83–92, 139–147 and 162–170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies. PMID:27840898

  16. Allergenic properties of apples – molecular basis, factors determining level of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Trzcińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2% of the northern and central European population is allergic to apples. This explains why there is a lot of interest in allergenic properties of apples. This study presents four major identified allergens. Three of them – Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 – are pathogenesis-related proteins. The fourth – Mal d 4 – is categorized as a profilin. This paper describes the influence of different factors such as apple variety, cultivation method and long term storage on the allergen content and synthesis of allergens in apples. The article describes attempts at growing hypoallergenic apples, safe for consumers with mild allergy.

  17. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruna Khurana

    Full Text Available German cockroach (GCr allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency.Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts.Single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA.Chicken scFv's generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv's recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target.An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts.

  18. NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase, a major allergen of Cladosporium herbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Denk, Ursula; Schneider, Peter Bernhard; Radauer, Christian; Teige, Markus; Crameri, Reto; Hawranek, Thomas; Lang, Roland; Richter, Klaus; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Nobbe, Stephan; Hartl, Arnulf; Breitenbach, Michael

    2006-06-16

    Cladosporium herbarum is an important allergenic fungal species that has been reported to cause allergic diseases in nearly all climatic zones. 5-30% of the allergic population displays IgE antibodies against molds. Sensitization to Cladosporium has often been associated with severe asthma and less frequently with chronic urticaria and atopic eczema. However, no dominant major allergen of this species has been found so far. We present cloning, production, and characterization of NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase of C. herbarum (Cla h 8) and show that this protein is a major allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies of approximately 57% of all Cladosporium allergic patients. This is the highest percentage of patients reacting with any Cladosporium allergen characterized so far. Cla h 8 was purified to homogeneity by standard chromatographic methods, and both N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of protein fragments were determined. Enzymatic analysis of the purified natural protein revealed that this allergen represents a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase that interconverts mannitol and d-fructose. It is a soluble, non-glycosylated cytoplasmic protein. Two-dimensional protein analysis indicated that mannitol dehydrogenase is present as a single isoform. The cDNA encoding Cla h 8 was cloned from a lambda-ZAP library constructed from hyphae and spores. The recombinant non-fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Its immunological and biochemical identity with the natural protein was shown by enzyme activity tests, CD spectroscopy, IgE immunoblots with sera of patients, and by skin prick testing of Cladosporium allergic patients. This protein therefore is a new major allergen of C. herbarum.

  19. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  20. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...... in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically...... appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. CONCLUSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Dhami, Sangeeta; Netuveli, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. Methods:Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using ran...

  2. Assessment of allergen specific response in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Archila Diaz, Luis Diego

    2015-01-01

    [eng] Allergies are emerging as a major public health concern in the westernized world as they are increasing for reasons that remain poorly understood. Allergies involving polysensitization and multiple organ involvement result in decreased quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality. Allergic subjects can be poly-sensitized to different allergens due to phylogenetic relatedness; several species contain shared allergenic epitopes. This phenomenon occurs both at the IgE as the T cell ...

  3. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  4. Allergen specific immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one antigen has been used for immunotherapy of allergic disorders. So far less than five antigens have been employed with variable results. AIM: To evaluate effect of multiple antigens up to six in the immunotherapy of nasobronchial allergy. SETTING AND DESIGN: Based on clinical history, symptoms present for at least 3 years with set criteria of immunomodulation for asthma and rhinitis: documented IgE mediated asthma and rhinitis, failure in allergen avoidance and moderate to severe clinical manifestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred cases of various allergic disorders attending allergy clinic of Bombay hospital were screened. Allergen specific immunotherapy was initiated in 131 subjects (56 -rhinitis and 75 asthma with prior consent. Patients suffering from allergic disorders secondary to diseases or drug therapy were excluded. Multiple allergen immunotherapy was given at specific intervals up to a period of one year. Allergen extracts were prepared as per standard technique. For statistical analysis "students′t test" was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement in PEFR, reduction in skin sensitivity to allergens used in immunotherapy formulation and symptomatic relief without any untoward reaction show that multiple allergen immunotherapy is as effective as monoallergen immunotherapy in nasobronchial allergy.

  5. High pressure effects on allergen food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, Judit; Smeller, László

    2013-12-15

    There are several proteins, which can cause allergic reaction if they are inhaled or ingested. Our everyday food can also contain such proteins. Food allergy is an IgE-mediated immune disorder, a growing health problem of great public concern. High pressure is known to affect the structure of proteins; typically few hundred MPa pressure can lead to denaturation. That is why several trials have been performed to alter the structure of the allergen proteins by high pressure, in order to reduce its allergenicity. Studies have been performed both on simple protein solutions and on complex food systems. Here we review those allergens which have been investigated under or after high pressure treatment by methods capable of detecting changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins. We focus on those allergenic proteins, whose structural changes were investigated by spectroscopic methods under pressure in correlation with the observed allergenicity (IgE binding) changes. According to this criterion we selected the following allergen proteins: Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 (apple), Bos d 5 (milk), Dau c 1 (carrot), Gal d 2 (egg), Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 (peanut), and Gad m 1 (cod).

  6. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  7. Effects of phytic acid on peanut allergens and allergenic properties of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Champagne, Elaine T

    2007-10-31

    Phytic acid would form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. Our objective was to determine if phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens, and if such reaction results in a peanut extract with a lower level of soluble allergens and allergenic property. Extracts from raw and roasted peanuts were treated with and without phytic acid at various pH values and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA). The ciELISA measured IgE binding using a pooled serum from peanut-allergic individuals. Results showed that phytic acid formed complexes with the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2), which were insoluble in acidic and neutral conditions. Succinylation of the allergens inhibited complex formation, indicating that lysine residues were involved. A 6-fold reduction in IgE binding or allergenic potency of the extract was observed after treatment with phytic acid. It was concluded that phytic acid formed insoluble complexes with the major peanut allergens, and resulted in a peanut extract with reduced allergenic potency. Application of phytic acid to a peanut butter slurry presented a similar result, indicating that phytic acid may find use in the development of hypoallergenic peanut-based products.

  8. A Photo-immobilized Allergen Microarray for Screening of Allergen-specific IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Ohyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an in vitro system to diagnose allergy using an allergen microarray and photo-immobilization technique. Photo-immobilization is useful for preparing the allergen microarray because it does not require specific functional groups of the allergen and because any organic material can be immobilized by a radical reaction induced by photo-irradiation. To prepare the plates, allergen solutions were mixed with polymer and a bis- azidophenyl derivative, a photo-reactive cross-linker, the mixtures were micro-spotted on the plate, and the droplets were dried. The plate was irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp for immobilization. For the assay, human serum was added to the microarray plate. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE adsorbed on the micro- spotted allergen was detected by peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgE antibody. The chemiluminescence intensities of the substrate decomposed by the peroxidase were detected with a sensitive CCD camera. All allergens were immobilized by this method and used to screen allergen-specific IgE.

  9. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Milcic-Matic, Natalija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Vuckovic, Olga; Burazer, Lidija; Popovic, Nikola; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2013-09-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an immune system disorder that affects 10-15% of the canine population. Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. In Serbia, about 66% of atopic dogs showed a positive intradermal skin test with its pollen extract, which is second to house dust mites. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection. A specific IgE band (38 kDa) was recognized as the most dominant allergen in CAD, occurring in 81% of positive dog's sera. 2-D immunoblotting followed by a mass spectrometry peptide fingerprint analyses with pooled canine and human atopic sera, revealed that 38 kDa major Ambrosia atremisiifolia allergens in CAD were all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (antigen E), including the previously named Amb a 2 (antigen K). In contrast to canine sera, human atopic sera also recognized lower mass allergens such as the β fragment of Amb a 1 and profilins (Amb a 8 variants). The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (pectate lyase): Amb a 1.0101 and its natural variant E1XUL2, Amb a 1.0202, 1.0304, 1.0402 and the natural variant of Amb a 1.0501, E1XUM0, as well as the

  10. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Bousquet, Jean; Sheikh, Aziz; Frew, Anthony; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Malling, Hans J; Valenta, Rudolph; Bilo, Beatrice; Nieto, Antonio; Akdis, Cezmi; Just, Jocelyne; Vidal, Carmen; Varga, Eva M; Alvarez-Cuesta, Emilio; Bohle, Barbara; Bufe, Albrecht; Canonica, Walter G; Cardona, Victoria; Dahl, Ronald; Didier, Alain; Durham, Stephen R; Eng, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Jacobsen, Lars; Jutel, Marek; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Lötvall, Jan; Moreno, Carmen; Mosges, Ralph; Muraro, Antonella; Niggemann, Bodo; Pajno, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Rak, Sabina; Senna, Gianenrico; Senti, Gabriela; Valovirta, Erkka; van Hage, Marianne; Virchow, Johannes C; Wahn, Ulrich; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-10-30

    Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals' quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a

  11. Culture filtrate antigens and allergens of Epicoccum nigrum cultivated in modified semi-synthetic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Vandana; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Kumar, Raj; Arora, Naveen; Sridhara, Susheela

    2002-05-01

    Epicoccum nigrum (EN) is an important fungal allergen for nasobronchial allergy. Fungal extracts should contain all the relevant allergen components from spores, mycelium and culture medium for the purpose of allergy diagnosis and therapy. EN extract from spore-mycelial mass has been standardized, but the culture filtrate (CF) allergens of EN have not been studied as EN grows poorly in synthetic medium. The objective of the present study was to obtain a standard CF extract of EN by cultivating the source material in a modified semi-synthetic medium and to compare this with the EN cellular extract. Sabouraud's medium containing yeast extract (50 mg/l) was filtered using 10-kDa cut-off membrane and the lower molecular mass media components were used to cultivate EN. The CF obtained after removing the spore-mycelia was dialyzed to remove media components. The CF extract was characterized by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. It was compared with EN spore-mycelial extract by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ELISA inhibition and by intradermal testing on allergy patients. The CF extract of EN resolved into 30 protein bands on SDS-PAGE. About 27 IgG bands were detected using anti-EN rabbit antibodies and 12 IgE bands by EN-sensitive pooled patients' sera. Periodate modification of CF proteins showed that the carbohydrate moieties are not important for IgE binding. Protein components of 26, 34 and 43 kDa were recognized as the major CF allergens. Three different batches of CF extract required 7.5-9 ng of self protein for 50% inhibition of binding to anti-EN rabbit antibodies in ELISA. Intradermal testing with CF extract showed comparable allergenic potency to standardized EN spore-mycelial extract, although it contained some allergenic proteins in higher amounts as compared to the spore-mycelial extract. In summary, the semi-synthetic medium has been suitably modified for obtaining EN CF antigens. This medium can

  12. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Moises A

    2012-10-01

    which Europe is recognized as a worldwide leader. Evaluation and surveillance of the full cost of allergic diseases is still lacking and further progress is being stifled by the variety of health systems across Europe. This means that the general population remains unaware of the potential use of allergen specific immunotherapy and its potential benefits. We call upon Europe’s policy-makers to coordinate actions and improve individual and public health in allergy by: Promoting awareness of the effectiveness of allergen specific immunotherapy Updating national healthcare policies to support allergen specific immunotherapy Prioritising funding for allergen specific immunotherapy research Monitoring the macroeconomic and health economic parameters of allergy Reinforcing allergy teaching in medical disciplines and specialties The effective implementation of the above policies has the potential for a major positive impact on European health and well-being in the next decade.

  13. Molecules Best Paper Award 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Derek J

    2013-02-05

    Molecules has started to institute a "Best Paper" award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the second "Molecules Best Paper Award" for 2013.

  14. Fraxinus pollen and allergen concentrations in Ourense (South-western Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, A; Fernández-González, M; Aira, M J; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J

    2016-05-01

    In temperate zones of North-Central Europe the sensitization to ash pollen is a recognized problem, also extended to the Northern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Some observations in Switzerland suggest that ash pollen season could be as important as birch pollen period. The allergenic significance of this pollen has been poorly studied in Southern Europe as the amounts of ash pollen are low. Due to the high degree of family relationship with the olive pollen major allergen (backed by a sequence identity of 88%), the Fraxinus pollen could be a significant cause of early respiratory allergy in sensitized people to olive pollen as consequence of cross-reactivity processes. Ash tree flowers in the Northwestern Spain during the winter months. The atmospheric presence of Ole e 1-like proteins (which could be related with the Fra a 1 presence) can be accurately detected using Ole e 1 antibodies. The correlation analysis showed high Spearman correlation coefficients between pollen content and rainfall (R(2)=-0.333, ppollen in the air, facilitating the wind speed its submicronic allergen proteins dispersion. In order to forecast the Fraxinus allergy risk periods, two regression equations were developed with Adjusted R(2) values around 0.48-0.49. The t-test for dependent samples shows no significant differences between the observed data and the estimated by the equations. The combination of the airborne pollen content and the allergen quantification must be assessed in the epidemiologic study of allergic respiratory diseases.

  15. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahali, Y; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Zare, A [Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Medical Sciences/ University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majd, A, E-mail: youcef.shahali@espci.f [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  16. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  17. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

  18. Carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and lupus-inducibility of arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King-Thom

    2016-01-01

    Arylamines are widely used in food, drugs, and cosmetics as well as other industries. These chemicals are present ubiquitously in cigarette smoke, smoke emitted from cooking fume hoods as well as are generated by diverse industries. Arylamines can be generated by cleavage of azo dyes by intestinal and skin microbiota. Some arylamines are used as drugs while others are constituents of human metabolism. Many of the arylamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic. They are generally recognized as the major cause of human bladder cancer, but arylamines can induce cancers of other organs in humans and animals. Some arylamines are allergenic, causing lupus like syndrome, or other maladies. In view of their unbiquitious nature and the diseases they cause, arylamines are probably the most important chemicals causing health problems.

  19. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  20. Lipid transfer protein : a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; Vries, de S.C.; Gautier, M.F.; Ciurana, C.L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R.C.; Ree, van R.

    2000-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly

  1. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  2. Recombinant allergen Lol p II: expression, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Brandazza, A; De Lalla, C; Musco, G; Siccardi, A G; Arosio, P; Sidoli, A

    1995-05-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) is a major cause of type I allergies worldwide. It contains complex mixtures of proteins, among which Lol p II is a major allergen. Previously, we have reported the cloning and sequencing of Lol p II and its expression in fusion with the heavy chain of human ferritin as carrier polypeptide (Sidoli et al., 1993, J. biol. Chem. 268, 21819-21825). Here, we describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p II overproduced as a non-fusion protein in the periplasm of E. coli. The recombinant allergen was expressed in high yields and was easily purified in milligram amounts. It competed with the natural Lol p II for binding to specific IgE, and it induced allergic responses in skin prick tests, indicating to be immunologically analogous to the natural protein. Biochemical analyses indicate that recombinant Lol p II is a highly stable and soluble monomeric molecule which behaves like a small globular protein.

  3. Allergen avoidance: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, A; Custovic, A

    2000-01-01

    The first recorded example of allergen avoidance in the treatment of allergic disorders dates from the 16th century. The Italian physician Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576) was invited to Scotland by John Hamilton, Archbishop of St Andrews (and brother of the Regent), to give advice on the treatment of his asthma. Cardano recommended that the Archbishop should get rid of his feather bedding, which was followed by a 'miraculous' remission of otherwise troublesome symptoms. The first controlled attempts to treat asthma by environmental manipulation date to the beginning of 20th century. In 1925, the Leopold brothers treated patients with asthma and other allergic disorders by moving them into a dust free room. Storm van Leeuwen created a 'climate' chamber in The Netherlands in 1927 and demonstrated that asthmatic patients improved when moved from their homes into the chamber. One year later, Dekker observed that measures aimed at reducing the amount of dust in bedrooms had a beneficial effect on asthma symptoms in patients allergic to house dust. Van Leeuwen wrote: 'In our endeavours to find the cause of the attack ... we utilised the known fact that the environment of the asthmatic patient is, as a rule, of primary importance in determining the intensity and frequency of his attacks'. Nowadays, more than ever, it is essential to address the environmental influences on the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders.

  4. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  5. 78 FR 66011 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ..., perennial rye, Timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass mixed pollens allergen extract tablet for sublingual use... recommendations on the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy grass pollen allergen extract tablet...

  6. Update in the Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotheraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a complex innate and adoptive immune response to natural environmental allergens with Th2-type T cells and allergen-specific IgE predominance. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective therapeutic approach for disregulated immune response towards allergens by enhancing immune tolerance mechanisms. The main aim of immunotherapy is the generation of allergen nonresponsive or tolerant T cells in sensitized patients and downregulation of predominant T cell- and IgE-mediated immune responses. During allergen-specific immunotherapy, T regulatory cells are generated, which secrete IL-10 and induce allergen-specific B cells for the production of IgG4 antibodies. These mechanisms induce tolerance to antigens that reduces allergic symptoms. Although current knowledge highlights the role of T regulatory cell-mediated immunetolerance, definite mechanisms that lead to a successful clinical outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy still remains an open area of research. PMID:21217920

  7. 76 FR 59406 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... medical literature concerning the use of non-standardized allergen extracts in the diagnosis and treatment... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergen Extracts in the Diagnosis...

  8. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S

    2010-01-01

    Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being...... developed to improve the quality of diagnosis, and to reduce the need for food challenge tests. In addition, recombinant allergens are being evaluated as candidate vaccines for safe and efficacious specific immunotherapy. Pure allergens are indispensable as reference materials for the calibration...... and standardization of methods between different laboratories and operators for risk assessment in the food industry. Therefore, there is a need for well-defined purified food allergens. In this context, a panel of 46 food allergens from plant and animal sources has been purified, from either the food sources...

  9. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1 cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases.

  10. Modifications of allergenicity linked to food technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergies (FA) has increased over the past fifteen years. The reasons suggested are changes in dietary behaviour and the evolution of food technologies. New cases of FA have been described with chayote, rambutan, arguta, pumpkin seeds, custard apple, and with mycoproteins from Fusarium.... Additives using food proteins are at high risk: caseinates, lysozyme, cochineal red, papaïn, alpha-amylase, lactase etc. Heating can reduce allergenicity or create neo-allergens, as well as storage, inducing the synthesis of allergenic stress or PR proteins. Aeroallergens (miles, moulds) contaminate foods and can induce allergic reactions. Involuntary contamination by peanut proteins on production lines is a problem which is not yet solved. Genetically modified plants are at risk of allergenicity, requiring methodological steps of investigations: the comparison of the amino-acid sequence of the transferred protein with the sequence of known allergens, the evaluation of thermo degradability and of the denaturation by pepsin and trypsin are required, as well as the study with sera from patients allergic to the plant producing the gene. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis, heating, or the development of genetically modified plants may offer new alternatives towards hypoallergenic foods (57 references).

  11. Generation of transgenic rice lines with reduced contents of multiple potential allergens using a null mutant in combination with an RNA silencing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Hirano, Kana; Urisu, Atsuo; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-12-01

    Rice seed proteins are known to be a causative antigen in some patients with food allergy, especially cereal allergy, with clinical symptoms such as eczema and dermatitis. The α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (14-16 kDa), α-globulin (26 kDa) and β-glyoxalase I (33 kDa) are regarded as major potential allergens of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed based on specific recognition by serum IgE from allergy patients. In order to suppress the production of these major allergens in rice grains, a mutant in the 'Koshihikari' background lacking the 26 kDa allergen (GbN-1) was used as a host for RNA silencing. A binary vector harboring two RNA interference (RNAi) gene cassettes for suppression of 14-16 kDa and 33 kDa allergens driven by the 13 kDa and 10 kDa prolamin endosperm-specific promoters, respectively, was introduced into the GbN-1 genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In the most promising transgenic line, the content of the three potential allergens was remarkably reduced to a very faint level without a change in seed phenotype. IgE binding of 15 patients' sera to the transgenic rice seed mostly deficient in the three major allergens was on average only about 10% that of the control wild-type rice, suggesting that these three accounted for the great majority of rice seed causative allergens recognized by patients' IgE and that the sequential allergen deletion/reduction strategy works in the development of hypo-allergenic rice lines.

  12. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning.

  13. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin.

  14. Isolation, expression and characterization of a minor allergen from Penicillium crustosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, M Serdal; Kumar, Veena; Abebe, Makonnen; Lemieux, Michèle; Vijay, Hari M

    2014-01-01

    A ribosomal P1 protein, Pen b 26 from Penicillium brevicompactum, was previously identified as a major allergen. A homolog protein was isolated and characterized from Penicillium crustosum which is not known to be allergenic mold. A cDNA library of P. crustosum was constructed and screened using a probe based on the DNA sequence of Pen b 26. A positive clone was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by comparing its immunological and physical properties to Pen b 26. It was designated as Pen cr 26 and had a 321 nt ORF corresponding to 107 amino acids with a MW of 11 kDa. Pen cr 26 had strong sequence homology to Pen b 26 (92% for nucleotides and 86% for amino acids) and its physical and predicted structural properties were similar to the latter. The level of expression of Pen cr 26 was much lower than that of Pen b 26 in the same expression vector. Both proteins were recognized equally well by the IgG class specific antibodies, but Pen cr 26 was poorly recognized by Penicillium-sensitive atopic sera (IgE), suggesting striking antigenic difference in IgE epitopes, i.e., 87% were positive for Pen b 26 while only 23% were positive for Pen cr 26. The allergenicity of Pen cr 26 seems to be minor in nature and it could be a hypoallergenic variant of Pen b 26.

  15. The current state of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Malling, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a well documented treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The majority of the disadvantages of the treatment are related to the poor quality of the natural allergen extracts which can contain varying amounts of individual allergens including allergens to which...

  16. Oxazolone (OXA) is a respiratory allergen in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Radonjic, M.; Triel, J. van; Stierum, R.; Groot, R.J. de; Arts, J.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxazolone (OXA) is a potent contact allergen in man, and it is used as a model Th1-allergen to test (Q)SAR's and screening assays for allergenic potential of chemicals. However, it elevates serum IgE levels and Thelper2 cytokines at relatively low doses in test animals, suggesting that it has also r

  17. An alternative inhibition method for determining cross-reactive allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Hieltjes, Yvonne; Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Jansen, Ad; Hartog, Den Gerco; Elfvering-Berendsen, Lisette; Jong, De Nicolette W.; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition assays are an useful tool to identify the allergen of primary sensitization of cross-reactive allergens. Classical ELISA-based inhibition assays are limited by both the availability of commercial standardized allergen extracts and the experience and knowledge needed for making home-made e

  18. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  19. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  20. Pin p 1 is a major allergen in pine nut and the first food allergen described in the plant group of gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Crespo, Jesus F; Maleki, Soheila J; Rodriguez, Julia; Novak, Natalija

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to report the complete sequence of a 2S albumin purified from pine nut and to analyze its allergenic properties. Individual recognition of this protein by serum IgE from pine nut-allergic patients was assessed. IgE cross-linking capacity was analyzed in a basophil activation test. Inhibition of IgE-binding and stability to heating was also assessed. The complete nucleotide sequence was obtained and a phylogenetic study was carried out. 2S albumin from pine nut (registered as Pin p 1.0101) was recognized by IgE of 75% of sera. The allergen was heat-stable and had a robust capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to whole pine nut extract. The IgE cross-linking capacity of Pin p 1 on basophils was also demonstrated. Despite the low homology of Pin p 1 sequence with other allergenic 2S albumins from angiosperms, Pin p 1 contains the typical skeleton of 8 cysteine residues, important for its α-helixes enriched structure.

  1. Novel Approaches and Perspectives in Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Valovirta, Erkka; Pfaar, Oliver;

    2017-01-01

    In this review we report on relevant current topics in allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which were broadly discussed during the 1(st) Aarhus Immunotherapy Symposium (Aarhus, Denmark) in December, 2015 by leading clinicians, scientists and industry representatives in the field. The aim of this symposium...... have substantiated proof of effectiveness of this disease-modifying therapeutic option. Novel treatments like peptide immunotherapy, intralymphatic immunotherapy and use of recombinant allergens herald a new age in which AIT may address treatment of allergy as a public health issue by reaching a large...

  2. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2...... and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive...

  3. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  4. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  5. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  6. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  7. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eZahradnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day care centers and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors.Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended.

  8. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H;

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilised birch pollen allergen extracts, reconstituted with different diluents (H2O, saline, Albumin diluent (AD] were investigated to determine whether the allergen activity and quality of the extracts deteriorated by nebulization with different nebulizers (Pari, Wright, and Sandoz). Allergen...... activity was measured by IgG4 RAST inhibition technique and allergen quality was analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The distribution of particle sizes of aerosols of different allergen solutions was determined by a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. A significant difference (P less than 0.......05) in allergen activity was found between the AD and H2O diluents before and after using a Sandoz nebulizer and a Wright nebulizer equipped with a small chamber. This suggested greater allergen activity in AD-diluted solutions, and the pattern was repeated with the other two nebulizers, but was not statistically...

  9. Diesel exhaust particles and allergenicity of pollen grains of Lilium martagon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Kouhkan, Fatemeh

    2008-03-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are considered as the most important parts of air pollutants. Diesel exhaust particles have been shown to express both adjuvant activity for sensitization against common allergens and enhancing effects on allergic symptoms in sensitized individuals. In this research, pollen grains of Lilium martagon that are known as a non-allergic substance were collected and exposed to DEP 5 and 10 days. The allergy potency of different pollen extracts were compared by means of skin test, as well as analyses blood eosinophil numbers and IgE levels in the treated animals. Normal and DEP-exposed pollen grains were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Pollen extracts were also studied by SDS-PAGE for DEP-induced changes in protein profiles. Allergic bands were also studied and checked by using immunoblotting method. The results of the investigated allergy tests showed that DEP-exposed pollen grains are effective in inducing allergic symptoms. According to our microscopic observations, organic substances that exist in the DEP, mediate agglomeration of particles on the pollen surface. In appropriate conditions, water-soluble components of DEP may induce changes that affect the release of pollen proteins. SDS-PAGE showed protein profiles of pollen grains were changed and some new bands appeared in DEP-exposed pollen grains. Immunoblotting studies showed a new band in DEP-exposed pollen grains that react strongly with anti-IgE, but there is no allergenic band in normal pollen grains. On the other hand, diesel exhaust particles can carry pollen allergen molecules, induce new proteins (allergens), and also act as adjuvant for allergens.

  10. De allergene potentie van geneesmiddelen: literatuurstudie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Vleeming W; de Wildt DJ; van der Laan JW; de Waal EJ; van Loveren H; Garssen J; TOX; LGM; PAT

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de allergische reacties, die het gevolg zijn van geneesmiddelengebruik. De nadruk is gelegd op ernstige allergische reacties. Een overzicht -ingedeeld volgens de classificatie van Gell en Coombs wordt gegeven van geneesmiddelen met een allergene potentie. Daarn

  11. Effect of thermal processing on mealworm allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, H.; Knulst, A.; Hartog Jager, S. den; Monteleone, F.; Gaspari, M.; Jong, G. de; Houben, G.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    Scope: The growing world population requires the exploration of new sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Insects such as mealworm are promising candidates. For safety reasons, a risk assessment, including allergy risks, is needed. Since allergenicity can be influenced by thermal proc

  12. Innate immune responses to environmental allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF

    2006-01-01

    Aero-allergens, including plant pollens, house dust mite particles, fungal spores, and mycelium fragments, are continuously inhaled and deposited on the airway mucosa. These particles and their soluble components actively interact with innate recognition systems present in the mucosal layer (e.g., s

  13. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionThe goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  14. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  15. Ligand Binding Modulates the Structural Dynamics and Compactness of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E.; Freier, Regina; Kofler, Stefan; Bibi, Marium; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Liedl, Klaus R.; Tollinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related plant proteins of class-10 (PR-10) are essential for storage and transport of small molecules. A prominent member of the PR-10 family, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, is the main cause of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the northern hemisphere. Bet v 1 binds various ligand molecules to its internal cavity, and immunologic effects of the presence of ligand have been discussed. However, the mechanism of binding has remained elusive. In this study, we show that in solution Bet v 1.0101 is conformationally heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single structure. NMR relaxation data suggest that structural dynamics are fundamental for ligand access to the protein interior. Complex formation then leads to significant rigidification of the protein along with a compaction of its 3D structure. The data presented herein provide a structural basis for understanding the immunogenic and allergenic potential of ligand binding to Bet v 1 allergens. PMID:25517162

  16. Recognizing species, present and past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Nobody disputes that nature is meaningfully "packaged" in some way. But debate persists over exactly how (and even whether) the boundaries dividing taxa should (can) be drawn. At one end of the scale, some zealots abstrusely deny real existence to higher taxa.(1) At the other, laborers at the taxonomic rock-face confront genuine challenges in recognizing and delineating the species that systematists agree constitute the most fundamental unit of taxonomic analysis.

  17. Allergenic lipid transfer proteins from plant-derived foods do not immunologically and clinically behave homogeneously: the kiwifruit LTP as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Livia Bernardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food allergy is increasingly common worldwide. Tools for allergy diagnosis measuring IgE improved much since allergenic molecules and microarrays started to be used. IgE response toward allergens belonging to the same group of molecules has not been comprehensively explored using such approach yet. OBJECTIVE: Using the model of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs from plants as allergens, including two new structures, we sought to define how heterogeneous is the behavior of homologous proteins. METHODS: Two new allergenic LTPs, Act d 10 and Act c 10, have been identified in green (Actinidia deliciosa and gold (Actinidia chinensis kiwifruit (KF, respectively, using clinically characterized allergic patients, and their biochemical features comparatively evaluated by means of amino acid sequence alignments. Along with other five LTPs from peach, mulberry, hazelnut, peanut, mugwort, KF LTPs, preliminary tested positive for IgE, have been immobilized on a microarray, used for IgE testing 1,003 allergic subjects. Comparative analysis has been carried out. RESULTS: Alignment of Act d 10 primary structure with the other allergenic LTPs shows amino acid identities to be in a narrow range between 40 and 55%, with a number of substitutions making the sequences quite different from each other. Although peach LTP dominates the IgE immune response in terms of prevalence, epitope recognition driven by sequence heterogeneity has been recorded to be distributed in a wide range of behaviors. KF LTPs IgE positive results were obtained in a patient subset IgE positive for the peach LTP. Anyhow, the negative results on homologous molecules allowed us to reintroduce KF in patients' diet. CONCLUSION: The biochemical nature of allergenic molecule belonging to a group of homologous ones should not be taken as proof of immunological recognition as well. The availability of panels of homologous molecules to be tested using microarrays is valuable to address the

  18. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  19. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  20. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  1. Pollen lipidomics: lipid profiling exposes a notable diversity in 22 allergenic pollen and potential biomarkers of the allergic immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the

  2. Allergenicity of two Anisakis simplex allergens evaluated in vivo using an experimental mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Caballero, Maria Luisa; Perez-Pinar, Teresa; Rodriguez-Perez, Rosa; Ock, Mee Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Hong, Yeon Chul; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-11-01

    Anisakis (Anisakidae) is one of the most important causes of helminth-induced allergic reactions and elicits clinical responses that include urticaria, rhinitis, bronco-constriction, cough, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. More than 13 reactive allergens have been identified in the serum of Anisakis allergy patients, but the allergenicity of only a few of these have been evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. To evaluate the allergenicity of two important allergens, Ani s 1 and Ani s 9, we induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model by repeated intranasal administration of the allergens. Both recombinant proteins (rAni s 1 and rAni s 9) elicited increased airway hyperresponsivity, airway infiltration by inflammatory cells (especially eosinophils), bronchial epithelial cell hyperplasia, all of which are characteristic of allergic airway inflammation. These allergens significantly increased the levels of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-25) and Th17 related cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17) in both splenocytes and airway (except IL-17 in airway by rAni s 9). OVA-specific IgE and total IgE were increased in rAni s 1 and rAni s 9 treated mice as compared with controls treated with OVA alone. In addition, these two allergens induced gene expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 (initiators of the Th2 response), as well as CXCL1 (initiator of the Th17 response) in mouse lung epithelial cells. In conclusion, repeated intranasal treatments with rAni s 1 and rAni s 9 induced airway inflammation in mice by elevating of Th2 and Th17 responses in the lung.

  3. Label-free Protein Detection Based on the Heat-Transfer Method--A Case Study with the Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 and Aptamer-Based Synthetic Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marloes; van Grinsven, Bart; Cleij, Thomas J; Jiménez-Monroy, Kathia Lorena; Cornelis, Peter; Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Wackers, Gideon; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Wagner, Patrick

    2015-05-20

    Aptamers are an emerging class of molecules that, because of the development of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, can recognize virtually every target ranging from ions, to proteins, and even whole cells. Although there are many techniques capable of detecting template molecules with aptamer-based systems with high specificity and selectivity, they lack the possibility of integrating them into a compact and portable biosensor setup. Therefore, we will present the heat-transfer method (HTM) as an interesting alternative because this offers detection in a fast and low-cost manner and has the possibility of performing experiments with a fully integrated device. This concept has been demonstrated for a variety of applications including DNA mutation analysis and screening of cancer cells. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report on HTM-based detection of proteins, in this case specifically with aptamer-type receptors. For proof-of-principle purposes, measurements will be performed with the peanut allergen Ara h 1 and results indicate detection limits in the lower nanomolar regime in buffer liquid. As a first proof-of-application, spiked Ara h 1 solutions will be studied in a food matrix of dissolved peanut butter. Reference experiments with the quartz-crystal microbalance will allow for an estimate of the areal density of aptamer molecules on the sensor-chip surface.

  4. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP), and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3) was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  5. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  6. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  7. Mechanisms underlying allergy vaccination with recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-19

    Hundred years ago therapeutic vaccination with allergen-containing extracts has been introduced as a clinically effective, disease-modifying, allergen-specific and long-lasting form of therapy for allergy, a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Today, the structures of most of the disease-causing allergens have been elucidated and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with reduced allergenic activity have been engineered to reduce side effects during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). These recombinant hypoallergens have been characterized in vitro, in experimental animal models and in clinical trials in allergic patients. This review provides a summary of the molecular, immunological and preclinical evaluation criteria applied for this new generation of allergy vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms underlying SIT with recombinant hypoallergens which are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect.

  8. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Taogoshi, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  9. New Trends in Food Allergens Detection: Toward Biosensing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Barroso, M Fátima; González-García, María Begoña; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-25

    Food allergens are a real threat to sensitized individuals. Although food labeling is crucial to provide information to consumers with food allergies, accidental exposure to allergenic proteins may result from undeclared allergenic substances by means of food adulteration, fraud or uncontrolled cross-contamination. Allergens detection in foodstuffs can be a very hard task, due to their presence usually in trace amounts, together with the natural interference of the matrix. Methods for allergens analysis can be mainly divided in two large groups: the immunological assays and the DNA-based ones. Mass spectrometry has also been used as a confirmatory tool. Recently, biosensors appeared as innovative, sensitive, selective, environmentally friendly, cheaper and fast techniques (especially when automated and/or miniaturized), able to effectively replace the classical methodologies. In this review, we present the advances in the field of food allergens detection toward the biosensing strategies and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of this technology.

  10. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy: to mix or not to mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nony, Emmanuel; Martelet, Armelle; Jain, Karine; Moingeon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is established as a curative treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, as well as insect venom allergy. AIT is based on the administration of natural allergen extracts via the subcutaneous or sublingual routes to reorient the immune system towards tolerogenic mechanisms. In this regard, since many patients are poly-allergic, mixtures of allergen extracts are often used with a potential risk to cause allergen degradation, thereby affecting treatment efficacy. Herein, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of mixing homologous (i.e., related) or heterogeneous (i.e., unrelated) allergen extracts. We provide evidence for incompatibilities between mixes of grass pollen and house dust mite extracts containing bodies and feces, and summarize critical points to consider when mixing allergen extracts for AIT.

  11. Footwear dermatitis - Clinical patterns and contact allergens

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    Handa S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty patients suspected of contact dermatitis to footwear studied to evaluate various clinical presentations and possible sensitizers. ′V′ chappals and sandals were suspected alone in 12, a combination of open and closed shoes in 15 and closed shoes alone in 3 patients. Commonest affected sites were dorsa of feet and toes in 14 and dorsa of feet corresponding to the shape of footwear in 12 patients. Patch tests were done using a battery of sixteen allergens. Positive patch tests were seen in 29 patients. Rubber chemicals were the commonest allergens detected in 26 patients, dyes in 10,leather in 6, glues and neoprene cements in 4 and rubber material from suspected footwear as such in 4 patients respectively.

  12. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  13. The major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, K; Saito, F; Yasuhara, T; Sugimoto, A

    1997-05-01

    Dendropanax trifidus Makino (family Araliaceae, syn. Gilibertia trifida Makino) has been reported as causing allergic contact dermatitis in Japan. To identify the major allergen, fractionated extracts of fresh leaves of Dendropanax trifidus were patch tested on 2 patients with hypersensitivity to the plant. Cis-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1, 16-diol (I), an analog of falcarinol, was identified as an active component. 18 normal control subjects were patch tested with the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I diluted to 0.05% in pet. 4 of them showed active sensitization to the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I. Our results suggest that I is the major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus and is a strong sensitizer. The results of patch testing on patients and control subjects with the leaves of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and Hedera helix L., which also belong to the Araliaceae family, and urushiol are also shown.

  14. Wheat allergens associated with Baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, G; Quirce, S; Diaz-Perales, A

    2011-01-01

    Baker's asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease caused mainly by inhalation of cereal flour, particularly wheat flour. This review deals with the current diagnosis and immunomodulatory treatments, as well as the role of wheat allergens as molecular tools to enhance management and knowledge of this disease. The review also discusses the current status of several salt-soluble proteins (albumins and globulins)--cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, peroxidase, thioredoxin, nonspecific lipid transfer protein, serine proteinase inhibitor, and thaumatin-like protein-as well as salt-insoluble storage proteins (prolamins, namely, gliadins and glutenins) as allergens associated with baker's asthma. Finally, current limitations to using these proteins as molecular tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy are highlighted.

  15. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  16. Allergen specificity is relevant for immunotherapy prescription in polysensitised children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprandi Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sensitization to more allergens, such as polysenitization, is becoming a frequent characteristic of allergic patients, since the childhood. However, this phenomenon is considered an obstacle to prescribe immunotherapy by many doctors. This study investigated the relevance of polysensitization in a cohort of allergic children and evaluated the number of allergen extracts prescribed for these children. There are allergens that are frequent, but not prescribed. This issue should be matter of adequate debate for Italian paediatricians.

  17. An SPR based sensor for allergens detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J; Piekarska, M; Segers, C; Trinh, L; Rodgers, T; Willey, R; Tothill, I E

    2017-02-15

    A simple, sensitive and label-free optical sensor method was developed for allergens analysis using α-casein as the biomarker for cow's milk detection, to be used directly in final rinse samples of cleaning in place systems (CIP) of food manufacturers. A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor chip consisting of four sensing arrays enabling the measurement of samples and control binding events simultaneously on the sensor surface was employed in this work. SPR offers several advantages in terms of label free detection, real time measurements and superior sensitivity when compared to ELISA based techniques. The gold sensor chip was used to immobilise α-casein-polyclonal antibody using EDC/NHS coupling procedure. The performance of the assay and the sensor was first optimised and characterised in pure buffer conditions giving a detection limit of 58ngmL(-1) as a direct binding assay. The assay sensitivity can be further improved by using sandwich assay format and amplified with nanoparticles. However, at this stage this is not required as the detection limit achieved exceeded the required allergens detection levels of 2µgmL(-1) for α-S1-casein. The sensor demonstrated good selectivity towards the α-casein as the target analyte and adequate recoveries from CIP final rinse wash samples. The sensor would be useful tool for monitoring allergen levels after cleaning procedures, providing additional data that may better inform upon wider food allergen risk management decision(s) that are made by food manufacturer. In particular, this sensor could potentially help validate or optimise cleaning practices for a given food manufacturing process.

  18. Human T cell priming assay: depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes in CD25(+) cells improves the in vitro detection of weak allergen-specific T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocanson, Marc; Achachi, Amine; Mutez, Virginie; Cluzel-Tailhardat, Magalie; Varlet, Béatrice Le; Rozières, Aurore; Fournier, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    possible to induce T cell priming to most of the moderate/weak allergens, including lipophilic molecules highly insoluble in culture media. Therefore, the present optimized in vitro human T cell priming assay is a valuable method to detect the sensitizing properties of chemical allergens.

  19. Analysis of regulated suspected allergens in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Elias; Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Llompart, Maria; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2010-12-15

    Fragrance suspected allergens including those regulated by the EU Directive 76/768/EEC have been determined in different types of waters using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure was based on headspace sampling (HS-SPME) using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibers and has been optimized by an experimental design approach. The method performance has been studied showing good linearity (R ≥ 0.994) as well as good intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD ≤ 12%). Detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the quantitative recoveries of the compounds in real water samples, including baby bathwaters, swimming pool waters, and wastewaters. The absence of matrix effects allowed quantification of the compounds by external aqueous calibration. The analysis of 35 samples of different types of waters showed the presence of suspected allergens in all the analyzed samples. All targets were found in the samples, with the exception of methyl eugenol and amyl cinnamic alcohol. Highest concentrations of suspected allergens were present in baby bathwaters, containing from 5 to 15 of the compounds at concentrations ranging from few pg mL(-1) to several hundreds of ng mL(-1).

  20. The Level of Sensitivity of Food Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Rengganis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occurrence of allergy continues to increase rapidly both domestically and globally. World Allergy Organization (WAO revealed that 22% of the world population suffers from allergies, and this number increases every year. Food allergy is a condition caused by the reaction of IgE against substances (chemicals in food. Food allergy can interfere with brain function and body organ systems as well as affect the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to know the level of sensitivity of food allergens in the Immunology Allergy Poly RSCM in 2007. Data were collected from 208 patients who have medical records and went through skin prick tests in the Immunology Allergy Clinic RSCM in 2007. Univariate analysis was performed to describe the types of food allergens within groups of children and adults. Around 49% of the respondents were sensitive to food allergens. The types of foods that caused the most allergies for children and adults are respectively shrimp, egg white and cornstarch. Cow's milk and wheat flour are the types of food that caused most allergies for children only, whereas for adults, the food that caused the most allergies is crab.

  1. Wind-pollination and the roles of pollen allergenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songnuan, Wisuwat

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of understanding of the molecular nature of major allergens contained within pollens from the most important allergenic plant species. Most major allergens belong to only a few protein families. Protein characteristics, cross-reactivity, structures, and IgE binding epitopes have been determined for several allergens. These efforts have led to significant improvements in specific immunotherapy, yet there has been little discussion about the physiological functions of these proteins. Even with large amounts of available information about allergenic proteins from pollens, the incidence of pollen allergy continuously increases worldwide. The reason for this increase is unclear and is most likely due to a combination of factors. One important culprit might be a change in the pollen itself. Knowledge about pollen biology and how pollen is changing as a result of more extreme environmental conditions might improve our understanding of the disease. This review focuses on the characteristics of plants producing allergenic pollens that are relevant to pollen allergy, including the phylogenetic relationships, pollen dispersal distances, amounts of pollen produced, amounts of protein in each type of pollen, and how allergenic proteins are released from pollens. In addition, the physiological roles of major allergenic protein families will be discussed to help us understand why some of these proteins become allergens and why GMO plants with hypoallergenic pollens may not be successful.

  2. Endogenous allergen upregulation: transgenic vs. traditionally bred crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ladics, Gregory S

    2011-10-01

    The safety assessment for transgenic food crops currently includes an evaluation of the endogenous allergy potential (via serum IgE screening) when the non-transgenic counterpart is a commonly allergenic food. The value of this analysis in the safety assessment of transgenic crops, especially with reference to recent requests to quantify individual allergen concentrations in raw commodities, is examined. We conclude that the likelihood of upregulating an endogenous allergen due to transgenesis is no greater than from traditional breeding which has a history of safety and is largely unregulated. The potential consequences of upregulating an endogenous allergen are also unclear.

  3. Functional Genomics of Allergen Gene Families in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maghuly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and proteomic tools. Since avoidance of fruits also negatively affects the quality of patients’ lives, biotechnological interventions are ongoing to produce low allergenic fruits by down regulating specific genes. In this respect, the control of proteins associated with allergenicity could be achieved by fine tuning the spatial and temporal expression of the relevant genes.

  4. Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III: comparison with known Lol p I and II sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-10-17

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III, determined by the automated Edman degradation of the protein and its selected fragments, is reported in this paper. Cleavage by enzymatic and chemical techniques established unambiguously the sequence for this 97-residue protein (Mr = 10,909), which lacks cysteine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. The sequence of Lol p III is very similar to that of another L. perenne allergen, Lol p II, which was sequenced recently; of the 97 positions in the two proteins, 57 are occupied by identical amino acids (59% identity). In addition, both allergens share a similar structure with an antibody-binding fragment of a third L. perenne allergen, Lol p I. Since human antibody responsiveness to all these three allergens is associated with HLA-DR3, and since the structure common to the three molecules shows high degrees of amphipathicity in Lol p II and III, we speculate that this common segment in the three molecules might contain or contribute to the respectively Ia/T-cell sites.

  5. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...... produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential...... of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...

  6. Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro

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    Pytelková Jana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic allergens of storage mites that contaminate stored food products are poorly characterized. We describe biochemical and immunological properties of the native alpha-amylase allergen Aca s 4 from Acarus siro, a medically important storage mite. Results A. siro produced a high level of alpha-amylase activity attributed to Aca s 4. This enzyme was purified and identified by protein sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis. Aca s 4 showed a distinct inhibition pattern and an unusual alpha-amylolytic activity with low sensitivity to activation by chloride ions. Homology modeling of Aca s 4 revealed a structural change in the chloride-binding site that may account for this activation pattern. Aca s 4 was recognized by IgE from house dust mite-sensitive patients, and potential epitopes for cross-reactivity with house dust mite group 4 allergens were found. Conclusions We present the first protein-level characterization of a group 4 allergen from storage mites. Due to its high production and IgE reactivity, Aca s 4 is potentially relevant to allergic hypersensitivity.

  7. Detection of low-molecular weight allergens resolved on two-dimensional electrophoresis with acid-urea polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Kazumi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Tadashi; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2006-04-15

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient (IPG) followed by acetic acid/urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) was developed for the detection of low-molecular weight food allergens. Wheat proteins were used to test the applicability of AU-PAGE for the analysis of food allergens. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) for first dimension was performed with IPG pH 3-10. AU-PAGE was performed as a second-dimensional electrophoresis and high resolution was obtained, especially for proteins below 15 kDa. For immunodetection, the proteins resolved on AU gel were transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. The assembly of semidry electroblotting for AU gel was set reversed as for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE gel. The electroblotted membrane was immunolabeled with serum from a radio-allergosorbent test-positive individual for wheat to identify allergenic proteins. Protein spots strongly recognized by the patient's serum were chosen for further analysis. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that these proteins were alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and lipid transfer protein. The system developed in this study was shown to be useful as a standard protocol for the separation of low-molecular weight proteins. Moreover, the IPG strips on which IEF was performed could be used either for SDS-PAGE or AU-PAGE by only changing equilibrating conditions, allowing for a wide range of allergen analysis.

  8. Immunochemical estimations of allergenic activities from outdoor aero-allergens, collected by a high-volume air sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Poulsen, L K; Mygind, K;

    1989-01-01

    To quantify airborne allergens in amorphus and morphological particles, a survey with collection of aero-allergens on glass fibre filters by means of a high-volume air-sampler (HIVOL) was conducted. In preliminary laboratory experiments we compared various filter elution techniques......, and the pulverizing elution technique was found to be optimal with regard to yield and convenience. When a surfactant, Tween 20 (0.5% v/v), was added to the elution buffer, a recovery of 80% could be obtained. Allergens in eluates were analysed by means of an IgG-subclass RAST inhibition assay. This immunochemical...... method for quantification of airborne allergens was validated, as a high recovery of timothy grass pollen allergens was eluted from air filters, and eluates were shown specific by RAST inhibition. The amount of immunochemically measured airborne timothy and birch allergens collected by means of the HIVOL...

  9. Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Selgrade, MaryJane K

    2009-08-01

    A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. The objectives of this evaluation are twofold: (1) to protect allergic consumers from exposure to known allergenic or cross-reactive proteins, and (2) protect the general population from risks associated with the introduction of genes encoding proteins that are likely to become food allergens. The first systematic approach to address these concerns was formulated by Metcalfe et al. [Metcalfe, D.D., Astwood, J.D., Townsend, R., Sampson, H.A., Taylor, S.L., and Fuchs, R.L. 1996. Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods from genetically engineered crop plants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36(5), 165-186.] and subsequently Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) [FAO/WHO, 2001. Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology. January 22-25, 2001. Rome, Italy]. More recently, Codex [Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity. pp. 47-60], noting that no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity, suggested a weight of evidence approach be conducted that takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential. These various recommendations are based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; amino acid sequence identity to human allergens; stability to pepsin digestion in vitro; protein abundance in the crop and

  10. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.

  11. The vacuolar serine protease, a cross-reactive allergen from Cladosporium herbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöll, Verena; Denk, Ursula; Shen, Horng-Der; Panzani, Raphael C; Dissertori, Oliver; Lackner, Peter; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Crameri, Reto; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Rid, Raphaela; Richter, Klaus; Breitenbach, Michael; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit

    2009-04-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases make up one of the most important allergen-families regarding the number of individual allergens. Previously, fungal subtilisin-like serine proteases have been identified from Aspergillus-, Penicillium-, and Trichophyton-species having a prevalence of IgE-reactivity between 33% and 80%. Since IgE-cross-reactivity is a common phenomenon within fungal species we wanted to know whether this protein also represents an allergen in Cladosporium herbarum. Hence, a screening of a C. herbarum cDNA library was performed using the coding sequence of the Penicillium oxalicum vacuolar serine protease (Pen o 18) as hybridization probe, ending up with a full-length clone. Biochemical and immunological characterization of this clone revealed that C. herbarum vacuolar serine protease most likely is synthesized as a precursor with an N-terminal pro-enzyme sequence and represents a minor allergen (Cla h 9) with a prevalence of IgE-reactivity of 15.5%. Furthermore Cla h 9 specifically reacted with the two monoclonal antibodies FUM20 and PCM39, as do the vacuolar serine proteases from Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium species. Investigation of IgE-cross-reactivity between Cla h 9 and other fungal serine proteases revealed that cross-reactivity is higher between vacuolar than alkaline serine proteases. IgE-epitope mapping of Cla h 9 was done in order to test whether four Cla h 9-peptides having a high sequence homology to previously determined Pen ch 18-IgE-epitopes also harbour IgE-epitopes. Three-dimensional models of the vacuolar serine proteases from C. herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum were generated for the three-dimensional localization of the Cla h 9- and Pen ch 18- IgE-reactive and -non-reactive peptides. Taken together a new C. herbarum allergen has been identified, which may be useful in a molecule-based approach of C. herbarum allergy-diagnosis and -therapy. Moreover, Cla h 9 represents a further member of the subtilisin-like serine

  12. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab' fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular...

  13. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to a glycosylated food allergen (peanuts) due to interference with cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Vizcaino, L; Díaz-Peromingo, J A

    2009-01-01

    performed inhibition assays with a neoglycoprotein consisting of MUXF(3) molecules coupled to bovine serum albumin (MUXF(3)-BSA) and a similar neoglycoprotein lacking xylose and fucose (MM-BSA). In the same cases, we screened for IgE to a panel of recombinant nonglycosylated peanut allergens. SDS...

  14. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels.

  15. Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica) pollen allergens. Identification of cross-reactive periodate-resistant and -sensitive epitopes with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B; Tinghino, R; Corinti, S; Afferni, C; Iacovacci, P; Mari, A; Pini, C; Di Felice, G

    1998-06-01

    Species of the Cupressaceae family are a worldwide cause of respiratory allergies. We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to investigate the presence and the nature of cross-reacting epitopes shared by various components within Cupressus arizonica pollen extract (CaE) or by CaE and pollen extract from C. sempervirens (CsE). mAbs were produced in mice immunized with whole CaE (4A6 and 5E6) or with the major allergen components (2D5). Their reactivity was investigated by ELISA and immunoblotting before and after CaE periodate treatment. Cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition and immunoblotting. mAbs 2D5 and 4A6 recognized periodate-resistant epitopes, whereas the mAb 5E6 reacted with a periodate-sensitive determinant. The former mAbs recognized epitopes present on CaE major allergen and also shared by other components. mAb 5E6 showed a spread reactivity on CaE, with exclusion of the major allergen. When the three mAbs were tested with CsE, a restricted pattern of reactivity to mAbs 2D5 and 4A6 was obtained, whereas mAb 5E6 maintained a spread reactivity. The CaE major allergen is represented by two components recognized by human IgE and sharing common epitopes, as proven by mAbs reactivity. The use of these mAbs demonstrates that cross-reactivity within CaE components and between CaE and CsE is due to the presence of periodate-sensitive as well as -resistant epitopes.

  16. Molecule nanoweaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  17. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity.......Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  18. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  19. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24–33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  20. Identification, recombinant expression, and characterization of the 100 kDa high molecular weight Hymenoptera venom allergens Api m 5 and Ves v 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Bockisch, Benjamin; Braren, Ingke; Cifuentes, Liliana; McIntyre, Mareike; Rühl, Dana; Ring, Johannes; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Ollert, Markus W; Grunwald, Thomas; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-05-01

    Insect stings can cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in venom-allergic patients. Although several compounds have already been described as venom allergens, prominent allergen candidates especially in the higher m.w. range have still remained elusive. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing assigned a candidate gene to the most prominent putative high m.w. allergen Api m 5 (allergen C) in honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom and also allowed identification of its homologue Ves v 3 in yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) venom. Both proteins exhibit a pronounced sequence identity to human dipeptidyl peptidase IV or CD26. Reactivity of a human IgE mAb verified the presence of these proteins in the venoms. Both proteins were produced in insect cells and characterized for their enzymatic activity as well as their allergenic potential using sera and basophils from insect venom-allergic patients. Both Api m 5 and Ves v 3 were recognized by specific IgE of the majority of patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Serologic IgE reactivity closely matched activation of human basophils by Api m 5 or Ves v 3, thus underlining their relevance in functional assays. With Api m 5 and Ves v 3, a new pair of homologous allergens becomes available for future clinical applications in diagnosis and therapy that may also contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of insect venoms. Moreover, the patient IgE reactivity together with the cellular activation demonstrates for the first time the relevance of high m.w. allergens in the context of hymenoptera venom allergy.

  1. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Bernardini, Roberto; Peroni, Diego; Arasi, Stefania; Martelli, Alberto; Landi, Massimo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Muraro, Antonella; La Grutta, Stefania; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Comberiati, Pasquale; Duse, Marzia

    2017-01-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one century ago, and performed in the early years with allergenic extracts of poor quality and definition. After the mechanism of allergic reaction were recognized, the practice of AIT was refined, leading to remarkable improvement in the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. Currently AIT is accepted and routinely prescribed worldwide for respiratory allergies and hymenoptera venom allergy. Both the subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) routes of administration are used in the pediatric population.AIT is recommended in allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma, with an evidence of specific IgE-sensitization towards clinically relevant inhalant allergens. Long-term studies provided evidence that AIT can also prevent the onset of asthma and of new sensitizations. The favorable response to AIT is strictly linked to adherence to treatment, that lasts 3-5 years. Therefore, several factors should be carefully evaluated before starting this intervention, including the severity of symptoms, pharmacotherapy requirements and children and caregivers' preference and compliance.In recent years, there have been increasing interest in the role of AIT for the treatment of IgE-associated food allergy and extrinsic atopic dermatitis. A growing body of evidence shows that oral immunotherapy represents a promising treatment option for IgE-associated food allergy. On the contrary, there are still controversies on the effectiveness of AIT for patients with atopic dermatitis.This consensus document was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) to provide evidence-based recommendations on AIT in order to implement and optimize current prescription practices of this treatment for allergic children.

  2. A protein allergen microarray detects specific IgE to pollen surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial allergen extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka A Vigh-Conrad

    Full Text Available Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens.We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts. To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences.These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time, and facilitate genetic studies on pollen allergy.

  3. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  4. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of th

  5. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH tes

  6. Nanoparticulate Adjuvants and Delivery Systems for Allergen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana De Souza Rebouças

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  7. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S

    2010-01-01

    and standardization of methods between different laboratories and operators for risk assessment in the food industry. Therefore, there is a need for well-defined purified food allergens. In this context, a panel of 46 food allergens from plant and animal sources has been purified, from either the food sources...

  8. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Chun-Han, C.; Crevel, R.; Grimshaw, K.; Poms, R.; Schnadt, S.; Taylor, S.L.; Turner, P.; Allen, K,J.; Austin, M.; Baka, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Baumgartner, S.; Beyer, K.; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Grinter, K.; Houben, G.F.; Hourihane, J.; Kenna, F.; Kruizinga, AG; Lack, G; Madsen, CB; Mills, EN; Papadopoulos, N.G.; Alldrick, A.; Regent, L.; Sherlock, R.; Wal, J.M.; Roberts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counter-productive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to sum

  9. Protein families: implications for allergen nomenclature, standardisation and specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, Heimo

    2009-01-01

    Allergens are embedded into the protein universe as members of large families and superfamilies of related proteins which is a direct consequence of their shared evolution. The classification of allergens by protein families offers a valuable frame of reference that allows the design of experiments to study cross-reactivity and allergenic potency of proteins. Information on protein family membership also complements the current official IUIS allergen nomenclature. All presently known allergens belong to one of 140 (1.4%) of the 10,340 protein families currently described by version 23.0 of the Pfam database. This is indicative of a strong bias among allergens towards certain protein architectures that are able to induce an IgE response in an atopic immune system. However, even small variations in the structure of a protein alter its immunological characteristics. Various isoforms of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were shown to possess highly variant immunogenic and allergenic properties. Ber e 1 and SFA8, two 2S albumins, were revealed to display differential capacities to polarise an immune response. Such data will be exploited in the future for the design of allergy vaccines.

  10. Nanoparticulate adjuvants and delivery systems for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Rebouças, Juliana; Esparza, Irene; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María Luisa; Irache, Juan Manuel; Gamazo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  11. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  12. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevel, R.W.R.; Baumert, J.L.; Baka, A.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Luccioli, S.; Taylor, S.L.; Madsen, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  14. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production.

  15. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard

    2006-01-01

    . The experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, ‘real-world’ environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room...... the curtains and prevents its spread from the cages into the aisle. The present study shows that the use of curtains in front of the cage racks is an efficient way to prevent spread of allergens from rodent cages to the entire animal room....

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  17. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  18. Solution structure of allergenic 2 S albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Uceda, D; Bruix, M; Santoro, J; Rico, M; Monsalve, R; Villalba, M

    2002-11-01

    The NMR solution structures at different levels of refinement of three different 2 S albumin seed proteins, the recombinant pronapin precursor from Brassica napus, the recombinant RicC3 from Ricinus communis and the methionine-rich protein from sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ), are described. The resulting common structure consists of a bundle of five alpha-helices, folded in a right-handed superhelix. The structure is very similar to that of other plant proteins: the hydrophobic protein from soybean, non-specific lipid transfer proteins and amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Analogies and differences in the structures of these families, as well as their possible relationship to allergenicity, are discussed.

  19. 27 CFR 5.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major food allergens. 5.32a Section 5.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.32a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a... allergen. Major food allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass,...

  20. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  1. 27 CFR 7.22a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major food allergens. 7.22a Section 7.22a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a... allergen. Major food allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass,...

  2. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  3. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk fr

  4. Mouse allergen, lung function, and atopy in Puerto Rican children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Forno

    Full Text Available To examine the relation between mouse allergen exposure and asthma in Puerto Rican children.Mus m 1, Der p 1, Bla g 2, and Fel d 1 allergens were measured in dust samples from homes of Puerto Rican children with (cases and without (controls asthma in Hartford, CT (n = 449 and San Juan (SJ, Puerto Rico (n = 678. Linear or logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of mouse allergen (Mus m 1 and lung function (FEV(1 and FEV(1/FVC and allergy (total IgE and skin test reactivity (STR to ≥1 allergen measures.Homes in SJ had lower mouse allergen levels than those in Hartford. In multivariate analyses, mouse allergen was associated with higher FEV(1 in cases in Hartford (+70.6 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI = 8.6-132.7 ml, P = 0.03 and SJ (+45.1 ml, 95% CI =  -0.5 to 90.6 ml, P = 0.05. In multivariate analyses of controls, mouse allergen was inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen in non-sensitized children (odds ratio [OR] for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9, P<0.01. In a multivariate analysis including all children at both study sites, each log-increment in mouse allergen was positively associated with FEV(1 (+28.3 ml, 95% CI = 1.4-55.2 ml, P = 0.04 and inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen (OR for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-0.9, P<0.01.Mouse allergen is associated with a higher FEV(1 and lower odds of STR to ≥1 allergen in Puerto Rican children. This may be explained by the allergen itself or correlated microbial exposures.

  5. Vaccine development for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant allergens and synthetic allergen peptides: Lessons from the past and novel mechanisms of action for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena

    2016-02-01

    In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient. Furthermore, we discuss how new technologies can facilitate the reproducible manufacturing of vaccines of pharmaceutical grade for inhalant, food, and venom allergens. Allergy vaccines in clinical trials based on recombinant allergens, recombinant allergen derivatives, and synthetic peptides allow us to target selectively different immune mechanisms, and certain of those show features that might make them applicable not only for therapeutic but also for prophylactic vaccination.

  6. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  7. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  8. [Hidden allergens in processed food. The consumer perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt, S

    2012-03-01

    Despite improved allergen-labeling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food are a substantial risk for unintended reactions in food allergy sufferers. Unpublished data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) show that 85% of 738 questioned food allergic patients have experienced at least one allergic reaction from each prepacked products as well as food sold loose. Almost half of the participants said to have not received information of a food allergen as an ingredient or possible trace on the label. Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens can be hidden in processed products, like incomprehensible labeling, labeling gaps, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as cross contaminations or allergens in loose products. To each of the seven highlighted sources of hidden allergens in food, practical examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation from consumer view. The aim is to indicate possibilities and measures for politics and industry by which allergic consumers and their social circle are able to make an informed choice concerning the safe consumption of a certain product and to protect themselves from unintentional reactions.

  9. Seed-based oral vaccines as allergen-specific immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-based vaccines have advantages over conventional vaccines in terms of scalability, lack of requirement for cold chain logistics, stability, safety, cost-effectiveness and needle-free administration. In particular, when antigen is expressed in seeds, high production is possible and immunogenicity is not lost even if stocked at ambient temperature for several years. Induction of immune tolerance (desensitization) to allergen is a principle strategy for controlling allergic diseases, and is generally carried out by subcutaneous injection. Seed-based oral administration offers a straightforward and inexpensive alternative approach to deliver vaccines effectively to the GALT without loss of activity. Consumption of transgenic seeds containing modified hypo-allergenic tolerogen or T-cell epitope peptides derived from allergens has no or very few severe side effects and can induce immune tolerance leading to reduction of allergen-specific IgE production, T-cell proliferation and release of histamine. Suppression of allergen-specific clinical symptoms results. Thus, seed-based allergy vaccines offer an innovative and convenient allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approach as an alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  10. Sublingual immunotherapy: from biological extracts to recombinant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, P

    2006-01-01

    Sublingual vaccines based on biological extracts from various natural allergen sources are effective in the treatment of respiratory allergies. These vaccines comprise a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that require dedicated standardization procedures to ensure batch-to-batch consistency. Because of the lack of correlation between the potency of an allergen extract and the quantity of major allergen content, standardization is achieved predominantly by determining the global IgE binding capacity of the extract in vitro. New proteomic technologies can be used to further characterize the most abundant proteins present in an extract. Second-generation sublingual vaccines based on recombinant allergens are under development. The aim is to produce molecularly defined vaccines that exhibit superior efficacy, while allowing for simplified immunization schedules. In this approach, recombinant DNA technology is used to express highly purified allergens in their native (i.e. wild-type) conformation. The recombinant allergens are then formulated with ad hoc adjuvants and/or mucoadhesive galenic excipients so that they specifically target oral Langerhans cells and induce allergen-specific regulatory T cells.

  11. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor Act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milica M; Milovanovic, Mina; Burazer, Lidija; Vuckovic, Olga; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Knulst, Andre C; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Jankov, Ratko; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Kiwifruit has become a frequent cause of fruit allergy in the recent years. The molecular basis of type I hypersensitivity to kiwifruit is attributed to 11 IUIS allergens, with Act d 1, Act d 2 and Act d 5 characterized in extenso. Evaluation of the allergenic properties of Act d 4, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was performed in this study. Identity of the purified glycoprotein was determined by Edman degradation and by mass fingerprint whereby more than 90% of the primary structure of the mature kiwifruit cystatin was confirmed. Using MALDI TOF analysis, molecular masses of 10902.5 and 11055.2 Da were detected for Act d 4, respectively. Positive skin prick reactivity with Act d 4 was induced in three kiwifruit allergic patients, as well as the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c molecules in the basophile activation assay. The IgE reactivity was detected in dot blot analysis while Western blot analysis was negative using sera from six kiwifruit patients, suggesting the presence of conformational IgE epitopes on the Act d 4 molecule. As activator of effector cells in type I hypersensitivity Act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.

  12. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    of substances as contact allergens. A total of 54 individual chemicals and 28 natural extracts (essential oils) can be categorized as established contact allergens in humans, including all 26 substances previously identified as contact allergens (SCCNFP/0017/98). Twelve of the 54 individual chemicals...... of 11 substances of special concern should be limited to 100 ppm. The substance hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and the two ingredients chloroatranol and atranol in the natural extracts Evernia prunastri and Evernia furfuracea should not be present in cosmetic products....

  13. Allergen immunotherapy, routes of administration and cytokine networks: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppari, Caterina; Leonardi, Salvatore; Manti, Sara; Filippelli, Martina; Alterio, Tommaso; Spicuzza, Lucia; Rigoli, Luciana; Arrigo, Teresa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Salpietro, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a disease-modifying therapy, effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis or stinging insect allergy. Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of increasing doses of allergens with the aim of ameliorating the allergic response. Although precise underlying mechanisms of the induction of immune tolerance remain unclear, immunotherapy has been associated with the induction of distinct subsets of Tregs that eventually lead to peripheral tolerance by inducing a deviation from Th2 to Th1 immune responses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of immunotherapy in relationship to different routes of administration and also provides a unifying view.

  14. What do we know about plant food allergens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, J. A.; Sancho, A. I.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Food allergies are a topic of interest and concern for both consumers and the Agro-Food industry which is reflected in the plethora of internet-based information resources now available. The development of a reliable credible resource through the EU-funded InformAll project is described, along...... with other related credible internet resources with information on food allergies and allergens. The InformAll database is unique as it combines refereed information on the clinical aspects of food allergies with details of individual allergens. The collection of allergenic protein sequences into online...

  15. [Placebo effect in clinical trials with allergen-specific immunotherapy with inhalant allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, B; Wieczorek, D; Kapp, A

    2017-04-01

    Placebo effects play an important role in the treatment of allergic diseases. Therefore, in this study, we analysed the described effects of placebo in all double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) with inhalant allergens (birch, grass, house dust mites) listed in the tables (updated July 2016) attached to the German S2k guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases. The most common placebo consisted of verum without allergen, but when the subcutaneous route was used, histamine was sometimes added. From the 33 studies analysed no conclusions could be drawn regarding the pure placebo effect. The symptom medication score (SMS) from an adequate baseline period was described in one single study. An untreated population was not included in any study. Indirect evidence points to substantial placebo effects in up to 77% of the subjects with respect to retrospective, subjective parameters. Well-known factors influencing the placebo effect such as age, gender, application route/composition of the placebo, individual and cultural differences, severity of symptoms at the beginning and the probability of receiving verum have not been addressed regarding ASIT and could not be estimated from available data. Taken together regarding ASIT the placebo effect has been investigated inadequately. In spite of significant expenditure of time and costs future ASIT studies should include assessment of the SMS in an adequate baseline period and preferably include an untreated trial arm. A better understanding of placebo effects in ASIT trials will improve the design of clinical trials and the assessment of therapeutic effects.

  16. Prophylaxis and therapy of allergy by mucosal tolerance induction with recombinant allergens or allergen constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula

    2005-10-01

    The mucosal immune system, present along the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, has to discriminate between harmful pathogens and innocuous antigens, such as food, airborne antigens or the commensal bacterial flora. Therefore the mucosal immune system has acquired two opposing immunological functions, i.e. the induction of immunity and defence of mucosal pathogens, and the induction and maintenance of tolerance to environmental antigens and bacterial flora. As described for autoimmunity a breakdown or failure of tolerance induction is believed to lead also to allergies and food enteropathies. Based on the physiological role to prevent hypersensitivity reactions, tolerance induction via the mucosa has been proposed as a treatment strategy against inflammatory diseases, such as allergies. The aim of our research is to develop mucosal allergy vaccines based on the induction of mucosal tolerance and/or the induction of counter-regulatory immune responses with or without the use of certain mucosal antigen delivery systems, such as lactic acid bacteria. The use of recombinant allergens instead of allergen extracts with varying allergen content and composition may be essential for improvement of the treatment efficacy. In the present review we give examples of different animal models of type I allergy/asthma. Using these models we demonstrate that recombinant allergens or hypoallergenic variants thereof can be successfully used to induce mucosal tolerance in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic treatment regime. That the concept of mucosal tolerance induction/mucosal vaccine delivery may in principal also function in humans is supported by recent clinical trials with locally (sublingual) applied immunotherapy.

  17. Enlarging the toolbox for allergen epitope definition with an allergen-type model protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Berkner

    Full Text Available Birch pollen-allergic subjects produce polyclonal cross-reactive IgE antibodies that mediate pollen-associated food allergies. The major allergen Bet v 1 and its homologs in plant foods bind IgE in their native protein conformation. Information on location, number and clinical relevance of IgE epitopes is limited. We addressed the use of an allergen-related protein model to identify amino acids critical for IgE binding of PR-10 allergens.Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS from meadow rue is structurally homologous to Bet v 1 but does not bind Bet v 1-reactive IgE. NCS was used as the template for epitope grafting. NCS variants were tested with sera from 70 birch pollen allergic subjects and with monoclonal antibody BV16 reported to compete with IgE binding to Bet v 1.We generated an NCS variant (Δ29NCSN57/I58E/D60N/V63P/D68K harboring an IgE epitope of Bet v 1. Bet v 1-type protein folding of the NCS variant was evaluated by 1H-15N-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. BV16 bound the NCS variant and 71% (50/70 sera of our study population showed significant IgE binding. We observed IgE and BV16 cross-reactivity to the epitope presented by the NCS variant in a subgroup of Bet v 1-related allergens. Moreover BV16 blocked IgE binding to the NCS variant. Antibody cross-reactivity depended on a defined orientation of amino acids within the Bet v 1-type conformation.Our system allows the evaluation of patient-specific epitope profiles and will facilitate both the identification of clinically relevant epitopes as biomarkers and the monitoring of therapeutic outcomes to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of allergies caused by PR-10 proteins.

  18. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species.

  19. Molecular cloning of major allergen from Cupressus arizonica pollen: Cup a 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, E; Del Pozo, V; Mínguez, A; Arrieta, I; Cortegano, I; Cárdaba, B; Gallardo, S; Rojo, M; Palomino, P; Lahoz, C

    2000-12-01

    The family Cupressaceae is a relevant source of allergens that causes winter respiratory allergies. Cloning and sequencing the major antigen of Cupressus arizonica is important for a better diagnosis and treatment of sensitized patients. To obtain a full-length complementary DNA for Cup a 1, the major allergen of Cupressus arizonica pollen. It was cloned and sequenced and the recombinant protein was expressed. Messenger RNA from Cupressus arizonica pollen was obtained and the Cup a 1 sequence was established using a 3'-RACE system and primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cup a 1 was cloned in pBluescript and expressed in a glycosylated form in rabbit reticulocytes. The cDNA was subcloned in pGEX-5X-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with GST. Recombinant Cup a 1 is highly homologous with the major allergens of mountain cedar (Jun a 1), Japanese cypress (Cha o 1) and Japanese cedar (Cry j 1). Cup a 1 contains three potential N-glycosylation sites that are different from those found in Jun a 1 and Cry j 1. The cloned protein contains a pectate lyase active site identical to those of Cry j 1 and Jun a 1. The IgE from patients' sera recognizes recombinant Cup a 1, and this reactivity is higher with the glycosylated protein. Cup a 1 has been cloned and sequenced. As expected, the high degree of homology with Cha o 1, Jun a 1 and Cry j 1 explains the cross-reactivity of conifer pollens. Different IgE reactivity with the glycosylated and non-glycosylated protein suggests the importance of carbohydrate moieties in the IgE binding site.

  20. Enumerating molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (, . Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  1. Different in Vivo Reactivity Profile in Health Care Workers and Patients with Spina Bifida to Internal and External Latex Glove Surface-Derived Allergen Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to natural rubber latex is a well-recognized health problem, especially among health care workers and patients with spina bifida. Despite latex sensitization being acquired in health institutions in both health care workers and patients with spina bifida, differences in allergen sensitization profiles have been described between these two risk groups. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo reactivity of health care workers and patients with spina bifida to extracts of in...

  2. Unlocking the allergenic structure of the major house dust mite allergen der f 2 by elimination of key intramolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, T; Ichikawa, S; Yokota, T; Hatanaka, H; Inagaki, F; Okumura, Y

    2000-11-03

    We report on the structural background of the remarkable reduction of allergenicity in engineering of the major house dust mite allergen Der f 2. Disruption of intramolecular disulfide bonds in Der f 2 caused extensive conformational change that was monitored by circular dichroism and gel-filtration analysis. The degree of conformational change correlated well with the degree of reductions in the capacity to bind IgE and to induce histamine release from basophils in mite-allergic patients. Loosening the rigid tertiary structure by elimination of key intramolecular interactions is an effective strategy to reduce the number of high affinity IgE epitopes of allergen vaccine.

  3. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    , MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis and GPC. To study the sensitising capacity groups of BN rats were immunised with the intact allergen or digestion products hereof by i.p. immunisation and specific antibody responses were examined by ELISAs, RBL-assay or avidity measurements. Comparison...... of peptide fragments of up to Mr 2,000, yet both the peptide fragments in the gastric as well as in the gastro-duodenal digests were aggregated to complexes of larger sizes. After separation of the digested Ara h 1 into fractions the sensitising capacity was lost, though the IgE-binding capacity was retained...... found for both the intact as well as the digested Ara h 1. Digested BLG with peptide sizes of up to Mr 4,500 could on the other hand not induce any sensitisation response in the BN rats. They were instead suggested to possess tolerogenic capacity when co-administered together with intact BLG...

  4. Protein contact dermatitis: allergens, pathogenesis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Cheryl; Warshaw, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Protein contact dermatitis is an allergic skin reaction induced principally by proteins of either animal or plant origin. The clinical presentation is that of a chronic dermatitis, and it is often difficult to differentiate between allergic contact dermatitis and other eczematous dermatoses. One distinguishing clinical feature is that acute flares of pruritus, urticaria, edema, or vesiculation are noted minutes after contact with the causative substances. Additionally, the patch-test result is typically negative, and the scratch- or prick-test result is positive. The pathogenesis of protein contact dermatitis is unclear but may involve a type I (immunoglobulin E [IgE], immediate) hypersensitivity reaction, type IV (cell-mediated delayed) hypersensitivity reaction, and/or a delayed reaction due to IgE-bearing Langerhans' cells. Management involves avoidance of the allergen.

  5. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...... and a significant increase in the levels of histamine and tryptase. The challenge of subjects not allergic to pollen produced no such response. Azelastine and cetirizine significantly reduced allergen-induced sneezing and the associated increase in histamine and tryptase levels. No significant differences were...

  6. Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on The Cheap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163963.html Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on the Cheap Do-it-yourself approach ... in kids with a mouse allergy, researchers say. Mice are a common cause of asthma flare-ups ...

  7. Genetic engineering of plant food with reduced allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Stephan; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are a major health concern in industrialized countries. Since a specific immunotherapy for food allergies is not available in clinical routine praxis till now, reduction of allergens in foods, either by food processing or genetic engineering are strategies to minimize the risk of adverse reactions for food allergic patients. This review summarizes biotechnological approaches, especially the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, for the reduction of selected allergens in plant foods. So far, only a limited number of reports showing proof-of-concept of this methodology are available. Using RNAi an impressive reduction of allergen accumulation was obtained which was stable in the next generations of plants. Since threshold doses for most food allergens are not known, the beneficial effect has to be evaluated by oral challenge tests in the future. The article critically addresses the potential and limitations of genetic engineering, as well as of alternative strategies to generate "low allergic" foods.

  8. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  9. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H;

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  10. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  11. Sensitization to food and airborne allergens in children with atopic dermatitis followed up to 7 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Dan; Sjöberg, Olof; Foucard, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Previously we investigated the eczema prognosis and the risk of developing allergic asthma and rhinitis in a cohort of 94 children with atopic dermatitis. In this second study on the same cohort we address the development of sensitization to foods and airborne allergens, risk factors and, the question whether children with atopic dermatitis who will not become sensitized can be recognized early. Children with atopic dermatitis were followed up regularly from infancy or early childhood to 7 years of age with clinical examination and blood sampling. After age 3, skin prick tests with inhalation allergens were performed yearly. In most children both clinical allergy and sensitization to egg and milk were transient but those to peanut were persistent. Eighty per cent of the children became sensitized to airborne allergens and 75% of them noticed symptoms when exposed. Heredity for atopy and eczema, sensitization to hen's egg, and early onset of eczema entailed an increased risk of becoming sensitized. Children never sensitized had late onset of eczema and less heredity for atopic disease but did not differ in other respects from the sensitized children.

  12. Hazelnut Allergens: Molecular Characterization, Detection, and Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Carrapatoso, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2016-11-17

    In last few years, special attention has been given to food-induced allergies, in which hazelnut allergy is highlighted. Hazelnut is one of the most commonly consumed tree nuts, being largely used by the food industry in a variety of processed foods. It has been regarded as a food with potential health benefits, but also as a source of allergens capable of inducing mild to severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Considering the great number of reports addressing hazelnut allergens, with an estimated increasing trend, this review intends to assemble all the relevant information available so far on the following main issues: prevalence of tree nut allergy, clinical threshold levels, molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens (Cor a 1, Cor a 2, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 10, Cor a 11, Cor a 12, Cor a 14, and Cor a TLP) and their clinical relevance, and methodologies for detection of hazelnut allergens in foods. A comprehensive overview of the current data about the molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens is presented, relating to biochemical classification and biological function with clinical importance. Recent advances in hazelnut allergen detection methodologies are summarized and compared, including all the novel protein-based and DNA-based approaches.

  13. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Perez-Riverol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA and specific immunotherapy (SIT have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  14. Japan food allergen labeling regulation--history and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Imai, Takanori; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    According to a national survey of food allergy cases, the food-labeling system for specific allergenic ingredients (i.e., egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, and peanut) in Japan was mandated under law on April 1, 2002. By Japanese law, labeling of allergens is designated as mandatory or recommended based on the number of cases of actual illness and the degree of seriousness. Mandatory labeling is enforced by the ministerial ordinance, and the ministerial notification recommends that foods containing walnut and soybean be labeled with subspecific allergenic ingredients. Additional labeling of shrimp/prawn and crab has also become mandatory since 2008. To monitor the validity of the labeling system, the Japanese government announced the official methods for detection of allergens in a November 2002 ministry notification. These official methods, including two kinds of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for screening, Western blotting analyses for egg and milk, and polymerase chain reaction analyses for wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp/prawn and crab as confirmation tests, have provided a means to monitor the labeling system. To standardize the official methods, the Japanese government described the validation protocol criteria in the 2006 official guidelines. The guidelines stipulate that any food containing allergen proteins at greater than 10mg/kg must be labeled under the Law. This review covers the selection of the specific allergenic ingredients by the Japanese government, the implementation of regulatory action levels and the detection methods to support them, and the assessment of the effectiveness of this approach.

  15. Evaluation of the allergenic potential of Ginkgo biloba extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossabeb, R; Kraft, D; Valenta, R

    2001-08-16

    Ginkgo biloba extracts are used for the treatment of central and peripheral malperfusion, cerebral insufficiency and dementia. Between 1996 and 1998, several patients in Austria who had received parenteral Ginkgo extracts were reported to have developed allergy-like symptoms. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Ginkgo biloba extracts contain type I allergens. The protein content of Ginkgo biloba extracts was determined by BCA protein determination and SDS-PAGE. We used sera from 95 polysensitized plant-allergic patients (the sera contained IgE antibodies against most plant allergens), and rabbit antisera raised against defined recombinant plant allergens. The presence of allergens in Ginkgo extracts was determined by dot-blotting and Wester blot. Neither rabbit antisera nor IgE antibodies of patients reacted to the Ginkgo extracts. In addition, it was shown that prick testing of the skin could be conveniently used to study Gingko extracts for allergenic activity. In conclusion, no evidence for the presence of type I allergens in Ginkgo extracts was found. We recommend serological and/or skin testing to exclude sensitisation to components of Ginkgo biloba extracts.

  16. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  17. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  18. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  19. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  20. Degradation of wheat allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makio; Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Tanabe, Soichi

    2004-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of East Asian countries and is available throughout the world. Wheat and soybeans are the 2 main raw materials of soy sauce, and soy sauce also contains a high concentration of salt. Since wheat allergy is considered a serious problem globally, it is significant to examine the allergenicity of soy sauce. In this study, by immunoblotting, inhibition ELISA and direct ELISA using sera from 5 children with wheat allergy, it was clearly demonstrated that wheat allergens were degraded into amino acids and peptides losing the IgE-binding ability in both salt-soluble and salt-insoluble fractions of soy sauce during fermentation. Furthermore, no wheat allergen was detected in 10 items of commercial soy sauce in Japan, by inhibition ELISA or direct ELISA using the sera of patients. In the brewing process of soy sauce, first salt-insoluble wheat allergen was solubilized to salt water during the koji stage (mold cultivation and enzyme production), and second both the resultant salt-solubilized and initially salt-soluble wheat allergens were completely degraded during the moromi stage (fermentation) by microbial proteolytic enzymes. Therefore, it was concluded that no wheat allergen is contained in soy sauce.

  1. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  2. Absolute quantification of allergens from complex mixtures: a new sensitive tool for standardization of allergen extracts for specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Ulla; Dauly, Claire; Robinson, Sarah; Hornshaw, Martin; Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Ipsen, Henrik

    2011-04-01

    Products for specific diagnosis and immunotherapy of IgE-mediated allergies are currently based on natural extracts. Quantification of major allergen content is an important aspect of standardization as important allergens particularly impact vaccine potency. The aim of the study was to develop a mass spectrometry (MS) based assay for absolute quantification of Timothy (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 in P. pratense extract. High-resolution and accurate mass (HRAM) MS was selected for its ability to detect peptides with high selectivity and mass accuracy (extract. Robustness and linearity of the method was demonstrated with intra day precision ≤ 5% (n = 3). Phl p 1b was shown to be 5 times less abundant than its variant Phl p 1a and Phl p 5b was shown to be 9 times more abundant than the Phl p 5a. The present study shows that allergen, and/or isoallergen specific, surrogate signature peptides analyzed with HRAM MS is a sensitive and accurate tool for identification and quantification of allergens from complex allergen sources.

  3. A combination vaccine for allergy and rhinovirus infections based on rhinovirus-derived surface protein VP1 and a nonallergenic peptide of the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Linhart, Birgit; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Westritschnig, Kerstin; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Stoecklinger, Angelika; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Campana, Raffaela; Thalhamer, Josef; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia; Valenta, Rudolf

    2009-05-15

    Allergens and rhinovirus infections are among the most common elicitors of respiratory diseases. We report the construction of a recombinant combination vaccine for allergy and rhinovirus infections based on rhinovirus-derived VP1, the surface protein which is critically involved in infection of respiratory cells, and a nonallergenic peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 1. Recombinant hybrid molecules consisting of VP1 and a Phl p 1-derived peptide of 31 aa were expressed in Escherichia coli. The hybrid molecules did not react with IgE Abs from grass pollen allergic patients and lacked allergenic activity when exposed to basophils from allergic patients. Upon immunization of mice and rabbits, the hybrids did not sensitize against Phl p 1 but induced protective IgG Abs that cross-reacted with group 1 allergens from different grass species and blocked allergic patients' IgE reactivity to Phl p 1 as well as Phl p 1-induced basophil degranulation. Moreover, hybrid-induced IgG Abs inhibited rhinovirus infection of cultured human epithelial cells. The principle of fusing nonallergenic allergen-derived peptides onto viral carrier proteins may be used for the engineering of safe allergy vaccines which also protect against viral infections.

  4. Identification and cloning of prs a 1, a 32-kDa endochitinase and major allergen of avocado, and its expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowka, S; Hsieh, L S; Krebitz, M; Akasawa, A; Martin, B M; Starrett, D; Peterbauer, C K; Scheiner, O; Breiteneder, H

    1998-10-23

    Avocado, the fruit of the tropical tree Persea americana, is a source of allergens that can elicit diverse IgE-mediated reactions including anaphylaxis in sensitized individuals. We characterized a 32-kDa major avocado allergen, Prs a 1, which is recognized by 15 out of 20 avocado- and/or latex-allergic patients. Natural Prs a 1 was purified, and its N-terminal and two tryptic peptide sequences were determined. We isolated the Prs a 1 encoding cDNA by PCR using degenerate primers and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The Prs a 1 cDNA coded for an endochitinase of 326 amino acids with a leader peptide of 25 amino acids. We expressed Prs a 1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris at 50 mg/liter of culture medium. The recombinant Prs a 1 showed endochitinase activity, inhibited growth and branching of Fusarium oxysporum hyphae, and possessed IgE binding capacity. IgE cross-reactivity with latex proteins including a 20-kDa allergen, most likely prohevein, was demonstrated, providing an explanation for the commonly observed cross-sensitization between avocado and latex proteins. Sequence comparison showed that Prs a 1 and prohevein had 70% similarity in their chitin-binding domains. Characterization of chitinases as allergens has implications for engineering transgenic crops with increased levels of chitinases.

  5. The structural requirements of epitopes with IgE binding capacity demonstrated by three major allergens from fish, egg and tree pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, S; Apold, J; Holen, E; Vik, H; Florvaag, E; Dybendal, T

    1991-01-01

    be valuable in studies of T-cell recognition of protein antigens. Three analogous peptides of this region were prepared and clearly shown to be immunogenic in rabbits and to bind specific IgE from patients allergic to egg. OA 323-339 was concluded to encompass an allergenic and antigenic epitope which was recognized by human and rabbit B-lymphocytes. Eight peptides in the region 11-122 were similarly synthesized. A test battery was performed to study this region using rabbit polyclonal antibodies and human specific IgE. Some of these sites were involved in binding of particular Ig paratopes. Five immunogenic peptides from the major allergens of tree pollen extracts (segment 23-38), were synthesized. The selection of those peptides was setteled using two algorithms for providing the optimal hydrophobicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. The intensity of T cell receptor engagement determines the cytokine pattern of human allergen-specific T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballido, J M; Faith, A; Carballido-Perrig, N; Blaser, K

    1997-02-01

    Enhanced production of T helper (Th)2 cytokines by allergen-specific Th cells plays a major role in the induction and maintenance of IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The mechanism that triggers this type of response in atopic individuals is not fully understood. Allergen-specific human Th cell clones produce interleukin (IL)-4 and low or undetectable levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma after stimulation with low concentrations of antigen. However, these Th cell clones are capable of generating significant amounts of IFN-gamma after optimal activation through their T cell receptor (TcR). Allergen-specific Th cell clones isolated from allergic individuals required higher doses of antigen to reach the plateau of proliferation and to generate Th0 cytokine responses than their counterparts isolated from nonallergic subjects. On the other hand, if allergen was replaced by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), both allergic and nonallergic Th cell clones attained the highest level of proliferation and significant IFN-gamma production in response to equivalent concentrations of anti-CD3 mAb. These results indicate that the strength of T cell ligation, which can be modulated by the availability of the TcR ligand, controls the balance of Thl/Th2 cytokines produced by memory Th cells in vitro. In the particular case of bee venom phospholipase A2, it is shown that the expression of allergen-specific surface Ig on antigen-presenting B cells has little influence on antigen uptake and therefore in determining the levels of T cell activation and cytokine production. Alternatively, the affinity of particular major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells for allergen-derived peptides might determine the amount of specific ligand presented to the Th cells and play a decisive role skewing the Th cell cytokine production towards Th1 or Th2 phenotypes. These findings, which are consistent with the changes in cytokine patterns observed following clinical

  7. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  8. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  9. Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Syed Umer; Alexeev, Yuri; Johnson, Philip E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Mackie, Alan R.; Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2016-07-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract. Both LTPs are initially cleaved during gastroduodenal proteolysis at three major sites between residues 39–40, 56–57 and 79–80, with wheat LTP being more resistant to cleavage than its peach ortholog. The susceptibility of wheat LTP to proteolyic cleavage increases significantly upon lipid binding. This enhanced digestibility is likely to be due to the displacement of Tyr79 and surrounding residues from the internal hydrophobic cavity upon ligand binding to the solvent exposed exterior of the LTP, facilitating proteolysis. Such knowledge contributes to our understanding as to how resistance to digestion can be used in allergenicity risk assessment of novel food proteins, including GMOs.

  10. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  11. Identification of B cell epitopes of alcohol dehydrogenase allergen of Curvularia lunata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Nair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Epitope identification assists in developing molecules for clinical applications and is useful in defining molecular features of allergens for understanding structure/function relationship. The present study was aimed to identify the B cell epitopes of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH allergen from Curvularia lunata using in-silico methods and immunoassay. METHOD: B cell epitopes of ADH were predicted by sequence and structure based methods and protein-protein interaction tools while T cell epitopes by inhibitory concentration and binding score methods. The epitopes were superimposed on a three dimensional model of ADH generated by homology modeling and analyzed for antigenic characteristics. Peptides corresponding to predicted epitopes were synthesized and immunoreactivity assessed by ELISA using individual and pooled patients' sera. RESULT: The homology model showed GroES like catalytic domain joined to Rossmann superfamily domain by an alpha helix. Stereochemical quality was confirmed by Procheck which showed 90% residues in most favorable region of Ramachandran plot while Errat gave a quality score of 92.733%. Six B cell (P1-P6 and four T cell (P7-P10 epitopes were predicted by a combination of methods. Peptide P2 (epitope P2 showed E(X(2GGP(X(3KKI conserved pattern among allergens of pathogenesis related family. It was predicted as high affinity binder based on electronegativity and low hydrophobicity. The computational methods employed were validated using Bet v 1 and Der p 2 allergens where 67% and 60% of the epitope residues were predicted correctly. Among B cell epitopes, Peptide P2 showed maximum IgE binding with individual and pooled patients' sera (mean OD 0.604±0.059 and 0.506±0.0035, respectively followed by P1, P4 and P3 epitopes. All T cell epitopes showed lower IgE binding. CONCLUSION: Four B cell epitopes of C. lunata ADH were identified. Peptide P2 can serve as a potential candidate for diagnosis of allergic

  12. [House dust mites and their allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessot, J-C; Pauli, G

    2011-02-01

    The taxonomy, anatomy, life cycle and ecology of Pyroglyphidae mites and storage mites (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, B. tropicalis) are described. Pyroglyphidae and storage mites have similar morphologies: they are octopods, with characteristic gnathosoma and sensory hairs. Salivary glands and the mid gut produce most of the allergens excreted, which are enzymatic proteins. Biological cycles and development are similar, although fecundity is superior in storage mites compared to the Pyroglyphides. Relative humidity is the main parameter, which regulates mite development, with a higher degree of temperature and humidity required for storage mites. Bedding is the ecological niche of Pyroglyphidae, which feed on human skin. Moulds and food products are the storage mite biotope from which they spread in the dwelling. Initially considered as rural mites, storage mites are also present in urban dwellings. B. tropicalis, in tropical regions is a true domestic mite. Because of this, it is justified to denominate Pyroglyphidae "house dust mites" and storage mites "domestic mites". In addition to the respiratory allergic symptoms, the storage mites can also cause occupational contact dermatoses.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of potential cross-reactive endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins in the food are the source of common allergic components to certain patients. Current lists of plant endogenous allergens were based on the medical/clinical reports as well as laboratory results. Plant genome sequences made it possible to predict and characterize the genome-wide of putative endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.. In this work, we identified and characterized 122 candidate rice allergens including the 22 allergens in present databases. Conserved domain analysis also revealed 37 domains among rice allergens including one novel domain (histidine kinase-, DNA gyrase B-, and HSP90-like ATPase, PF13589 adding to the allergen protein database. Phylogenetic analysis of the allergens revealed the diversity among the Prolamin superfamily and DnaK protein family, respectively. Additionally, some allergens proteins clustered on the rice chromosome might suggest the molecular function during the evolution.

  14. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu...

  15. The allergens causing contact sensitization in textile industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Su

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization to textile materials and the most common textile allergens in patients who work in the textile industry and have been diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. Materials and Methods: Fifty textile industry workers, who attended our outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of ACD, between October 2005-December 2009, were enrolled in this study. While 50 patients were tested with the Thin layer-Rapid-Use-Epicutaneous (TRUE test, 36 patients were tested with the TRUE test and textile series allergen. The results were analyzed as percentage and statistically. Results: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68% were men, 16 (32% were women. The mean of the subjects was 37.4 years. In 38.8 of the patients in whom TRUE test and textile series allergens applied together, at least one allergic reaction was seen. Of the 36 patients applied textile series in addition to the TRUE test, 33.3% of patients had positive reaction to only textile allergens, 2.7% to only standard series allergens, and 2.7% of subjects had positive reaction to both textile series and standard series allergens. 76.9% of these reactions were to dyes, 15.3% to resins and 7.6% of them were to both of them. Disperse blue 106 (8.3%, acid red 359 (8.3% and disperse red 17 (5.5% were the most positive reaction seen dyes. 18% of 50 patients tested with TRUE test alone showed at least one positive reaction. The most common standard series allergens were nickel sulphate (6% and ethylenediamine dihydrocloride (6%. Both the relationship between atopy and contact sensitization and also the relationship with hand localization and contact sensitization to textile allergens were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In occupational textile dermatitis, contact sensitization is common and especially seen to disperse dyes. For the contact sensitization to textile materials, standard series allergens cannot be adequate in

  16. Allergen sensitization and allergen exposure in Greenlander Inuit residing in Denmark and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsbjerg, C; Linstow, M L; Nepper-christensen, S C; Rasmussen, A; Korsgaard, J; Nolte, H; Backer, V

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of allergic sensitization and possible risk factors in a genetically homogenous Inuit population living under widely differing climatic and cultural conditions. A written questionnaire and skin prick test for 10 aeroallergens were obtained from 1119 adult Greenlanders residing in Denmark, Nuuk (main city in Southern Greenland) and Uummannaq (rural settlement in Northern Greenland). Allergen exposure was assessed by pollen counts, questions on pet keeping and counts of house dust mites in dust samples. The overall prevalence of at least one positive skin prick test was 22.8% in Denmark, 10.6% in Nuuk, and 6.4% in Uummannaq. In Denmark, the total birch pollen counts were 40-1000 times higher compared to Nuuk, whereas the grass pollen count was 13-30 times higher in Denmark compared to Nuuk. Dogs were held indoor with a similar frequency in Denmark and Nuuk, but much less frequently in Uummannaq. In Denmark, house dust mites were found in 72% of house holds (>10/0.1 g dust). Less than 15% of households in Greenland had measurable levels of house dust mites. The prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in Inuit Greenlanders differed significantly between Denmark, Nuuk and Uummannaq. These findings correlated with the observed differences in population allergen exposure in the three regions. Furthermore, differences in lifestyle factors such as educational level, stress and ethnic self-identification seemed to be associated with the risk of allergic sensitization in Greenland.

  17. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  18. Prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients in Kerman

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Detection of various environmental allergens is the major challenge in allergic diseases and the only treatment is avoiding these allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients using Skin Prick Test (SPT). Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on clinically confirmed patients of atopic-dermatitis (n=54), allergenic-rhinitis (n=64) and chronic-urticaria (n=39) who referred to asthma and allergy clinic at ...

  19. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Mathiesen, Caroline Benedicte K

    2015-01-01

    allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic...

  20. Prediction of allergenicity of gene-modified foods by serum-based testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of applying the IFBC/ILSI decision tree in a number of cases, a refinement of the scheme is suggested. Large differences in allergenic potential may be obtained by altering the route of administration of an allergen. Because an inhalation allergen can induce symptoms at different thr...

  1. Allergen structures and biologic functions: the cutting edge of allergy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomés, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Studies of structure and function of allergens using state-of-the-art technologies have led to a better understanding of allergenicity, including aspects related to cross-reactivity, allergen nomenclature, and the identification of antigenic determinants. This information is being applied to the design and production of allergy vaccines, some of which already have proven efficacy and safety in clinical trials.

  2. Boiling peanut Ara h 1 results in the formation of aggregates with reduced allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Blanc; Y.M. Vissers; K. Adel-Patient; N.M. Rigby; A.R. Mackie; A.P. Gunning; N.K. Wellner; P.S. Skov; L. Przybylski-Nicaise; B. Ballmer-Weber; L. Zuidmeer-Jongejan; Z. Szepfalusi; J. Ruinemans-Koerts; A.P.H. Jansen; H. Bernard; J.M. Wal; H.F.J. Savelkoul; H.J. Wichers; E.N.C. Mills

    2011-01-01

    Scope: Roasting rather than boiling and Maillard modifications may modulate peanut allergenicity. We investigated how these factors affect the allergenic properties of a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1. Methods and results: Ara h 1 was purified from either raw (N-Ara h 1) or roasted (R-Ara h 1) peanu

  3. Establishment of Reference Doses for residues of allergenic foods: Report of the VITAL Expert Panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, S.L.; Baumert, J.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Brooke-Taylor, S.; Allen, K.J.; Houben, G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, an expert panel was assembled to establish appropriate Reference Doses for allergenic food residues as a part of the VITAL (Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labeling) program of The Allergen Bureau of Australia & New Zealand (ABA). These Reference Doses would guide advisory labeling deci

  4. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  5. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major food allergens. 4.32a Section 4.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Requirements for Wine § 4.32a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following terms have the meanings indicated. (1) Major food allergen. Major...

  6. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  7. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  8. Application of porous foams for size-selective measurements of airborne wheat allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Pater, A.J. de; Doekes, G.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Exposure to airborne wheat allergen is a well-known cause of bakers' allergy and asthma. Airborne wheat allergen can be measured by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in extracts of inhalable dust samples, but only limited knowledge is available on the size distribution of wheat allergen-carryin

  9. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests we

  10. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...

  11. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  12. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, Rene' W. R.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Baka, Athanasia;

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment...... approaches and methodologies. Food allergens possess some unique characteristics, which make a simple safety assessment approach based on the establishment of absolute population thresholds inadequate. Dose distribution modelling of MEDs permitted the quantification of the risk of reaction at the population...... level and has been readily integrated with consumption and contamination data through probabilistic risk assessment approaches to generate quantitative risk predictions. This paper discusses the strengths and limitations of this approach and identifies important data gaps, which affect the outcomes...

  13. Induction of allergen-specific tolerance via mucosal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarell, Laurent; Zimmer, Aline; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Tourdot, Sophie; Moingeon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of allergies against insect venom, house dust mites, tree/grass pollens, or cat dander. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is successful to reorient the immune system and re-establish long-term tolerance. However, major drawbacks for using this route include: repeated injections, as well as the risk of anaphylaxis. In this context, alternative mucosal routes of administration are being considered together with the combined use of adjuvants/vector systems and recombinant allergens or peptide fragments. Herein, we review the current status in the use of mucosal routes (i.e., sublingual, oral, intranasal) for allergen-specific immunotherapy, as well as the latest understanding with respect to underlying mechanisms of action.

  14. Selected oxidized fragrance terpenes are common contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna;

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes are widely used fragrance compounds in fine fragrances, but also in domestic and occupational products. Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure. Previous studies have shown that limonene, linalool and caryophyllene are not allergenic themselves but readily form...... allergenic products on air-exposure. This study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of allergic reactions to selected oxidized fragrance terpenes other than limonene. In total 1511 consecutive dermatitis patients in 6 European dermatology centres were patch tested with oxidized fragrance...... terpenes and some oxidation fractions and compounds. Oxidized linalool and its hydroperoxide fraction were found to be common contact allergens. Of the patients tested, 1.3% showed a positive reaction to oxidized linalool and 1.1% to the hydroperoxide fraction. About 0.5% of the patients reacted...

  15. Lack of detectable allergenicity in genetically modified maize containing "Cry" proteins as compared to native maize based on in silico & in vitro analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Mathur

    Full Text Available Genetically modified, (GM crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release.To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize.An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39 to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed.In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05 variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF.Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize.

  16. Immunochemical Characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen Extract: Extensive Cross-reactive Allergenic Components among the Four Species of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen in causing respiratory allergy has been well ascertained in many countries including Iran with a high positive rate (69% among Iranian allergic patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the allergenic properties of A. retroflexus pollen. Sixteen patients with allergy to A. retroflexus pollen were selected for the study. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of the A. retroflexus pollen extract as well as pollen extracts from other species of the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family, including Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, and Salsola kali, were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunoblot inhibition assays. The resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE ranged from 10-85 kDa. Several allergenic components (MW 85, 45, 39, 18, 15, and 10 kDa of the A. retroflexus pollen extract were recognized by using patients' sera by specific antibody of IgE class using ELISA and immunoblot assays. The IgE reactivity of the A. retroflexus pollen extract was partially inhibited by all three pollen extracts tested. the inhibition by the S. kali pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters by the A. retroflexus pollen extract were highly correlated with those by C. album, K. scoparia and S. kali pollen extracts. In conclusion, three proteins with apparent MWs of 39, 45, and 66 kDa are suggested as the common allergenic components among the four pollens from the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. It appears that there are some common (similar epitopes among the four common allergenic pollens.

  17. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  18. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  19. Cross‑reactivity between group-5 and -21 mite allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Blomia tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Ryul; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo; Shin, Ho-Joon; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2015-10-01

    Group-5 and group-21 allergens, produced by house dust mites and storage mites are 36.6-55.8% identical in their sequences and are recognized by at least 50% of immunoglobulin (Ig)E from the sera of individuals allergic to dust mites. In the present study, recombinant group-5 and ‑21 allergens from three mite species, Dermatophagoides farinae (rDer f 5 and 21), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (rTyr p 5 and 21), and Blomia tropicalis (rBlo t 5 and 21), were purified from Escherichia coli, and the IgE reactivities and cross‑reactivities of these allergen variants were assessed. The IgE binding frequencies of rDer f 5, rDer f 21, rTyr p 5, rTyr p 21, rBlo t and rBlo t 21 proteins were 64.95, 65.98, 30.41, 41.24, 30.93 and 21.65%, respectively. The IgE reactivity of rDer f 5 correlated highly with that of rDer f 21 (r=0.733). rTyr p 5 exhibited the highest level of correlation with rTyr p 21 (r=0.950), while the correlation of rBlo t 5 with rBlo t 21 was the lowest observed (r=0.104). The binding of IgE to rDer f 5 and rDer f 21 was not inhibited by any allergens but themselves. While rDer f 5 inhibited only 60.3% of IgE binding to rBlo t 5, rDer f 21 exhibited a high inhibitory effect against rTyr p 5 (93.01%), rTyr p 21 (92.12%), rBlo t 5 (86.97%) and rBlo t 21 (70.30%), implying cross‑reactivity among mite species. The results of the present study demonstrated that the majority of the IgE reactivity to group-5 and -21 storage mite allergens is due to cross‑reaction. It is therefore imperative to develop an accurate, component‑resolved diagnosis for dust mite allergies.

  20. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  1. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior of...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  2. Allergen-specific immunotherapy and risk of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Madsen, Flemming; Skaaby, Tea

    2012-01-01

    After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic.......After 100 years of experience with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), an issue that is still unresolved is whether SIT can act as a trigger of, or as a risk factor for, autoimmune disease. We searched the literature for evidence on this topic....

  3. Experimental approaches to predict allergenic potential of novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2013-01-01

    ’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to designan animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food protein is a potential allergen. An even larger challenge is to predict its potency, a prerequisite...... of understanding of the significance of dose for the development of food allergy or its counterpart oral tolerance makes risk assessment very difficult. In addition route of exposure and digestibility are relevant variables. Examples of the use and limitations of animal models for predicting the allergenicity...

  4. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii,Akira

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlapped, and we considered these differences to be of little ecological significance, although the assay method itself is useful.

  5. Allergen identification in 5 grasses by means of crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, C.; Skibbe, K.; Jaeger, L. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1984-01-01

    Using crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis aqueous extracts from pollen of Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Festuca pratensis and Alopecurus pratensis were investigated for allergen composition. Between 24 and 32 antigens were detected. Employing sera from 11 patients with well established hay fever, IgE binding could be demonstrated in 15 out of 28 antigens in Phleum pratense, 13 out of 32 in Lolium perenne, 14 out of 26 in Poa pratensis, 12 out of 24 Festuca pratensis and 12 out of 24 antigens in Alopecurus pratensis. The 11 patients showed an individual pattern of sensitization against the various pollen allergens.

  6. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  7. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  8. ¹H, ¹³C and ¹⁵N resonance assignments and second structure information of Gad m 1: a β-parvalbumin allergen from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A H; Ackerbauer, D; Kostadinova, M; Bublin, M; Ferreira, F; Almeida, F C L; Breiteneder, H; Valente, A P

    2013-10-01

    Gad m 1 is the major allergen from Atlantic cod. It belongs to β-parvalbumin protein family and is characterized by the presence of two calcium-binding sites so called EF-hand motifs. β-Parvalbumins such as Gad m 1 are the most important fish allergens and their high cross-reactivity is the cause of the observed polysensitization to various fish species in allergic patients. Despite extensive efforts, the complete elucidation of β-parvalbumin-IgE complexes has not been achieved yet. Allergen structural studies are essential for the development of novel immunotherapy strategies, including vaccination with hypoallergenic derivatives and chimeric molecules. Here, we report for the first time the NMR study of a β-parvalbumin: Gad m 1. This report includes: (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of Gad m 1 as well as the second structure information based on the (13)C chemical shifts.

  9. Hadron Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Faessler, Amand; Lee, Ian Woo; Lyubovitskij, Valery E

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a possible interpretation of the open charm mesons $D_{s0}^*(2317)$, $D_{s1}(2460)$ and the hidden charm mesons X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4140) as hadron molecules. Using a phenomenological Lagrangian approach we review the strong and radiative decays of the $D_{s0}^* (2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ states. The X(3872) is assumed to consist dominantly of molecular hadronic components with an additional small admixture of a charmonium configuration. Determing the radiative ($\\gamma J/\\psi$ and $\\gamma \\psi(2s)$) and strong ($J/\\psi 2\\pi $ and $ J/\\psi 3\\pi$) decay modes we show that present experimental observation is consistent with the molecular structure assumption of the X(3872). Finally we give evidence for molecular interpretations of the Y(3940) and Y(4140) related to the observed strong decay modes $J/\\psi + \\omega$ or $J/\\psi + \\phi$, respectively.

  10. Paraphrase substitution for recognizing textual entailment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.E.; Callison-Burch, C.; Nardi, A.; Peters, C.; Vicedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a method for recognizing textual entailment that uses the length of the longest common subsequence (LCS) between two texts as its decision criterion. Rather than requiring strict word matching in the common subsequences, we perform a flexible match using automatically generated paraphrase

  11. Paraphrase Substitution for Recognizing Textual Entailment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.E.; Callison-Burch, C.; Peters, C.; Clough, P.; Gey, F.C.; Karlgren, J.; Magnini, B.; Oard, D.W.; de Rijke, M.; Stempfhuber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method for recognizing textual entailment that uses the length of the longest common subsequence (LCS) between two texts as its decision criterion. Rather than requiring strict word matching in the common subsequences, we perform a flexible match using automatically generated paraphras

  12. How should a speech recognizer work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharenborg, O.E.; Norris, D.G.; Bosch, L.F.M. ten; McQueen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of comm

  13. Recognizing and Responding to Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting adolescents as well as adults. Adolescents are underserved with regard to treatment facilities. One solution is the comprehensive health care clinic providing a holistic approach to assessment and intervention. Policy recommendations, which include a role for the school system, are made.…

  14. Genetic engineering of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 6, to reduce allergenic activity and preserve immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, Susanne; Focke, Margarete; Kopec, Jolanta; Verdino, Petra; Hartl, Arnulf; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ball, Tanja; Almo, Steve; Valent, Peter; Thalhamer, Josef; Keller, Walter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    On the basis of IgE epitope mapping data, we have produced three allergen fragments comprising aa 1-33, 1-57, and 31-110 of the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 6 aa 1-110 by expression in Escherichia coli and chemical synthesis. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the purified fragments lack the typical alpha-helical fold of the complete allergen. Superposition of the sequences of the fragments onto the three-dimensional allergen structure indicated that the removal of only one of the four helices had led to the destabilization of the alpha helical structure of Phl p 6. The lack of structural fold was accompanied by a strong reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the three fragments as determined by basophil histamine release in allergic patients. Each of the three Phl p 6 fragments adsorbed to CFA induced Phl p 6-specific IgG Abs in rabbits. However, immunization of mice with fragments adsorbed to an adjuvant allowed for human use (AluGel-S) showed that only the Phl p 6 aa 31-110 induced Phl p 6-specific IgG Abs. Anti-Phl p 6 IgG Abs induced by vaccination with Phl p 6 aa 31-110 inhibited patients' IgE reactivity to the wild-type allergen as well as Phl p 6-induced basophil degranulation. Our results are of importance for the design of hypoallergenic allergy vaccines. They show that it has to be demonstrated that the hypoallergenic derivative induces a robust IgG response in a formulation that can be used in allergic patients.

  15. House dust mite allergen level and allergen sensitization as risk factors for asthma among student in Central Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study is a community-based study to get an overview about House Dust Mite (HDM) allergen level, allergen sensitization as risk factors of asthma. This is a cross-sectional study on 3,840 students from 19 junior high schools, aged 13-14 years. All of the respondents filled out the International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire. Of 3840 respondents, 288 (7.5%) were assigned to asthma group (experience wheezing during the last 12 months). The skin prick test was...

  16. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop.

  17. Rapid one-step assays for on-site monitoring of mouse and rat urinary allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koets, Marjo; Renström, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Bogdanovic, Jelena; Wouters, Inge M; van Amerongen, Aart

    2011-12-01

    Allergy to rodent proteins is common among laboratory animal workers. Sensitive methods to measure exposure to these allergens have been developed. These assays are, however, expensive, time-consuming, and require a laboratory facility and methodological expertise. A simple method to screen for allergen spread, or to test whether hygiene standards are maintained, would be useful. Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are especially suited for field settings; the tests are simple and results are visible within minutes. LFIAs were developed for detection of the rodent urinary allergens Mus m 1 and Rat n 1. Pilot studies were performed in animal facilities in three countries using both extracts from airborne dust samples and samples collected by wiping surfaces. For comparison and determination of sensitivity, the concentrations of rodent urinary allergens in the samples were also measured using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The LFIAs for rat and mouse urinary allergens had a detection limit of 31 pg allergen per mL in a buffer system with purified allergen standards. Results of environmental dust extracts tested in LFIAs correlated well with levels obtained using EIAs. Spread of rodent allergens, or non-adherence to hygiene around laboratory animal facilities, may aggravate rodent allergy. Using a simple, sensitive one-step assay, allergens can be detected to prevent allergen exposure. The results reveal that the rapid assays are suited for on-site demonstration of exposure to rodent allergens, and thus, useful in occupational hygiene practice.

  18. Molecular characterization of recombinant T1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the Bet v 1 plant allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, Sylvia; Hamdi, Said; Lupinek, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Grote, Monika; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Scheiner, Otto; Kraft, Dietrich; Rideau, Marc; Valenta, Rudolf

    2003-07-01

    More than 25% of the population suffer from Type I allergy, an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease. Allergens with homology to the major birch ( Betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. T1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the Bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T1 (rT1) did not react with IgE antibodies from allergic patients, and failed to induce basophil histamine release and immediate-type skin reactions in Bet v 1-allergic patients. Antibodies raised against purified rT1 could be used for in situ localization of natural T1 by immunogold electron microscopy, but did not cross-react with most of the Bet v 1-related allergens. CD analysis showed significant differences regarding secondary structure and thermal denaturation behaviour between rT1 and recombinant Bet v 1, suggesting that these structural differences are responsible for the different allergenicity of the proteins. T1 represents a non-allergenic member of the Bet v 1 family that may be used to study structural requirements of allergenicity and to engineer hypo-allergenic plants by replacing Bet v 1-related allergens for primary prevention of allergy.

  19. Indoor Allergen Levels and Household Distributions in Nine Cities Across China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi Wu; NORBACK Dan; GJESING Birgitte; ZHONG Nan Shan; SPANGFORT DMichael; LAI Xu Xin; ZHAO De Yu; ZHANG Chun Qing; CHEN Jian Jun; ZHANG Luo; WEI Qing Yu; CHEN Shi; LIU En Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chinese allergic subjects have high levels of sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and other indoor allergens. This study quantifies common indoor allergen levels in Chinese households. Methods Dust samples were collected from nine cities. Major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, and specific antigens of Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and cockroach species Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were measured by ELISA. Results HDM allergens were found in dust samples from bedding in 95% of the Chinese households. The median levels varied from Conclusion HDM allergens are present in bedding dust samples from most Chinese households. Cities in southern and central China have relatively high levels of HDM major allergens compared to cities in northern and western China. Antigens of storage mites and cockroaches are not as common as HDM allergens.

  20. Production of recombinant peanut allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenting, J.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Kato, K.;

    2007-01-01

    Background: Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/ or unacceptable levels of side effects....... The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production can alleviate some of these issues. Several allergens have been tested in high- level expression systems and in most cases show immunereactivity comparable to their natural counterparts. The gram positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus...... of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results: A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L...

  1. Current issues on sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology was the first official organization to recognize that sublingual administration could be “promising route” for allergic desensitization. A few years later, the World Health Organization recommended this therapy as “a viable alternative to the injection route in adults.” The first meta-analysis showed sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy (SLIT effectiveness for allergic rhinitis and another study showed SLIT can actually help prevent the development of asthma both in adults and in children. The main goal of this review article is to present insight into the most up-to-date understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. A literature review was performed on PubMed from 1990 to 2015 using the terms “asthma,” “allergic rhinitis,” “children,” “allergen specific immune therapy.” Evaluating data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (DB-PC-RCTs, the clinical efficacy (assessed as the reduction of symptom score and the need of rescue medicament of SLIT for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, has been confirmed in various meta-analysis Outcomes such as rhinoconjunctivitis score and medication scores, combined scores, quality of life, days with severe symptoms, immunological endpoints, and safety parameters were all improved in the SLIT-tablet compared with placebo group. SLIT safety has been already proven in many DB-PC-RCTs and real-life settings. In accordance with all of the above mentioned, the goals for future trials and studies are the development of comprehensive guidelines for clinical practice on immunotherapy, embracing all the different potential participants. The importance of allergen immunotherapy is of special relevance in the pediatric age, when the plasticity and modulability of the immune system are maximal, and when

  2. Assessment of protein allergenicity studies in brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there

  3. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  4. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM

    2002-01-01

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe leath

  5. The impact of common metal allergens in daily devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    We are widely exposed to metal allergens in our daily doings. As exposures constantly changes because of fashion trends and technological developments, there is a need for a continuous update of patch testers. An overview of consumer metal exposure studies that have been published in 2012 and 2013...

  6. Effects of reduction and proteolysis on cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is frequently more severe than reaction to peanut ingestion, and food allergens are commonly resistant to digestive proteases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of cashew proteins to proteolysis. Cashew protein extracts and purified c...

  7. Categorisation of protein respiratory allergens: the case of Subtilisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A

    2014-04-01

    Characterisation of the relative sensitizing potency of protein and chemical allergens remains challenging, particularly for materials causing allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract. There nevertheless remains an appetite, for priority setting and risk management, to develop paradigms that distinguish between individual respiratory allergens according to perceptions of the hazards and risks posed to human health. One manifestation thereof is recent listing of certain respiratory allergens as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) under the provisions of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). Although priority setting is a laudable ambition, it is important the process is predicated on evidence-based criteria that are transparent, understood and owned. The danger is that in the absence of rigorous criteria unwanted precedents can be created, and confidence in the process is compromised. A default categorisation of sensitisers as SVHC requiring assessment under the authorisation process is not desirable. We therefore consider here the value and limitations of selective assignment of certain respiratory allergens as being SVHC. The difficulties of sustaining such designations in a sound and equitable way is discussed in the context of the challenges that exist with respect to assessment of potency, and information available regarding the effectiveness of exposure-based risk management.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated Food Allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we sought to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost...

  9. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Demoly, Pascal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Ronald Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Linnemann, Desiree Larenas; Lin, Sandra; Maggina, Vivian; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke; Pajno, Giovanni; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT i

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic asthma: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); I. Agache; S. Lau (Susanne); Muraro, A. (Antonella); M. Jutel (M.); G. Roberts; C.A. Akdis; M. Bonini (Matteo); M. Calderon (Moises); T.B. Casale (Thomas); Cavkaytar, O. (Ozlem); L. Cox (Linda); P. Demoly; Flood, B. (Breda); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); Izuhara, K. (Kenji); O. Kalayci; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); A. Nieto (Antonio); N. Papadopoulos; O. Pfaar (Oliver); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); D. Ryan (Dermot); C.B. Schmidt-Weber; S.J. Szefler; U. Wahn (Ulrich); R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Asthma. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of

  11. STUDY OF AIRBORNE INSECT ALLERGEN IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀珍; 刘云; 周玎

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the variety of airborne allergenic insects and its sensibility in asthmatic patients. Methods 300 asthmatic patients and 100 normal controls underwent skin prick test (SPT) with 13 kinds of superior airborne insect vaccine, and sera sIgE of those whose SPT results were positive were tested by BSA-ELISA. Results The total positive rate of SPT with 13 kinds of insect vaccine in asthmatic patients was 58%, and it was significantly higher than that of normal control (P<0.01). The results of SPT with Stayridae, Heliothis armigera, Psilgramma menephorn and other 7 kinds of insects were more than 30% in asthmatic patients which meant these 10 kinds of insects were main allergenic insects to asthmatic patients. The positive rate of sIgE in asthmatic patients was more than 85%, while the normal control was only 6.0%. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion Stayridae, Heliothis armigera, Psilgramma menephorn and other 7 kinds of insects were main allergenic insects to asthmatic patients and perhaps they were the main allergens to the onset of asthma at the end summer or the early autumn.

  12. A Review of Allergy and Allergen Specific Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 20th  century, when allergy was defined, an ongoing attempt for discovering the mechanisms underlying it and its treatment began. Defining allergens as well as cells such as regulatory T-cells and characterizing the antibodies involved in the pathogenesis (including blocking antibodies have helped very much towards a better understanding of the immunologic process.However, Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT, as a specific curative treatment for allergy also dates back to the beginning of the previous century and has progressed considerably during these years. SIT similar to natural immunomodulation, directs the immune response towards tolerance.New strategies in this field, such as using recombinant allergens, T- and B-cell-epitope- containing peptides, and DNA vaccination have shown promising results. Sublingual immunotherapy, although not yet  FDA-approved, as an alternative  strategy in SIT  has demonstrated efficacy as well as safety.Furthermore, allergen extracts, their standardization and their modification have also been the focus of much research. Undoubtedly, specific immunotherapy is proven to be an efficacious  method  to  treat  allergy,  so  its  cost-effectiveness  should  be  estimated  in developing countries in order to include it in the country's health priorities. Informing physicians about the new anti-vaccination movement is also crucial.

  13. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALLERGENS IN EXTRACTS OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALLERGENS IN EXTRACTS OF Stachybotrys chartarum. M E Viana1, MJ Selgrade2, and M D Ward2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA. 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.Exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum has been associated with the development of serious health ...

  14. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts.

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); G. Roberts; O. Pfaar (Oliver); Muraro, A. (Antonella); I.J. Ansotegui (I.); M. Calderon (Moises); Cingi, C. (Cemal); P. Demoly; S.R. Durham (Stephen); R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); S. Halken (Susanne); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); P.W. Hellings (P.); L. Jacobsen; E.F. Knol (Edward Frank); D.L. Linnemann (D. Larenas); Lin, S. (Sandra); Maggina, V. (Vivian); H.N.G. Oude Elberink (Hanneke N.G.); G. Pajno (G.); Panwankar, R. (Ruby); Pastorello, E. (Elideanna); C. Pitsios; Rotiroti, G. (Giuseppina); Timmermans, F. (Frans); Tsilochristou, O. (Olympia); E.M. Varga; Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); Williams, A. (Andrew); M. Worm (M.); Zhang, L. (Luo); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and saf

  17. Considerations About Pollen Used for the Production of Allergen Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts.

  18. Comparison of immunoglobulin E measurements on IMMULITE and ImmunoCAP in samples consisting of allergen-specific mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies towards allergen extracts and four recombinant allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in vitro tests are performed on enzyme immunoassay systems. Poor agreement among systems has been reported and comparisons have been made exclusively with allergen extracts - not with recombinant allergens. Here we compare the ImmunoCAP and the IMMULITE...

  19. Recognizing frequency characteristics of gas sensor array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel method based on independent component analyzing (ICA) in frequency domain to distinguish the frequency characteristics of multi-sensor system is presented. The conditions of this type of ICA are considered and each step of resolving the problem is discussed. For a two gas sensor array, the frequency characteristics including amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency are recognized by this method, and cross-sensitivity between them is also eliminated. From the principle of similarity, the recognition m...

  20. Textual Entailment Recognizing by Theorem Proving Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tatar, Doina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present two original methods for recognizing textual inference. First one is a modified resolution method such that some linguistic considerations are introduced in the unification of two atoms. The approach is possible due to the recent methods of transforming texts in logic formulas. Second one is based on semantic relations in text, as presented in WordNet. Some similarities between these two methods are remarked.

  1. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  2. Distinct Pattern of Human Vδ1 T Cells Recognizing MICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang Li; Lianxian Cui; Wei He

    2005-01-01

    γδ T cells represent one unique recognition pattern, the limited recognition, which distinguishes from the specific recognition for αβ T cells and pattern recognition for macrophages. Vδ1 γδ T cell is the major subset of human γδT cells, which predominates in mucosal tissue including the intestinal epithelia. Presently, a few antigens that human Vδ1TCR can recognize have been identified. Among them, MHC class Ⅰ chain-related molecules A (MICA)have been studied most intensively. Besides Vδ1TCR, MICA is also the ligand of NKG2D, a C-type lectin-like activating immunoreceptor. In human, only Vδ1 cells can simultaneously express both types of receptors of MICA while NK cells, αβ T cells and other subsets of γδ T cells likewise express NKG2D. Although the precise mechanisms are still enigmatic, this distinct pattern of Vδ1 cells recognizing MICA predicts unique biological significance of Vδ1 cells in immune defense. Recent years, some progresses have been made in this issue. In this review we summarize the related reports and put forward some novel views based on our group's studies.

  3. Cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and food allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2015-01-01

    In patients with respiratory allergy, cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and foods may induce food allergy, symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Clinical entities due to IgE sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are described for many sources of plant origin (pollen-food syndromes and associations, such as birch-apple, cypress-peach and celery-mugwort-spice syndromes, and mugwort-peach, mugwort-chamomile, mugwort-mustard, ragweed-melon-banana, goosefoot-melon associations), fungal origin (Alternaria-spinach syndrome), and invertebrate, mammalian or avian origin (mite-shrimp, cat-pork, and bird-egg syndromes). Clinical cases of allergic reactions to ingestion of food products containing pollen grains of specific plants, in patients with respiratory allergy to Asteraceae pollen, especially mugwort and ragweed, are also mentioned, for honey, royal jelly and bee polen dietary supplements, along with allergic reactions to foods contaminated with mites or fungi in patients with respiratory allergy to these aeroallergens. Medical history and diagnosis approach may be guided by the knowledge about the diverse cross-reacting allergens involved, and by the understanding of these clinical entities which may vary significantly or may be overlapping. The association between primary IgE sensitization with respiratory symptoms to inhaled allergens and food allergy due to cross-reactive allergen components is important to assess in allergy practice. The use of molecular-based diagnosis improves the understanding of clinically relevant IgE sensitization to cross-reactive allergen components from aeroallergen sources and foods. PMID:26140270

  4. Influence of sensitization and allergen provocation procedures on the development of allergen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in conscious, unrestrained guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Santing

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different sensitization and allergen provocation regimens on the development of allergen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR to histamine were investigated in conscious, unrestrained guinea-pigs. Similar early and late phase asthmatic reactions, BHR for inhaled histamine after the early (6 h as well as after the late reaction (24 h, and airway inflammation were observed after a single allergen provocation in animals sensitized to produce mainly IgG or IgE antibodies, respectively. Repeating the allergen provocation in the IgE-sensitized animals after 7 days, using identical provocation conditions, resulted in a similar development of BHR to histamine inhalation. Repetition of the allergen provocation during 4 subsequent days resulted in a decreased development of BHR after each provocation, despite a significant increase in the allergen provocation dose necessary to obtain similar airway obstruction. The number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage was not significantly changed after repeated provocation, when compared with a single allergen provocation. Finally, we investigated allergen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity by repetition of the sensitization procedure at day 7 and 14 (booster, followed by repeated allergen provocation twice a week for 5 weeks. Surprisingly, no BHR to histamine could be observed after either provocation, while the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after 5 weeks was enhanced compared with controls. These data indicate that both IgE and IgG sensitized guinea-pigs may develop bronchial hyperreactivity after a single allergen provocation. Repeated allergen exposure of IgE sensitized animals causes a gradual fading of the induced hyperreactivity despite the on-going presence of inflammatory cells in the airways, indicating a mechanism of reduced cellular activation.

  5. Allergy vaccines: a need for standardisation in mass units of major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Dorpema, J W; Vieths, S

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of respiratory allergies can be performed with allergen-specific immunotherapy using allergen extracts. These products are biologicals with an extremely complex and variable composition. Only a few components are of major importance for the disease, the so-called major allergens. At present, standardisation of allergen extracts is dominated by techniques that aim at establishing their overall IgE-binding potencies using pooled sera of allergic patients. Each company in the market uses its own type of units to express potencies, thus hampering comparability. Another disadvantage is that the major allergen composition is not determined. Most companies have introduced assays for the measurement of major allergens in their quality control systems, but these data are not yet used for labelling purposes. The need to include major allergen content in standardisation protocols is now widely accepted. To support future labelling on the basis of major allergen content the European Union has funded the multidisciplinary multicentre project CREATE. This project aims at developing international certified references for the most important major respiratory allergens and at evaluating the performance of available ELISA for their measurement. The project will facilitate expression of potencies by active ingredient (major allergen) content and will allow direct comparison of competitor products.

  6. Molecular characterization and allergenic activity of Lyc e 2 (beta-fructofuranosidase), a glycosylated allergen of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Sandra; Kolarich, Daniel; Foetisch, Kay; Lauer, Iris; Altmann, Friedrich; Conti, Amedeo; Crespo, Jesus F; Rodríguez, Julia; Enrique, Ernesto; Vieths, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2003-03-01

    Until now, only a small amount of information is available about tomato allergens. In the present study, a glycosylated allergen of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Lyc e 2, was purified from tomato extract by a two-step FPLC method. The cDNA of two different isoforms of the protein, Lyc e 2.01 and Lyc e 2.02, was cloned into the bacterial expression vector pET100D. The recombinant proteins were purified by electroelution and refolded. The IgE reactivity of both the recombinant and the natural proteins was investigated with sera of patients with adverse reactions to tomato. IgE-binding to natural Lyc e 2 was completely inhibited by the pineapple stem bromelain glycopeptide MUXF (Man alpha 1-6(Xyl beta 1-2)Man beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc). Accordingly, the nonglycosylated recombinant protein isoforms did not bind IgE of tomato allergic patients. Hence, we concluded that the IgE reactivity of the natural protein mainly depends on the glycan structure. The amino acid sequences of both isoforms of the allergen contain four possible N-glycosylation sites. By application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the predominant glycan structure of the natural allergen was identified as MMXF (Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)(Xyl beta 1-2)Man beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3) GlcNAc). Natural Lyc e 2, but not the recombinant protein was able to trigger histamine release from passively sensitized basophils of patients with IgE to carbohydrate determinants, demonstrating that glycan structures can be important for the biological activity of allergens.

  7. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Patrick; Vieths, Stefan; Wangorsch, Andrea; Nerkamp, Jörg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-06-16

    The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.

  8. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on recombinant human interleukin 3-mediated amplification of allergen-induced basophil histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Krzysztof; Nolte, Hendrik; Skov, Per Stahl; DuBuske, Lawrence M

    2005-01-01

    Decreased allergen-induced histamine release from peripheral blood basophils in allergic rhinitis patients treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) correlates with clinical outcomes of SIT. The aim of this study was to investigate if decreased histamine release is a permanent effect of SIT. Fifty-one patients (mean age, 35.3 years) with allergic rhinitis, diagnosed based on clinical history and positive skin-prick test results to common aeroallergens, were studied. Twenty-three patients had never received SIT (group A), and 28 patients had been treated with inhalant allergen extracts (group B). Eleven patients from group A participated in a prospective part of this study. Basophil histamine release in these patients was evaluated before (TO) and after-1 year (TI) of SIT. Histamine release from peripheral blood with and without interleukin (IL)-3 pretreatment was performed using the glass-fiber-based histamine release test. Brief pretreatment of whole blood basophils with one of the four concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/mL) of recombinant human IL(rhIL)-3, rhIL-5, or rh-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in a significant amplification of allergen-induced basophil histamine release. The amplification using cytokines at the optimal concentrations was the greatest with rhIL-3 and the lowest with rhIL-5; therefore, for further studies rhIL-3 was used. Prospective analysis showed no significant difference in allergen-induced basophil histamine release on rhIL-3 pretreatment after 1 year of SIT (192.7 +/- 75.3 ng and 176.1 +/- 76.4 ng for T0 and T1, respectively; p = 0.18). Short-term SIT does not decrease rhIL-3-mediated amplification of allergen-induced histamine release from peripheral blood basophils.

  9. Allergen micro-array detection of specific IgE-reactivity in Chinese allergy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi-wu; ZHONG Nan-shan; Michael D Spangfort; LI Jing; LAI Xu-xin; ZHAO De-yu; LIU Xiao-fan; LIN Xiao-ping; Birgitte Gjesing; Paola Palazzo; Adriano Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergen micro-arrays are powerful tools for screening of serum IgE-reactivity.In this study allergen micro-arrays were used to identify dominating IgE-binding allergens and cross-reactivity patterns among selected Chinese allergy patients.Methods The study was conducted using patient sera from the cities of Guangzhou,Nanjing,Chengdu and Shenyang.In total 100 sera with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) specific IgE-levels higher than 50 kU/L were selected for testing against 103 individual allergens.Results Among 100 selected patients, 95% showed IgE-reactivity towards house-dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) 1,Der f 2 and Der p 2 and 94% were IgE positive against Der p 1,and 60% of sera contained IgE reacting against allergen Euroglyphus maynei (Eur m) 2.IgE against cat allergen,Felisdomesticus (Fel d)1,was seen in 20%.Only 2% showed specific IgE-reactivity to Der p 10,a panallergen belonging to the tropomyosin family.Serum IgE-reactivity towards other allergens was in general low.IgE-reactivity against pollen allergens showed geographic differences.Conclusions This study clearly confirms that group 1 and group 2 are major allergens of house dust mites.These selected house-dust mite allergy patients are close to being mono-sensitized.Der p 10 is not an important allergen for cross-reactivity.Specific IgE-sensitization towards pollen allergens is low in southern China compared to other regions.The prevalence of food and stinging insect allergens known to give rise to IgE-mediated cross-reactivity is 2% or less.

  10. [The study of profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens in the Moscow region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2014-05-01

    The profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens is an important element of common pattern of immune diseases needed for development of effective pharmaceuticals. The purpose of the study was to analyze the rate of detection of combined forms of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens (pollen of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood, fungi A. alternata, C. herbarum, R. nigricans, P. notatum, C. albicans, A. fumigatus) in the Moscow region on the basis of data of scarification skin samples. The mono-sensibilization was established in 23.36% of all cases of hypersensitivity. At that, among leading allergens turned out A. alternata and cocksfoot pollen (6.54% and 4.67%), followed by allergens of wormwood pollen, P. notatum, R. nigricans, birch pollen and C. albicans (3.74%, 3.74%, 1.87%, 1.87% and 0.93% correspondingly). The polysensibilization was established in 51.40% of cases. Besides, the combined hypersensitivity to pollen allergens of plants (20.26%) and to pollen and fungal allergens (20.56%) occurred more frequently In the group of patients with polysensibilization predominated combined allergic reactions to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergens (36.36%). On the whole, most frequently occurred sensitization to allergens of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood and A. alternata allergen (76.14%, 69.32%, 57.95%, 55.68%, 39.77% and 56.82% correspondingly). In the Moscow region predominate combined forms of hypersensitivity to two and more pollen and fungal allergens. The polysensitization to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergen occurs more frequently.

  11. Large particulate allergens can elicit mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis without exit from blood vessels as efficiently as do small soluble allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiHua, Li; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Ohta, Takuya; Horiguchi, Kayo; Kawano, Yohei; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2015-11-06

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid-onset, life-threatening allergic reaction in that IgE, mast cells and histamine are commonly involved. It can be experimentally induced in IgE-sensitized animals by intravenous injection of corresponding allergens, and the sign of anaphylactic reaction can be detected within minutes after allergen challenge. However, it remains puzzling why the anaphylactic reaction can be initiated in vivo so quickly, considering that allergens are delivered into the blood circulation while mast cells reside within peripheral tissues but not in the blood circulation. To address this issue, we compared two different forms of the same allergen, small soluble and large particulate ones, in their ability to induce anaphylaxis in IgE-sensitized mice. In contrast to our expectation, particulate allergens could induce anaphylaxis as quickly and efficiently as did soluble allergens, even though they remained inside of blood vessels. In vivo imaging analysis suggested the direct interaction of intravascular particulate allergens and perivascular mast cells across the capillary wall. Taken together with previous report that perivascular mast cells can capture IgE in the blood circulation by extending cell processes across the vessel wall, our findings imply that blood-circulating allergens, regardless of their size, can stimulate mast cells without exit from blood vessels, by means of cross-linking IgE on mast cell processes inserted into the vessel lumen, and hence initiate anaphylactic reaction so quickly.

  12. IgE cross-reactivity between the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and the non-homologous allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara h 1, a vicilin, Ara h 2, a 2S albumin, and Ara h 3, a legumin, are major33 peanut allergens. Ara h 2 is an important predictor of clinical reactivity to peanut, but co-sensitization to all three allergens is correlated with the severity of patients’ symptoms. We investigated whether co-sensitiza...

  13. Digestion of atopic allergens with trypsin α-chymotrypsin and pancreatic kallikrein, and influence of the allergens upon the proteolytic and esterolytic activity of these enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1968-01-01

    The action of bovine trypsin, α-chymotrypsin and pancreatic kallikrein upon a number of atopic allergens has been studied by pH-stat measurements during short-term incubation. Most atopic allergens proved chemically resistant towards these enzymes. Graphs of enzyme susceptibility vs. the ratio of ex

  14. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  15. Allergenic Characterization of New Mutant Forms of Pru p 3 as New Immunotherapy Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gómez-Casado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3.01, Pru p 3.02, and Pru p 3.03. Pru p 3.01 showed very similar allergenic activity as the wild type by in vitro assays. However, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 presented reduced IgE binding with respect to the native form, by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. In addition, Pru p 3.03 had affected the IgG4 binding capacity and presented a random circular dichroism, which was reflected in the nonrecognition by specific antibodies anti-Pru p 3. Nevertheless, both Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 maintained the binding to IgG1 and their ability to activate T lymphocytes. Thus, Pru p 3.02 and Pru p 3.03 could be good candidates for potential immunotherapy in peach-allergic patients.

  16. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  17. Recognizing frequency characteristics of gas sensor array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel method based on independent component analyzing (ICA) in frequency domain to distinguish the frequency characteristics of multi-sensor system is presented. The conditions of this type of ICA are considered and each step of resolving the problem is discussed. For a two gas sensor array, the frequency characteristics including amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency are recognized by this method, and cross-sensitivity between them is also eliminated. From the principle of similarity, the recognition mean square error is no more than 0.085.

  18. Bilayer Vesicles of Amphiphilic Cyclodextrins: Host Membranes That Recognize Guest Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvey, Patrick; Lim, Choon Woo; Darcy, Raphael; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T.M.; Lazar, Adina; Coleman, Anthony W.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2005-01-01

    A family of amphiphilic cyclodextrins (6, 7) has been prepared through 6-S-alkylation (alkyl=n-dodecyl and n-hexadecyl) of the primary side and 2-O-PEGylation of the secondary side of a-, B-, and Y-cyclodextrins (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)). These cyclodextrins form nonionic bilayer vesicles in aqueo

  19. Bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrines: host membranes that recognize guest molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvey, P.; Lim, C.W.; Darcy, R.; Revermann, T.; Karst, U.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Coleman, A.W.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Ravoo, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    A family of amphiphilic cyclodextrins (6, 7) has been prepared through 6-S-alkylation (alkyl=n-dodecyl and n-hexadecyl) of the primary side and 2-O-PEGylation of the secondary side of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)). These cyclodextrins form nonionic bilayer vesicl

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans recognizes a bacterial quorum-sensing signal molecule through the AWCON neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kristen M; Perez, Lark J; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Semmelhack, Martin F; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2014-09-19

    In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication. Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors. In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one, termed CAI-1, influences chemotaxis in C. elegans. C. elegans prefers V. cholerae that produces CAI-1 over a V. cholerae mutant defective for CAI-1 production. The position of the CAI-1 ketone moiety is the key feature driving CAI-1-directed nematode behavior. CAI-1 is detected by the C. elegans amphid sensory neuron AWC(ON). Laser ablation of the AWC(ON) cell, but not other amphid sensory neurons, abolished chemoattraction to CAI-1. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial-produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction.

  1. Mapping of epitopes on Poa p I and Lol p I allergens with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z W; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Jaggi, K S; Dzuba-Fischer, J; Rector, E; Kisil, F T

    1990-01-01

    Allergen Poa p I isolated from the dialysed aqueous extract of Kentucky blue grass pollen by affinity chromatography with an anti-Lol p I murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 290A-167 was previously shown to consist of a 35.8-kilodalton (kD) component with a pI of 6.4, designated as Poa p Ia, and a 33-kD component with a pI of 9.1, designated as Poa p Ib. The present study reports on the comparative antigenic analyses of these two components, using MAbs produced separately against Poa p I and Lol p I. Thus, anti-Poa p I MAbs 60 and 61 and anti-Lol p I MAb 290A-167 recognized Poa p Ia and Poa p Ib whereas anti-Poa p I MAbs 62, 63 and 64 and anti-Lol p I MAb 348A-6 recognized only Poa p Ia. The specificities of the MAbs were further resolved by comparing their respective abilities to inhibit the binding of 125I-Poa p I or 125I-Lol p I to the different MAbs prepared in the form of solid phase. These studies revealed that at least 4 distinct epitopes (designated as E1, E2, E3 and E4) were shared by both Poa p I and Lol p I. All 4 epitopes were present on Poa p Ia whereas only E1 and E3 were detected on Poa p Ib. E1 was recognized by MAbs 60 and 61, E2 by MAbs 62, 63 and 64, E3 by MAb 290A-167 and E4 by MAb 348A-6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Ants recognize foes and not friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating 'friends' (nest-mates) from 'foes' (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects.

  3. Stereoscopic Offset Makes Objects Easier to Recognize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Caziot

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is obviously useful for depth perception, but it might also enhance other components of visual processing, such as image segmentation. We used naturalistic images to determine whether giving an object a stereoscopic offset of 15-120 arcmin of crossed disparity relative to its background would make the object easier to recognize in briefly presented (33-133 ms, temporally masked displays. Disparity had a beneficial effect across a wide range of disparities and display durations. Most of this benefit occurred whether or not the stereoscopic contour agreed with the object's luminance contour. We attribute this benefit to an orienting of spatial attention that selected the object and its local background for enhanced 2D pattern processing. At longer display durations, contour agreement provided an additional benefit, and a separate experiment using random-dot stimuli confirmed that stereoscopic contours plausibly contributed to recognition at the longer display durations in our experiment. We conclude that in real-world situations binocular vision confers an advantage not only for depth perception, but also for recognizing objects from their luminance patterns and bounding contours.

  4. Stereoscopic Offset Makes Objects Easier to Recognize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caziot, Baptiste; Backus, Benjamin T

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is obviously useful for depth perception, but it might also enhance other components of visual processing, such as image segmentation. We used naturalistic images to determine whether giving an object a stereoscopic offset of 15-120 arcmin of crossed disparity relative to its background would make the object easier to recognize in briefly presented (33-133 ms), temporally masked displays. Disparity had a beneficial effect across a wide range of disparities and display durations. Most of this benefit occurred whether or not the stereoscopic contour agreed with the object's luminance contour. We attribute this benefit to an orienting of spatial attention that selected the object and its local background for enhanced 2D pattern processing. At longer display durations, contour agreement provided an additional benefit, and a separate experiment using random-dot stimuli confirmed that stereoscopic contours plausibly contributed to recognition at the longer display durations in our experiment. We conclude that in real-world situations binocular vision confers an advantage not only for depth perception, but also for recognizing objects from their luminance patterns and bounding contours.

  5. Biochemical, biophysical and IgE-epitope characterization of the wheat food allergen, Tri a 37.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pahr

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important staple food and potent allergen source. Recently, we isolated a cDNA coding for wheat alpha-purothionin which is recognized by wheat food allergic patients at risk for severe wheat-induced allergy. The purpose of the present study was the biochemical, biophysical and IgE epitope characterization of recombinant alpha-purothionin. Synthetic genes coding for alpha-purothionin were expressed in a prokaryotic system using Escherichia coli and in a eukaryotic expression system based on baculovirus-infected Sf9-insect cells. Recombinant proteins were purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, chemical cross-linking and size exclusion chromatography. Five overlapping peptide were synthesized for epitope mapping. Alpha-purothionin-specific rabbit antibodies were raised to perform IgE-inhibition experiments and to study the resistance to digestion. The IgE reactivity of the proteins and peptides from ten wheat food allergic patients was studied in non-denaturing RAST-based binding assays. Alpha-purothionin was expressed in the prokaryotic (EcTri a 37 and in the eukaryotic system (BvTri a 37 as a soluble and monomeric protein. However, circular dichroism analysis revealed that EcTri a 37 was unfolded whereas BvTri a 37 was a folded protein. Both proteins showed comparable IgE-reactivity and the epitope mapping revealed the presence of sequential IgE epitopes in the N-terminal basic thionin domain (peptide1:KSCCRSTLGRNCYNLCRARGAQKLCAGVCR and in the C-terminal acidic extension domain (peptide3:KGFPKLALESNSDEPDTIEYCNLGCRSSVC, peptide4:CNLGCRSSVCDYMVNAAADDEEMKLYVEN. Natural Tri a 37 was digested under gastric conditions but resistant to duodenal digestion. Immunization with EcTri a 37 induced IgG antibodies which recognized similar epitopes as IgE antibodies from allergic patients and inhibited allergic patients' IgE binding. Reactivity to Tri a 37 does not require a folded protein and the presence of

  6. Rice allergenic protein and molecular-genetic approach for hypoallergenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T

    1996-08-01

    Allergenic proteins with a molecular mass of about 14 to 16 kDa were isolated from a rice salt-soluble fraction based on the reactivity with IgE antibodies from patients allergic to rice. cDNA clones encoding these allergenic proteins were isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed considerable similarity to wheat and barley alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have recently been identified as major allergens associated with baker's asthma. An antisense RNA strategy was applied to repress the allergen gene expression in maturing rice seeds. Immunoblotting and ELISA analyses of the seeds using a monoclonal antibody to a 16-kDa allergen showed that allergen content of seeds from several transgenic rice plants was markedly lower than that of the seeds from parental wild type rice.

  7. Skin reactivity to allergens in Rabigh Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamad Salah M; Tayeb, Moufag; Amir, Elamir Mahmoud; Wali, Akram Mohammad; Mohamed, Fawaz Sidig

    2013-08-01

    This study determined the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to allergens in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh Area, based on data analysis of skin prick test results. Skin prick tests of 160 Saudi attended Al Nakheel Polyclinic between July, 2012 and April, 2013. Allergen extracts set was used to test them. Out 160 patients, 114 (71%) reacted to one or more allergens, who were 73 (64%) adults and 41(36 %) children. The majority of adults (17.8%) reacted to six allergens and children (19.5%) reacted to five ones. The most frequently reacting allergen was house dust mites followed by Candida albicans then Cladosporium spp. The maximum number of positive tests per patients was 13 in adults, compared to 10 in children. A significantly higher proportion of adults were reacting to house dust mites, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Sensitivity to allergens was common in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh area

  8. A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Khan, Nazleen; Yajnik, Monali

    2013-02-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of food allergy as a public health issue, recalls and adverse reactions linked to undeclared allergens in foods continue to occur with high frequency. To reduce the overall incidence of such problems and to ensure that food-allergic consumers have the information they need to prevent adverse reactions, it is important to understand which allergen control practices are currently used by the food industry. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration carried out directed inspections of registered food facilities in 2010 to obtain a broader understanding of industry allergen control practices in the United States. The results of these inspections show that allergen awareness and the use of allergen controls have increased greatly in the last decade, but that small facilities lag in implementing allergen controls.

  9. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...

  10. Mite allergen Der-p2 triggers human B lymphocyte activation and Toll-like receptor-4 induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw Ji Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic disease can be characterized as manifestations of an exaggerated inflammatory response to environmental allergens triggers. Mite allergen Der-p2 is one of the major allergens of the house dust mite, which contributes to TLR4 expression and function in B cells in allergic patients. However, the precise mechanisms of Der-p2 on B cells remain obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of Der-p2 on proinflammatory cytokines responses and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4-related signaling in human B cells activation. We demonstrated that Der-p2 activates pro-inflammatory cytokines, TLR4 and its co-receptor MD2. ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly enhanced TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. Der-p2 markedly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and decreased p38 phosphorylation in B cells. MKP-1-siRNA downregulated TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. In addition, Der-p2 significantly up-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased B cell proliferation. Neutralizing Der-p2 antibody could effectively abrogate the Der-p2-induced B cell proliferation. Der-p2 could also markedly induce NF-κB activation in B cells, which could be counteracted by dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that Der-p2 is capable of triggering B cell activation and MKP-1-activated p38/MAPK dephosphorylation-regulated TLR4 induction, which subsequently enhances host immune, defense responses and development of effective allergic disease therapeutics in B cells.

  11. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  12. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Chan, C. -H.; Crevel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims...... to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry...... and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices...

  13. Mammal-derived respiratory lipocalin allergens do not exhibit dendritic cell-activating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, S; Kinnunen, T; Rytkönen-Nissinen, M; Nieminen, A; Liukko, A; Virtanen, T

    2013-03-01

    Most mammal-derived respiratory allergens belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. Determinants of their allergenic capacity are still unknown. Innate immune cells, in particular dendritic cells, have been shown to be involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. As recognition by dendritic cells is one of the few plausible mechanisms for the allergenicity of proteins, we wanted to investigate their role in the allergenicity of lipocalin allergens. Therefore, we first incubated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with immunologically functional recombinant allergens mouse Mus m 1, dog Can f 1 and 2, cow Bos d 2, horse Equ c 1 and natural Bos d 2. Then, the surface marker expression and cytokine production of dendritic cells and their capacity to promote T cell proliferation and Th2 immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells were examined in vitro. We found that near to endotoxin-free lipocalin allergens had no effect on the activation, allostimulatory capacity or cytokine production of dendritic cells. The dendritic cells could not induce immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide activated the dendritic cells efficiently. However, lipocalin allergens were not able to modify the lipopolysaccharide-induced responses. We conclude that an important group of mammal-derived respiratory allergens, lipocalins, appear not to be able to activate dendritic cells, a major component involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. It is conceivable that this incapacity of lipocalin allergens to arouse innate immunity may be associated with their poor capacity to induce a strong T cell response, verified in several studies.

  14. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU.

  15. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F;

    2014-01-01

    to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. METHODS: We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during...... allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD....

  16. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature ...

  17. Recognizing Charles Bonnet syndrome in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christina M; Hilas, Olga

    2009-04-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is an under-recognized and commonly misdiagnosed condition characterized by the presence of visual hallucinations that psychologically normal people acknowledge as being unreal. It is commonly associated with ocular pathology and usually observed in elderly individuals with visual impairment. The exact etiology of CBS is unknown; however, the presentation of hallucinations is believed to be a result of functional deterioration of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Eradication of hallucinations and recurrent episodes has been seen with the use of neuroleptic and anticonvulsant agents. Correction of underlying ocular disorders and low-vision rehabilitation may also help in the resolution of visions. Careful patient assessment is necessary to appropriately diagnose CBS and determine the best approach to management.

  18. Improved AAG based recognization of machining feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The lost information caused by feature interaction is restored by using auxiliary faces(AF)and virtual links(VL).The delta volume of the interacted features represented by concave attachable connected graph (CACG)can be decomposed into several isolated features represented by complete concave adjacency graph (CCAG).We can recognize the features sketchy type by using CCAG as a hint; the exact type of the feature can be attained by deleting the auxiliary faces from the isolated feature.United machining feature(UMF)is used to represent the features that can be machined in the same machining process.It is important to the rationalizing of the process plans and reduce the time costing in machining.An example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Recognizing asthma mimics and asthma complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Dennis; Seda, Gilbert; Daheshia, Massoud

    2011-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation. Two common reasons asthmatics fail standard therapy are incorrect diagnosis and failure to recognize underlying contributing factors. A correct diagnosis of asthma is of great importance to military practitioners since misdiagnosis or uncontrolled asthma affects an individual's operational readiness or determines whether one can receive a medical waiver to enlist in military service. This article presents four cases of patients with dyspnea that have conditions which mimic asthma or complicate asthma management: vocal cord dysfunction misdiagnosed as asthma, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease mistaken as asthma, difficult-to-control asthma because of bronchiectasis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and difficult and fatal asthma. Asthma is contrasted to other respiratory disorders, and an outlined approach to asthma diagnosis and management is presented using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines.

  20. Recognizing depression in palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Nazneen Hyder; Montagnini, Marcos

    2007-04-01

    Clinically significant depression is a common psychiatric disorder in patients with advanced and terminal diseases. Depression is often unrecognized and untreated and it causes major suffering to patients and families. Having adequate knowledge and skills to properly recognize depression in patients with advanced illnesses is essential for providing comprehensive end-of-life care. The objective of this paper is to review the key elements of the assessment of depression in palliative care patients. We also discuss the challenges of making the diagnosis, review the risk factors associated with depression and describe the features of the most common assessment tools that have been studied in this population. Finally, we highlight how to differentiate depression from normal grief, as the overlap between these conditions imposes a diagnostic challenge.

  1. Molecular cloning, expression and IgE-immunoreactivity of phospholipase A1, a major allergen from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Campos Pereira, Franco Dani; Musacchio Lasa, Alexis; Romani Fernandes, Luis Gustavo; Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido Dos; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Oliveira de Azevedo, Gabriel; Bazon, Murilo Luiz; Palma, Mario Sergio; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2016-12-15

    Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a clinically relevant social wasp that frequently causes stinging accidents in southeast Brazil. To date, diagnosis and specific immunotherapy (SIT) of allergy are based on the use of crude venom extracts. Production of recombinant forms of major allergens from P. paulista venom will improve diagnosis and SIT of allergic patients by reducing the incidence of cross-reactivity and non-specific sensitization. Here, we describe the molecular cloning, heterologous expression, purification and IgE-mediated immunodetection of phospholipase A1 (Poly p 1), a major allergen from P. paulista venom. The cDNA of Poly p 1 was extracted from venom glands and then cloned, and further expression of the recombinant allergen (rPoly p 1) was achieved in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Purification of rPoly p 1 was performed using immobilized Ni(2+) metal affinity chromatography. Also, a single-step chromatographic method allowed the purification of native Poly p 1 (nPoly p 1) from the wasp's venom glands. We used western blotting to evaluate IgE-reactivity of the sera from 10 P. paulista venom-allergic patients to rPoly p 1 and nPoly p 1. High levels of insoluble rPoly p 1 were obtained during heterologous expression. After solubilization of inclusion bodies and purification of the recombinant protein, a unique band of ∼34 kDa was detected in SDS-PAGE analysis. Allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) from allergic patients' sera recognized rPoly p 1, nPoly p 1 and crude venom extract to a similar extent. Our results showed that rPoly p 1 could be used for development of component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) and molecular-defined SIT of P. paulista venom allergy.

  2. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6 of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CONCLUSION: With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  3. Molecular cloning, expression, IgE binding activities and in silico epitope prediction of Per a 9 allergens of the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Jin, Min; Xie, Hua; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Per a 9 is a major allergen of the American cockroach (CR), which has been recognized as an important cause of imunoglobulin E-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. However, it is not neasy to obtain a substantial quantity of this allergen for use in functional studies. In the present study, the Per a 9 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. It was found that 13/16 (81.3%) of the sera from patients with allergies caused by the American CR reacted to Per a 9, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming that Per a 9 is a major allergen of CR. The induction of the expression of CD63 and CCR3 in passively sensitized basophils (from sera of patients with allergies caused by the American CR) by approximately 4.2-fold indicated that recombinant Per a 9 was functionally active. Three immunoinformatics tools, including the DNASTAR Protean system, Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the potential B cell epitopes, while Net-MHCIIpan-2.0 and NetMHCII-2.2 were used to predict the T cell epitopes of Per a 9. As a result, we predicted 11 peptides (23–28, 39–46, 58–64, 91–118, 131–136, 145–154, 159–165, 176–183, 290–299, 309–320 and 338–344) as potential B cell linear epitopes. In T cell prediction, the Per a 9 allergen was predicted to have 5 potential T cell epitope sequences, 119–127, 194–202, 210–218, 239–250 and 279–290. The findings of our study may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccines to combat CR-induced allergies. PMID:27840974

  4. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  5. Comparison of extraction conditions for milk and hen's egg allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, M; Fischer, M; Paschke-Kratzin, A

    2011-04-01

    The evaluation of recovery rates by extracting milk powder and egg powder using eleven different extractants gave approximately similar results for both foods. Compared with the other extraction solutions investigated, '1% Tween 20® and 0.4% Triton X-100®' and '4% SDS' are the most suitable extractants to isolate proteins of hen's egg or milk. When comparing calculated protein recovery rates of egg and milk powder extracts, the results clearly indicated that the choice of a suitable extractant is of particular importance. Qualitative investigation of the extracts via LDS-PAGE followed by silver staining as well as immunoblotting confirmed the results of protein quantification. Hence, the immunoblots showed that the extraction agents had no negative influence on the antigenicity of the extracted allergenic proteins. In this study, variation of extraction temperature led neither to any benefit in extraction quality nor to degradation. Changing pH did not reveal any trends, but progressive protein hydrolysis under strong alkaline conditions. Evaluation of recovery rates as well as results of unspecific and specific staining of the extracts showed that an extraction time of 1 h is sufficient for an appropriate sample preparation. For investigations with and without food matrix different results were obtained. In summary, wheat starch did not influence the extraction quality within all examined materials and different extractants. In contrast, using fat powder and dry cake mix, respectively, led to different results in the extraction procedure. When fat powder and dry cake mix were used as food matrices, some protein recovery rates decreased and some increased depending on the allergen material. These results highlight the fact that the suitability of the extractant not only depends on the properties of the allergen but furthermore on the type of matrix containing the allergen.

  6. Classification of contact allergens according to potency: proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, I; Basketter, D A; Butler, M; Gamer, A; Garrigue, J-L; Gerberick, G F; Newsome, C; Steiling, W; Vohr, H-W

    2003-12-01

    It is clear that contact allergens vary substantially with regard to the relative potency with which they are able to induce skin sensitisation. Considerations of potency will in the future become a significant factor in the classification of skin sensitising chemicals. It is therefore appropriate to establish what is known of potency and thresholds in the induction of skin sensitisation and the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, and to identify approaches that might be available for assessment of relative potency for the purposes of categorising chemical allergens. This paper was prepared by an ECETOC (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology) Task Force that had the objective of recommending approaches for the measurement of potency and definition of thresholds for both the induction and elicitation of contact sensitisation. The deliberations recorded here build upon recommendations made previously by an ECETOC Task Force that considered the conduct of standard skin sensitisation test methods for the purposes of hazard identification and risk assessment (ECETOC, Monograph No. 29, Brussels, 2000). The emphasis in this present paper is also on standard and accepted methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation, and for which OECD guidelines are available: the local lymph node assay (LLNA), the guinea pig maximisation test and the occluded patch test of Buehler. For various reasons, discussed in detail herein, attention focused primarily upon consideration of categorisation of chemical allergens and the identification of thresholds with respect to the induction of skin sensitisation, rather than the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis. It is concluded that although the LLNA is the method of choice for the determination of skin sensitisation potency for the purposes of categorisation, if data are already available from appropriate guinea pig tests then their judicious interpretation may provide information of value in determinations of

  7. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  8. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  9. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  10. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  11. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  12. Allergen source materials: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    A variety of positive outcomes can be realized from validation and risk management activities (see Table 4). They are dependent on the participation of multiple functional groups including the quality unit, regulatory and legal affairs, engineering and production operations, research and development, and sales and marketing. Quality risk management is receiving increased attention in the area of public health, pharmacovigilance, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recent examples of its regulatory use in our industry include the assessment of the potential risks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) agents through contaminated products], the risks of precipitates in allergenic extracts, and the revision of the potency limits for standardized dust mite and grass allergen vaccines. Its application to allergen source material process validation activities allowed for a practical strategy, especially in a complex manufacturing environment involving hundreds of products with multiple intended uses. In addition, the use of tools such as FMEA was useful in evaluating proposed changes made to manufacturing procedures and product specifications, new regulatory actions, and customer feedback or complaints. The success of such a quality assurance programs will ultimately be reflected in the elimination or reduction of product failures, improvement in the detection and prediction of potential product failures, and increased confidence in product quality.

  13. Frequency of Mold Allergens in Allergic Rhinitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonyadi, MR. (PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Allergic rhinitis can be stimulated by several allergens. Molds are among these allergens and it is important to assess their frequency in different geographic area. Hence, we aimed at determining the frequency of mold allergens in allergic rhinitis patients referred to specialized clinics of Tabriz Imam Reza hospital, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the serums of 90 rhinitis patients diagnosed by specialized physician. Using Immunoblotting method, the level of specific IgE against four molds including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Cladosporium were investigated. Results: Of 90 Patients, 40 were men (44.4% and 50 were women (55.6%. The participants were between 6 to 53 years and the most were 28-31years. The allergy was related to Penicillium (3.3%, Aspergillus (5.6%, Alternaria (13.3% and Cladosporium (4.4%. There was a significant statistical relation between age and allergic rhinitis to Alternaria (P=0.011. Conclusion: Molds can grow and proliferate in very humid environments. Because of low humidity climate in Tabriz (in the northwest of Iran, allergy to molds is relatively low in this region. Key words: Rhinitis Allergic; Mold; Allergy

  14. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity.

  15. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present.

  16. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient's serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen.

  17. Peanut Allergens Alter Intestinal Barrier Permeability and Tight Junction Localisation in Caco-2 Cell Cultures1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwan B. Price

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Allergen absorption by epithelia may play an important role in downstream immune responses. Transport mechanisms that can bypass Peyer's patches include transcellular and paracellular transport. The capacity of an allergen to cross via these means can modulate downstream processing of the allergen by the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate allergen-epithelial interactions of peanut allergens with the human intestinal epithelium. Methods: We achieved this using the human Caco-2 cell culture model, exposed to crude peanut extract. Western and immunofluorescence analysis were used to identify the cellular and molecular changes of peanut extract on the intestinal epithelium. Results: Following exposure of Caco-2 cells to peanut extract, binding of the peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 to the apical cellular membrane and transcytosis across the monolayers were observed. Additionally, the co-localisation of the transmembrane tight junction proteins occludin, JAM-A and claudin-1, with the intracellular adhesion protein ZO-1 was modified. Conclusion: Disruption of Caco-2 barrier integrity through tight junction disruption may enable movement of peanut proteins across the intestinal epithelium. This accounts for peanut's increased allergenicity, compared to other food allergens, and provides an explanation for the potency of peanut allergens in immune response elicitation.

  18. Indoor emissions as a primary source of airborne allergenic fungal particles in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Hospodsky, Denina; Dannemiller, Karen C; Nazaroff, William W; Peccia, Jordan

    2015-04-21

    This study quantifies the influence of ventilation and indoor emissions on concentrations and particle sizes of airborne indoor allergenic fungal taxa and further examines geographical variability, each of which may affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Quantitative PCR and multiplexed DNA sequencing were employed to count and identify allergenic fungal aerosol particles indoors and outdoors in seven school classrooms in four different countries. Quantitative diversity analysis was combined with building characterization and mass balance modeling to apportion source contributions of indoor allergenic airborne fungal particles. Mass balance calculations indicate that 70% of indoor fungal aerosol particles and 80% of airborne allergenic fungal taxa were associated with indoor emissions; on average, 81% of allergenic fungi from indoor sources originated from occupant-generated emissions. Principal coordinate analysis revealed geographical variations in fungal communities among sites in China, Europe, and North America (p < 0.05, analysis of similarity), demonstrating that geography may also affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Indoor emissions including those released with occupancy contribute more substantially to allergenic fungal exposures in classrooms sampled than do outdoor contributions from ventilation. The results suggest that design and maintenance of buildings to control indoor emissions may enable reduced indoor inhalation exposures to fungal allergens.

  19. Changes in the antigenicity and allergenicity of ovalbumin in chicken egg white by N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Yoon, Taek Joon; Kim, Ha Hyung; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-02-15

    Ovalbumin (OVA), an (hen) egg allergen, is one of the most abundant glycoprotein allergens associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity through the T-helper type 2 immune response. The effect of deglycosylation of the N-terminal glycan in OVA on allergenicity and antigenicity after N-acetylglucosaminidase treatment was studied. N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated OVA (N-OVA) evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. N-OVA significantly (pN-OVA decreased the antigenicity of OVA 1000-fold. These results suggest that the degree of allergenicity and antigenicity reduced with deglycosylation of N-terminal glycan in OVA.

  20. GC-MS analysis of allergens in plant oils meant to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloustian Jacques

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous allergy occurs mainly as a result of the use of domestic products and cosmetics. Some fragrances, present in these products, may contain compounds that are responsible for allergy (allergens. The European Council offered a Directive limiting the level of 26 allergens found in cosmetics. GC-MS technique was used to determine the retention times of 25 allergens, determine detection and quantification limits and make calibration with standard solution of each allergen in concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mgL–1 (21 allergens and 50 to 200 mgL–1 (4 allergens. Quantification was performed by the use of 2 internal standards (tetradecane and hexadecane. Seven oils issued from plants were studied by GC-MS. For all of them, the concentration of potential allergens was lower than their minimum detectable level. The alcoholic solution of extracts issued from different samples of oil did not demonstrate the presence of any quantifiable allergen, even when was concentrated 25 times. GC-MS could be a useful technique in the identification and, if necessary, quantification of allergen in ingredients meant to cosmetics.

  1. Prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fouladseresht

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of various environmental allergens is the major challenge in allergic diseases and the only treatment is avoiding these allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients using Skin Prick Test (SPT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on clinically confirmed patients of atopic-dermatitis (n=54, allergenic-rhinitis (n=64 and chronic-urticaria (n=39 who referred to asthma and allergy clinic at Afzali-Pour hospital in Kerman during 2008-2010. Skin prick test was done using allergen extracts to determine the patients' sensitivity to food and airborne antigens. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients responded to at least one allergen. Allergy to airborne and food allergens was 55.9 % and 21.7%, respectively. Chenopodiaceae (22.9% and egg white (10.2% were most prevalent airborne and food allergens. Allergy to cockroach, egg white, egg yolk and tomato was significantly higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that allergy to food and airborne allergens is different depending on the nutrition and environmental conditions.

  2. In vivo allergenic activities of eleven purified members of a major allergen family from wheat and barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Sanchez-Monge, R; Gomez, L; Barber, D; Salcedo, G

    1993-05-01

    Eleven purified members of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family from wheat and barley that showed very different IgE-binding capacities when previously assayed in vitro, were used in double blind in vivo diagnostic tests to further evaluate their allergenic activity. These tests were carried out in 31 patients who showed allergic sensitization to wheat flour as verified by skin test, RAST and challenge test. The three members of the protein family with highest IgE binding in vitro (the glycosylated subunits of tetrameric alpha-amylase inhibitors CM16* from wheat and CMb* from barley, and the barley monomeric inhibitor BMAI-1) were found to be the strongest allergens as indicated by skin sensitivity in prick tests.

  3. Cloning,sequence analysis and expression in E.coli of the group 3 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yu-bao; CAI Hong-xing; LI Li; ZHOU Ying; GAO Cui-xiang; SHI Wei-hong; YU Ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The dust mites,which are mostly represented by Dermatophagoides spp.(Acari:Pyroglyphidae),are the major sources of indoor allergens.Identification and characterization of these mite allergen molecules are an important step in the development of new effective diagnostic procedures and possible therapeutic strategies for allergic disorders associated with dust mites.Methods Total RNA was extracted from Derrnatophagoides farinae.The gene coding for Der f 3 was amplified by RT-PCR with the primers designed based on previous sequence published in GenBank.The target gene was cloned intermediately into pMD19-T plasmid and finally into plasmid pET28a(+),expressed in E.coli BL21 at the aid of the inducer isopropyI-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG).The physicochemical properties,spatial structure of the allergen were analyzed with bioinformatics software.Results The cDNA coding for group 3 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae from China was cloned and expressed successfully.Sequencing analysis showed that there were nineteen mismatched nucleotides in five Der f 3 cDNA clones in comparison with the reference(GenBank Accession No.AY283291),which resulted in deduced amino acid sequence incompatibility in eleven residues.Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the Der f 3 pro-protein was an extracellular hydrophobic protein,consisting of 259 amino acids with a 16 amino acid signal peptide.The protein was deduced to have three chymotrypsin active sites(53-68 AA,108-122 AA and 205-217 hA),one N-glycosylation site,one cAMP-and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site,four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites,two casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites,and five N-myristoylation sites.Conclusions Der f 3 is an extracellular hydrophobic protein which possesses multiple activation and phosphorylation sites.Polymorphism may exist in the Der f3 gene but this needs to be further confirmed in the future.

  4. Preparation of a polyclonal antibody that recognizes a unique galactoseβ1-4fucose disaccharide epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Nishiyama, Kazusa; Saito, Saori; Tamura, Mayumi; Fuwa, Takashi J; Nishihara, Shoko; Takahashi, Hideyo; Natsugari, Hideaki; Arata, Yoichiro; Kasai, Ken-ichi

    2015-08-14

    Galactoseβ1-4fucose (Galβ1-4Fuc) is a unique disaccharide unit that has been found only in the N-glycans of protostomia. We demonstrated that this unit has a role as an endogenous ligand for Caenorhabditis elegans galectins. This unit is also recognized by fungal and mammalian galectins possibly as a non-self glycomarker. In order to clarify its biological function, we made a polyclonal antibody using (Galβ1-4Fuc)n-BSA as the antigen, which was prepared by crosslinking Galβ1-4Fuc-O-(CH2)2-SH and BSA. The binding specificity of the antibody was analyzed by frontal affinity chromatography, and it was confirmed that it recognizes naturally occurring N-glycans containing the Galβ1-4Fuc unit linked to the reducing-end GlcNAc via α1-6 linkage. By western blotting analysis, the antibody was also found to bind to (Galβ1-4Fuc)n-BSA but not to BSA or asialofetuin, which has N-glycan chains containing Galβ1-4GlcNAc. Western blotting experiments also revealed presence of stained proteins in crude extracts of C. elegans, the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, and the allergenic mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, while those from Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, and the allergenic mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae were negative. This antibody should be a very useful tool for research on the distribution of the Galβ1-4Fuc disaccharide unit in glycans in a wide range of organisms.

  5. The importance of recognizing postural pseudoanemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Fred; Jacob, Giris; Raj, Satish R; Robertson, David

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the packed red cell volume and the hemoglobin level has been paramount for monitoring anemia and blood loss for patients in the hospital setting. Recently, these variables have been studied during various control conditions including changes in posture. It has been found that the hematocrit changes markedly with alteration of body posture, in such a way that shifts of estimated blood volume of 1 pint can commonly be elicited by a simple change of posture from supine to upright or vice versa. Therefore, it is important to recognize that in addition to the numerous pathological conditions that may affect the value of the packed cell volume, certain physiological maneuvers may have an equal impact and may confound the accurate assessment of true pathological changes in these variables. Thus, changes in posture can lead to substantial changes in hematocrit, which may be attributed mistakenly to blood loss or acute anemia and may result in a cascade of unnecessary diagnostic costs. In reality, these changes represent postural pseudoanemia, a normal physiological response to a change in position from standing to lying.

  6. Recognizing disguised faces: human and machine evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Indulal Dhamecha

    Full Text Available Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images.

  7. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  8. Perspective: Recognizing and rewarding clinical scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, R Kevin; Thorndyke, Luanne

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members in medical schools and academic medical centers are in a constant process of generating new knowledge. The cornerstone of academia--and academic medicine--is scholarship. Traditionally, tenure and/or academic promotion in the professorial ranks is awarded to those who meet institutional criteria in the missions of research, teaching, and service, including patient care. In the academic review process, priority is often placed on a record of demonstrated, consistent success in traditional laboratory research, also known as the scholarship of discovery. More recently, there has been greater recognition of other forms of scholarship: education, application, and integration. These forms of scholarship, although less recognized, also result in the generation of new knowledge. In an attempt to understand the breadth and scope of clinical scholarship, the authors searched the extant literature in academic medicine for a definition of clinical scholarship and expanded the search to disciplines outside of medicine. They found that succinct, discrete definitions of clinical scholarship have been published in other disciplines, but not in academic medicine. After reviewing definitions of clinical scholarship from other disciplines, adapting definitions of educational scholarship in academic medicine, and including qualities unique to clinical scholarship, the authors developed a framework for understanding clinical scholarship in academic medicine as a means for opening a dialogue within the academic medical community. This dialogue hopefully will lead to formulating a succinct, discrete definition of clinical scholarship that will allow greater recognition and reward for clinical scholars in the promotion and tenure process.

  9. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  10. Sternocostoclavicular Hyperostosis: An Ill-Recognized Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Bolette; Kristensen, Tatiana; Thorsen, Søren; Poulsen Bloch, Klaus; Afzelius, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is an ill-recognized, rarely diagnosed disease. Today, SCCH is widely considered part of the synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. SCCH develops over years with intermittent attacks of pain, swelling, and reddening of the sternocostoclavicular region. The disease causes progressive hyperostosis, fusion of the sternocostoclavicular joints, and soft tissue ossification. SCCH is chronic, non-malignant, and occurs predominantly bilaterally in middle-aged women. The incidence of the disease is unknown. We present a case of isolated SCCH, where chest radiographs showed a clear development of bilateral disease over the course of more than a decade. Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed and was suggestive of SCCH. The diagnosis was established as late as 14 years from the onset of symptoms. During this period, the patient underwent several inconclusive examinations, resulting in a delay of diagnosis and in prolonged and aggravated symptoms. With this case report, we want to draw attention to SCCH and the importance of early diagnosis of the disease. PMID:27527220

  11. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    of Mal d 1 mRNA were produced by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ten genetically modified (GM) apple lines were selected. In vitro plantlets were first transferred to a greenhouse, then grafted onto wild-type M.9 rootstock to promote the development of fruit-producing trees. Levels of Mal d 7 gene......Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  13. Purification and characterization of the main allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabozo, B; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2001-02-01

    English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen is an important cause of pollinosis in the temperate regions of North America, Australia and Europe. However, very little is known about its allergen composition. The aim of this study was to identify plantain allergens, and to isolate and characterize a major allergen. Allergens were identified by immunoblotting with individual allergic patients' sera. Isolation of the major allergen was achieved by sequential reverse-phase and size-exclusion HPLC. Allergenic characterization was performed by ELISA and immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE with sera from plantain-allergic patients. N-terminal amino acid sequence was established by Edman degradation. Allergograms showed that 13 out of the 14 sera assayed had IgE to a group of proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 16-20 kd, that turned out to be different isoforms or variants of the major allergen Pla l l. Eighteen amino acid residues from the N-terminal end of one of the isoforms, and 10 of three others, were sequenced, and a partial sequence identity with Ole e 1 was found. Prevalence of specific IgE to purified Pla l 1 in plantain allergic patients was 86%, and represents about 80% of the total IgE-binding capacity of the plantain extract. The most relevant allergen from P.lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1, has been purified and characterized. This contributes to a greater knowledge of the allergen composition of this important weed, and clears the way for the standardization of plantain allergen products in terms of major allergen content.

  14. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies.

  15. Impact of urban air pollution on the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: Outdoor exposure study supported by laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Mazar, Yinon; Yarden, Oded; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the chemical interactions of common allergens in urban environments may help to decipher the general increase in susceptibility to allergies observed in recent decades. In this study, asexual conidia of the allergenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to air pollution under natural (ambient) and controlled (laboratory) conditions. The allergenic activity was measured using two immunoassays and supported by a protein mass spectrometry analysis. The allergenicity of the conidia was found to increase by 2-5 fold compared to the control for short exposure times of up to 12h (accumulated exposure of about 50 ppb NO2 and 750 ppb O3), possibly due to nitration. At higher exposure times, the allergenicity increase lessened due to protein deamidation. These results indicate that during the first 12h of exposure, the allergenic potency of the fungal allergen A. fumigatus in polluted urban environments is expected to increase. Additional work is needed in order to determine if this behavior occurs for other allergens.

  16. Molecular genetics of human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne (rye) allergen, Lol p III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Marsh, D G

    1989-01-01

    Lol p II and III are each about 11-kD protein allergens from the pollen of Lolium perenne (rye grass). We have found that human immune responses (IgE and IgG antibodies) to both proteins are significantly associated with HLA-DR3. In addition, the two proteins are cross-reactive with the antibodies in many human sera (about 84% human sera showed the cross-reactivity). We have determined greater than 90% of the amino acid sequences of the two proteins and found that they are at least 54% homologous. Berzofsky found that 75% of the 23 known T cell sites in various proteins had an amphipathic structure. Our analysis by the same method showed that both Lol p II and III have a major region of amphipathicity (at residues 61-67, Lol p III numbering) which might contain sites for binding to an Ia molecule and a T cell receptor. This region is identical between Lol p II and III, except for an Arg-Lys substitution, and could account, in part, for the DR3 association with responsiveness to both molecules. An interesting difference between the two proteins is that immune response to Lol p III is associated with DR5 (in addition to DR3), whereas no DR5 association is found in the case of Lol p II. One possibility is that Lol p III has an additional site which binds to the DR5 Ia molecule. Lol p III indeed has a second highly amphiphathic peptide, 24-30 (Lol p III 24 R P G D T L A 30), which is different and not amphipathic in Lol p II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Tolerogenic dendritic cells derived from donors with natural rubber latex allergy modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex (NRL; Hevea brasiliensis allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to latex proteins. When latex glove exposure is the main sensitizing agent, Hev b 5 is one of the major allergens. Dendritic cells (DC, the main antigen presenting cells, modulated with pharmacological agents can restore tolerance in several experimental models, including allergy. In the current study, we aimed to generate DC with tolerogenic properties from NRL-allergic patients and evaluate their ability to modulate allergen-specific T and B cell responses. Here we show that dexamethasone-treated DC (dxDC differentiated into a subset of DC, characterized by low expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 molecules. Compared with LPS-matured DC, dxDC secreted lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 after CD40L activation, and induced lower alloantigenic T cell proliferation. We also show that dxDC pulsed with the dominant Hev b 5 T-cell epitope peptide, Hev b 5(46-65, inhibited both proliferation of Hev b 5-specific T-cell lines and the production of Hev b 5-specific IgE. Additionally, dxDC induced a subpopulation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells that suppressed proliferation of Hev b 5-primed T cells. In conclusion, dxDC generated from NRL-allergic patients can modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production, supporting their potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  18. The predictive value of total serum IgE for a positive allergen specific IgE result

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Background: Measurement of total serum IgE and allergen specific IgE is often requested to assess possible allergy. As public awareness increases, so do requests for allergy assessment; unless there is a clear “allergen suspect” in the history, several allergen specific IgE requests may be made. This increases the likelihood of detecting borderline increases in allergen specific IgE of uncertain relevance, and has important cost implications for the service.

  19. Epitope grafting, re-creating a conformational Bet v 1 antibody epitope on the surface of the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens; Ferreras, Mercedes; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Birch-allergic patients often experience oral allergy syndrome upon ingestion of vegetables and fruits, most prominently apple, that is caused by antibody cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies in patients to proteins sharing molecular surface structures with the major birch pollen group 1 allergen...... scaffold molecule without loss of epitope functionality. Furthermore, we show that increasing surface similarity to Bet v 1 of Mal d 1 variants by substitution of 6-8 residues increased the ability to trigger basophil histamine release with blood from birch-allergic patients not responding to natural Mal d...

  20. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  1. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force report on 'dose-response relationship in allergen-specific immunotherapy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Larenas, D; Kleine-Tebbe, J;

    2011-01-01

    For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen prod...

  2. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  3. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  4. A systematic review of the effect of thermal processing on the allergenicity of tree nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masthoff, L.J.; Hoff, R.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Michelsen-Huisman, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Pasmans, S.G.; Meijer, Y.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergenicity of foods can be influenced by processing. Tree nuts are an important source of nutrition and increasingly consumed; however, processing methods are quite variable and data are currently lacking on the effects of processing on allergenicity. Objective To perform a systematic

  5. Is there a threshold concentration of cat allergen exposure on respiratory symptoms in adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Zock, J.P.; Villani, S.; Olivieri, M.; Modig, L.; Jarvis, D.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the ast

  6. An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air-oxidized R-limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus; Bruze, Magnus;

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a common fragrance terpene that, in its pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. Oxidized R-limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies, giving 2...

  7. Risk assessment and food allergy: the probabilistic model applied to allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, M.Q.I.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rennen, M.A.J.; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of unintended exposure to food allergens, traditional deterministic risk assessment is usually applied, leading to inconsequential conclusions as 'an allergic reaction cannot be excluded'. TNO therefore developed a quantitative risk assessment model for allergens based on

  8. Concentrations of undeclared allergens in food products can reach levels that are relevant for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, M. Q. I.; Knulst, A. C.; Kruizinga, A. G.; Van Duijn, G.; Houben, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Food products can become contaminated with food allergens due to cross-contact. Precautionary 'may contain' labelling may alert to the possible presence of an allergen, but guidance for such labelling is lacking. As a result, allergy information on the packaging may not be reliable and allergic cons

  9. Wheat allergen exposure and the prevalence of work-related sensitization and allergy in bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Meijster, T.; Meijer, E.; Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational airway diseases are common among bakers. The present study describes the association between exposure to wheat allergen levels and sensitization to wheat allergens, work-related upper and lower respiratory symptoms and asthma in bakery workers. Methods: As part of a Health S

  10. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: towards combination vaccines for allergic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an antigen-specific and disease-modifying form of treatment. It is based on the therapeutic administration of the disease-causing allergens to allergic patients. However, the fact that only allergen extracts of insufficient quality are currently available and the possible occurrence of side effects during treatment limit the broad use of SIT and prophylactic vaccination is has not yet been performed. In the last 20 years the DNA sequences of the most common allergens have been isolated and the corresponding allergens have been produced as recombinant allergens. Based on the progress made in the field of allergen characterization it is possible to improve the quality and safety of allergy vaccines and to develop new, more effective strategies for a broad application of SIT and even for prophylactic treatment. Here we discuss the development of combination vaccines for allergy and infectious diseases. This approach is based on the selection of allergen-derived peptides with reduced IgE- and T cell reactivity in order to minimize IgE- and T cell-mediated side effects as well as the potential of the vaccine to induce allergic sensitization. These peptides are fused by recombinant technology onto a viral carrier protein to obtain a combination vaccine which induces protective immunity against allergy and viral infections. The application of such combination vaccines for therapy and prophylaxis of allergy and infectious diseases is discussed.

  11. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  12. Peanut allergen Ara h 3: Isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Knol, E.F.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Gruppen, H.; Piersma, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 has been the subject of investigation for the last few years. The reported data strongly depend on recombinant Ara h 3, since a purification protocol for Ara h 3 from peanuts was not available. Methods: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 (glycinin), was purified and its post

  13. Allergen Ara h 1 Occurs in Peanuts as a Large Oligomer Rather Than as a Trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Beers, van M.M.C.; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure w

  14. How much is too much? Threshold dose distributions for 5 food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Beyer, Kirsten; Defernez, Marianne; Sperrin, Matthew; Mackie, Alan R.; Salt, Louise J.; Hourihane, Jonathan O B; Asero, Riccardo; Belohlavkova, Simona; Kowalski, Marek; De Blay, Frédéric; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Clausen, Michael; Knulst, André C.; Roberts, Graham; Popov, Ted; Sprikkelman, Aline B.; Dubakiene, Ruta; Vieths, Stefan; Van Ree, Ronald; Crevel, René; Mills, E. N Clare

    2015-01-01

    Background Precautionary labeling is used to warn consumers of the presence of unintended allergens, but the lack of agreed allergen thresholds can result in confusion and risk taking by patients with food allergy. The lack of data on threshold doses below which subjects are unlikely to react is pre

  15. Allergen exposure in infancy and the development of sensitization, wheeze, and asthma at 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, JE; Smit, HA; van Strien, RT; Corver, K; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, AH; Aalberse, RC; Postma, D; Gerritsen, J; Grobbee, DE; de Jongste, JC; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between mite and pet allergen exposure in infancy and the subsequent development of sensitization and asthma is complex. Objective: We prospectively investigated the effect of allergen exposure at 3 months of age on the development of sensitization, wheeze, and physician

  16. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  17. Characterization of the effects of proteolysis and reduction on cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to digestive proteases is a common characteristic of food allergens. Among nut proteins, 2S albumins are refractory to digestion, and are potent food allergens. Allergic reactions to cashew have been described as more frequently severe than peanut reactions. The purpose of this study i...

  18. Crystal structure of cocosin, a potential food allergen from coconut (Cocos nucifera) (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Coconut allergy cases have been reported, but only one coconut allergen has been identified. The 11S seed storage proteins belong to one of a few protein families that contain known food allergens in many food of plant sources. Cocosin, the 11S protein from cocosin remains to be character...

  19. Decay of house-dust mite allergen Der f 1 at indoor climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Stenderup, Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    The decay of house-dust mite allergens is important for the outcome of avoidance measures for house-dust mite-allergic patients.......The decay of house-dust mite allergens is important for the outcome of avoidance measures for house-dust mite-allergic patients....

  20. Allergen Ara h 1 occurs in peanuts as a large oligomer rather than as a trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Beers, M.M.C. van; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure w