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Sample records for allene-doped liquid argon

  1. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z 0 decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z 0 events) is discussed

  2. Liquid-argon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the viability of liquid-argon calorimetric techniques in the experimental environment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is briefly analyzed. The authors compare the required and achievable energy resolution with benchmark figures obtained using practical instruments. Comments on the desirable (i.e. required) temporal performance are made and compared with the state of the art. Some of the major engineering challenges are listed, for which solutions will have to be developed if such instruments are to find a place in an SSC experimental area

  3. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  4. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  5. Testing a liquid Argon calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Physicists from Karlsruhe test a liquid argon calorimeter in the neutral beam b16 at the PS. The calorimeter was meant to supply some neutral particles identification at the Split-Field Magnet Facility for R416.

  6. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  7. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter back end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bán, J; Bellachia, F; Blondel, A; Böttcher, S; Clark, A; Colas, Jacques; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dinkespiler, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Escalier, M; Fayard, Lo; Gara, A; He, Y; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hubaut, F; Ionescu, G; Karev, A; Kurchaninov, L; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; La Marra, D; Laplace, S; Le Dortz, O; Léger, A; Liu, T; Martin, D; Matricon, P; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Oberlack, H; Parsons, J A; Pernecker, S; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Repetti, B; Rosselet, L; Riu, I; Schwemling, P; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Strässner, A; Stroynowski, R; Tisserant, S; Unal, G; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Xiang, A; Yang, J; Ye, J

    2007-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeters play a central role in the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) experiment. The environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) imposes strong constraints on the detectors readout systems. In order to achieve very high precision measurements, the detector signals are processed at various stages before reaching the Data Acquisition system (DAQ). Signals from the calorimeter cells are received by on-detector Front End Boards (FEB), which sample the incoming pulse every 25ns and digitize it at a trigger rate of up to 75~kHz. Off-detector Read Out Driver (ROD) boards further process the data and send reconstructed quantities to the DAQ while also monitoring the data quality. In this paper, the ATLAS Liquid Argon electronics chain is described first, followed by a detailed description of the off-detector readout system. Finally, the tests performed on the system are summarized.

  8. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  9. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Ferrari, A; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Martin, P; Merkel, B; Puzo, P; Sauvage, D; Wielers, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the neutron facility installed at SARA is to investigate the behavior of various materials to be used in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, when submitted to fast neutron radiation. The samples are placed in a liquid argon cryostat a few cm away from the neutron source. Various pieces of the electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested in order to evaluate the rate of pollution of the liquid and consequently the possible signal loss in energy measurements. The average fluence was equivalent to the maximum expected in the calorimeter in about 10 years. The most striking feature of the results is that the pollution is not due to oxygen, at least for most of it. Using a particular value of the absorption length derived from these data, a simulation was carried out and the energy signal loss in the calorimeter could be predicted. Within the limits of our present knowledge, the conclusion is that damages due to this pollution will not be a problem. (17 refs).

  10. Sterile searches with Liquid Argon at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Raselli, Gian Luca

    2017-01-01

    A new Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment is in preparation at FNAL to definitely prove or exclude the existence of non-standard neutrino oscillations into sterile states. The program foresees the deployment along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) of three detectors, all based on the liquid-argon time projection chamber technique. This technology has been taken to full maturity with ICARUS T600, which will act as far detector after the completion of the overhauling at CERN and its transportation to FNAL. The program foresees the data taking for three years.

  11. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T. [Fermilab; Escobar, C. O. [Campinas State U.; Lippincott, W. H. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  12. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  13. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  14. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps. The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read...

  15. Production of readout boards for H1 liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antos, J.; Ban, J.; Ferencei, J.; Kurca, T.; Murin, P.; Seman, M.; Spalek, J.; Stefan, P.

    1990-03-01

    Technical details of the technology used by the Institute of Experimental Physics in Kosice for the production of readout boards for the H1 liquid argon calorimeter are described. (author). 2 figs., 2 refs

  16. Developing Detectors for Scintillation Light in Liquid Argon for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Bruce [Fermilab

    2016-12-22

    The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment will conduct a broad program of physics research by studying a beam of neutrinos from Fermilab, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrinos from potential supernovae, and potential nucleon decay events. In pursuit of these studies, the experiment will deploy four 10kt fiducial mass liquid argon time projection chambers underground in Lead, South Dakota. Liquid argon time projection chambers allow high-resolution tracking and energy measurements. A precise timing signal is needed to provide the necessary time stamp to localize events in the drift direction. As liquid argon is a natural scintillator, a photon detection system will be deployed to provide such a signal, especially for non-beam events. In the baseline design for the single-phase time projection chamber, the detectors are contained within the anode plane assemblies. The design of two prototypes utilizing wavelength shifters and light guides are presented, and aspects of the research and development program are discussed.

  17. Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-3 Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications \\\\ \\\\Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. Among the techniques used so far, or under development, the liquid argon sampling calorimetry offers high radiation resistence, good energy resolution (electromagnetic and hadronic), excellent calibration stability and response uniformity. Its rate capabilities, however, do not yet match the requirements for LHC. \\\\ \\\\The aim of this proposal is to improve the technique in such a way that high granularity, good hermiticity and adequate rate capabilities are obtained, without compromising the above mentioned properties. To reach this goal, we propose to use a novel structure, the $^{\\prime\\prime}$accordion$^{\\prime\\prime}$, coupled to fast preamplifiers working at liquid argon temperature. Converter and readout electrodes are no longer planar and perpendicular to particles, as usual, but instead they are wiggled around a plane containing particles. ...

  18. Study of Liquid Argon Dopants for LHC Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron calorimetry based on the Liquid Argon Ionisation Chamber technique is one of the choice techniques for LHC-experimentation. A systematic study of the effect of selected dopants on Liquid Argon (LAr) will be carried out with the aim to achieve an improvement on: \\item (i)~``Fast Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the drift velocity. It has been already shown that CH&sub4. added at a fraction of one percent increases the drift velocity by a factor of two or more. \\item (ii)~``Compensated Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the response to densely ionising particles, resulting in improved compensation, such as photosensitive dopants. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Monitoring of the parameters involved in understanding the response of a calorimeter is essential. In case of doped LAr, the charge yield, the non-saturated drift velocity and the electron lifetime in the liquid should be precisely and simultaneously monitored as they all vary with the level of dopant concentrati...

  19. POLARIS: Portable Liquid Argon Imaging Scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanyu; Kovacs, Benjamin; Kamp, Nicholas; Aidala, Christine; Polaris Team

    2017-09-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have become widely used in nuclear and particle physics, in particular for detecting neutrinos and in dark matter searches. However, their potential for neutron detection in low-energy nuclear physics has not yet been realized. The University of Michigan has been constructing a hybrid scintillating time projection chamber for detection of neutrons in the 200 keV 10 MeV range. The scintillation material is argon, and various dopants to improve detector efficiency are being explored. With collection of both scintillation light and ionization charge, improved energy resolution for neutrons is expected compared to existing measurement techniques.

  20. An integrated calibration system for liquid argon calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Marschalkowski, E; Mense, T; Nürnberger, H A; Schäfer, U

    1999-01-01

    A novel technical solution for an integrated version of the pulse generator of a calibration system for liquid argon calorimeters is presented. It consists of a differential amplifier with automatic offset compensation, a current mirror and a switching logic. These components are integrated on an ASIC chip in CMOS technology. The technical realisation as well as results on the performance are presented. (author)

  1. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  2. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76 Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m 3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m 3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42 Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  3. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  4. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  5. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; 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Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  6. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs

  7. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  8. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  9. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from |eta|=1.4 to |eta|=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes ...

  10. ArgonCube: a Modular Approach for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors for Near Detector Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Sinclair, JR

    2017-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) are an ideal detector candidate for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently under consideration at the future LBNF/DUNE facility in the United States. That particular endeavor would be on the very large mass scale of 40~kt. Following diverse and long standing R\\&D work conducted over several years, with contributions from international collaborators, we propose a novel LAr TPC based on a fully-modular, innovative design, ArgonCube. ArgonCube will demonstrate that LAr TPCs are a viable detector technology for high-energy and high-multiplicity environments, such as the DUNE near detector. Necessary R\\&D work is proceeding along two main pathways; the first, aimed at the demonstration of modular detector design and the second, at the exploration of new signal readout methods. This two-pronged approach has provided a hig...

  11. A pixelated charge readout for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Hänni, R.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Sinclair, J.; Stocker, F.; Tognina, C.; Weber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are ideally suited to perform long-baseline neutrino experiments aiming to measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and determine the ordering of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. LArTPCs have used projective wire readouts for charge detection since their conception in 1977. However, wire readouts are notoriously fragile and therefore a limiting factor in the design of any large mass detectors. Furthermore, a wire readout also introduces intrinsic ambiguities in event reconstruction. Within the ArgonCube concept—the liquid argon component of the DUNE near detector—we are developing a pixelated charge readout for LArTPCs. Pixelated charge readout systems represent the single largest advancement in the sensitivity of LArTPCs. They are mechanically robust and provide direct 3D readout, serving to minimise reconstruction ambiguities, enabling more advanced triggers, further reducing event pile-up and improving background rejection. This article presents first results from a pixelated LArTPC prototype built and operated in Bern.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciarri, R.; Antonello, M.; Baibussinov, B.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Benetti, P.; Calaprice, F.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Canci, N.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cocco, A.G.; Di Pompeo, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Gallo, V.; Grandi, L.; Meng, G.; Modena, I.

    2009-01-01

    Two dedicated and distinct tests of Nitrogen and Oxygen contamination effects in liquid Argon (LAr) have been performed within the WArP R and D program. Purpose of the tests is to detect the reduction of the LAr scintillation light emission as a function of the contaminant amount injected in the Argon volume. The rate constant of the light quenching processes has been found to be k(N 2 )=0.11μs -1 ppm -1 for Nitrogen and k ' (O2)=0.54±0.03μs -1 ppm -1 for Oxygen. Direct PMT signals acquisition allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations and from O(0.1ppm) of Oxygen concentrations.

  13. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  15. The High Voltage Feedthroughs for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botchev, B; Finocchiaro, G; Hoffman, J; McCarthy, R L; Rijssenbeek, M; Steffens, J; Talalaevskii, A; Thioye, M; Zdrazil, M; Farrell, J; Kan, S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose, design specifications, construction techniques, and testing methods are described for the high voltage feedthrough ports and filters of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters. These feedthroughs carry about 5000 high voltage wires from a room temperature environment (300 K) through the cryostat walls to the calorimeters cells (89 K) while maintaining the electrical and cryogenic integrity of the system. The feedthrough wiring and filters operate at a maximum high voltage of 2.5 kV without danger of degradation by corona discharges or radiation at the Large Hadron Collider

  16. High rate amplifier-digitizer system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Lobkowicz, F.; Fukushima, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost charge amplifier for a liquid argon photon detector and a new method for pulse height analysis are described. This scheme is suitable for high-energy photon detection with high counting rate. Samples of preamplifer output are taken just before and just after the arrival of the charge from the detector. The difference of these samples provides a stable pedestal and rejects low frequency noise. Short two-pulse resolving time (approximately equal to 200ns) is achieved. 6 refs

  17. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter--status and expected performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the liquid argon technique is exploited for the electromagnetic calorimetry in the central part and for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry in the forward and backward regions. The construction of the calorimeter is well advanced with full cold tests of the barrel calorimeter and first endcap calorimeter only months away. The status of the project is discussed as well as the related results from beam test studies of the various calorimeter subdetectors. The results show that the expected performance meets the ATLAS requirements as specified in the ATLAS Technical Design Report

  18. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  19. LArIAT: Liquid Argon TPC in a Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-02-28

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of the LArIAT collaboration who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out starting during the 2013 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocation for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this TSW to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. This TSW fulfills Article 1 (facilities and scope of work) of the User Agreements signed (or still to be signed) by an authorized representative of each institution collaborating on this experiment. Precision neutrino physics has entered a new era both with pressing questions to be addressed at short and long baselines, and with increasing interest and development of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). These open volume liquid argon TPCs drift ionization electrons from passing charged particles to readout wire chamber planes at the edge of the detector. The Signals are then combined to form 2D and 3D pho-quality like millimeter scale images of the charged particles tracks and to provide calorimetric measurements of the deposited energy in the detector.

  20. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  1. The ICARUS Front-end Preamplifier Working at Liquid Argon Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Casagrande, F; Cennini, P; Centro, S; Curioni, A; Meng, G; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Sergiampietri, F; Ventura, S

    2011-01-01

    We describe characteristics and performance of the low-noise front-end preamplifier used in the ICARUS 50-litre liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber installed in the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility during the 1997-98 neutrino runs. The preamplifiers were designed to work immersed in ultra-pure liquid Argon at a temperature of 87K.

  2. Trigger readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkespiler, B.

    2017-09-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the 2019-2020 shut-down period, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to deliver digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the Back End using a custom serializer and optical converter and 5.12 Gb/s optical links. In order to verify the full functionality of the future Liquid Argon trigger system, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and is operated in parallel to the regular ATLAS data taking during the LHC Run-2 in 2015 and 2016. Noise level and linearity on the energy measurement have been verified to be within our requirements. In addition, we have collected data from 13 TeV proton collisions during the LHC 2015 and 2016 runs, and have observed real pulses from the detector through the demonstrator system. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance

  3. The liquid argon TPC for the ICARUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F

    1997-01-01

    The ICARUS project aims at the realisation of a large liquid argon TPC to be run at the Underground Laboratories of Gran Sasso in Italy. An intense R&D; activity has put on firm grounds this new detector technology and experimentally confirmed its feasibility on a few ton scale. Based on these solid achievements, the collaboration is now confident of being able to build and safely operate a multi-kton detector. The reseach program of the experiment involves the systematic study of a wide spectrum of physical phenomena covering many orders of magnitude in the energy deposited in the detector: from the few MeV of solar neutrino interactions, to the about one GeV of the proton decay and atmospheric neutrinos, up to the higher energies of neutrinos from accelerators.

  4. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  5. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  6. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at ∼89 K) are discussed.

  7. Liquid argon calorimetry with LHC-performance specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, F.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Ferrari, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Cavanna, F.; Colas, J.; Lebeau, M.; Leflour, T.; LeMarec, J.C.; Maire, M.; Petitpas, P.; Thion, J.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Gordon, H.A.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Franz, A.; Farthouat, P.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Polesello, G.; Richter, W.; Sigrist, A.; Stevenson, G.R.; Willis, W.J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.L.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Hrisoho, A.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Veillet, J.J.; Fuglesang, C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geometry liquid argon calorimeter with accordion-shaped electrodes and converter plates has been recently conceived. Such a design allows for a fast readout and for a high granularity over large volumes with minimal dead spaces, properties which are considered essential for operation at the future hadron colliders. The first electromagnetic prototype based on this scheme has been built and tested at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of 140 ns an energy resolution of 10%/√E(GeV) and a space resolution of 4.4 mm/√E(GeV) with 2.7 cm cell size were achieved for electrons. A few preliminary results from a test with fast readout (response peaking time of less than 40 ns) are also presented. (orig.)

  8. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  9. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2001-01-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  10. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation on explosive boiling of liquid argon film on copper nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Hao, Feng; Chen, Haimu; Yuan, Wei; Tang, Yong; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive boiling of liquid argon on parallel nanochannels is studied by MD simulation. • Nanochannels significantly facilitate heat transfer resulting in violent explosive boiling. • Larger channel heights increase the separation temperature and accelerate equilibrium. • A non-vaporized layer always exists near the bottom surface with constant number density. - Abstract: Phase change from liquid to vapor of the working fluid has been widely used in thermal control for microelectronic devices. In this study, the effects of nanochannels on the explosive phase transition of ultrathin liquid argon film on the copper substrate in confined space are investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that nanochannels significantly facilitate the thermal energy transfer from solid copper surface to the liquid argon which leads to a much more violent explosive boiling than the plain surface. Liquid argon atoms adjacent to the solid surface are instantly overheated and consequently a cluster of liquid argon detaches from the surface once the explosive boiling occurs. The temperature of the liquid argon when it separates from the solid surface increases with respect to the increasing nanochannel heights, while the time for the system to reach equilibrium decreases distinctly. Furthermore, though continuous heat transfers to the liquid argon, a non-vaporized layer always exists near the bottom surface of the solid copper base with a stable number density of about 0.025 1/Å 3 .

  12. The DarkSide direct dark matter search with liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, E.; Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Deo, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kurlej, A.; Li, P. X.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Okounkova, M.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-11-01

    The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter detector is a liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) surrounded by a liquid scintillator neutron veto (LSV) and a water Cerenkov muon veto (WCV). Located under 3800 m.w.e. at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, it is the only direct dark matter experiment currently operating background free. The atmospheric argon target was replaced with argon from underground sources in April, 2015. The level of 39Ar, a β emitter present in atmospheric argon (AAr), has been shown to have been reduced by a factor of (1.4 ± 0.2) x 103. The combined spin-independent WIMP exclusion limit of 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (mχ = 100 GeV/c2) is currently the best limit on a liquid argon target.

  13. Directional modulation of electron-ion pairs recombination in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataudella, V.; de Candia, A.; De Filippis, G.; Catalanotti, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Lissia, M.; Rossi, B.; Galbiati, C.; Fiorillo, G.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the ongoing study of a possible directional signal in liquid argon dark matter detectors, we introduce a new model describing the recombination of electron-ion pairs in ionizing tracks in liquid argon in the presence of a drift field. The emphasis is on the three-dimensional distribution of electrons and ions and on their orientation relative to that of the electric field. We successfully apply our model to describe the angular dependence of the ionization signal of protons recently reported in measurements performed by the ArgoNeuT Collaboration with a liquid argon time projection chamber.

  14. Calculation of the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascarelli, G.

    1986-01-01

    A model calculation is carried out in which we evaluate the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon. Scattering by both phonons and static density fluctuations is taken into account. The calculation for the mobility limited by phonon scattering differs from the usual calculation in crystals by considering both the local changes in the deformation potential and the changes of the amplitude of the phonons that are caused by the existence of density fluctuations. The calculation of the mobility limited by scattering from density fluctuations is carried out with the assumption that they give rise to a square-well (or barrier) potential that will scatter the electrons. The above perturbation ΔV 0 is related to a density fluctuation Δn by ΔV 0 = V 0 (n-bar+Δn)-V 0 (n-bar). The scattering volumes Ω, where the density fluctuation Δn is located, are weighted by exp(-r/xi) where xi is the correlation length and r is the radius of Ω. The magnitude of the different density fluctuations is weighted by exp[-(Δn) 2 Ω/2nS(0)], where S(0) = nk/sub B/TK/sub T/, K/sub T/ is the isothermal compressibility. The calculation of the mean free path is carried out using partial waves. Both scattering mechanisms, scattering by phonons and static density fluctuations, give comparable contributions to the mobility

  15. Free electron lifetime achievements in Liquid Argon Imaging TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Calligarich, E; Centro, S; Cieslik, K; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Meng, G; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Varanini, F; Ventura, S

    2010-01-01

    A key feature for the success of the Liquid Argon TPC technology is the industrial purification against electro-negative impurities, especially Oxygen and Nitrogen remnants, which have to be initially and continuously kept at an exceptional purity. New purification techniques have been applied to a 120 litres LAr-TPC test facility in the INFN-LNL laboratory. Through-going muon tracks have been used to monitor the LAr purity. The short path length used (30 cm) is compensated by the high accuracy in the observation of the specific ionization of cosmic rays muons at sea level. A free electron lifetime of (21.4+7.3-4.3) ms, namely > 15.8 ms at 90 % C.L. has been observed under stable conditions over several weeks, corresponding to about 15 ppt (part per trillion) of Oxygen equivalent. At 500 V/cm, where the electron speed is approximately of 1.5 mm/us, the free electron lifetime >15 ms corresponds to an attenuation <15 % for a drift path of 5 m, opening the way to reliable operation of LAr TPC for exceptionall...

  16. The Simulation of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niess, V.

    2006-01-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is aimed at measuring electromagnetic energy deposit from pp collision produced at the Large Hadron Collider. It was designed to allow rare electromagnetic final states detection and jet spectroscopy in a high-background environment. The simulation of the calorimeter has a long history and is now a component of an integrated GEANT 4 based simulation of ATLAS. Its sophistication has increased during its development. At present it models many effects which significantly affect shower development and response. Step by step, the accuracy of the simulation is tested and tuned to beam test data accumulated in dedicated runs from 2001 to present. The framework in which it runs allows users to switch simulation configuration between pp collisions, cosmic rays and single particle data taking, with the full ATLAS detector or with the various beam test setups. For the purpose of hadronic and electromagnetic calibration, a detailed accounting scheme of energy flow, allowing energy deposits tracking in upstream dead material for example, is implemented. Fast parameterization of electromagnetic shower development has also recently become available. The software is developed by many experts around the world and works at a very high level of reliability because of the constant scrutiny it receives from a large community of developers and users, as well as a dedicated validation team

  17. Liquid argon pollution tests of ATLAS detector materials at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Merkulovm L; Minashkin, V F; Golikov, V V; Kulagin, E N; Luschikov, V; Golovanov, L B; Borzunov, Yu T; Chumakov, V; Tsvinev, A P; Shalyugin, A N

    2002-01-01

    aA cold irradiation test facility operated at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna, is used to investigate the behaviour under neutron and gamma irradiations of samples of materials and equipments to be used in the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and the hadronic end cap (HEC) liquid argon calorimeters. The samples under study are immersed in a liquid argon cryostat and exposed to fast neutron (E/sub n/ >or= 100 keV) fluences of about 10/sup 16/ n cm/sup -2/ equivalent to the neutron fluence accumulated in FCAL during ten years of LHC operation. An alpha -cell is used to check for possible outgassing due to irradiation of the samples immersed in liquid argon and to monitor the liquid argon purity. The results of various irradiation tests performed at this facility are reported. (6 refs).

  18. Thermal information regarding the cooldown and operation of liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Cooper, W.E.; Dixon, K.D.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Primdahl, K.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Three liquid argon calorimeters were cooled down and operated as part of the D-Zero detector at Fermi National Accelerator laboratory. The largest vessel contains 248 metric tons of uranium and copper plates and 19 kL (5000 gal.) of liquid argon. The other two vessels are mirror images, each containing 185 metric tons of uranium and stainless steel plates and 12.1 kL (3200 gal.) of liquid argon. The cool down was accomplished by convection heat transfer between boiling liquid nitrogen filled finned heat exchangers and argon gas inside the vessels. Information regarding the general internal geometry of the calorimeters, cool down, operation, and steady state heat loads will be presented

  19. A correction to Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations for highly ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, Sergey; Horbatsch, Marko; Taylor, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the performance of Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations as applied to highly ionizing particles, such as particles with multiple electric charges or with magnetic charge. We used Birks' Law to model recombination effects in a GEANT4 simulation of heavy ions in a liquid argon calorimeter. We then compared the simulation to published heavy-ion data to extract a highly ionizing particle correction to Birks' Law.

  20. The DarkSide-50 Experiment: a Liquid Argon Target for Dark Matter Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2017-01-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment, located at the “Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (INFN)”, is based on low-radioactivity argon double phase time projection chamber, surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto, designed for the zero background achievement. The liquid argon features sufficient self shielding and easy scalability to multi-tons scale. The impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope (compared to the atmospheric argon), along with the excellent pulse shape discrimination, make this technology a possible candidate for the forthcoming generation of multi-ton Dark Matter experiments.

  1. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  2. The mechanism of liquid copper deoxidation during argon blowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of argon (with specified oxygen content blowing, the possibility of copper deoxidation has been considered on the basis of specific thermodynamic data. Despite the oxygen exceeding its equilibrium content in argon, a significant copper deoxidation during blowing has been experimentally observed. The explanation of this phenomenon can be the reaction of oxygen with the crucible material. In the present study, graphite and Al2O3 crucibles were used. The stirring effect of gaseous bubbles promotes passing the substrates to and removing the products from the reaction zone.

  3. A Low Noise Lifetime Measurement of Electrons Drifting in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Shawn; Sobie, R

    1998-01-01

    A specially designed cryostat apparatus was built to operate a liquid argon ionization cell with very low acoustic noise. The cryostat was equipped with a system to damp out low frequency vibrations and thus reduce induced acoustic noise on the data transients. A liquid argon ionization cell was tested in the new cryostat by measuring the ionization of the argon by cosmic ray muons. Digital filtering of the individual data transients improved the purity of the data set used to generate ensemble averaged transients for different electric fields across the ionization cell. Transient waveform analysis was used on these averaged transients to extract the mean electron lifetime of the ionization electrons drifting in the liquid argon. A result for the free electron lifetime of 0.897 +/- 0.005 (stat) +0.023 - 0.032 (syst) micro seconds was found. The electron lifetime can be used as to determine the concentration of oxygen equivalent contamination in the liquid argon of this experiment. This value of the electron...

  4. Dynamics of the ions in liquid argon detectors and electron signal quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luciano; Santorelli, Roberto; Montes, Bárbara

    2017-06-01

    A study of the dynamics of the positive charges in liquid argon has been carried out in the context of the future massive time projection chambers proposed for dark matter and neutrino physics. Given their small mobility coefficient in liquid argon, the ions spend a considerably longer time in the active volume with respect to the electrons. The positive charge density can be additionally increased by the injection, in the liquid volume, of the ions produced by the electron multiplying devices located in gas argon. The impact of the ion current on the uniformity of the field has been evaluated as well as the probability of the charge signal quenching due to the electron-ion recombination along the drift. The study results show some potential concerns for massive detectors with drift of many meters operated on surface.

  5. Liquid Argon Pollution Tests of the ATLAS Detector Materials at IBR-2 Reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Cheplakov, A P; Chumakov, V; Golikov, V; Golovanov, L B; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Kulagin, E; Luschikov, V; Minashkin, V F; Shalyugin, A N; Tsvinev, A P

    1999-01-01

    A cold test facility has been in operation since October 1998 at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. During four measurement campaigns, various samples of the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and hadronic end cap (HEC) calorimeter materials have been exposed to a fast neutron ($E_n \\geq 100$ keV) fluence of about 10$^{16}$~n~cm$^{-2}$. The samples were immersed in a liquid argon cryostat, and an $\\alpha$-cell has been used as purity monitor. Results of the liquid argon pollution study obtained during these measurement campaigns are presented.

  6. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  7. Operation of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The DO calorimeter consists of three separate cryostats containing uranium modules in liquid argon. This odorimeter has transverse segmentation of 0.1 x 0.1 in η x 0 and consists of eight or nine longitudinal readout segments. The coverage in η extends to 4. As a result of the large coverage and fine segmentation there are 50,000 channels of electronics. After a brief description of the electronics, stability and noise aspects will be investigated. Results of the liquid-argon purity studies will be discssed. The backgrounds in the calorimeter due to the Fermilab main ring will also be examined

  8. Calorimetry by immersion into liquid nitrogen and liquid argon: a better way to determine the internal surface area of micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ricardo; Llewellyn, Philip; Rouquerol, Françoise; Denoyel, Renaud; Rouquerol, Jean

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the internal surface area of a set of samples (either carbons or oxides, either porous or nonporous, either microporous or mesoporous) by microcalorimetry via immersion into liquid nitrogen or argon. We have made use of an isothermal, heat-flux microcalorimeter, initially designed and built in our laboratory for the sake of gas adsorption experiments at 77 or 87 K. It seems that immersion calorimetry into liquid nitrogen and argon makes it possible to go one step further in the determination of the internal surface area of micropores.

  9. Liquid argon dielectric breakdown studies with the MicroBooNE purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Carls, B.; James, C.; Johnson, B.; Jostlein, H.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Raaf, J. L.; Rameika, R.; Rebel, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zuckerbrot, M.

    2014-11-01

    The proliferation of liquid argon time projection chamber detectors makes the characterization of the dielectric properties of liquid argon a critical task. To improve understanding of these properties, a systematic study of the breakdown electric field in liquid argon was conducted using a dedicated cryostat connected to the MicroBooNE cryogenic system at Fermilab. An electrode sphere-plate geometry was implemented using spheres with diameters of 1.3 mm, 5.0 mm, and 76 mm. The MicroBooNE cryogenic system allowed measurements to be taken at a variety of electronegative contamination levels ranging from a few parts-per-million to tens of parts-per-trillion. The cathode-anode distance was varied from 0.1 mm to 2.5 cm. The results demonstrate a geometric dependence of the electric field strength at breakdown. This study is the first time that the dependence of the breakdown field on stressed cathode area has been shown for liquid argon.

  10. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation measured at SARA: summary of raw data

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; de Saintignon, P; Ferrari, A; Hostachy, J Y; Martin, P; Wielers, M; Belymam, A; Hoummada, A; Merkel, B; Puzo, P M; Sauvage, D

    1998-01-01

    The SARA fast neutron facility has been used to irradiate various pieces of materials due to be used in the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, immersed in a liquid argon cryostat. The subsequent pollution was measured. The raw data have been summarized in this paper.

  11. Test beam results of a stereo preshower integrated in the liquid argon accordion calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, R; Greenious, G; Kitching, P; Olsen, B; Pinfold, James L; Rodning, N L; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Eynard, G; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Linossier, O; Nicoleau, S; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Citterio, M; Gordon, H A; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Makowiecki, D S; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rescia, S; Stephani, D; Takai, H; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Delagnes, E; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Simion, S; Taguet, J P; Teiger, J; Walter, C; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Hostachy, J Y; Mahout, G; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; García, J; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Romero, P; Scheel, C V; Chekhtman, A; Cousinou, M C; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Resconi, S; Sala, P R; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Augé, E; Breton, D; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; González, J; Hrisoho, A T; Jacquier, Y; Merkel, B; Nikolic, I A; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Puzo, P; Richer, J P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Veillet, J J; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Astbury, Alan; Keeler, Richard K; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S; White, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of an integrated preshower within the RD3 liquid argon accordion calorimeter. It has a stereo view which enables the measurement of two transverse coordinates. The prototype was tested at CERN with electrons, photons and muons to validate its capability to work at LHC ( Energy resolution, impact point resolution, angular resolution, $\\pi^o$/$\\gamma$ rejection ).

  12. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-06

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  13. Performance of a liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter with a cylindrical accordion geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.R.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype of a lead liquid argon accordion calorimeter with two types of cylindrical geometry was constructed and equipped with high speed readout electronics. The energy resolution for electrons is 10%/√E (GeV) with a local constant term of 0.65%. The resolutions obtained for position and angular measurements are given. (orig.)

  14. Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Miller, J. D.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Sands, W.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the 222Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a ~2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

  15. The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axen, D.; Bougerolle, S.; Sobie, R.; Eigen, G.; De Jongh, F.; Hitlin, D.; Kelsey, M.; Klein, M.; Mincer, A.; Wisniewski, W.; Wolf, R.; Arroyo, C.; Au, Y.; Baltay, C.; Bolton, T.; Bazarko, A.; Camilleri, L.; Hyatt, E.; Manly, S.; Rabinowitz, S.; Rowson, P.C.; Seligman, S.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Smith, S.; Steiner, R.V.; Abt, I.; Alzofon, D.; Arnett, D.; Barrera, F.; Bell, R.; Bes, S.C.; Bogart, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Candia, A.; Claus, R.; Cutler, H.; Davis, R.; Dubois, R.; Foss, M.; Fox, J.; Fox, M.; Gioumousis, A.; Grebenyuk, A.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, V.; Hodgson, J.; Huffer, M.; Junk, T.; Kim, P.; Labs, J.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nordby, M.; Paffrath, L.; Putallaz, G.; Rogers, H.; Russell, J.J.; Saez, P.; Seward, P.; Sherden, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Schindler, R.H.; Waite, A.P.; Watt, R.; Brau, J.; Bugg, B.; Weidemann, A.; Gurd, D.; Oram, C.; Astbury, A.; Beer, G.; Cross, G.; Hodges, T.; Honma, A.; Keeler, R.; Langstaff, R.; Mason, G.; Poffenberger, P.; Robertson, L.; Schenk, P.; Turcot, A.; Turcotte, M.; Cook, V.; Forbush, D.; Harrison, J.; Kim, H.; Ji Ma; Mockett, P.; Toevs, F.; Vella, E.

    1993-01-01

    The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector is one of the largest detectors employing cryogenic liquids now in operation. This paper details the design and performance considerations, the mechanical and cryogenic systems, the absorber design and tower segmentation, the data acquisition electronics, and the control systems of the detector. The initial operational performance of the device is discussed. Detailed resolution studies will be presented in a later paper. (orig.)

  16. Cryogenic digital data links for the liquid argon time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Gong, D; Liu, C; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Hou, S; Su, D-S; Teng, P-K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the cryogenic functionality of the components of data links for the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC), a potential far site detector technology of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). We have confirmed that an LVDS driver can drive a 20-meter CAT5E twisted pair up to 1 gigabit per second at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). We have verified that a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) serializer, a laser diode driver, laser diodes, optical fibers and connectors, and field-programming gate arrays (FPGA's) continue to function at 77 K. A variety of COTS resistors and capacitors have been tested at 77 K. All tests we have conducted show that the cryogenic digital data links for the liquid argon time projection chamber are promising.

  17. Molecular dynamics investigation into the structural features and transport properties of C60 in liquid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuan-Chuan; Weng, Cheng-I

    2007-07-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the structural features and transport properties of C60 in liquid argon. The results reveal that an organized structure shell of liquid argon is formed close to the surface of a C60 fullerene molecule, thereby changing the solid/liquid interfacial structure. Furthermore, the simulation indicates that the C60-liquid argon fluid becomes structurally more stable as the C60 molecule volume fraction and the temperature increase. The viscosity of the fluid increases significantly as the C60 molecule loading is increased, particularly at a lower temperature. The thermal conductivity enhancement of the fluid in the present simulations is anomalously an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical predictions from either the Maxwell or the Lu and Liu models, and is found to vary approximately linearly with the C60 molecule volume fraction. The increased thermal conductivity is attributed to the nature of heat conduction in C60 molecule suspensions and an organized structure at the solid/liquid interface.

  18. Effects of radiation damage to TMP [tetramethylpentane], TMS [tetramethylsilane] and liquid argon solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of exposure of calorimeter liquids like tetramethylsilane (TMS), 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane (TMP) and liquid argon solutions to the large doses of ionizing radiation expected in the SCC environment is examined. Like other organic liquids TMS and TMP are decomposed by radiation to various products; thus, we must consider the effects these products may have on the calorimeter operation. Questions considered include how will radiation effect electron drift velocity and lifetime? Will gaseous products produce significant pressure buildup? Are dose rate effects significant? Do we expect different effects from neutrons compared to minimum ionizing radiation? 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-05-01

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  20. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  1. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; 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Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  2. First results obtained from the Cello liquid argon end cap calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Diberder, F.

    1981-05-01

    The Cello liquid argon calorimeter is presented in the first part of this thesis. The cryogenic system has to supply three cryostats filled with liquid argon: one cylindrical cryostat of 25 m 3 volume contains 2x8 separate modules; each of the two symmetric end cap cryostats contains two half cylindrical modules. Each module in the end cap part consists of 42 layers of lead strips interleaved with 43 full plates. The strips are alternatively vertical, horizontal and circular. In front of the lead calorimeter are 4 planes of copper foils glued on epoxy for dE/dx measurement. The electronics, signal processing and data acquisition system are described. In the second part, the performance and analysis of data measured by the end cap calorimeters are reported: study of Bhabha scattering e + e - → e + e - ; preliminary results obtained in two photon physics e + e - → e + e - γγ → e + e - X [fr

  3. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "March, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry and partly for hadronic calorimetry. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The different parts of the LAr calorimeter have been installed inside the ATLAS cavern between October 2004 and April 2006. Since October 2006 the detector has been operated with liquid argon at nominal high voltage, and fully equipped with readout electronics including a LVL1 calorimeter trigger system. First cosmic runs were recorded and used in various stages of commissioning. Starting in September 2008 beam related events were collected for the first time with single beams circulating in the LHC ring providing first beam-gas interactions and then beam-collimator splash events. The fir...

  4. Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 μm were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV π 0 's is larger than 3; the precision on the electromagnetic shower direction, determined together with the calorimeter, is better than 7 mrad above 40 GeV; the calorimeter performance behind the preshower (≅4X 0 ) is fully preserved. These results make such a detector attractive for future operation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  5. Proposal to Study a Large Liquid Argon-Uranium Absorber Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutts, D. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Hoftun, J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Lanou, R. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Partridge, R. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Pilpovic, D. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Walker, J. K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); White, A. P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Belusevic, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Wolmelsey, W. J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Tulsian, G. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bentley, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hagopian, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hagopian, V. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kramer, T. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lanutti, J. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Linn, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, H. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Crittenden, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Dzierba, A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Martin, J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Zieminska, D, [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Zieminski, A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gerecht, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kononenko, W. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruland, R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Selove, W. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Theodosiou, G. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wocikiewicz, E. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Blazey, G. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Draper, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Ferbel, T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Libonate, S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Slattery, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Till, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Barwick, S. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Forden, G. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Marx, M. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Neal, H. A. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    1986-11-06

    This document proposes a comprehensive program to implement and study a large scale liquid argon-uranium absorber calorimeter sytem in a Fermilab beam. This system is modelled after and contains many of the components of the calorimeters being constructed for use in the D0 Detector at Fermilab. It is also a test bed for testing techniques for possible SSC calorimeters. This program involves the construction of calorimeter modules and supports: a 4000 gallon liquid argon cryostat and associated cryogenics; a transporter capable of precisely positioning a 100 ton load in three dimensions; a clean electronic environment: and prototype electronics and data acquisition system. It is expected that this system will be a permanent installation in a Fermilab test beam, allowing continued use as a reference for data being taken at D0.

  6. Optimizing scintillation light collection in the CENNS-10 liquid argon neutrino-nucleus scattering detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Coello, Maria; Tayloe, Rex; Coherent Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CENNS-10 detector is a liquid argon chamber currently running at the SNS at ORNL to observe nuclear recoils from Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEvNS) and is one of several technologies implemented by the COHERENT collaboration to measure the CEvNS process' dependence on nuclear size. The observation and measurement of CEvNS is vital to understanding energy propagation in supernovae, a test for physics beyond the standard model, an irreducible background for dark matter direct detection, and a probe into nuclear structure. The functioning of the detector depends on its ability to see light from the neutrino-nuclear scattering, which produces extreme UV radiation. To attain optimum light yield in the detector, several optical measurements and changes were necessary. This poster will discuss these measurements, as well as the future expansion of the liquid argon system.

  7. Performance of the Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeters during the 2012 data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during 2012 data taking period, recording an integrated luminosity of 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8 TeV during the p-p run. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency of 99.1% and 99.6% respectively. This poster presents the overall status, operations, performance and shutdown plans for the calorimeters.

  8. Liquid Argon Calorimeters Operation and Data Quality During the 2015 Proton Run

    CERN Document Server

    Camincher, Clement; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency, recording an integrated luminosity of 3.9fb^{-1} at \\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency of 99.4% . This poster highlights the overall status, performances and data quality of the LAr Calorimeters during the first year of Run-2 operations.

  9. Performance Of A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Exposed To The WANF Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F.; Bonesini, M.; di Tigliole, A.Borio; Boschetti, B.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Casagrande, F.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, E.; Cline, D.; Curioni, A.; De Mitri, I.; De Vecchi, C.; Dolfini, R.; Ferrari, A.; Ghezzi, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Kisiel, J.; Mannocchi, G.; de la Ossa, A.Martinez; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Navas, S.; Negri, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Otwinowski, S.; Paganoni, M.; Palamara, O.; Pepato, A.; Periale, L.; Mortari, G.Piano; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Puccini, A.; Pullia, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Redaelli, N.; Rondio, E.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Suzuki, S.; de Fatis, T.Tabarelli; Terrani, M.; Terranova, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Zalewska, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  10. Irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Cheplakov, A.; Golikov, V.; Golubykh, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Lushchikov, V.; Minashkin, V.; Shalyugin, A.

    2000-01-01

    Various readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters have been exposed to high neutron fluences and γ doses at the irradiation test facility of the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. Results of the capacitance and impedance measurements of coaxial cables are presented. Results of peeling tests of PC board samples (carton and copper strips) as a measure of the bonding agent irradiation hardness are also reported

  11. The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for SLD at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Nelson, D.; Freytag, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplification, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the amplifier and for the sampling and multiplexing hybrid (CDU hybrid) are presented. The latter hybird contains a custom monolithic device, the Calorimeter Data Unit

  12. Study of electromagnetic and hadronic showers with liquid-argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschnabel, K.

    1978-05-01

    High energy electrons, pions and protons have been detected by two liquid-argon calorimeters. Measurements of the linearity and energy resolution of the detectors have been performed. As one of the detectors consisted of 80 sections, the spatial development of hadronic cascades could be studied. The results are in reasonable agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations. The spatial and angular resolutions of the detector have been evaluated. Using their different longitudinal shower development, electrons and hadrons could be separated. (orig.) [de

  13. A Purity Monitoring System for the H1 Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barrelet, E

    2002-01-01

    The ionization probes used for monitoring the liquid argon purity in the H1 calorimeter are described and results of their operation in tests at CERN and during the period 1992 to the end of 1998 at HERA are given. The high sensitivity of the charge measurements leads to refined charge collection models, and to the observation of a variation of the ionization yield of our electron sources with temperature.

  14. Searches for Bound Neutron-Antineutron Oscillation in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Jeremy E.T. [Manchester U.

    2017-01-01

    The next-generation Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment’s liquid argon detector represents an opportunity to probe previously unexplored parameter space for beyond-Standard Model processes. One such process is baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation, the observation of which would have profound implications on our understanding of the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, and provide strong hints as to the nature of neutrino mass. A GENIE n

  15. Measurement of photoelectron yield of the CDEX-10 liquid argon detector prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase, CDEX-10, which has a 10 kg germanium array detector system, a liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. To study the properties of the LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the prototype detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV γ rays at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the surviving fraction of the excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  16. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "Hoffman, J A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region η<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from η=1.4 to η=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes with thin...

  17. Induced luminescence by charged particles on gaseous, liquid and solid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Torres, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A spectral and a kinetic study of the scintillation induced by β and α particles in gaseous, liquid and solid argon have been made in the wavelength region comprised between 1100 and 3000A. The radiative lifetimes and some spectroscopic parameters of the lowest dimer states ( 1 Σ + sub(u) and 3 Σ + sub(u)) have been determined: tau 0 ( 1 Σ + sub(u)) = 4.2ns; tau 0 ( 3 Σ + sub(u)) = 3.1μs; ΔE( 1 Σ + sub(u)- 3 Σ + sub(u)) = 52 meV; hω = 230 cm -1 . A non radiative de-excitation rate of the 3 Σ + sub(u) state has been measured: approximately 2x10 -17 cm 3 s -1 . By applying an electric field the contribution of the electron-ion recombination mechanism to the gaseous argon scintillation is studied. For condensed argon, the dependence of the ratio between the fluorescence and the phosphorescence intensities on the ionisation power of the impinging particle is verified. The continuum which extends from 1600 to 2900A and that is present only in the gas phase spectra, is ascribed to the radiative de-excitation of molecular ions. A time resolved study of the luminescence of high pressure (1-15atm) argon excited by a pulsed electric discharge has also been performed and is compared with that of the scintillation induced by nuclear particles [fr

  18. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  19. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. The ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Detector Operation in the Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 Module is the largest liquid argon detector (760 t LAr mass) ever realized to study neutrino oscill ations and matter stability in the deep underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. One of t he key elements for the detector performance is the liquid argon purity: residual electronegative compounds in argon have to be kept as low as 0.1 part s per billion all over the detector run. The T600 Module design was finalized by the ICARUS Collaboration after years of R&D studies that brought to the viable and scalable industrial solutions necessary for sized experiments with severe safety prescriptions for the underground operation . We present the T600 Module successful commissioning and the 3-years efficient, stable and continuous operation with extraordinary LAr purity, high performance and zero dead time data taking . This result demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of activation and long-term run in safe conditions of sized cryogenic detectors even in a confined underground location and r...

  1. Commissioning and Charge Readout Calibration of a 5 Ton Dual Phase Liquid Argon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2098555

    Dual phase time projection chambers with amplification of ionization electrons provide a novel technique for measuring and analyzing rare events with excellent spatial resolution and great calorimetric properties. This thesis describes the commissioning of the WA105 3 x 1 x 1 m3 dual phase liquid argon detector, built to demonstrate the performance of this kind of detector on large scales in order to determine the viability of giant dual phase time projection chambers in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The properties of the insulation and the main tank vessel are described and analyzed, such as the pressure, temperature and argon purity requirements during operation in order to guarantee stable conditions and good event tracking. As signals are induced due to electrons from ionizing radiation, crosstalk is caused by capacitive couplings between strips of the charge readout plane and in the electronics of the data acquisition. These induced signals are studied and compared to capacitance and pu...

  2. LBNO-DEMO (WA105): a large demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2015-01-01

    LBNO-DEMO (WA105) is a large demonstrator of the double phase liquid argon TPC intended to develop and test the main elements of the GLACIER-based design for the purpose of scaling it up to the 10–50 kton size needed for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation studies. The crucial components of the design are: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, and cold preamplifiers. The active volume of the demonstrator is 666 m3 (approximately 300t). WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to charged particle beams (0.5-20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide the necessary calibration of the detector performance and benchmark reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program, including projects like LBNO and DUNE.

  3. Computer Simulation of the Cool Down of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korperud, N; Fabre, C; Owren, G; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter consists of a liquid argon detector with a total mass of 120 tonnes. This highly complicated structure, fabricated from copper, lead, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy will be placed in an aluminum cryostat. The cool down process of the detector will be limited by the maximum temperature differences accepted by the composite structure so as to avoid critical mechanical stresses. A computer program simulating the cool down of the detector by calculating the local heat transfer throughout a simplified model has been developed. The program evaluates the cool down time as a function of different contact gasses filling the spaces within the detector.

  4. Convolutional neural networks applied to neutrino events in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Fernandez, R. Castillo; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anad?n, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Sanchez, L. Escudero; Esquivel, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C. -M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Caicedo, D. A. Martinez; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; S?ldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Weston, J.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-03-01

    We present several studies of convolutional neural networks applied to data coming from the MicroBooNE detector, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). The algorithms studied include the classification of single particle images, the localization of single particle and neutrino interactions in an image, and the detection of a simulated neutrino event overlaid with cosmic ray backgrounds taken from real detector data. These studies demonstrate the potential of convolutional neural networks for particle identification or event detection on simulated neutrino interactions. We also address technical issues that arise when applying this technique to data from a large LArTPC at or near ground level.

  5. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...... on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0...

  6. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219286; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  7. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389433; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12bit precision at 40MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  8. Energy-Calibration of the ATLAS Hadronic and Electromagnetic Liquid-Argon Endcap Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the first combined beam test of the hadronic and electromagnetic liquid-argon endcap calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment took place at the SPS test beam at CERN. A total of 15 million events from electrons, muons and pions in the energy range from 6 to 200 GeV were recorded. The entire calibration chain, from digital filter weights, over calibration constants, to clustering and energy weights, as is relevant for the energy calibration of hadronic and electromagnetic showers in ATLAS was tested and applied to the beam test data. The calibration methods and first results for the combined performance of the two calorimeters are presented.

  9. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Ines; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, and performances on prototypes will presented with the overall system design.

  10. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters At The Dawn Of LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Camincher, Clement; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are key sub-detectors of ATLAS. They are essential to detect and measure the properties of electrons, photons and are also crucial for jets and missing transverse energy measurements. During the LHC shutdown in 2013-2014, the hardware and the software have been optimized to improve their reliability. The first collisions allows to assess the performance of the detector in the LHC Run-2 real conditions. In view of the next LHC Run in 2020, an upgrade of the level-1 trigger system is also under test. A status at the restart of the LHC Run-2 is presented in this document.

  11. Performance of a liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter with an 'accordion' geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Cavanna, F.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Vialle, J.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Polesello, G.; Richter, W.; Sigrist, A.; Willis, W.J.; Camin, D.V.; Costa, G.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Pessina, G.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first prototype of a lead-liquid-argon e.m. calorimeter with accordion-shaped absorber and electrode plates has been built and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. This novel geometry combines good granularity with high readout speed and minimal dead space. For a response peaking time of 140 ns, an energy resolution of 10%/√E[GeV] and a space resolution of 4.4 mm/√E[GeV] with a 2.7 cm cell size have been achieved for electrons. The position accuracy for muons is better than 2 mm. (orig.)

  12. Radiation hard micro-coaxial cables for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Imbert, P; de La Taille, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has chosen for the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and for all the end-cap calorimeters a sampling technique, with liquid argon as the active medium. The read-out electronics and the calibration pulsers are located in boxes outside the cryostats housing the detectors. Signals are transmitted between the detectors and the electronic boxes through custom-designed micro- coaxial cables, which are the subject of this paper. These cables have to satisfy very stringent tolerances in terms of signal transmission, dimensions and radiation hardness. Following a successful pre-series production, these cables have been selected for equipping the ATLAS calorimeter. (16 refs).

  13. The design of an optical link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the design of an optical link for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter upgrade. Challenging requirements are high data bandwidth (over 150 Gb/s raw data rate per board), radiation tolerance, low power consumption, high reliability, and low transmission latency. We discuss the link system design and component developments, especially those for the transmitting side that has to operate in the radiation environment. This presentation also serves as a summary of a few other presentations that detail in a particular function block of this link.

  14. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  15. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic EndCap Calorimeter Construction and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rodier, S; Del Peso, J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis has been carried out within the ATLAS collaboration. ATLAS is one of the two multipurpose experiments approved for data taking at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main goals of this experiment are, to find the Higgs boson, the missing piece in the otherwise so succesful Standard Model of Particle Physics, and to look for physics beyond the Standard Model up to a scale of 1TeV. For this purpose, electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry play a key role. The ATLAS Collaboration has chosen a Liquid Argon (LAr) option with lead as passive material. The liquid Argon Calorimeter is divided into two main subdetectors, the barrel and the end caps (EC). The design and construction of the LAr EM EC calorimeter is the responsability of the groups at Centre de Physique de Marseille (CPPM) and the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)following the guideline developed by the research and development working, group 3 for LHC detectors (RD3). The sharing of responsabilities is such that CPPM provides spacers an...

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Tom; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of up to 7.5 times the original design value, will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. This contribution highlights the particular impacts on the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system, together with an overview of the various upgrade plans leading up to the HL-LHC. The higher luminosities are of particular importance for the forward calorimeters (FCal), where the expected increase in the ionization load poses a number of problems that can degrade the FCal performance such as beam heating and space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps and high-voltage drop due to increased current drawn over the current-limiting resistors. A proposed FCal replacement as a way to counter some of these problems is weighed against the risks associated with the replacement. To further mitigate the effects of increased pile-up, the installation of a high-granularity timing detector...

  17. Monitoring Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers With A Raspberry Pi Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, Crystal

    2016-03-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is the first of three liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) that are central to the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab. These chambers consist of thousands of stainless steel or beryllium-copper sense wires that detect ionization electrons produced when neutrinos interact with liquid argon nuclei inside the detector. The wires are several hundred microns in diameter to several meters in length. The construction of such LAr TPCs often takes place in an assembly hall, which is different from the detector hall where the experiment will operate, as was the case with MicroBooNE. Since in situ access to the chamber and its wires in the beamline enclosure can be limited, we investigate the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi single-board computer connected to a low-cost camera installed inside the cryostat as a cost-efficient way to verify the integrity of the wires after transport. We also highlight other benefits of this monitoring device implemented in MicroBooNE, including detector hall surveillance and verification of the status of LED indicators on detector electronics. The author would like to thank Dr. Matthew Toups for his encouragement and guidance on this research project.

  18. Resource Review Board Celebrates the Magnet and Liquid Argon Barrel Tests in Hall 180

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2004-01-01

    Address by the Director-General, R. Aymar, in front of the barrel cryostat. On 25th October 2004 many RRB delegates and guests, ATLAS National Contact Physicists, and colleagues from far and from CERN working on the Liquid Argon calorimeter and the magnet system were gathering in Hall 180 to celebrate the major milestones reached during the past months in this hall: the successful cold tests of the first barrel toroid coil, of the solenoid, and of the barrel Liquid Argon calorimeter. About 250 people spent a relaxing evening after the speeches by the Director-General R. Aymar and by the spokesperson who gave the following address: 'It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here in Hall 180 in the name of the ATLAS Collaboration! With a few words I would like to recall why we are actually here today to share, what I hope, is a relaxed and joyful moment. To concentrate it all in one sentence I could say: To thank cordially all the main actors for the enormous work accomplished here over many years,...

  19. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|$ < 3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=$1.5 to $|\\eta|=$4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 $\\times 10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$ is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate,...

  20. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |eta|=1.5 to |eta|=4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitizedand processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 x 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primi...

  1. Upgrade of the Trigger System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS detector was designed and build to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals, which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for each triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2020, instantaneous luminosities of (2-3)×1034 cm-2s-1 are expected, far beyond that for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is proposed, t...

  2. Upgrade of the Trigger System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and build to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm^-2s^-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals, which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for each triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2019, instantaneous luminosities of (2-3)×1034 cm^-2s^-1 are expected, far beyond that for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is pro...

  3. Results from pion calibration runs for the H1 liquid argon calorimeter and comparisons with simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Ban, J.; Barrelet, E.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Besancon, M.; Binder, E.; Blume, H.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Colombo, M.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; DelBuono, L.; Devel, M.; Dingus, P.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Duenger, O.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Egli, S.; Ellis, N.N.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Y.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flauger, W.; Flieser, M.; Gamerdinger, K.; Gayler, J.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Graessler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Haguenauer, M.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hartz, P.; Haustein, V.; Haydar, R.; Hildesheim, W.; Huot, N.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jaffre, M.; Jung, H.; Just, F.; Kiesling, C.; Kirchhoff, T.; Kole, F.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Krasny, W.; Kubenka, J.P.; Kuester, H.; Kurzhoefer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Laporte, J.F.; Lenhardt, U.; Loch, P.; Lueers, D.; Marks, J.; Martyniak, J.; Merz, T.; Naroska, B.; Nau, A.; Nguyen, H.K.; Niebergall, F.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Pyo, H.B.; Rauschnabel, K.; Ribarics, P.; Rietz, M.; Royon, C.; Rusinov, V.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; Schlippe, W. von; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Shekelyan, V.; Shooshtari, H.; Sirois, Y.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steiner, H.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Vallee, C.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wagener, A.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H.P.; Yiou, T.P.; Zacek, J.; Zeitnitz, Ch.; Zomer, F.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on calibration runs performed with pions at CERN SPS for different modules of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter which consists of an electromagnetic section with lead absorbers and a hadronic section with steel absorbers. The data cover an energy range from 3.7 to 205 GeV. Detailed comparisons of the data and simulation with GHEISHA 8 in the framework of GEANT 3.14 are presented. The measured pion induced shower profiles are well described by the simulation. The total signal of pions on an energy scale determined from electron measurements is reproduced to better than 3% in various module configurations. After application of weighting functions, determined from Monte Carlo data and needed to achieve compensation, the reconstructed measured energies agree with simulation to about 3%. The energies of hadronic showers are reconstructed with a resolution of about 50%/√E + 2%. This result is achieved by inclusion of signals from an iron streamer tube tail catcher behind the liquid argon stacks. (orig.)

  4. Noise Characterization and Filtering in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2017-05-20

    The low-noise operation of readout electronics in a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is critical to properly extract the distribution of ionization charge deposited on the wire planes of the TPC, especially for the induction planes. This paper describes the characteristics and mitigation of the observed noise in the MicroBooNE detector. The MicroBooNE's single-phase LArTPC comprises two induction planes and one collection sense wire plane with a total of 8256 wires. Current induced on each TPC wire is amplified and shaped by custom low-power, low-noise ASICs immersed in the liquid argon. The digitization of the signal waveform occurs outside the cryostat. Using data from the first year of MicroBooNE operations, several excess noise sources in the TPC were identified and mitigated. The residual equivalent noise charge (ENC) after noise filtering varies with wire length and is found to be below 400 electrons for the longest wires (4.7 m). The response is consistent with the cold electronics design expectations and is found to be stable with time and uniform over the functioning channels. This noise level is significantly lower than previous experiments utilizing warm front-end electronics.

  5. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, O

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton ($pp$) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $|\\eta|< 3.2$, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range $1.5 < |\\eta| < 4.9$. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5~K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and t...

  6. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|< 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5<|η|<4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5K. The approximately 200K cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigg...

  7. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  8. Electronic Readout of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Calibration and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The LHC is a proton-proton collider with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The machine has been operated at energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV in 2009 and is expected to reach the energy of 7 TeV in 2010. The LAr calorimeter is designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. It consists of a set of sampling calorimeters with liquid argon as active medium kept into three separate cryostats. The LAr calorimeters are read out via a system of custom electronics. The electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters is divided into a Front End (FE) system of boards mounted in custom crates directly on the cryostat feedthroughs, and a Back End (BE) system of VME-based boards located in an off-detector underground counting room where there is no radiation. The FE system includes Front End boards (FEBs), which perform the readout and dig...

  9. Installation of the Liquid Argon Calorimater Barrel in the ATLAS Experimental Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Vandoni, G.

    On the 27th of October, the Liquid Argon Barrel cryostat was transported from Building 180 to point 1. The next day, the Barrel was lowered into the cavern, and was placed on jacks close to its final position inside the completed lower half of the Tile calorimeter. After a day of precise adjustment, it was resting within a few millimetres of its nominal final position, waiting for the upper half of the Tile calorimeter to be installed. Tight requests had been issued by the Liquid Argon collaboration for the whole transport. It was foreseen that the cryostat should not see any acceleration larger than 0.15g along its axis, 0.08g transversally and 0.3g in the vertical direction. In addition, no acceleration higher than 0.03g (or even 0.003g for permanent oscillation) would be allowed at 20Hz, to avoid the risk of damaging the absorbers at this spontaneous vibration frequency. The difficulty would arise when coping these demands with the tortuous route, its slopes and curbs, vibration transmission from the engi...

  10. Noise Characterization and Filtering in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Bullard, B.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; De Geronimo, G.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, S.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Radeka, V.; Rafique, A.; Rescia, S.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Yu, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-08-01

    The low-noise operation of readout electronics in a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is critical to properly extract the distribution of ionization charge deposited on the wire planes of the TPC, especially for the induction planes. This paper describes the characteristics and mitigation of the observed noise in the MicroBooNE detector. The MicroBooNE's single-phase LArTPC comprises two induction planes and one collection sense wire plane with a total of 8256 wires. Current induced on each TPC wire is amplified and shaped by custom low-power, low-noise ASICs immersed in the liquid argon. The digitization of the signal waveform occurs outside the cryostat. Using data from the first year of MicroBooNE operations, several excess noise sources in the TPC were identified and mitigated. The residual equivalent noise charge (ENC) after noise filtering varies with wire length and is found to be below 400 electrons for the longest wires (4.7 m). The response is consistent with the cold electronics design expectations and is found to be stable with time and uniform over the functioning channels. This noise level is significantly lower than previous experiments utilizing warm front-end electronics.

  11. Ionization of liquid argon by x-rays: effect of density on electron thermalization and free ion yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.S.-S.; Gee, N.; Freeman, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Free ion yields were measured in liquid argon as a function of electric field strength at densities 736-1343 kg/m 3 (temperatures 149-95 K). The field dependence of the yields was parametrized using the extended Onsager and box models. Over the present density range the total ion yield was constant within 1% and was taken as 4.4, the average of earlier values at 87-91 K. The absence of internal vibrational modes in argon makes its electron thermalizing ability smaller than that of methane. The electron thermalization distance b GP in liquid argon is 3-5 times longer than that in liquid methane at a given d/d c (d c = critical fluid density). (author)

  12. Recoil Directionality Studies in Two-Phase Liquid Argon TPC Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Matteo; Batignani, Giovanni; Marcello Bonivento, Walter; Bottino, Bianca; Campajola, Luigi; Caravati, Mauro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cicalò, Corrado; Cocco, Alfredo; Covone, Giovanni; De Rosa, Gianfranca; Devoto, Alberto; Dionisi, Carlo; Fiorillo, Giuliana; Giagu, Stefano; Gulino, Marisa; Kuss, Michael; Lissia, Marcello; Lista, Luca; Longo, Giuseppe; Pallavicini, Marco; Pandola, Luciano; Razeti, Marco; Rescigno, Marco; Rossi, Biagio; Rossi, Nicola; Testera, Gemma; Trinchese, Pasquale; Walker, Susan; Zullo, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Projects attempting the direct detection of WIMP dark matter share the common problem of eliminating sources of background or using techniques to distinguish background events from true signals. Although experiments such as DarkSide have achieved essentially background free exposures through careful choice of materials and application of efficient veto techniques, there will still be a high burden of proof to convince the greater scientific community when a discovery is claimed. A directional signature in the data would provide extremely strong evidence to distinguish a true WIMP signal from that of an isotropic background. Two-phase argon time projection chambers (TPCs) provide an experimental apparatus which can both be scaled to the ton-scale size required to accommodate the low cross-section expected for WIMP interactions and have an anisotropy that could be exploited to evaluate the polar angles of the resulting nuclear recoils from WIMP collisions with target nuclei. Our studies show that even a modest resolution in the polar angle reconstruction would offer a powerful tool to detect a directional signature. In this contribution, the status of the ReD experiment, which is under construction at Naples University, will be also shown. The aim of the project is to assess and enhance the directionality of two-phase argon TPCs. ReD will use a small TPC exposed to a beam of mono-energetic neutrons to study the so called "columnar recombination" in liquid argon. This development could have high impact on the future experiments in the field, opening up the potential to find conclusive evidence for dark matter or disprove the WIMP hypothesis at and above the mass range explored by planned accelerator experiments.

  13. Status of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lampl, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions pro- duced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo- rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterised by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform az- imuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as pas- sive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical elec- trodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic ra...

  14. Status of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lampl, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo- rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and s...

  15. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  16. The CENNS-10 liquid argon detector to measure CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayloe, R.

    2018-04-01

    The COHERENT collaboration is deploying a suite of low-energy detectors in a low-background corridor of the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on an array of nuclear targets employing different detector technologies. A measurement of CEvNS on different nuclei will test the N2-dependence of the CEvNS cross section and further the physics reach of the COHERENT effort. The first step of this program has been realized recently with the observation of CEvNS in a 14.6 kg CsI detector. Operation and deployment of Ge and NaI detectors are also underway. A 22 kg, single-phase, liquid argon detector (CENNS-10) started data-taking in Dec. 2016 and will provide results on CEvNS from a lighter nucleus. Initial results indicate that light output, pulse-shape discrimination, and background suppression are sufficient for a measurement of CEvNS on argon.

  17. Electroluminescence pulse shape and electron diffusion in liquid argon measured in a dual-phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2018-02-05

    We report the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant in liquid argon with the DarkSide-50 dual-phase time projection chamber. The measurement is performed at drift electric fields of 100 V/cm, 150 V/cm, and 200 V/cm using high statistics $^{39}$Ar decays from atmospheric argon. We derive an expression to describe the pulse shape of the electroluminescence signal (S2) in dual-phase TPCs. The derived S2 pulse shape is fit to events from the uppermost portion of the TPC in order to characterize the radial dependence of the signal. The results are provided as inputs to the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant DL, which we find to be (4.12 $\\pm$ 0.04) cm$^2$/s for a selection of 140keV electron recoil events in 200V/cm drift field and 2.8kV/cm extraction field. To study the systematics of our measurement we examine datasets of varying event energy, field strength, and detector volume yielding a weighted average value for the diffusion constant of (4.09 $\\pm$ 0.09) cm$^2$ /s. The measured longitudinal diffusion constant is observed to have an energy dependence, and within the studied energy range the result is systematically lower than other results in the literature.

  18. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter; Performance after 2 years of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    AbouZeid, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at about 87 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LH...

  19. First test of a high voltage feedthrough for liquid Argon TPCs connected to a 300 kV power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, C; Bueno, L Molina; Murphy, S; Radics, B; Regenfus, C; Rigaut, Y-A; Rubbia, A; Sergiampietri, F; Viant, T; Wu, S

    2016-01-01

    Voltages above a hundred kilo-volt will be required to generate the drift field of future very large liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers. The most delicate component is the feedthrough whose role is to safely deliver the very high voltage to the cathode through the thick insulating walls of the cryostat without compromising the purity of the argon inside. This requires a feedthrough that is typically meters long and carefully designed to be vacuum tight and have small heat input. Furthermore, all materials should be carefully chosen to allow operation in cryogenic conditions. In addition, electric fields in liquid argon should be kept below a threshold to reduce risks of discharges. The combination of all above requirements represents significant challenges from the design and manufacturing perspective. In this paper, we report on the successful operation of a feedthrough satisfying all the above requirements. The details of the feedthrough design and its manufacturing steps are provided. Very high voltages...

  20. Soft error rate estimations of the Kintex-7 FPGA within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirthlin, M J; Harding, A; Takai, H

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the radiation testing performed on the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA in an effort to determine if the Kintex-7 can be used within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter. The Kintex-7 device was tested with wide-spectrum neutrons, protons, heavy-ions, and mixed high-energy hadron environments. The results of these tests were used to estimate the configuration ram and block ram upset rate within the ATLAS LAr. These estimations suggest that the configuration memory will upset at a rate of 1.1 × 10 −10 upsets/bit/s and the bram memory will upset at a rate of 9.06 × 10 −11 upsets/bit/s. For the Kintex 7K325 device, this translates to 6.85 × 10 −3 upsets/device/s for configuration memory and 1.49 × 10 −3 for block memory

  1. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  2. A large liquid-argon shower detector for an ISR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Iwata, S.; Raim, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Harris, M.; Lindsay, J.; Mannelli, I.; Nakamura, K.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Lankford, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large liquid-argon shower detector system has been constructed for the detection of photons and electrons at the CERN ISR. The calorimeter system is built in a modular way such that eight modules would cover phi=2π azimuthally with a total solid angle of Ω=8 sr. Each module consists of 1.5 mm thick lead plates, spaced 2mm apart. Longitudinal grouping and transversal division into strip-like sections of the charge-collecting electrodes provides the required spatial resolution and hadron discrimination. Measurements on energy and space resolution and electron/hadron discrimination are described. The signal-processing system, designed to minimize electronics noise, can handle event rates up to 0.5 MHz and provides energy information for trigger purposes. The performance of this calorimeter system during two years of ISR operation is reported. (Auth.)

  3. First Detection of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Corey James [Yale U.

    2016-01-01

    Electron neutrino appearance is the signature channel to address the most pressing questions in neutrino oscillations physics, at both long and short baselines. This includes the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector, which the U.S. flagship neutrino experiment DUNE will address. In addition, the Short Baseline Neutrino Program at Fermilab (MicroBooNE, SBND, ICARUS-T600) searches for new physics, such as sterile neutrinos, through electron neutrino appearance. Liquid argon time projection chambers are the forefront of neutrino detection technology, and the detector of choice for both short and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This work presents the first experimental observation and study of electron neutrinos in the 1-10 GeV range, the essential oscillation energy regime for the above experiments. The systematic uncertainties for an electron neutrino appearance search for the Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino Program are carefully quantified, and the characterization of separation between electrons and high energy photons is examined.

  4. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-01

    The capabilities of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specically those looking to observe electron neutrino (e) appearance. The LArTPC promises excellent background rejection capabilities, especially in this \\golden" channel for both short and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We present the rst experimental observation of electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in the ArgoNeut LArTPC, in the energy range relevant to DUNE and the Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino Program. We have selected 37 electron candidate events and 274 gamma candidate events, and measured an 80% purity of electrons based on a topological selection. Additionally, we present a of separation of electrons from gammas using calorimetric energy deposition, demonstrating further separation of electrons from background gammas.

  5. Monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter is a key component of the ATLAS detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The primary purpose of this calorimeter is the measurement of electrons and photons. It also provides a crucial input for measuring jets and missing transverse momentum. An advanced data monitoring procedure was designed to quickly identify issues that would affect detector performance and ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. This article presents the validation procedure developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, in which more than 98% of the proton–proton luminosity recorded by ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of 7–8 TeV had calorimeter data quality suitable for physics analysis.

  6. Performance of the electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter system of the SLC large detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.; Abt, I.; Haller, G.M.; Honma, A.

    1988-10-01

    Results of performance tests on electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) for the SLD experiment at SLAC are presented. The behavior of a sub-unit called a ''tophat,'' which processes 720 detector signals, is described. The electronics consists of charge sensitive preamplifiers, analog memories, A/D converters, and associated control and readout circuitry. An internal charge injection system is used to calibrate the overall response of the devices. Linearity is better than 1% of 0--28 pC charge at the input of the amplifiers. Noise (expressed as equivalent input charge) is less than 3000 electrons at a shaping time of 4 μs, with a slope of 2600 e/sup /minus///nF. Crosstalk to adjacent channels is less than 0.5%. The power consumption at a duty cycle of 13% is 61 W. 3 refs., 7 figs

  7. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters Readout Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388354; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters and their readout system. An improved trigger system with a higher acceptance rate of 1 MHz and a longer latency of up to 60 micro-seconds together with a better radiation tolerance require an upgrade of the readout electronics. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40/80 MHz and 16 bit dynamic range, and the development of low-noise, low-power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented. These include ASIC developments towards radiation-tolerant low-noise pre-amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters up to 14 bits and low-power optical links providing transfer rates of at least 10 Gb/s per fiber.

  8. Reconstruction and Analysis for the DUNE 35-ton Liquid Argon Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbank, Michael James [Sheffield U.

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino physics is approaching the precision era, with current and future experiments aiming to perform highly accurate measurements of the parameters which govern the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. The ultimate ambition with these results is to search for evidence of CP-violation in the lepton sector, currently hinted at in the world-leading analyses from present experiments, which may explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a future long-baseline experiment based at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), with a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and a baseline of 1300 km. In order to make the required precision measurements, the far detector will consist of 40 kton liquid argon and an embedded time projection chamber. This promising technology is still in development and, since each detector module is around a factor 15 larger than any previous experiment employing this design, prototyping the detector and design choices is critical to the success of the experiment. The 35-ton experiment was constructed for this purpose and will be described in detail in this thesis. The outcomes of the 35-ton prototype are already influencing DUNE and, following the successes and lessons learned from the experiment, confidence can be taken forward to the next stage of the DUNE programme. The main oscillation signal at DUNE will be electron neutrino appearance from the muon neutrino beam. High-precision studies of these νe interactions requires advanced processing and event reconstruction techniques, particularly in the handling of showering particles such as electrons and photons. Novel methods developed for the purposes of shower reconstruction in liquid argon are presented with an aim to successfully develop a selection to use in a νe charged-current analysis, and a first-generation selection using the new techniques is presented.

  9. Giant Liquid Argon Observatory for Proton Decay, Neutrino Astrophysics and CP-violation in the Lepton Sector (GLACIER)

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Degunda, U; Epprecht, L; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Lazzaro, C; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Otiougova, P; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Strabel, C; Ulbricht, J; Viant, T

    2010-01-01

    GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) is a large underground observatory for proton decay search, neutrino astrophysics and CP-violation studies in the lepton sector. Possible underground sites are studied within the FP7 LAGUNA project (Europe) and along the JPARC neutrino beam in collaboration with KEK (Japan). The concept is scalable to very large masses.

  10. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhmadaliev, S.; Albiol, F.; Amaral, P.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 449, - (2000), s. 461-477 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : liquid argon * calorimeter * hadronic scintillating- tile * CERN SPS * ATLAS * LHC * energy resolution * pions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2000

  11. Direct observation of muon-pair production by high-energy muons in the liquid-argon calorimeter BARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anikeev, VB; Gurzhiev, SN; Denisov, SP; Zolina, OS; Kelner, [No Value; Kirina, TM; Kokoulin, RP; Lipaev, VV; Petrukhin, AA; Rybin, AM; Sergiampietri, F; Yanson, EE

    Experimental data accumulated over a long-term exposure of the big liquid-argon spectrometer BARS at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP, Protvino) in a horizontal flux of cosmic rays are analyzed with the aim of selecting events that correspond to muon-pair production by mucus in the

  12. Atomistic modelling of evaporation and explosive boiling of thin film liquid argon over internally recessed nanostructured surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate evaporation and explosive boiling phenomena of thin film liquid argon on nanostructured solid surface with emphasis on the effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. The nanostructured surface considered herein consists of trapezoidal internal recesses of the solid platinum wall. The wetting conditions of the solid surface were assumed such that it covers both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions and hence effect of interfacial wettability on resulting evaporation and boiling phenomena was the main focus of this study. The initial configuration of the simulation domain comprised of a three phase system (solid platinum, liquid argon and vapor argon) on which equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. After equilibrium of the three-phase system was established, the wall was set to different temperatures (130 K and 250 K for the case of evaporation and explosive boiling respectively) to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat flux normal to the solid surface was also calculated to illustrate the effectiveness of heat transfer for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in cases of both nanostructured surface and flat surface. The results obtained show that both the wetting condition of the surface and the presence of internal recesses have significant effect on normal evaporation and explosive boiling of the thin liquid film. The heat transfer from solid to liquid in cases of surface with recesses are higher compared to flat surface without recesses. Also the surface with higher wettability (hydrophilic) provides more favorable conditions for boiling than the low-wetting surface (hydrophobic) and therefore, liquid argon responds quickly and shifts from liquid to vapor phase faster in

  13. Atomistic modelling of evaporation and explosive boiling of thin film liquid argon over internally recessed nanostructured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim, E-mail: nasim@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad, E-mail: shavik@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle, E-mail: rabbi35.me10@gmail.com; Haque, Mominul, E-mail: mominulmarup@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate evaporation and explosive boiling phenomena of thin film liquid argon on nanostructured solid surface with emphasis on the effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. The nanostructured surface considered herein consists of trapezoidal internal recesses of the solid platinum wall. The wetting conditions of the solid surface were assumed such that it covers both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions and hence effect of interfacial wettability on resulting evaporation and boiling phenomena was the main focus of this study. The initial configuration of the simulation domain comprised of a three phase system (solid platinum, liquid argon and vapor argon) on which equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. After equilibrium of the three-phase system was established, the wall was set to different temperatures (130 K and 250 K for the case of evaporation and explosive boiling respectively) to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat flux normal to the solid surface was also calculated to illustrate the effectiveness of heat transfer for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in cases of both nanostructured surface and flat surface. The results obtained show that both the wetting condition of the surface and the presence of internal recesses have significant effect on normal evaporation and explosive boiling of the thin liquid film. The heat transfer from solid to liquid in cases of surface with recesses are higher compared to flat surface without recesses. Also the surface with higher wettability (hydrophilic) provides more favorable conditions for boiling than the low-wetting surface (hydrophobic) and therefore, liquid argon responds quickly and shifts from liquid to vapor phase faster in

  14. MicroBooNE and the Road to Large Liquid Argon Neutrino Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgi, G.

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPC's) provide a promising technology for multi-kiloton scale detectors aiming to address-among other pressing particle physics questions-the possibility of short and long baseline electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance. MicroBooNE, a 170 ton LArTPC under construction, is the next necessary step in a phased R&D effort toward construction and stable operation of larger-scale LArTPC's. This development effort also leans heavily on the ArgoNeuT and LAr1 LArTPC R&D experiments at Fermilab. In addition to advancing the LArTPC technology, these projects also provide unique physics opportunities. For example, Micro-BooNE will be located in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab, at ∼470 m from neutrino production. Thus, in addition to measuring a suite of low energy neutrino cross sections on argon, MicroBooNE will investigate the anomalous low energy excess seen by the MiniBooNE experiment. Furthermore, the neutrino beam energy and relatively short baseline provide MicroBooNE with sensitivity to high-∼m2 neutrino oscillations. These proceedings summarize the role of the MicroBooNE detector in the US LArTPC R&D program, present its physics reach, and briefly discuss the physics potential of a dedicated near-future neutrino oscillation program at the Booster Neutrino Beamline, as a way to maximize the physics output of the Fermilab LArTPC R&D projects.

  15. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  16. Assembly and Commissioning of a Liquid Argon Detector and Development of a Slow Control System for the COHERENT Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemingk, Michael; Cooper, Robert; Coherent Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    COHERENT is a collaboration whose goal is to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). COHERENT plans to deploy a suite of detectors to measure the expected number-of-neutrons squared dependence of CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One of these detectors is a liquid argon detector which can measure these low energy nuclear recoil interactions. Ensuring optimal functionality requires the development of a slow control system to monitor and control various aspects, such as the temperature and pressure, of these detectors. Electronics manufactured by Beckhoff, Digilent, and Arduino among others are being used to create these slow control systems. This poster will generally discuss the assembly and commissioning of this CENNS-10 liquid argon detector at Indiana University and will feature work on the slow control systems.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s${^-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. The calibration and performance of the LAr calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the LAr calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as we...

  18. Phase - I Trigger Readout Electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dinkespiler, Bernard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  19. The Liquid Argon Software Toolkit (LArSoft): Goals, Status and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Rush [Fermilab; Snider, Erica [Fermilab

    2016-08-17

    LArSoft is a toolkit that provides a software infrastructure and algorithms for the simulation, reconstruction and analysis of events in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). It is used by the ArgoNeuT, LArIAT, MicroBooNE, DUNE (including 35ton prototype and ProtoDUNE) and SBND experiments. The LArSoft collaboration provides an environment for the development, use, and sharing of code across experiments. The ultimate goal is to develop fully automatic processes for reconstruction and analysis of LArTPC events. The toolkit is based on the art framework and has a well-defined architecture to interface to other packages, including to GEANT4 and GENIE simulation software and the Pandora software development kit for pattern recognition. It is designed to facilitate and support the evolution of algorithms including their transition to new computing platforms. The development of the toolkit is driven by the scientific stakeholders involved. The core infrastructure includes standard definitions of types and constants, means to input experiment geometries as well as meta and event- data in several formats, and relevant general utilities. Examples of algorithms experiments have contributed to date are: photon-propagation; particle identification; hit finding, track finding and fitting; electromagnetic shower identification and reconstruction. We report on the status of the toolkit and plans for future work.

  20. LArSoft: toolkit for simulation, reconstruction and analysis of liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, E. L.; Petrillo, G.

    2017-10-01

    LArSoft is a set of detector-independent software tools for the simulation, reconstruction and analysis of data from liquid argon (LAr) neutrino experiments The common features of LAr time projection chambers (TPCs) enable sharing of algorithm code across detectors of very different size and configuration. LArSoft is currently used in production simulation and reconstruction by the ArgoNeuT, DUNE, LArlAT, MicroBooNE, and SBND experiments. The software suite offers a wide selection of algorithms and utilities, including those for associated photo-detectors and the handling of auxiliary detectors outside the TPCs. Available algorithms cover the full range of simulation and reconstruction, from raw waveforms to high-level reconstructed objects, event topologies and classification. The common code within LArSoft is contributed by adopting experiments, which also provide detector-specific geometry descriptions, and code for the treatment of electronic signals. LArSoft is also a collaboration of experiments, Fermilab and associated software projects which cooperate in setting requirements, priorities, and schedules. In this talk, we outline the general architecture of the software and the interaction with external libraries and detector-specific code. We also describe the dynamics of LArSoft software development between the contributing experiments, the projects supporting the software infrastructure LArSoft relies on, and the core LArSoft support project.

  1. A high speed serializer ASIC for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The current front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. This upgrade calls for an optical link system of 100 Gbps per front-end board (FEB). A high speed, low power, radiation tolerant serializer is the critical component in this system. In this paper, we present the design and test results of a single channel 16:1 serializer and the design of a double-channel 16:1 serializer. Both designs are based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The single channel serializer consists of a serializing unit, a PLL clock generator and a line driver implemented in current mode logic (CML). The serializing unit multiplexes 16 bit parallel LVDS data into 1-bit width serial CMOS data. The serializing unit is composed of a cascade of 2:1 multiplexing circuits based on static D-flip-fl...

  2. Electronics development for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter trigger and readout for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00009068; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of a...

  3. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid ArgonCalorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of a...

  4. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running -

    CERN Document Server

    Starz, Steffen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energ...

  5. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. The radiation tolerance criteria and the improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated ...

  6. Construction and test of a fine-grained liquid argon preshower prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, R; Pinfold, J L; Rodning, N L; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Eynard, G; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Linossier, O; Nicoleau, S; Rival, F; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Gordon, H A; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Stephani, D; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Teiger, J; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Dzahini, D; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Laborie, G; Mahout, G; Hervás, L; Chekhtman, A; Cousinou, M C; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Resconi, S; Sala, P R; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Augé, E; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; Hrisoho, A T; Merkel, B; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S

    1997-01-01

    A separate liquid argon preshower detector consisting of two layers featuring a fine granularity of 2.5~10$^{\\mathrm{-3}}$ was studied by the RD3 collaboration. A prototype covering approximately 0.8 in pseudo-rapidity and 9 degrees in azimuth was built and tested at CERN in July 94. CMOS and GaAs VLSI preamplifiers were designed and tested for this occasion. The combined response of this detector and an accordion electromagnetic calorimeter prototype to muons, electrons and photons is presented. For minimum ionizing tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.5 per preshower layer was measured. Above 150~GeV the space resolution for electrons is better than 250~$\\mu$m in both directions. The precision on the electromagnetic shower direction, determined together with the calorimeter, is better than 4 mrad above 50~GeV. It is concluded that the preshower detector would adequately fulfil its role for future operation at CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534610; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events even at rather low transverse energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 60 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. Under these conditions, the current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and back-end readout system is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of t...

  8. The Phase-2 Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter System

    CERN Document Server

    Vachon, Brigitte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. The current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities to accommodate the hardware triggers requirements imposed by these harsh conditions. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons an almost complete replacement of the LAr front-end and back-end readout system is foreseen for the 182,500 readout channels. The system will follow a free-running architecture, where the calorimeter signals are amplified, shaped and digitized by on-detector electronics, then sent at 40MHz to the backend, which performs the energy and time reconstruction, send inputs to the trigger, and buffers the data until trigge...

  9. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34/cm^2/s. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger chan...

  10. Upgrade readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  11. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  12. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, scheduled for 2019-2020, will increase the instantaneous luminosity by more than three, hence the ATLAS trigger rates. To cope with this increase, the trigger signals from the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter will be rearranged in 34000 so-called super cells to get a 5 to 10 times finer granularity. This will improve the background rejection performance through more precise energy measurements and the use of shower shape information to discriminate electrons, photons and hadronically decaying tau leptons from jets. The new system will process the super cell signal at 40 MHz and with 12 bit precision. The data will be transmitted at 5.12 Gb/s to the back-end system using a custom serializer and optical transmitter. To verify full functionality, a demonstrator set- up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and operated during the LHC Run 2. This document gives a status on hardware developments towards the final design readout system, including the performance of the new...

  13. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the shut-down period of 2018-2019 (Phase-I upgrade), will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow a corresponding increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The new trigger signals from the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieve 5-10 times better granularity than the current system; this improves the background rejection capabilities through more precise energy measurements, and the use of shower shapes to discriminate electrons and photons from jets. The new system will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back-end using a custom serializer and optical converter with 5.12 Gb/s. To verify the full functionality, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the A...

  14. The Phase-2 electronics upgrade of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, B.

    2018-03-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. The current readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities to accommodate the hardware triggers requirements imposed by these harsh conditions. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons an almost complete replacement of the front-end and off-detector readout system is foreseen for the 182,468 readout channels. The new readout system will be based on a free-running architecture, where calorimeter signals are amplified, shaped and digitized by on-detector electronics, then sent at 40 MHz to the off-detector electronics for further processing. Results from the design studies on the performance of the components of the readout system are presented, as well as the results of the tests of the first prototypes.

  15. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, Olga; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The LAr has to withstand a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)$\\times$10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$. This is well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two possible solutions for keeping the current performance are being discussed. The electronics readout will also need to withstand a 3-5 times larger radiation environment. In the hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) cold GaAs preampl...

  16. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans for a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are already being developed for operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)×1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two solutions for this are un...

  17. The Phase-2 Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter System

    CERN Document Server

    Vachon, Brigitte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile- up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. The current readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities to accommodate the hardware triggers requirements imposed by these harsh conditions. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons an almost complete replacement of the front-end and back- end readout system is foreseen for the 182,468 readout channels. The new readout system will be based on a free-running architecture, where calorimeter signals are amplified, shaped and digitized by on-detector electronics, then sent at 40 MHz to the back-end for further processing. Results from the design studies on the performance of the components of the readou...

  18. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00069444; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile- up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events at electroweak energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of up to 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 40 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. The current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and off-detector readout systems is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of the cold pre-amplifier and summing devices of the hadronic LAr Calorimeter. The new low-power electronics must be able to capture the triangular dete...

  19. Signal Processing for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter : studies and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector operated successfully in the LHC studying the pp collisions produced with an energy up to 8 TeV in the center of mass. During the period from 2009 to 2012, called the LHC Run 1, up to more than 36 independent collisions were produced every 50 ns at the LHC. The ATLAS detector has a set of calorimeters measuring the energy of different types of particles. The liquid argon calorimeters work by ionization of their active material and the free electrons are collected by electrodes at high voltages. The generated current signal has a well known pulse shape. Multiple samples of the analog signal are collected and digital signal processing techniques are used to extract its amplitude which is related to the energy deposited. The signal pulse is relatively long (up to 400 ns) and the probability of background events happening in the same detector area during that interval is high. A technique called optimal filtering is used to minimize the effects of such pile-up. In the next data taking period, t...

  20. Adsorption stress changes the elasticity of liquid argon confined in a nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Y

    2014-11-18

    Knowledge of the elastic properties of a fluid is crucial for predicting its flow under high pressure, particularly in porous media. However, when a fluid is confined to a nanopore, many of its thermodynamic properties change as compared to bulk. Here we study the effect of confinement on the bulk modulus of liquid argon adsorbed in mesopores using classical density functional theory. We show that, at pressures lower than the saturation pressure, high adsorption stress in the pore causes the lowering of the fluid bulk modulus, a phenomenon which was recently observed experimentally [ Schappert, K.; Pelster, R. Europhys. Lett. 2014 , 105 , 5600 ]. Furthermore, we find that the pore size has a strong effect on the fluid bulk modulus, so that even at saturation, the elastic properties of nanoconfined fluid differ from the bulk values. We show that this difference is also due to the adsorption stress. Our results provide a basis for a new method for characterization of porous materials and have implications for modeling fluids in nanoporous geological formations, such as coal or shale.

  1. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Camplani, Alessandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  2. Study of Electromagnetic Interactions in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caratelli, David [Columbia U.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents results on the study of electromagnetic (EM) activity in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detector. The LArTPC detector technology provides bubble-chamber like information on neutrino interaction final states, necessary to perform precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters. Accelerator-based oscillation experiments heavily rely on the appearance channel ! e to make such measurements. Identifying and reconstructing the energy of the outgoing electrons from such interactions is therefore crucial for their success. This work focuses on two sources of EM activity: Michel electrons in the 10-50 MeV energy range, and photons from 0 decay in the 30-300 MeV range. Studies of biases in the energy reconstruction measurement, and energy resolution are performed. The impact of shower topology at different energies is discussed, and the importance of thresholding and other reconstruction effects on producing an asymmetric and biased energy measurement are highlighted. This work further presents a study of the calorimetric separation of electrons and photons with a focus on the shower energy dependence of the separation power.

  3. Status of the CENNS-10 Liquid Argon Detector for the COHERENT Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettlemoyer, Jacob; Coherent Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The COHERENT experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to measure coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS), which is predicted to occur, but has yet to be observed. A variety of detectors, with different scattering nuclei, will be used to demonstrate the N2 dependence of the CEvNS process. COHERENT has deployed a 14 kg CsI crystal, a 185 kg NaI crystal array, and a 28 kg LAr detector and will deploy 10 kg PPC HPGe in late 2017. The CENNS-10 LAr detector is a cylindrical single-phase scintillation-only device with two 8'' photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) at the top and bottom of the detector and a tetraphenyl butadiene-coated cylinder inside the LAr volume between the PMTs as a wavelength shifter that makes up the fiducial volume. CENNS-10 recently completed a first run in May 2017 and summer 2017 activities include an upgrade to improve the light collection ability of the detector through the use of improved wavelength shifting techniques before the next run. The improvement and status of CENNS-10 will be presented along with the future of the liquid argon program for COHERENT.

  4. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huajie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  5. Performance of a liquid argon time projection chamber exposed to the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, F.; Cavanna, F.; Mitri, I. De; Mortari, G. Piano; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rubbia, C.; Terrani, M.; Vignoli, C.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Cavalli, D.; Curioni, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low-multiplicity neutrino interactions

  6. ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderberg, M.

    2009-10-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

  7. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; Artrip, D; Baller, B; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Carls, B; Chen, H; Deptuch, G; Epprecht, L; Dharmapalan, R; Foreman, W; Hahn, A; Johnson, M; Jones, B J P; Junk, T; Lang, K; Lockwitz, S; Marchionni, A; Mauger, C; Montanari, C; Mufson, S; Nessi, M; Back, H Olling; Petrillo, G; Pordes, S; Raaf, J; Rebel, B; Sinins, G; Soderberg, M; Spooner, N J C; Stancari, M; Strauss, T; Terao, K; Thorn, C; Tope, T; Toups, M; Urheim, J; Van de Water, R; Wang, H; Wasserman, R; Weber, M; Whittington, D; Yang, T

    2015-01-01

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: $i)$ Argon Purity and Cryogenics, $ii)$ TPC and High Voltage, $iii)$ Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, $iv)$ Scintillation Light Detection, $v)$ Calibration and Test Beams, and $vi)$ Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  8. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-04-21

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  9. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  10. Commissioning of the ArDM experiment at the Canfranc underground laboratory: first steps towards a tonne-scale liquid argon time projection chamber for Dark Matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, J.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Daniel, M.; Di Luise, S.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Montes, B.; Mu, W.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Periale, L.; Quan, Y.; Radics, B.; Regenfus, C.; Romero, L.; Rubbia, A.; Santorelli, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Argon Dark Matter (ArDM) experiment consists of a liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC) sensitive to nuclear recoils, resulting from scattering of hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on argon targets. With an active target mass of 850 kg ArDM represents an important milestone towards developments for large LAr Dark Matter detectors. Here we present the experimental apparatus currently installed underground at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. We show data on gaseous or liquid argon targets recorded in 2015 during the commissioning of ArDM in single phase at zero E-field (ArDM Run I). The data confirms the overall good and stable performance of the ArDM tonne-scale LAr detector.

  11. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  12. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  13. Design, construction, commissioning and long term operational experience with the D0 Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Schamberger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The D0 experiment was designed in the mid 1980s and ran at the Fermilab pp collider from 1992 through 2011. I describe the uranium-liquid argon calorimeter and its readout electronic which was upgraded in the late 1990s to handle the higher luminosity of the upgraded Tevatron during its second running period from 2001-2011. I summarize maintaining the calorimeter for 20 years of data taking. I further describe a few issues that arose during that time, including different types of noise and th...

  14. Modeling of Liquid Steel/Slag/Argon Gas Multiphase Flow During Tundish Open Eye Formation in a Two-Strand Tundish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Saikat; Li, Donghui; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor

    2018-04-01

    Multiphase flows are frequently encountered in metallurgical operations. One of the most effective ways to understand these processes is by flow modeling. The process of tundish open eye (TOE) formation involves three-phase interaction between liquid steel, slag, and argon gas. The two-phase interaction involving argon gas bubbles and liquid steel can be modeled relatively easily using the discrete phase modeling technique. However, the effect of an upper slag layer cannot be captured using this approach. The presence of an upper buoyant phase can have a major effect on the behavior of TOEs. Hence, a multiphase model, including three phases, viz. liquid steel, slag, and argon gas, in a two-strand slab caster tundish, was developed to study the formation and evolution of TOEs. The volume of fluid model was used to track the interphase between liquid steel and slag phases, while the discrete phase model was used to trace the movement of the argon gas bubbles in liquid steel. The variation in the TOE areas with different amounts of aspirated argon gas was examined in the presence of an overlying slag phase. The mathematical model predictions were compared against steel plant measurements.

  15. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation: filling of a 6 m^3 vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    OpenAIRE

    Curioni A.; Epprecht L.; Gendotti A.; Knecht L.; Lussi D.; others

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 m$^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to {\\it all} sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  16. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, J. Philipp; Atlas Liquid Argon calorimeter Group

    2014-06-01

    A stepwise upgrade of the LHC is foreseen starting now until the year 2023 to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to five times of its design value. It implies a challenge for the ATLAS experiment coping with the expected event pile-up, especially for the Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. In order to keep the trigger rates within the limited bandwidth new algorithms have to be applied which in turn requires an upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter trigger readout electronics. Towards this upgrade, the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter group develops a high-speed data acquisition interface in ATCA standard using commercial hardware instead of complex and expensive in-house developments where possible. This paper gives an overview of the general concepts of the DAQ interface, the engaged technologies and the current status of the development efforts for an FPGA based fast data link with a standard 10 Gbps Ethernet protocol which may also be useful for DAQ systems of other high energy physics experiments.

  17. Delayed light emission of Tetraphenyl-butadiene excited by liquid argon scintillation light. Current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreto, E.; Machado, A. A.; Araujo, W.; Teixeira, V.

    2016-02-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene is the wavelength shifter most widely used in combination with liquid argon. The latter emits scintillation photons with a wavelength of 127 nm that need to be downshifted to be detected by photomultipliers with glass or quartz windows. Tetraphenyl-butadiene has been demonstrated to have an extremely high conversion efficiency, possibly higher than 100% for 127 nm photons, while there is no precise information about the time dependence of its emission. It is usually assumed to be exponentially decaying with a characteristic time of the order of one ns, as an extrapolation from measurements with exciting radiation in the near UV . This work shows that tetraphenyl-butadiene, when excited by 127 nm photons, re-emits photons not only with a very short decay time, but also with slower ones due to triplet states de-excitations. This fact can strongly contribute to clarifying the anomalies in liquid-argon scintillation light reported in the literature since the 1970s. Precision measurements of the properties of TPB, when excited by Vacuum Ultra Violet photons are being carried on at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas (State of São Paulo).

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Strizenec, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a parallel plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at 88.5 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then...

  19. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, Joshua B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforou, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at 87 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beam...

  1. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforou, Nikiforos

    2013-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as hadronic calorimetry in the end-caps. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, approximately 27 fb -1 of data have been collected at an unprecedented center of mass energy. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with a performance very close to specifications. This paper covers all aspects of these first years of operation. The excellent performance achieved is especially presented in the context of the discovery of the elusive Higgs boson. The future plans to preserve this performance until the end of the LHC program are also presented. (authors)

  2. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters are foreseen to be improved for the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, in 2019, in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back-end components. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system is being developed, with the intention of installing it on the ATLAS detector for operation during the data-taking period beginning in 2015. Results from system tests of the analog signal treatment, the trigger digitizer, the optical signal transmission and the FPGA-based back-end modules will be reported.

  3. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters will be improved for the Phase- I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back- end electronics. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system has been set up, many off-detector tests have been done. Analog signal parameters including the noise and cross-talk, as well as digital signal treatment, high speed data transmission have been measured and verified. After a series of tests, the demonstrator system has been installed on the ATLAS detector before the LHC run-2.

  4. arXiv Photon detector system performance in the DUNE 35-ton prototype liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.L.; Anderson, J.T.; Bagby, L.; Baird, M.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Biery, K.; Blake, A.; Blaufuss, E.; Boone, T.; Booth, A.; Brailsford, D.; Buchanan, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Convery, M.; Davies, J.; Dealtry, T.; DeLurgio, P.; Deuerling, G.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Eberly, B.; Freeman, J.; Glavin, S.; Gomes, R.A.; Goodman, M.C.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, J.T.; Hartnell, J.; Higuera, A.; Himmel, A.; Insler, J.; Jacobsen, J.; Junk, T.; Kirby, B.; Klein, J.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kutter, T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lin, S.; Martin-Albo, J.; McConkey, N.; Moura, C.A.; Mufson, S.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nowak, J.; Oberling, M.; Paley, J.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rivera, D.; Santucci, G.; Sinev, G.; Spooner, N.J. C.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Strauss, T.; Sulej, R.; Sun, Y.; Thiesse, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Tsai, Y.T.; Wallbank, M.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Whittington, D.; Wilson, R.J.; Worcester, M.; Worcester, E.; Yang, T.; Zhang, C.

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an integrated photon detector system, all situated inside a membrane cryostat. The detector took cosmic-ray data for six weeks during the period of February 1, 2016 to March 12, 2016. The performance of the photon detection system was checked with these data. An installed photon detector was demonstrated to measure the arrival times of cosmic-ray muons with a resolution better than 32 ns, limited by the timing of the trigger system. A measurement of the timing resolution using closely-spaced calibration pulses yielded a resolution of 15 ns for pulses at a level of 6 photo-electrons. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons was observed to be attenuated with increasing distance with a characteristic length of $155 \\pm 28$ cm.

  5. Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Astvatsaturov, A R; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Autiero, D; Azuelos, Georges; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bee, C P; Bellettini, Giorgio; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blaj, C; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Buono, S; Calôba, L P; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Casado, M P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chase, Robert L; Chekhtman, A; Chevaleyre, J C; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Cozzi, L; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; de La Taille, C; Del Prete, T; Depommier, P; de Saintignon, P; De Santo, A; Dinkespiler, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fouchez, D; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Gingrich, D M; Glagolev, V V; Golubev, V B; Gómez, A; González, J; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Hostachy, J Y; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Klioukhine, V I; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Laborie, G; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lebedev, A; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liba, I; Linossier, O; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lund-Jensen, B; Mahout, G; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miotto, A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicoleau, S; Noppe, J M; Olivetto, C; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Parrour, G; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Pétroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanders, H; Sauvage, G; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Scheel, C V; Schwemling, P; Schindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shchelchkov, A S; Shevtsov, V P; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephani, D; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tisserant, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Wagner, D; White, Alan R; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    1996-01-01

    The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300~GeV at an incident angle $\\theta$ of about 11$^\\circ$ is well-described by the expression $\\sigma/E = ((46.5 \\pm 6.0)\\%/\\sqrt{E} +(1.2 \\pm 0.3)\\%) \\oplus (3.2 \\pm 0.4)~\\mbox{GeV}/E$. Shower profiles, shower leakage, and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied.

  6. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmadaliev, S Z; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrieux, M L; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Barreiro, F; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bazizi, K; Bee, C P; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bonivento, W; Borgeaud, P; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Breton, D; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Caprini, M; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Cases, R; Castillo, M V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Citterio, M; Cleland, W E; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Coulon, J P; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delagnes, E; de La Taille, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; de Saintignon, P; Di Girolamo, B; Dinkespiler, B; Dita, S; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Eynard, G; Farida, F; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; García, G; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V; Glebov, V Yu; Gómez, A; González, V; González de la Hoz, S; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hébrard, C; Henriques, A; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Huet, M; Huston, J; Imbault, D; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jacquier, Y; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karst, P; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Klioukhine, V I; Kolachev, G M; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kozlov, V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Labarga, L; Laborie, G; Lacour, D; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Le Dortz, O; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; Leltchouk, M; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liapis, C; Linossier, O; Lissauer, D; Lobkowicz, F; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; López-Amengual, J M; Lottin, J P; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Maio, A; Makowiecki, D S; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marrocchesi, P S; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A M; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mirea, A; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Mosidze, M D; Moynot, M; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Nayman, P; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicod, D; Nicoleau, S; Niculescu, M; Noppe, J M; Onofre, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Parrour, G; Parsons, J; Pascual, J I; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Perrodo, P; Petroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Richer, J P; Riu, I; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Romero, P; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shaldaev, E; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Soloviev, I V; Snopkov, R; Söderqvist, J; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Spiwoks, R; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, P; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Sykora, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserand, V; Tisserant, S; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vincent, P; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Walter, C; White, A; Wielers, M; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2000-01-01

    A new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 10 to 300 GeV at an incident angle theta of about 12 degrees is well described by the expression sigma /E=((41.9+or-1.6)%/ square root E+(1.8+or-0.1)%)(+) (1.8+or-0.1)/E, where E is in GeV. The response to electrons and muons was evaluated. Shower profiles, shower leakage and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied. Results are compared with those from the previous beam test. (22 refs).

  7. Development of Digital Signal Processing with FPGAs for the Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen; Zuber, K

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN in Geneva is supposed to be equipped with advanced readout electronics for the operation at High Luminosity LHC. In this diploma thesis the aspect of fast serial data transmission and data processing to be used for the communication between different readout modules and data storage buffers of the trigger shall be further developed. Furthermore, the main focus is put on first preparation of the detector raw data with regard to a signal correction using a FIR filter. It is aimed at a most efficient, most resource economising and minimal latency causing solution that allows to process the huge amount of upcoming detector raw data in real time. Therefore a via UDP/IP reconfigurable prototype of a 5-stage FIR filter with Gigabit Ethernet Interface was implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. The performance reached is fully within the the requirements for the upgraded calorimeter readout of ATLAS.

  8. Construction and Performance of a Liquid Argon Calorimeter for use in Experiment E-706 at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSoi, William Edward [Rochester U.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a liquid argon calorimeter developed by the E-706 collaboration. This device was used in measuring the energy content of showers produced by the interaction of nucleons with 530 GeV/c pions at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. A description of the calorimeter's construction and design considerations precedes the analysis of its performance, which is the central topic to be discussed. The calorimeter was found to have an intrinsic energy for electromagnetic showers of 14.5%/$\\sqrt{E}$ and for hadronic showers a resolution of 183%/$\\sqrt{E}$. The position resolution of showers for the calorimeter was found to be 1.0 mm or better for energies greater than 2.0 GeV.

  9. Performance and stability tests of bare high purity germanium detectors in liquid argon for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe Heider, Marik

    2009-05-27

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge by using a novel approach of bare germanium detectors in liquid argon (LAr). Enriched germanium detectors from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments have been reprocessed and will be deployed in GERDA Phase-I. At the center of this thesis project is the study of the performance of bare germanium detectors in cryogenic liquids. Identical detector performance as in vacuum cryostats (2.2 keV FWHM at 1.3 MeV) was achieved in cryogenic liquids with a new low-mass detector assembly and contacts. One major result is the discovery of a radiation induced leakage current (LC) increase when operating bare detectors with standard passivation layers in LAr. Charge collection and build-up on the passivation layer were identified as the origin of the LC increase. It was found that diodes without passivation do not exhibit this feature. Three month-long stable operation in LAr at {proportional_to} 5 pA LC under periodic gamma irradiation demonstrated the suitability of the modi ed detector design. Based on these results, all Phase-I detectors were reprocessed without passivation layer and subsequently successfully characterized in LAr in the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory. The mass loss during the reprocessing was {proportional_to}300 g out of 17.9 kg and the exposure above ground {proportional_to} 5 days. This results in a negligible cosmogenic background increase of {proportional_to} 5.10{sup -4} cts/(keV.kg.y) at {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} for {sup 60}Co and {sup 68}Ge. (orig.)

  10. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  11. Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1972-01-01

    twice the statistical scatter of the present data, the present results for the lnα are systematically 5% lower than calculations from vapor pressure data. It is shown that T2 lnα is a linear function of (ρc−ρg), the density difference between the liquid and vapor, in the range 84–120°K......The statistical thermodynamic treatment of the equilibrium between a nonideal liquid mixture of isotopes and a vapor phase is extended to include isotope effects on the equation of state of the gas. The result is particularly simple when the isotopic partition functions in a given phase...... are compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within...

  12. Study of hadrons energy resolution in a liquid argon calorimeter for the H1 experiment and study of supersymmetric particles detection at Hera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besancon, M.

    1989-08-01

    Tests of liquid Argon calorimeters have been carried out at CERN in 1986 and 1987 in order to study the properties of the forthcoming H1 detector calorimeter installed at the HERA collider. In the first part of this work, from data analysis, several weighting methods of the measured charge for hadronic showers are proposed and discussed. These weighting methods allow to correct the non compensation of liquid Argon calorimeters and so to optimize the hadrons energy resolution. The problem of electrons and pions identification is also met. In the second part, selectron and squark production is considered in the electrons protons collisions of HERA. Signal extraction from standard background is studied with the help of a simulation of supersymmetric and deep inelastic scattering processes as well as a rough simulation of the H1 detector [fr

  13. Study of the material photon and electron background and the liquid argon detector veto efficiency of the CDEX-10 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Zeng, Zhi; Ma, Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, Yo-Chun; Deng, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Qing-Ju; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Yuan-Jing; Liao, Heng-Yi; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Lü, Lan-Chun; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Lakhwinder, Singh; Manoj, Kumar Singh; Arun, Kumar Soma; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong Tsz-King, Henry; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua; CDEX Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is located at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and aims to directly detect the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) flux with high sensitivity in the low mass region. Here we present a study of the predicted photon and electron backgrounds including the background contribution of the structure materials of the germanium detector, the passive shielding materials, and the intrinsic radioactivity of the liquid argon that serves as an anti-Compton active shielding detector. A detailed geometry is modeled and the background contribution has been simulated based on the measured radioactivities of all possible components within the GEANT4 program. Then the photon and electron background level in the energy region of interest (<10-2events·kg1·day-1·keV-1 (cpkkd)) is predicted based on Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated result is consistent with the design goal of the CDEX-10 experiment, 0.1cpkkd, which shows that the active and passive shield design of CDEX-10 is effective and feasible. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175099, 10935005, 10945002, 11275107, 11105076) and State Key Development Program of Basic Research of China (2010CB833006)

  14. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-I Trigger Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosities of $\\mathcal{L} > 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The Front End (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. The FE electronics were qualified for radiation levels corresponding to 10 years of LHC operations. The high luminosity running of the LHC (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of $5 \\times 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^ {-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and an integrated luminosity of $3000 \\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ will exceed these d...

  15. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-1 Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosities of $L > 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The front end (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. In order to exploit the higher luminosity while keeping the same trigger bandwidth of 100 kHz, higher transverse granularity, higher resolution and longitudinal shower shape information will be provided from the LAr calorimeter to the Level-1 trigger processors. New trigger readout electronics have been designed for this purpose, which wil...

  16. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  17. Study of the material photon and electron background and the liquid argon detector veto efficiency of the CDEX-10 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jian; Zeng Zhi; Ma Hao

    2015-01-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is located at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and aims to directly detect the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) flux with high sensitivity in the low mass region. Here we present a study of the predicted photon and electron backgrounds including the background contribution of the structure materials of the germanium detector, the passive shielding materials, and the intrinsic radioactivity of the liquid argon that serves as an anti-Compton active shielding detector. A detailed geometry is modeled and the background contribution has been simulated based on the measured radioactivities of all possible components within the GEANT4 program. Then the photon and electron background level in the energy region of interest (< 10 -2 events·kg 1 ·day -1 ·keV -1 (cpkkd)) is predicted based on Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated result is consistent with the design goal of the CDEX-10 experiment, 0.1cpkkd, which shows that the active and passive shield design of CDEX-10 is effective and feasible. (authors)

  18. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, J P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The readout of the trigger signals of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters is foreseen to be upgraded in order to prepare for operation during the first high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Signals with improved spatial granularity are planned to be received from the detector by a Digitial Processing System (DPS) in ATCA technology and will be sent in real-time to the ATLAS trigger system using custom optical links. These data are also sampled by the DPS for monitoring and will be read out by the regular Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of ATLAS which is a network-based PC-farm. The bandwidth between DPS module and DAQ system is expected to be in the order of 10 Gbit/s per module and a standard Ethernet protocol is foreseen to be used. DSP data will be prepared and sent by a modern FPGA either through a switch or directly to a Read-Out System (ROS) PC serving as buffer interface of the ATLAS DAQ. In a prototype setup, an ATCA blade equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA is used to send da...

  19. Investigation of n{sup +} surface events in HPGe detectors for liquid argon background rejection in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU-Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using an array of germanium detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment aims to improve the background level by a factor 10 in order to reach 10{sup -3} counts / (kg.keV.yr). A strong suppression technique is required to suppress the intrinsic LAr background of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K. 30 newly produced p-type Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will be deployed in Phase II. The n{sup +} electrode of the GERDA BEGe detectors is covering 96-98 % of the surface and is between 0.5 and 1.2 mm thick. Betas from the {sup 42}K decay can penetrated the detector surface and deposit energies within the 0νββ region. Experiences from GERDA Phase I show that these surface events are the dominate background component without suppression. Energy depositions inside the n{sup +} layer create pulse shapes that are slower than those from interactions in the bulk. This talk presents a rejection technique for those events. The signal development inside the n{sup +} layer is modeled and applied in Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are compared with data for {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr calibration source measurements. The suppression capabilities are extrapolated for {sup 42}K in GERDA Phase II.

  20. A model for the Global Quantum Efficiency for a TPB-based wavelength-shifting system used with photomultiplier tubes in liquid argon in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, S. F. [New Mexico State U.; Wester, T. [MIT, Cambridge, Dept. Phys.; Bugel, L. [MIT, Cambridge, Dept. Phys.; Conrad, J. [MIT, Cambridge, Dept. Phys.; Henderson, E. [New Mexico State U.; Jones, B. J.P. [Texas U., Arlington; McLean, A. I.L. [New Mexico State U.; Moon, J. S. [MIT, Cambridge, Dept. Phys.; Toups, M. [Fermilab; Wongjirad, T. [MIT, Cambridge, Dept. Phys.

    2018-02-28

    We present a model for the Global Quantum Efficiency (GQE) of the MicroBooNE optical units. An optical unit consists of a flat, circular acrylic plate, coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), positioned near the photocathode of a 20.2-cm diameter photomultiplier tube. The plate converts the ultra-violet scintillation photons from liquid argon into visible-spectrum photons to which the cryogenic phototubes are sensitive. The GQE is the convolution of the efficiency of the plates that convert the 128 nm scintillation light from liquid argon to visible light, the efficiency of the shifted light to reach the photocathode, and the efficiency of the cryogenic photomultiplier tube. We develop a GEANT4-based model of the optical unit, based on first principles, and obtain the range of probable values for the expected number of detected photoelectrons ($N_{\\rm PE}$) given the known systematic errors on the simulation parameters. We compare results from four measurements of the $N_{\\rm PE}$ determined using alpha-particle sources placed at two distances from a TPB-coated plate in a liquid argon cryostat test stand. We also directly measured the radial dependence of the quantum efficiency, and find that this has the same shape as predicted by our model. Our model results in a GQE of $0.0055\\pm0.0009$ for the MicroBooNE optical units. While the information shown here is MicroBooNE specific, the approach to the model and the collection of simulation parameters will be widely applicable to many liquid-argon-based light collection systems.

  1. Liquid argon as an electron/photon detector in the energy range of 50 MeV to 2 GeV: a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Denis, G.; Hall, M.; Karpovsky, A.; Wilson, R.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1980-12-01

    Monte Carlo techniques which have been used to study the characteristics of a proposed electron/photon detector based on the total absorption of electromagnetic showers in liquid argon have been investigated. The energy range studied was 50 MeV to 2 GeV. Results are presented on the energy and angular resolution predicted for the device, along with the detailed predictions of the transverse and longitudinal shower distributions. Comparisons are made with other photon detectors, and possible applications are discussed

  2. A model for the Global Quantum Efficiency for a TPB-based wavelength-shifting system used with photomultiplier tubes in liquid argon in MicroBooNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, S. F.; Wester, T.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Henderson, E.; Jones, B. J. P.; McLean, A. I. L.; Moon, J. S.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

    2018-02-01

    We present a model for the Global Quantum Efficiency (GQE) of the MicroBooNE optical units. An optical unit consists of a flat, circular acrylic plate, coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), positioned near the photocathode of a 20.2-cm diameter photomultiplier tube. The plate converts the ultra-violet scintillation photons from liquid argon into visible-spectrum photons to which the cryogenic phototubes are sensitive. The GQE is the convolution of the efficiency of the plates that convert the 128 nm scintillation light from liquid argon to visible light, the efficiency of the shifted light to reach the photocathode, and the efficiency of the cryogenic photomultiplier tube. We develop a GEANT4-based model of the optical unit, based on first principles, and obtain the range of probable values for the expected number of detected photoelectrons (NPE) given the known systematic errors on the simulation parameters. We compare results from four measurements of the NPE determined using alpha-particle sources placed at two distances from a TPB-coated plate in a liquid argon cryostat test stand. We also directly measured the radial dependence of the quantum efficiency, and find that this has the same shape as predicted by our model. Our model results in a GQE of 0.0055±0.0009 for the MicroBooNE optical units. While the information shown here is MicroBooNE specific, the approach to the model and the collection of simulation parameters will be widely applicable to many liquid-argon-based light collection systems.

  3. Density Distribution of Liquid Argon in Nano-channel Poiseuille Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jiangwei; Wang, Yuyi; Zhou, Zhe-Wei

    2017-11-01

    The density layering parallel to the boundaries of liquid has been measured in many experiments and also observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, a detail and systematic investigation of density distribution in nano-scale Poiseuille flows is carried out. Through analyzing the difference of density distribution curves obtained under different conditions, the influence of interaction parameters, configuration form of solid wall and temperature on the layering are investigated. The internal mechanism is also explored in this paper. The detail description of the density distribution results and simulation algorithm is given. National natural science foundation (A020405).

  4. The electronics, trigger and data acquisition system for the liquid argon time projection chamber of the DarkSide-50 search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Asner, D. M.; Ave, M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Filippis, G. De; Rosa, G. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Dionisi, C.; Pietro, G. Di; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Agasson, A. Navrer; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-12-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso is a search for dark matter using a dual phase time projection chamber with 50 kg of low radioactivity argon as target. Light signals from interactions in the argon are detected by a system of 38 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), 19 above and 19 below the TPC volume inside the argon cryostat. We describe the electronics which processes the signals from the photo-multipliers, the trigger system which identifies events of interest, and the data-acquisition system which records the data for further analysis. The electronics include resistive voltage dividers on the PMTs, custom pre-amplifiers mounted directly on the PMT voltage dividers in the liquid argon, and custom amplifier/discriminators (at room temperature). After amplification, the PMT signals are digitized in CAEN waveform digitizers, and CAEN logic modules are used to construct the trigger, the data acquisition system for the TPC is based on the Fermilab "artdaq" software. The system has been in operation since early 2014.

  5. The electronics, trigger and data acquisition system for the liquid argon time projection chamber of the DarkSide-50 search for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Asner, D. M.; Ave, M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Filippis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Dionisi, C.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-12-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso is a search for dark matter using a dual phase time projection chamber with 50 kg of low radioactivity argon as target. Light signals from interactions in the argon are detected by a system of 38 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), 19 above and 19 below the TPC volume inside the argon cryostat. We describe the electronics which processes the signals from the photo-multipliers, the trigger system which identifies events of interest, and the data-acquisition system which records the data for further analysis. The electronics include resistive voltage dividers on the PMTs, custom pre-amplifiers mounted directly on the PMT voltage dividers in the liquid argon, and custom amplifier/discriminators (at room temperature). After amplification, the PMT signals are digitized in CAEN waveform digitizers, and CAEN logic modules are used to construct the trigger; the data acquisition system for the TPC is based on the Fermilab artdaq software. The system has been in operation since early 2014.

  6. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin film liquid Argon on nanostructured surface in nano-scale confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Sabah, Arefiny; Ahmed, Jannat; Kuri, Subrata Kumar; Rakibuzzaman, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of Molecular level phase change phenomena are becoming important in heat and mass transfer research at a very high rate, driven both by the need to understand certain fundamental phenomena as well as by a plethora of new and forthcoming applications in the areas of micro- and nanotechnologies. Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to go through the evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in Nano-scale confinement. In the present study, a cuboid system is modeled for understanding the Nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation. The cuboid system consists of hot and cold parallel platinum plates at the bottom and top ends. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Three different simulation domains have been created here: (i) Both platinum plates are considered flat, (ii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of low height and (iii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of bigger height. Considering hydrophilic nature of top and bottom plates, two different high temperatures of the hot wall was set and an observation was made on normal and explosive vaporizations and their impacts on thermal transport. For all the structures, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall is set to two different temperatures like 110 K and 250 K for all three models to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). For vaporization, higher temperature of the hot wall led to faster transport of the liquid argon as a cluster moving from hot wall to cold wall. But excessive temperature causes explosive boiling which seems not good for heat transportation because of less phase change. In case of condensation, an observation was made which indicates that the nanostructured transverse slots facilitate condensation. Two factors affect the rate of

  7. Transverse Position Reconstruction in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber using Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Dimensional Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew William

    2017-08-01

    pocket above the liquid region, respectively. One of the lingering challenges in this experiment, however, is the determination of an event's position along the other two spatial dimensions, that is, its transverse or "xy" position. Some liquid noble element TPCs have achieved remarkably accurate event position reconstructions, typically using the relative amounts of S2 light collected by Photo-Multiplier Tubes ("PMTs") as the input data to their reconstruction algorithms. This approach has been partic- ularly challenging in DarkSide-50, partly due to unexpected asymmetries in the detector, and partly due to the design of the detector itself. A variety of xy-Reconstruction methods ("xy methods" for short) have come and gone in DS- 50, with only a few of them providing useful results. The xy method described in this dissertation is a two-step Principal Component Analysis / Multi-Dimensional Fit (PCAMDF) reconstruction. In a nutshell, this method develops a functional mapping from the 19-dimensional space of the signal received by the PMTs at the "top" (or the "anode" end) of the DarkSide-50 TPC to each of the transverse coordinates, x and y. PCAMDF is a low-level "machine learning" algorithm, and as such, needs to be "trained" with a sample of representative events; in this case, these are provided by the DarkSide geant4-based Monte Carlo, g4ds. In this work, a thorough description of the PCAMDF xy-Reconstruction method is provided along with an analysis of its performance on MC events and data. The method is applied to several classes of data events, including coincident decays, external gamma rays from calibration sources, and both atmospheric argon "AAr" and underground argon "UAr". Discrepancies between the MC and data are explored, and fiducial volume cuts are calculated. Finally, a novel method is proposed for finding the accuracy of the PCAMDF reconstruction on data by using the asymmetry of the S2 light collected on the anode and cathode PMT arrays as a function

  8. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Systems Argon-Oxygen and Ammonia-Water Measurements and Modeling for Industrial and Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nimmi Chandra

    1997-11-01

    This work presents an integrated approach for characterizing binary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) through a combination of experimental measurements and thermodynamic modeling for low to medium pressure binary VLE. We focus on two dissimilar mixtures: the non-polar argon-oxygen system of importance for industrial air separation processes and the polar ammonia-water system of interest for understanding the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Experimental measurements of pressure, temperature, and phase composition at equilibrium were made for the argon-oxygen system at temperatures from 92K to 115K with a cryogenic VLE apparatus. A second custom-built apparatus was used to measure VLE in the ammonia-water system from 276K to 285K. Our new data, along with existing literature data, were critically evaluated and tested for thermodynamic consistency. A thermodynamic model of the argon-oxygen system from 90K to 120K was developed using an activity coefficient approach to describe nonidealities in the liquid and the virial equation of state to characterize vapor phase nonidealities. The model employs maximum likelihood parameter fitting which takes into account uncertainties in all measured quantities and maximizes the likelihood that the model describes the true behavior of the mixture. For the ammonia-water study a new extension of the thermodynamic model to polar mixtures is presented. Our model has built-in temperature dependence for reliable extrapolation to temperatures beyond the range of the available data. The model constants can be used in a simple iterative procedure to calculate the liquid and vapor compositions of the mixture at specified temperature and pressure. As a demonstration, our ammonia-water model is used to calculate altitude-composition profiles for condensing clouds of liquid ammonia-water solution on Jupiter.

  9. Study of the low-energy ER/NR discrimination and its electric-field dependence with liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washimi, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Tanaka, M.; Yorita, K.

    2018-02-01

    A two-phase argon detector is generally suitable for the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter owing to its high rejection power against electron recoil background events. However, ionization signal (S2) has not been effectively used for argon in current experiments because its basic properties and discrimination power from S2 signal in the low-energy region are not well known, as compared with xenon. The scope of this study is evaluation of S2 properties at a low-energy region of about 40 keVnr and its discrimination power between electron recoils and nuclear recoils based on results from a prototype LAr time projection chamber. The drift-field was varied from null to 3 kV/cm. The detection feasibility for low-mass WIMP with argon is also discussed.

  10. Simulations and Data analysis for the 35 ton Liquid Argon detector as a prototype for the DUNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, Thomas Karl [Sheffield U.

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next-generation neutrino experiment which will be built at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and will receive a wide-band neutrino beam from Fermilab, 1300~km away. At this baseline DUNE will be able to study many of the properties of neutrino mixing, including the neutrino mass hierarchy and the value of the CP-violating complex phase ($\\delta_{CP}$). DUNE will utilise Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) (LArTPC) technology, and the Far Detector (FD) will consist of four modules, each containing 17.1~kt of LAr with a fiducial mass of around 10~kt. Each of these FD modules represents around an order of magnitude increase in size, when compared to existing LArTPC experiments. \\\\ The 35 ton detector is the first DUNE prototype for the single (LAr) phase design of the FD. There were two running periods, one from November 2013 to February 2014, and a second from November 2015 to March 2016. During t he second running period, a system of TPCs was installed, and cosmic-ray data were collected. A method of particle identification was developed using simulations, though this was not applied to the data due to the higher than expected noise level. A new method of determining the interaction time of a track, using the effects of longitudinal diffusion, was developed using the cosmic-ray data. A camera system was also installed in the detector for monitoring purposes, and to look for high voltage breakdowns. \\\\ Simulations concerning the muon-induced background rate to nucleon decay are performed, following the incorporation of the MUon Simulations UNderground (MUSUN) generator into the DUNE software framework. A series of cuts which are based on Monte Carlo truth information is developed, designed to reject simulated background events, whilst preserving simulated signal events in the $n \\rightarrow K^{+} + e^{-}$ decay channel. No background events are seen to survive the app lication of

  11. Spectroscopic studies of ozone in cryosolutions: FT-IR spectra of 16O3 in liquid nitrogen, oxygen, argon and krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanin, Kirill M.; Bulanin, Michael O.; Rudakova, Aida V.; Kolomijtsova, Tatiana D.; Shchepkin, Dmitrij N.

    2018-03-01

    We have measured and interpreted the IR spectra of ozone dissolved in liquid nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and krypton in the 650-4700 cm-1 spectral region at 79-117 K. Frequency shifts, band intensities and bandshapes of 22 spectral features of soluted ozone were analyzed. The bands of the A1 symmetry have a complex contour and possess an excess intensity with respect to the value of the purely vibrational transition moment. It was found that this effect is related to the manifestation of the Coriolis interaction. The bandshape distortion manifests itself as an additional intensity from the side of the B1 symmetry band being an intensity source in the case of the Coriolis interaction.

  12. Muon-induced background to proton decay in the p →K+ ν decay channel with large underground liquid argon TPC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, J.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Richardson, M.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2015-06-01

    Large liquid argon TPC detector programs such as LBNE and LAGUNA-LBNO will be able to make measurements of the proton lifetime which will outperform Cherenkov detectors in the proton decay channel p →K+ ν. At the large depths which are proposed for such experiments, a non-negligible source of isolated charged kaons may be produced in the showers of cosmogenic muons. We present an estimate of the cosmogenic muon background to proton decay in the p →K+ ν channel. The simulation of muon transport to a depth of 4 km w.e. is performed in the MUSIC framework and the subsequent propagation of muons and secondary particles in the vicinity of a cylindrical 20 kt LAr target is performed using GEANT4. An exposure time of 100 years is considered, with a rate of <0.0012 events/kt/year at 90% CL predicted from our simulations.

  13. Muon-induced background to proton decay in the p→K+ν decay channel with large underground liquid argon TPC detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Klinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large liquid argon TPC detector programs such as LBNE and LAGUNA-LBNO will be able to make measurements of the proton lifetime which will outperform Cherenkov detectors in the proton decay channel p→K+ν. At the large depths which are proposed for such experiments, a non-negligible source of isolated charged kaons may be produced in the showers of cosmogenic muons. We present an estimate of the cosmogenic muon background to proton decay in the p→K+ν channel. The simulation of muon transport to a depth of 4 km w.e. is performed in the MUSIC framework and the subsequent propagation of muons and secondary particles in the vicinity of a cylindrical 20 kt LAr target is performed using Geant4. An exposure time of 100 years is considered, with a rate of <0.0012 events/kt/year at 90% CL predicted from our simulations.

  14. Energy Reconstruction and high-speed Data Transmission with FPGAs for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN near Geneva is equipped with improved readout and trigger electronics for the operation at higher luminosity LHC in the frame of several upgrades (Phase-0, I, and II). Special attention is given to an early digitisation of detector raw data and their following digital data transmission and processing via FPGAs already for the Level-1 trigger. The upgrades additionally foresee to provide higher spatial granularity information for the Level-1 trigger in order to improve its performance for low momentum single particles at increased collision rates. The first part of this dissertation contains the development and implementation of a modular detector simulation framework, AREUS, which allows to analyse different filter algorithms for the energy reconstruction as well as their performance with respect to the expected digitised detector raw data. In this detector simulation framework the detailed algorithmic functionality of the FPGAs has been taken into ac...

  15. Liquid scintillators and liquefied rare gases for particle detectors. Background-determination in Double Chooz and scintillation properties of liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Martin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    the BiPo analysis show the high level of radiopurity reached in Double Chooz. In addition, with the BiPo analysis the α-quenching factors for the Target and the GammaCatcher liquids have been determined, respectively, to 9.94±0.04 and 13.69±0.02 at 7.7 MeV, and 9.05±0.01 and 14.3±0.1 at 8.8 MeV. The former values show a good agreement with the values obtained in a dedicated laboratory measurement. The time stability of the peak position of the 214 Po α-peak could be proven, too, showing a stable detector performance at low visible energies. The direct search for Dark Matter can, amongst others, be performed with liquid rare gas detectors, which make use of the scintillation light. However, a good background discrimination is needed. Studies on the wavelength- and time-resolved scintillation properties of liquid argon have therefore been carried out with high resolution and best statistics. The results obtained for different ion beams show that particle discrimination is not feasible in any realistic experiment by means of the wavelength-resolved scintillation light only, but the time structure of the emitted light provides a good handle to distinguish between different incident particles. For heavy ions (sulfur) a ratio of the fast to the slow scintillation component of (1.6 ± 0.6) is found, while lighter particles (protons) exhibit a ratio of (0.25 ± 0.05). The outcome of the present studies shows that this ratio can also be used in wavelength-integrating measurements which have a comparable detection efficiency for wavelengths below and above ∝170 nm. The present results demonstrate that for a number of 90 detected photons the singlet-to-triplet distributions obtained for sulfur ions and protons as exciting particles cease to overlap. In a Dark Matter experiment, if all photons produced can be detected, this corresponds to a discrimination threshold of only 2.25 keV.

  16. Liquid scintillators and liquefied rare gases for particle detectors. Background-determination in Double Chooz and scintillation properties of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Martin Alexander

    2012-11-27

    }(g)/(g)). Both gamma spectroscopy measurements and the BiPo analysis show the high level of radiopurity reached in Double Chooz. In addition, with the BiPo analysis the {alpha}-quenching factors for the Target and the GammaCatcher liquids have been determined, respectively, to 9.94{+-}0.04 and 13.69{+-}0.02 at 7.7 MeV, and 9.05{+-}0.01 and 14.3{+-}0.1 at 8.8 MeV. The former values show a good agreement with the values obtained in a dedicated laboratory measurement. The time stability of the peak position of the {sup 214}Po {alpha}-peak could be proven, too, showing a stable detector performance at low visible energies. The direct search for Dark Matter can, amongst others, be performed with liquid rare gas detectors, which make use of the scintillation light. However, a good background discrimination is needed. Studies on the wavelength- and time-resolved scintillation properties of liquid argon have therefore been carried out with high resolution and best statistics. The results obtained for different ion beams show that particle discrimination is not feasible in any realistic experiment by means of the wavelength-resolved scintillation light only, but the time structure of the emitted light provides a good handle to distinguish between different incident particles. For heavy ions (sulfur) a ratio of the fast to the slow scintillation component of (1.6 {+-} 0.6) is found, while lighter particles (protons) exhibit a ratio of (0.25 {+-} 0.05). The outcome of the present studies shows that this ratio can also be used in wavelength-integrating measurements which have a comparable detection efficiency for wavelengths below and above {proportional_to}170 nm. The present results demonstrate that for a number of 90 detected photons the singlet-to-triplet distributions obtained for sulfur ions and protons as exciting particles cease to overlap. In a Dark Matter experiment, if all photons produced can be detected, this corresponds to a discrimination threshold of only 2.25 keV.

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-36 - Argon or nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Argon or nitrogen. 151.50-36 Section 151.50-36 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-36 Argon or nitrogen. (a) A cargo tank that contains argon or nitrogen and that has a maximum allowable working pressure of 172 kPa (25...

  18. Characterization of the liquid argon veto of the GERDA experiment and its application for the measurement of the {sup 76}Ge half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne Christin

    2017-01-18

    The search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics as the observation of this process would prove lepton number violation and imply new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The GERDA experiment searches for this decay by operating bare Germanium detectors, enriched in the ββ isotope {sup 76}Ge, in liquid argon. For the first time, a ββ-experiment combines the excellent properties of semiconductor Germanium detectors with an active background suppression technique based on the simultaneous detection of liquid argon scintillation light by photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibers (LAr veto). The LAr veto has been successfully operated during the first six months of Phase II of the experiment and yielded - in combination with a Germanium detector pulse shape discrimination technique - a background index of (0.7{sup +1.1}{sub -0.5}).10{sup -3} ((cts)/(kg.keV.yr)). With an ultimate exposure of 100 kg.yr this will allow for a 0νββ-decay half-life sensitivity of the Gerda Phase II experiment of 10{sup 26} yr. Double-beta decay under the emission of two neutrinos (2νββ) is a second-order process but which is allowed by the Standard Model. The excellent background reduction of the LAr veto results in an unprecedented signal-to-background ratio of 30:1 in the energy region dominated by 2νββ-decay of {sup 76}Ge. The remaining background after LAr veto is estimated using the suppression factor from calibration source measurements and results in a measurement of T{sup 2ν}{sub 1/2}=(1.98±0.02(stat)±0.05(syst)).10{sup 21} yr and T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν}=(1.92 ±0.02(stat)±0.11(syst)).10{sup 21} yr based on two different detector designs and give uncertainties on the detector parameters but both with improved systematic uncertainties in comparison to earlier measurements.

  19. Single-phase ProtoDUNE, the Prototype of a Single-Phase Liquid Argon TPC for DUNE at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Touramanis, C

    2017-01-01

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. It was proposed to the CERN SPSC in June 2015 (SPSC-P-351) and was approved in December 2015 as experiment NP04 (ProtoDUNE). ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It is housed in an extension to the EHN1 hall in the North Area, where the CERN NP is providing a new dedicated charged-particle test beamline. ProtoDUNE-SP aims to take its first beam data before the LHC long shutdown (LS2) at the end of 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP prototypes the designs of most of the single-phase DUNE far detector module (DUNE-SP) components at a 1:1 scale, with an extrapolation of abo...

  20. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  1. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  2. Performance of the liquid argon calorimeter and search after the Higgs boson in the decay channel H → ZZ* → 4l in the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiouchichine, E.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis within the ATLAS collaboration was performed in the context of the discovery of a new particle at the LHC in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. My contribution to the Higgs boson search is focused in the H → ZZ* → 4l channel at different level, from the data taking to the physics analysis. After a theoretical introduction, the LHC and the ATLAS detector are presented as well as their performance during the 2011 and 2012 runs. A particular consideration is given to the liquid argon calorimeters and to the data quality assesment of this system. The validation of the data recorded during non-nominal high voltage conditions is presented. This study allowed to recover 2% of the data collected available for physics analyses. This has a direct impact on the H → ZZ* → 4l channel were the number of signal events expected is very low. In order to optimize the acceptance of the four electrons decay channel, novel electron reconstruction algorithms were introduced in 2012. The measurement of their efficiency is presented. The efficiency gain reaching 7% for low transverse energy electrons (15 < E T < 20 GeV) is one of the main improvements in the H → ZZ* → 4l analysis presented using the data recorded in 2012. The reducible background estimation methods in the channels containing electrons in the final state that were of primary importance after the discovery are detailed. Finally, the measurement of the new boson properties are presented based on the 2011 and the 2012 recorded data. (author)

  3. Diffusion of argon (1); cyclohexanol (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) argon; (2) cyclohexanol

  4. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  5. Qualification procedure of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector; Conception et mise au point de la procedure de qualification du calorimetre electromagnetique a argon liquide du detecteur ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, N

    2000-04-19

    LHC is the next collider based at CERN in Europe. The purpose of this machine is the Higgs boson and SUSY particles search. The detectors must have an excellent electromagnetic calorimetry to measure electron and photon energy. To maximize the signal to noise ratio for a low mass Higgs, it is fundamental to obtain a constant term as small as possible. LAPP is participating in the construction of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS collaboration. This technology is well adapted to the LHC experimental conditions. A systematic procedure to qualify the modules of this detector is an essential step to guarantee a 0,7% constant term, which is the collaboration objective. The procedure detailed in this thesis consists of quality monitoring during mechanical assembly and of a set of electrical tests such as electrical continuity, cell and cross-talk capacitance measurement, and high-voltage behaviour. For the whole test, it has been necessary to develop dedicated electronic cards, to develop measurement methods, and the whole operation software. Making the procedure automatic will guarantee the quality of each module during assembly, cabling, and test in liquid argon. (author)

  6. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  7. The effect of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a direct current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamróz, Piotr; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Pohl, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    A stable direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N 2 , H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000–2600 K) and N 2 bands (1600–1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K–7800 K) and H (11 000–15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N 2 , OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350–1750 K) and N 2 (400–1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200–5500 K) and H (3600–12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The effect of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H β line and equals to (0.25–1.1) × 10 15 cm −3 and (0.68–1.2) × 10 15 cm −3 in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation properties of the developed excitation microsource. The limit of

  8. Thermophysical properties of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  9. Argon in action

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few days, the SPS has been accelerating argon ions, which have started to be sent to the NA61/SHINE experiment. This operating mode, using a new type of ion, required a number of modifications to the accelerator.   Picture 1: a “super-cycle” of the SPS, featuring a proton cycle for the LHC, followed by an argon ion cycle for the North Area. Today, the accelerators are once again juggling particles and even performing completely new tricks. The SPS is supplying beams of argon ions for the first time, at energies never before achieved for this type of beam. They are destined for the NA61/SHINE experiment (see box) located in the North Area, which began receiving the beams on 11 February. Argon ions have a relatively large mass, as they consist of 40 nucleons, so they can be used in a similar way to lead ions. The main difficulty in accelerating them lies in the SPS, where the variation in acceleration frequency is limited. “The SPS was designed for a...

  10. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal

  11. Calorimétrie à argon liquide et recherche de nouvelle physique via l'étude de paires de quarks top boostés dans l'expérience ATLAS au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00438457; Trocmé, Benjamin; Delsart, Pierre Antoine

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a very predictive theory, but it still fails to explain some observations and so leads to the idea of the existence of new physics. To discover it experimentally, the ATLAS collaboration analyses the proton-proton collisions provided by the LHC. Analyses need data of good quality. Hence, the first part of this document describes a work to characterize the coherent noise bursts observed in the liquid argon calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment. Such noise has been studied and cured to ensure a high level of data quality. The second part of this thesis takes place in the context of a new physics search using top quark pairs. This study is focused on the case where boosted top quarks decay electronically. The reconstruction of top quarks in such cases was never optimized by the ATLAS collaboration. Therefore this study has lead to the definition and implementation of a new method called "electron-in-jet removal" improving significantly the top quark reconstruction in such...

  12. Steady state hydrogen, deuterium, helium and argon plasma interactions with a liquid metal: Ga67In20.5Sn12.5 convected by Lorentz force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi Hirooka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Steady state hydrogen, deuterium and helium plasma interactions with a liquid metal: Ga67In20.5Sn12.5 at termperatures between room temperature and ∼250°C have been investigated with JxB-forced convection, using a laboratory-scale facility: VEHICLE-1. Noticeably reduced recycling has been observed for all these gases, when JxB-forced convection is applied, under respevtive plasma bombardment. Preliminary fluid dynamics modeling has been done to interpret experimental observations. For hydrogenic species, a trend has been found, indicating temperature-dependent retention saturation levels. With thermal desorption spectrometry, the amount of deuterium retention after saturation at ∼250°C has been evaluated to be of the order of 1014D/cm3 whereas the retention of inert gases is found to be undetectable.

  13. Simulation of argon response and light detection in the DarkSide-50 dual phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2017-07-18

    A Geant4-based Monte Carlo package named G4DS has been developed to simulate the response of DarkSide-50, an experiment operating since 2013 at LNGS, designed to detect WIMP interactions in liquid argon. In the process of WIMP searches, DarkSide-50 has achieved two fundamental milestones: the rejection of electron recoil background with a power of ~10^7, using the pulse shape discrimination technique, and the measurement of the residual 39Ar contamination in underground argon, ~3 orders of magnitude lower with respect to atmospheric argon. These results rely on the accurate simulation of the detector response to the liquid argon scintillation, its ionization, and electron-ion recombination processes. This work provides a complete overview of the DarkSide Monte Carlo and of its performance, with a particular focus on PARIS, the custom-made liquid argon response model.

  14. Purification of Argon from a Diluted Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, D. [Princeton U.; Alton, A.; Back, H. O. [Fermilab; Davis, R. P. [Fermilab; Galbiati, C. [Princeton U.; Hardin, K. L. [Fermilab; Jaskierny, W. F. [Fermilab; Kendziora, C. L. [Fermilab; Loer, B. [Princeton U.; Miner, W. E. [Fermilab; Mosteiro, P. J. [Princeton U.; Pordes, S. H. [Fermilab; Subbarao, P. [Princeton U.

    2012-07-23

    We report on the design, performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon purification that has been constructed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The plant accepts a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen with low argon concentration and is designed to return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. During the commissioning, the distillation column in a continuous mode produced argon 99.9% pure. After running in batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The argon production rate was about 1 kg/day.

  15. [Argon laser trabeculoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, F

    1991-01-01

    There is currently a general consensus to perform argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) onto the 360 degrees of the trabecular ring to obtain the best long term results; but in two sessions a month apart with, during each session, 50 burns of a true 50 mu laser spot on 180 degrees, a 0.1 sec exposure time and a power high enough to create a tiny but visible trabecular reaction on the anterior edge of the posterior trabecular meshwork. During the first three hours after treatment, the main complication is raised intraocular pressure (IOP) which occurs in between 14% and 33% of the cases with a 10 mmHg rise above the initial IOP. In end stage glaucomas, a very close monitoring is mandatory during these first hours. Pretreatment with apraclonidine drops can dramatically reduce this complication. Our results and those of the literature with the same follow-up show that ALT seems effective in phakic chronic open-angle glaucomas (COAG) in half of the cases for about five years with a 10% new failure rate per year. The youngest patients, the aphakic patients and all the cases with trabecular severe disorganisation display the worst results. ALT must be considered to be a physical treatment - initially powerful but with decreasing efficacy in the long term. It should be used in presurgical glaucomas when IOP does not exceed 30 mmHg with intensive medical treatment and in intermediate stages of the disease where it is more effective.

  16. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  17. Simulation of argon response and light detection in the DarkSide-50 dual phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Filippis, G. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A. V.; Rosa, G. De; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Pietro, G. Di; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Agasson, A. Navrer; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Sablone, D.; Sands, W.; Sanfilippo, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    Geant4-based Monte Carlo package named G4DS has been developed to simulate the response of DarkSide-50, an experiment operating since 2013 at LNGS, designed to detect WIMP interactions in liquid argon. In the process of WIMP searches, DarkSide-50 has achieved two fundamental milestones: the rejection of electron recoil background with a power of ~10^7, using the pulse shape discrimination technique, and the measurement of the residual 39Ar contamination in underground argon, ~3 orders of magnitude lower with respect to atmospheric argon.

  18. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Xiao, Tang

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of La(C3H7CO2)3·xH2O (x≈0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5K/min. After the loss of bound H2O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135°C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180°C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate...

  19. Iron liquid-argon and uranium liquid-argon calorimeters for hadron energy measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lankford, A J; Rehak, P; Struczinski, W; Willis, W J

    1977-01-01

    The authors studied, with a specially designed hadron calorimeter, the contributions of different mechanisms affecting the energy resolution of such instruments. It is shown that in ordinary materials the resolution is dominated by 'nuclear fluctuations'. Measurements with a uranium calorimeter show that these fluctuations can be effectively compensated by the amplifying effect of nuclear fission in uranium. The resolution at low energies is good ( sigma =9.6% for 10 GeV/c pions) and improving with energy. (12 refs).

  20. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  1. Nitrogen and argon doped zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C; Costa, A R G; Cruz, M M; Borges, R P; Godinho, M [Centro de Fisica da Materia Condensada da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Da Silva, R C; Alves, L C [Laboratorio de Feixe de Ioes, Departamento Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    In this work argon and nitrogen were implanted into ZnO single crystals in order to compare the influence of these non-magnetic elements in the magnetic and electrical behaviour of zinc oxide. The results indicate that both nitrogen and argon implantations induce magnetic defects in ZnO, although these do not remain stable upon annealing. The comparison between the electrical behaviour of argon and nitrogen implanted crystals indicates that mobile charge carriers exist in the argon implanted sample after annealing, but were not detected in the nitrogen implanted sample.

  2. Dynamics of imploding argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Richardson, R.; Brannon, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Katzenstein, J.

    1982-01-01

    The BLACKJACK 5 pulse generator has been used to implode annular argon plasmas to form dense Z pinches. Visible streak photography, framing photography, and laser shadowgraphy were used to observe the radial position and velocity of the plasmas as they imploded. The measured position and velocity of the imploding plasmas have been compared with the results of calculations based on a one-dimensional snowplow model. Good agreement is obtained between the snowplow calculations and the optical measurements. Empirically determined optimum implosion parameters are also found to agree with those predicted by the model

  3. Continuum radiation of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Yachkov, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple completely analytical method of the calculation of radiative continuum of plasmas is derived and an analysis of experimental data on continuum radiation of argon plasma is made. The method is based on the semiclassical quantum defect theory. To calculate radial matrix elements of dipole transitions the asymptotic expansion in powers of E c /ω 2/3 , with an accuracy to the linear term, where E, is the arithmetic mean of the initial and final energies of the transition, is used. This expansion has the same form for free-free, free-bound and bound-bound transitions. If the quantum defects are also approximated by a linear function of energy, the integration over the electron energy (the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is assumed) can be performed in analytical form. For Rydberg states the sum of photoionization continua can be replaced by an integral. We have calculated the absorption coefficient pf argon plasma. The photoionization cross section is calculated for all the states of 4s, 5s, 6s, 4p, 5p, 3d, 4d, 4s', 5s', 6s', 4p', 5p', 3d' and 4d' configurations taking into account P-coupling and multiplet splitting (56 states). Other excited states are allowed for by the integral formula together with free-free transitions

  4. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  5. Vascular anastomosis by Argon Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, O.M.; Macruz, R.; Armelin, E.; Brum, J.M.G.; Ribeiro, M.P.; Mnitentog, J.; Verginelli, G.; Pileggi, F.; Zerbini, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four mongrel dogs, wheighing 13 to 24 kilograms were studied. After anesthesia, intubation and controlled ventilation, they were submitted to three types of vascular anastomosis: Group I - eight dogs with saphenous vein inter-carotid arteries by-pass: Group II - eight dogs with left mammary artery - left anterior descending coronary artery by-pass; Group III - eight dogs with venovenous anastomosis. In all groups 0.8 to 15 watts of Argon Laser power was applied to a total time of 90 to 300 seconds. The lower power for venovenous anastomosis and the greater for the arterial ones. The mean valves of resistence of the Laser anastomosis to pressure induced rupture was 730 mmHg in the immediate post operative study, and superior to 2.500 mmHg 30 days after. No signs of occlusion was demonstrated at the anastomosis sites by the angiographic and anathomo-patological study performed. (Author) [pt

  6. Separation of seven arsenic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line detection by hydrogen–argon flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S. H.; Larsen, E. H.; Pritzl, G.

    1992-01-01

    Seven molecular forms of arsenic were separated by anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The interfacing was established by a vented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) capillary tubing connecting the ...

  7. Self-selection in size and structure in argon clusters formed on amorphous carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; van de Waal, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Argon clusters formed on an amorphous carbon substrate as deposited from the vapor phase were studied by means of transmission high energy electron diffraction using the liquid helium cryostat. Electron diffractograms were analysed on the basis of assumption that there exist a cluster size

  8. Structures of mixed argon-nitrogen clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Serdaroglu, Ertugrul; Flesch, Roman; Rühl, Eckart; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2012-12-07

    The structures of mixed argon-nitrogen clusters of different compositions are investigated by analyzing core level shifts and relative intensities of surface and bulk sites in the Ar 2p(3/2) regime in soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These structures are confirmed by core level shift calculations taking induced dipole interactions into account, in which several model structures of the mixed clusters are considered by Monte Carlo simulations. These results suggest that the mixed argon-nitrogen clusters show partial core-shell structures, where an argon core is partially covered by nitrogen molecules.

  9. Performance du calorimètre à argon liquide et recherche du boson de Higgs dans son canal de désintégration $H\\to ZZ^{(*)} \\to 4\\ell$ avec l'expérience ATLAS auprès du LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Tiouchichine, Elodie

    The work presented in this thesis within the ATLAS collaboration was performed in the context of the discovery of a new particle at the LHC in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. My contribution to the Higgs boson search is focused in the $H \\to ZZ^* \\to 4 \\ell$ channel at different level, from the data taking to the physics analysis. After a theoretical introduction, the LHC and the ATLAS detector are presented as well as their performance during the 2011 and 2012 runs. A particular consideration is given to the liquid argon calorimeters and to the data quality assessment of this system. The validation of the data recorded during non-nominal high voltage conditions is presented. This study allowed to recover 2\\% of the data collected available for physics analyses. This has a direct impact on the $H \\to ZZ^* \\to 4 \\ell$ channel were the number of signal events expected is very low. In order to optimize the acceptance of the four electrons decay channel, novel electron reconstruction algorithms wer...

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF A DC POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER COMPATIBILIDAD ELECTROMAGNÉTICA EN EL SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE CORRIENTE CONTINUA PARA EL CALORÍMETRO DE ARGÓN LÍQUIDO EN ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Blanchot

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is powered by DC/DC converters nearby the front-end crates. They are fed by AC/DC converters located in a remote control room through long power cables. The stability of the power distribution scheme is compromised by the impedance of the long interconnection cable, and proper matching of the converters dynamic impedances is required. Also, the long power cable fed by a powerful AC/DC converter is a source of electromagnetic interferences in the experimental area. The optimal grounding and shielding configuration to minimize these EMI is discussed.El Calorímetro de Argón Líquido en ATLAS es alimentado por convertidores DC/DC localizados cerca de sus compartimientos. Ellos son alimentados por convertidores AC/DC localizados en una sala de control lejana conectados mediante cables largos de poder. La estabilidad del sistema de distribución es sensible a la impedancia del cable largo de interconexión y son requeridos los convertidores apropiados para estabilizar la dinámica de la impedancia. También, el cable largo alimentado por el convertidor AC/DC es una fuente de interferencia electromagnética en el área experimental. En este trabajo se analiza La óptima configuración de aterrizamiento y blindaje para minimizar los efectos de EMI.

  11. Negative corona current pulses in argon and in mixture argon with SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoranova, A.; Zahoran, M.; Bucek, A.; Cernak, M.; Bosko, J.

    2004-01-01

    Waveforms of the first negative current pulses in a short negative point-to plane gap in pure argon and argon with SF 6 admixture have been investigated with a nanosecond time resolution at a gas pressure 50 kPa as a function of applied gap voltage and content of SF 6 in the mixture. We have made an attempt to explain the differences in the discharge development in pure argon and in argon with admixture of SF 6 based on the observed changes of the pulse shape. The experimental results obtained will be discussed in context with existing computer simulation models (Authors)

  12. Argon gas atoms trapping by carbon dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilaev, M. P.; Bogoslov, E. A.; Polskii, Y. E.

    2017-11-01

    The conditions of argon gas atoms trapping by carbon dendrites, which growing in atmospheric pressure gas-discharge plasma, are considered in that paper. It’s showing that the argons atoms trapping by the carbon diamond-like cell can occur in arc gas discharge with current density more than j 0 ∼ 45 mA/sm2 and provided that the eximer molecules of noble gas and carbon atoms (e.g., ArC) can be formed.

  13. Argon Collection And Purification For Proliferation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achey, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    In order to determine whether a seismic event was a declared/undeclared underground nuclear weapon test, environmental samples must be taken and analyzed for signatures that are unique to a nuclear explosion. These signatures are either particles or gases. Particle samples are routinely taken and analyzed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) verification regime as well as by individual countries. Gas samples are analyzed for signature gases, especially radioactive xenon. Underground nuclear tests also produce radioactive argon, but that signature is not well monitored. A radioactive argon signature, along with other signatures, can more conclusively determine whether an event was a nuclear test. This project has developed capabilities for collecting and purifying argon samples for ultra-low-background proportional counting. SRNL has developed a continuous gas enrichment system that produces an output stream containing 97% argon from whole air using adsorbent separation technology (the flow diagram for the system is shown in the figure). The vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) enrichment system is easily scalable to produce ten liters or more of 97% argon within twelve hours. A gas chromatographic separation using a column of modified hydrogen mordenite molecular sieve has been developed that can further purify the sample to better than 99% purity after separation from the helium carrier gas. The combination of these concentration and purification systems has the capability of being used for a field-deployable system for collecting argon samples suitable for ultra-low-background proportional counting for detecting nuclear detonations under the On-Site Inspection program of the CTBTO verification regime. The technology also has applications for the bulk argon separation from air for industrial purposes such as the semi-conductor industry.

  14. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, P.

    1967-01-01

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 10 13 neutrons/cm 2 sec -1 and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author) [fr

  15. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  16. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  17. Argon bubble behavior in slide-gate tundish nozzles during continuous casting of steel slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua

    2000-10-01

    Argon injection into a tundish nozzle is an efficient and widely employed method to reduce nozzle clogging in the continuous casting process. It also affects casting operation and product quality by changing the flow pattern in the nozzle and mold. The current work combines mathematical modeling and experiments to investigate the argon bubble behavior in slide-gate nozzles and to analyze phenomena related to product defects and operational problems during the continuous casting of steel slabs. Water model experiments are performed to study bubble formation behavior, including bubble size, frequency, mode and effects of variables such as liquid velocity, gas injection flow rate, gas injection hole size and gas density. An analytical model is developed to predict the average bubble size. Argon gas bubbles are predicted to be 1--5mm. This is larger than air bubbles in water, especially at low speed. A three-dimensional finite difference model is developed to study the turbulent flow of liquid steel and argon bubble in the slide-gate nozzles. Experiments are performed on a 0.4-scale "water caster" to verify the model by comparing the model prediction with the measurements using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technology. A weighted average scheme for the overall outflow is developed to quantify jet characteristics such as jet angle, jet speed, back flow zone fraction, turbulence and biased mass flow. Swirl is generated at nozzle ports. The validated model is employed to perform extensive parametric studies to investigate the effects of casting operation conditions such as gas injection, slide-gate orientation, casting speed, gate opening and bubble size and nozzle port design including port angle and port shape. The interrelated effects of nozzle clogging, argon injection, tundish bath depth, slide gate opening and nozzle bore diameter on the flow rate and pressure in tundish nozzles are quantified using an inverse model, based on interpolation of the numerical

  18. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Two-photon excitation of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, P.S.; Payne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors calculate two photon excitation parameters for various excited states of argon assuming the absorption of near resonance broad-bandwidth laser radiation. Results are given for the case of two photons absorbed for the same laser beam as well as the case of absorbing photons of different frequency from each of two laser beams. The authors use multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock wave functions to evaluate the second-order sums over matrix elements. Various experimental laser schemes are suggested for the efficient excitation and subsequent ionization of argon

  20. Argon isotopes as recorders of magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P. W.; Gardner, J. E.; Mora Chaparro, J. C.; Arce, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Argon isotopic ratios vary enough between different reservoirs (atmosphere, crust, mantle) and diffuse fast enough through most minerals at magmatic temperatures (700-1200 C) to make them ideal for looking at magma chamber dynamics. Indeed, diffusion is sufficiently fast to allow short time scales to be deciphered, setting argon apart from many other isotopic methods. A mineral's ability to retain "excess" argon (40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric value and apparent ages older than the known eruption age) during post-eruption cooling is key to Ar studies. Previous work shows that both phenocrysts (crystallizing in the magma chamber; e.g. Mt St. Helens; Layer and Gardner, 2001) and xenocrysts (introduced into the magma chamber; e.g Toba; Gardner et al., 2002) preserve excess argon, which enables magma chamber processes to be deciphered through the variable diffusion rates between crystal phases. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar step-heating of biotite from the 10.5 ka eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico indicates that they are xenocrystic and resided for only a short (< 1 year) time in the magma before it erupted. The biotite has reaction rims of hornblende, orthopyroxene and plagioclase, and failed to grow experimentally at pressure-temperature conditions of the magma, confirming the xenocrystic nature of this phase. Single-step fusion of plagioclase phenocrysts from eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico, shows evidence of excess (mantle) argon, whereas hornblende from the same eruptions contains little or none. In this case, faster diffusion of Ar in plagioclase than in hornblende allow plagioclase to incorporate excess argon during magma recharge; hornblende does not. Combining such results with other isotopic systems may in fact better determine magma chamber processes. At El Chichon, Sr isotopes suggest magma recharges ocurred (Tepley et al., 2000), whereas the argon isotopes suggest such pulses occurred just before each eruption. The fast and

  1. Silicon compounds of neon and argon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    -, č. 46 (2009), s. 8788-8790 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Grant - others:ERC(XE) Adg HORIZOMS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : argon * bond formation * dications * neon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.829, year: 2009

  2. On the primoridal abundance of argon-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, F.; Weber, H.W.; Hintenberger, H.

    1976-01-01

    Argon trapped in graphite-diamond-kamacite inclusions from the Havero ureilite has a 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of (1.4 +- 0.6) x 10 -3 , which is close to the estimated primordial abundance ratio of 2 x 10 -4 . Some implications are discussed

  3. Experience with argon laser trabeculoplasty in Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Aim: To report the safety and efficacy of Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) in reducing intraocular pressure. (IOP). Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study performed on 25 eyes of 25 patients. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria for ALT were recruited from the.

  4. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime.

  5. A new argon gas-based device for the treatment of keloid scars with the use of intralesional cryotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.C.E.; Bulstra, A.E.J.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Niessen, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a new promising technique for the treatment of keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Multiple devices are available, mostly based on a simple liquid nitrogen Dewar system, which have a limited freezing capacity. Argon gas-based systems

  6. Readiness of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter for LHC collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Bazalová, Magdalena; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Jahoda, M.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kus, V.; Kvasnička, J.; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Popule, Jiří; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Sluka, T.; Staroba, Pavel; Šťastný, Jan; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Valenta, Jan; Vrba, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2010), s. 723-753 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * commissioning * LAr Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/pdf/0912.2642

  7. PHASE-II PLANS FOR ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER UPGRADES.

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, RS; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at luminosities of up to 5x1034cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. This program is known as the high-luminosity LHC, or HLLHC. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed, and it is anticipated that several problems will arise. In this article we discuss problems and proposed solutions, concentrating on the forward calorimeter technologies proposed, and possible changes in the electronics for the hadronic endcap calorimeters

  8. Phase-II Plans for ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, RS; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at luminosities of up to 5x1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. This program is known as the high-luminosity LHC, or HL-LHC. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed, and it is anticipated that several problems will arise. In this talk we will discuss problems and proposed solutions, concentrating on the forward calorimeter technologies proposed, and possible changes in the electronics for the hadronic endcap calorimters.

  9. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  10. Abnormal epidermal changes after argon laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R.A.; Knobler, R.M.; Aberer, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Ott, E. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1991-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a congenital port-wine stain on the forehead was treated three times at 2-month intervals with an argon laser. Six months after the last treatment, moderate blanching and mild scaling confined to the treated area was observed. A biopsy specimen of the treated area revealed a significant decrease in ectatic vessels. However, epidermal changes similar to those of actinic keratosis with disorganized cell layers and marked cytologic abnormalities were seen. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes for a defect in DNA repair was negative. Multiple, argon laser-induced photothermal effects may be responsible for the changes observed in our case and may lead to premalignant epidermal transformation.

  11. On the OES line-ratio technique in argon and argon-containing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepa, Sarah; Tsankov, Tsanko V; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Danko, Stephan; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate capacitively coupled argon and argon–hydrogen–silane plasmas. The argon collisional–radiative model (CRM) used to extract the electron density and temperature from the spectra is presented. The electron energy distribution function, which is an input parameter to the model, is discussed in detail. Its strong variation with pressure is found to significantly influence the results for the (effective) temperature. For the analysis of the spectra the common line-ratio technique is applied. Special attention is paid to the choice of lines and a pair of line-ratios for optimum accuracy is suggested. For the argon gas mixture at high partial pressure of the admixed molecular gases the CRM reduces to a corona-like model, extended by a quenching term. The line-ratio method is found to fail under these conditions due to the strong depopulation of the argon 1s states. As a consequence, individual line intensities have to be used and an absolute calibration is required. An easy calibration method, which relies on the results obtained by the line-ratio method in pure argon, is proposed and applied. (paper)

  12. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, K.F.; Roellig, L.O.

    1975-01-01

    Lifetime measurements of slow-positron and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation were made in argon and neon gases at room temperature and below. The argon experiments cover the temperature range 115 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.0356 to 0.0726 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 20 to 40 amagat). The slow-positron spectra in argon exhibit a departure from free-positron annihilation below 200 0 K. The departure becomes more marked as the temperature is lowered. No deviation from free o-Ps pickoff annihilation is observed in argon at low temperatures. The neon measurements cover the temperature range 30 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.032 to 0.89 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 35 to 980 amagat). No effect of temperature on the slow-positron spectra throughout the temperature and density ranges investigated in neon is observed. The spectra are very exponential with a corresponding decay rate which is temperature as well as time independent and is directly proportional to density over the ranges investigated. The o-Ps data are more eventful in that the o-Ps lifetime at near-liquid densities is approximately 20 nsec, a factor of nearly 4 greater than the value obtained using the pickoff-annihilation coefficient obtained at lower densities. This is evidence for positronium-induced cavities in low-temperature neon. A brief discussion of the argon and neon results is given in the context of the explanations offered for the low-temperature effects observed in helium gas

  13. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  14. Liquid Dynamics from Neutron Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockhouse, B.N.; Bergsma, J.; Dasannacharya, B.A.; Pope, N.K.

    1963-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out at Chalk river on the dynamics of liquids using neutron inelastic scattering are reviewed, including one by Sakamoto et al, in which theh Van Hove self-correlation functions in water at 25 o C and 7 5o C were determined, and another in which the correlation functions in liquid argon near its triple point were studied. The possible occurrence of short wavelength phonons in classical liquids is discussed, in analogy with their existence in the quantum liquid He 4 , and in connection with incomplete experiments on liquid tin. (author) [fr

  15. Liquid Dynamics from Neutron Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Bergsma, J.; Dasannacharya, B. A.; Pope, N. K.

    1962-10-01

    Recent experiments carried out at Chalk River on the dynamics of liquids using neutron inelastic scattering are reviewed, including one by Sakamoto et al., in which the Van Hove self-correlation functions in water at 25 and 75 deg C were determined, and another in which the correlation functions in liquid argon near its triple point were studied. The possible occurrence of short wavelength phonons in classical liquids is discussed, in analogy with their existence in the quantum liquid He4, and in connection with incomplete experiments on liquid tin. (auth)

  16. Development of a low-cost inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripson, P.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to drastically reduce running costs of an inductively coupled plasma. This is done by reducing the argon consumption from 20 l/min to about 1 l/min. First, a sample introduction system operating on 0.1 l/min of carrier argon is described. This system ensures a high ratio of plasma argon and carrier argon even at the low total argon consumptions intended. Next, the developed low consumption plasma is presented. In the proposed design, air is blown perpendicularly against the outside of the torch. A different coil has been developed to make air-cooling efficient. Preliminary data on coupling efficiency for the air-cooled plasma are presented. A similarly low argon consumption has been achieved with water as an external coolant medium. It is concluded that a cheaper alternative to the current ICP has become available. (Auth.)

  17. [Argon--a biologically active component of atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, N B

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the literary and author's own data denies physiological effects of argon in normobaric normoxic atmosphere that could impact human performance, and embryogenesis of lower vertebrates. In hypoxic atmosphere, argon keeps up the normal oxygen consumption by human and rodent organisms, augments the working ability of humans, and exacerbates the hypoxia-driven depression of lower vertebrates embryogenesis. Potential anti-hypoxia benefits from argon introduction into artificial atmosphere are considered.

  18. Comparison between a radio-frequency and direct current glow discharge in argon by a hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model for electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.; W. Goedheer,

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model has been developed for the electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms in an argon glow discharge, either operated in the de mode or the capacitively coupled rf mode. Typical working conditions for rf GD-OES are considered, i.e. approximately 6 torr argon gas pressure

  19. Study of argon-oxygen flowing afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Navrátil, Z.; Raud, J.; Krčma, F.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction kinetics in argon-oxygen flowing afterglow (post-discharge) was studied using NO titration and optical emission spectroscopy. The flowing DC post-discharge in argon-oxygen mixture was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 90 W. The O(3P) atom concentration was determined by NO titration at different places along the flow tube. The optical emission spectra were also measured along the flow tube. Argon spectral lines, oxygen lines at 777 nm and 844.6 nm and atmospheric A-band of {{\\text{O}}2} were identified in the spectra. Rotational temperature of {{\\text{O}}2} was determined from the oxygen atmospheric A-band and also the outer wall temperature of the flow tube was measured by a thermocouple and by an IR thermometer. A zero-dimensional kinetic model for the reactions in the afterglow was developed. This model allows the time dependencies of particle concentrations and of gas temperature to be calculated. The wall recombination probability for O(3P) atoms {γ\\text{O≤ft(\\text{P}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.63+/- 0.06\\right)× {{10}-3} and wall deactivation probability for {{\\text{O}}2} (b {{}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) molecules {γ{{\\text{O}2}≤ft(\\text{b}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.7+/- 0.1\\right)× {{10}-3} were determined from the fit of model results to experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to reveal the most important reactions in the model. The calculated gas temperature increases in the afterglow and then decreases at later afterglow times after reaching the maximum. This behavior is in good agreement with the spatial rotational temperature dependence. A similar trend was also observed at outer wall temperature measurement.

  20. Argon laser treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting- Bing Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of the argon laser photocoagulation treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy(CSC. METHODS: The treatment groups: 18 patients(18 eyes, argon laser photocoagulation and oral jolethin, vitamin B1, inosine and venoruton tablets. Control group: 18 patients(18 eyes, oral lecithin complex iodine, vitamin B1, inosine, venoruton tablets. Foveal thickness and neuroepithelial layer detachment range were measured by optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore treatment, after 1 month and 3 months post-operation to compare the decline in value of foveal thickness and neuroepithelial layer detachment range of the two groups. RESULTS: After 1 month of treatment, the decline in value of the center foveal thickness: the value of treatment group was 256±72μm; the value of the control group was 82±57μm, and the difference of the two groups, P <0.05; the decline in value of neuroepithelial layer detachment range: the value of the treatment group was 3 548±168μm, the value of the control group was 1 520±143μm, And the difference of the two groups, P<0.05. After three months of treatment, the decline in value of the center foveal thickness: the value of treatment group was 383±75μm, the value of the control group was 312±67 μm, and the difference of the two groups, P<0.05; decline in value of neuroepithelial layer detachment range: the value of the treatment group was 4 908±172μm, the value of the control group was 4 211±153μm, and the difference of the two groups, P <0.05. The differences were statistically significant between the treatment and the control groups(two independent samples t-test. CONCLUSION:Argon laser photocoagulation treatment of CSC is an effective treatment method and can significantly shorten the course.

  1. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... The residual beam was focussed by a spherical silver mirror. (f = 60 mm) inside a vacuum chamber (2 × 10−11 mbar) onto a supersonic argon jet. The cold target argon gas beam density in the interaction region was estimated to be ∼108 particles/cm3. The reaction volume along the pulse propagation was ...

  2. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) in argon generated in parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge ... Keywords. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge; argon glow discharge; electron density; hydrophobicity. PACS No. ... alcohol for 10 min and then dried in air. The effect of the treatment time on the ...

  3. Fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.; Womersley, J.; Hansen, S.; Hurh, P.; Rivetta, C.; Sanders, R.; Schmitt, R.; Stanek, R.; Stefanik, A.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for the fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon as active medium and the preliminary results from the solid argon test cell are presented. The proposed test calorimeter module structure, the signal routing and the mechanical and cryogenic arrangements are also discussed

  4. Stopping Power of Solid Argon for Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Grauersen, O.

    1981-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford-backscattering method, the stopping cross section of solid argon has been measured for 0.5–3 MeV helium ions to an accuracy of not, vert, similar3%. The results agree within the experimental accuracies with our earlier measurements for gaseous argon over the energy region...

  5. CAPTAIN-Minerνa. Neutrino-Argon Scattering in a Medium-Energy Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab is currently providing an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the NOνA, MINERνA and MINOS+ experiments. By installing the 5-ton CAPTAIN liquid argon TPC in front of the MINERνA detector in the NuMI beamline and combining the data from the CAPTAIN, MINERνA and MINOS+ detectors, a broad program of few-GeV neutrino cross section measurements on argon can be pursued. These measurements will be extremely helpful for future oscillation experiments. By directly comparing the cross sections on argon to MINERνA’s scintillator (CH) target, a new level of precision can be achieved in the measurements of the effects of the nucleus on neutrino interactions. These effects are of interest to not only the particle physics but also the nuclear physics community. This document describes in detail the physics goals of the CAPTAIN-MINERνA experiment, in addition to a first estimate of the technical resources required to install, commission and operate the CAPTAIN detector in front of the MINERVA detector.

  6. Cleaning of diffusion bonding surface by argon ion bombardment treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airu; Ohashi, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Norio; Aoki, Masanori; Higashi, Yasuo; Hitomi, Nobuteru

    2003-05-01

    The specimens of oxygen-free high conductivity copper, SUS304L stainless steel and pure iron were treated by argon ion bombardment and then were bonded by diffusion bonding method. The effects of argon ion bombardment treatment on faying surface morphology, tensile strength of bonding joints and inclusions at the fracture surface were investigated. The results showed that argon ion bombardment treatment was effective to remove the oxide film and contamination at the faying surface and improve the quality of joints. The tensile strength of the bonded joints was improved, and minimum bonding temperature to make the metallic bonding at the interface was lowered by argon ion bombardment treatment. At the joints with argon ion bombardment treatment, ductile fractured surface was seen and the amount of inclusions was obviously decreased.

  7. Photoassociative spectroscopy of ultracold metastable argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, M. K.; Ranjit, G.; Sukenik, C. I.; Walhout, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of photoassociative spectroscopy performed on ultracold metastable argon atoms in a magneto-optical trap. Ion spectra are obtained with laser detuning up to a few gigahertz below the 4s[3/2] 2 →4p[5/2] 3 trapping transition at 811 nm and with intensities in a range of ∼(10 2 -10 5 )I Sat . We also compute dipole-dipole potentials for both singly and doubly excited diatomic molecules and use a Leroy-Bernstein analysis to determine the approximate vibrational spacings in the (s+p) and (p+p) manifolds. Based on this theoretical framework, we explain a broad background feature in our data and suggest that double-excitation mechanisms are likely responsible for sharp dips in the ion signal.

  8. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    degrees C and evidence was found for the solidification of the melt at 380-440 degrees C, i.e. simultaneously with the onset of decomposition. Between 400 degrees C and 520 degrees C (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2) decomposes in two main steps, first into BaCO3 with release of C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone), whereas final......The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  9. Formation of argon-boron bonds in the reactions of BFn+/2+ cations with neutral argon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levee, L.; Calogero, C.; Barbieri, E.; Byrne, S.; Donahue, C.; Eisenberg, M.; Hattenbach, S.; Le, J.; Capitani, J. F.; Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 323, 1 Jun (2012), s. 2-7 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) AdG HORIZOMS Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : argon compound * boron fluoride * dication * gas phase reactivity * mass spectrometry * neon compound Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2012

  10. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J; Odic, Emmanuel; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O; DuBow, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H 2 O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ∼5.5 and ∼5 log 10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 10 6 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H 2 O 2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C; the contribution of heating, along with that of H 2 O 2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions. (paper)

  11. Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made

  12. Recurrence Spectroscopy of Autoionizing Rydberg Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Walker, P. A.; Gurian, J. H.; van Lier-Walqui, M.; Lambert, J. M.; Flores-Rueda, H.; Morgan, T. J.

    2004-05-01

    We have extended scaled energy spectroscopy of meta-stable argon to measure Rydberg states above the first ionization limit. Prior measurements [1] showed a principal Rydberg series converging to the ground state of the Ar+ ion. The spectra also showed strong perturbing resonances of the Rydberg electron orbiting an excited ion core. New experiments show that single uv-photon excitation of the meta-stable state can produce strong transitions to doubly excited states above the first ionization limit. In this auto-ionizing regime the electron escapes leaving behind an excited ion core. The excitation creates an electron-hole pair which interacts with the rest of the atom. This three body system provides an opportunity to test extensions of closed orbit theory [2,3] and experimentally probe the classical dynamics using recurrence spectroscopy. Work supported by National Science Foundation. [1] M.L. Keeler, J.D. Wright, H. Flores-Rueda, and T.J. Morgan, J. Phys. B (to be published) [2] B.E. Granger and C.H. Green, PRA 62, 12511 (2000) [3] W. Huang and T.J. Morgan, PRA 65 033409 (2002)

  13. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivel, J.-C., E-mail: jean@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zhao, Y.; Tang, X.; Pallewatta, P.G.P.A. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Watenphul, A.; Zimmermann, M. von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • The dehydration of La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O takes place between 50 °C and 120 °C. • La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} melts at 180 °C. • The decomposition of La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} to La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} involves a meta-butyrate intermediate. • CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COC{sub 3}H{sub 7} (4-heptanone) are released between 250 °C and 350 °C. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed as a final decomposition product. - Abstract: The thermal decomposition of La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O (x ≈ 0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5 K/min. After the loss of bound H{sub 2}O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135 °C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180 °C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate is associated to a solidification process. The final decomposition to La{sub 2}O{sub 3} takes place via two intermediate products: La{sub 2}O(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 4} and La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with release of CO{sub 2} and the symmetrical ketone C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COC{sub 3}H{sub 7}.

  14. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  15. Analysis of nanoscale two-phase flow of argon using molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur - 208016 (India)

    2014-12-09

    Two phase flows through micro and nanochannels have attracted a lot of attention because of their immense applicability to many advanced fields such as MEMS/NEMS, electronic cooling, bioengineering etc. In this work, a molecular dynamics simulation method is employed to study the condensation process of superheated argon vapor force driven flow through a nanochannel combining fluid flow and heat transfer. A simple and effective particle insertion method is proposed to model phase change of argon based on non-periodic boundary conditions in the simulation domain. Starting from a crystalline solid wall of channel, the condensation process evolves from a transient unsteady state where we study the influence of different wall temperatures and fluid wall interactions on interfacial and heat transport properties of two phase flows. Subsequently, we analyzed transient temperature, density and velocity fields across the channel and their dependency on varying wall temperature and fluid wall interaction, after a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in phase transition. Quasi-steady nonequilibrium temperature profile, heat flux and interfacial thermal resistance were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the molecular dynamics method, with the proposed particle insertion method, effectively solves unsteady nonequilibrium two phase flows at nanoscale resolutions whose interphase between liquid and vapor phase is typically of the order of a few molecular diameters.

  16. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascard, R.; Fabre, R.

    1958-01-01

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author) [fr

  17. Aging tests of ethylene contaminated argon/ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bauer, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report on aging tests of argon/ethane gas with a minor (1800 ppM) component of ethylene. The measurements were first conducted with the addition of alcohol to test the suppression of aging by this additive, with exposure up to ∼1.5 C/cm. Tests have included: a proportional tube with ethanol, another with isopropyl alcohol, and for comparison a tube has also been run with ethanol and argon/ethane from CDF's old (ethylene-free) ethane supply. The aging test with ethanol showed no difference between the ethylene-free and the ethylene tube. Furthermore, raw aging rates of argon/ethane and argon/ethane/ethylene were measured by exposing tubes without the addition of alcohol to about 0.1 C/cm. Again, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, we see no evidence that ethylene contamination up to 1800 ppM has any adverse effect on wire aging. However, this level of ethylene does seem to significantly suppress the gas gain

  18. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon. V Sharma N Camus B Fischer M Kremer A Rudenko B Bergues M Kuebel N G Johnson M F Kling T Pfeifer J Ullrich R Moshammer. Invited Talks Volume 82 Issue 1 January 2014 ...

  19. Thermal decomposition of Yttrium(III) isovalerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of yttrium(III) isovalerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, FTIR-spectroscopy, hot-stage optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction with a laboratory Cu-tube source as well as with a synchrotron radiation source...

  20. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suarez Guevara, Maria Josefina; Attique, Fahmida

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate (Y(C5H11CO2)3)·xH2O in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction at a laboratory Cu-tube source and in-situ experiments at a synchrotron radiation source as well as hot...

  1. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to optimise the geometry, explosive charge mass and volume of an argon bomb for specific lighting requirements has been proposed. The method is specifically aimed at applications that require photographic diagnostics with ultra-high speed...

  2. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 80, No. 3. — journal of. March 2013 physics pp. 507–517. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by dielectric barrier discharge .... note that the change in current waveform is also due to the change in capacitance of the ... By taking the ratio of R1 and R2 we then obtain the expression: R1. R2.

  3. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) in argon generated in parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge system is investigated by means of electrical and optical measurements. Using a high voltage (0–20 kV) power supply operating at 10–30 kHz, homogeneous and steady APGD has been observed ...

  4. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  5. 21 CFR 868.1075 - Argon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon gas analyzer. 868.1075 Section 868.1075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  6. Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...

  7. Behavior of Excited Argon Atoms in Inductively Driven Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hebner, G A

    1999-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the two lowest energy argon excited states, 1s sub 5 and 1s sub 4 , in inductively driven plasmas containing argon, chlorine and boron trichloride. The behavior of the two energy levels with plasma conditions was significantly different, probably because the 1s sub 5 level is metastable and the 1s sub 4 level is radiatively coupled to the ground state but is radiation trapped. The argon data is compared with a global model to identify the relative importance of processes such as electron collisional mixing and radiation trapping. The trends in the data suggest that both processes play a major role in determining the excited state density. At lower rfpower and pressure, excited state spatial distributions in pure argon were peaked in the center of the discharge, with an approximately Gaussian profile. However, for the highest rfpowers and pressures investigated, the spatial distributions tended to flatten in the center of the disch...

  8. The second Born approximation of electron–argon elastic scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the elastic scattering of atomic argon by electron in the presence of a bichromatic laser field in the second Born approximation. The target atom is approximated by a simple screening potential and the continuum states of the impinging and emitting electrons are described as Volkov states. We evaluate the S-matrix ...

  9. The second Born approximation of electron–argon elastic scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the elastic scattering of atomic argon by electron in the presence of a bichro- matic laser field in the second Born approximation. The target atom is approximated by a simple screening potential and the continuum states of the impinging and emitting electrons are described as Volkov states. We evaluate ...

  10. Dissociative Ionization of Argon Dimer by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Xie, Xiguo; Yuan, Zongqiang; Zhong, Xunqi; Liu, Yunquan; Gong, Qihuang; Wu, Chengyin

    2017-05-25

    We experimentally and theoretically studied dissociative ionization of argon dimer driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses. In the experiment, we measured the ion yield and the angular distribution of fragmental ions generated from the dissociative ionization channels of (1,1) (Ar 2 2+ → Ar + + Ar + ) and (2,1) (Ar 2 3+ → Ar 2+ + Ar + ) using a cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The channel ratio of (2,1)/(1,1) is 4.5-7.5 times of the yield ratio of double ionization to single ionization of argon monomer depending on the laser intensity. The measurement verified that the ionization of Ar + is greatly enhanced if there exists a neighboring Ar + separated by a critical distance. In addition, the fragmental ions exhibit an anisotropic angular distribution with the peak along the laser polarization direction and the full width at half maximum becomes broader with increasing laser intensity. Using a full three-dimensional classical ensemble model, we calculated the angle-dependent multiple ionization probability of argon dimer in intense laser fields. The results show that the experimentally observed anisotropic angular distribution of fragmental ions can be attributed to the angle-dependent enhanced ionization of the argon dimer in intense laser fields.

  11. Experience with argon laser trabeculoplasty in Nigerians | Olawoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To report the safety and efficacy of Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study performed on 25 eyes of 25 patients. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria for ALT were recruited from the ophthalmic ...

  12. Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 565–573. Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to strong low-frequency elliptical laser field. TATJANA B MILADINOVI ´C and VIOLETA M ... There are two laser field polarizations, linear and circular, as ... is the electron momentum [1], expressed using the field strength F and the parabolic.

  13. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... physics pp. 79–85. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon. V SHARMA1,∗. , N CAMUS2, B FISCHER2, M KREMER2, ... Furthermore, a meaningful recipe for experimentally tracing the time of two elec- trons in .... tions we define the ionization time difference between the two electrons.

  14. Optical emission spectroscopy of argon and hydrogen-containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepa, Sarah; Danko, Stephan; Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) on neutral argon is applied to investigate argon, hydrogen and hydrogen-silane plasmas. The spectra are analyzed using an extensive collisional-radiative model (CRM), from which the electron density and the electron temperature (or mean energy) can be calculated. The CRM also yields insight into the importance of different excited species and kinetic processes. The OES measurements are performed on pure argon plasmas at intermediate pressure. Besides, hydrogen and hydrogen-silane plasmas are investigated using argon as a trace gas. Especially for the gas mixture discharges, CRMs for low and high pressure differ substantially. The commonly used line-ratio technique is found to lose its sensitivity for gas mixture discharges at higher pressure. A solution using absolutely calibrated line intensities is proposed. The effect of radiation trapping and the shape of the electron energy distribution function on the results are discussed in detail, as they have been found to significantly influence the results. This work was supported by the Ruhr University Research School PLUS, funded by Germany's Excellence Initiative [DFG GSC 98/3].

  15. Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Aluminum Hydride in Argon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ismail, Ismail M; Hawkins, Tom W

    2005-01-01

    ...) in argon atmosphere and to shed light on the mechanism of alane decomposition. Two kinetic models have been successfully developed and used to propose a mechanism for the complete decomposition of alane and to predict its shelf-life during storage...

  16. Structure of large argon clusters ArN, 10 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, B.W.; Torchet, G.; de Feraudy, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to expectation, large argon clusters ArN,103

  17. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.

    2012-11-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ~ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  18. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  19. Observations of acoustic-wave-induced superluminescence in an argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramyan, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that in an argon discharge plasma it is possible to obtain overpopulation of certain electronic levels of atomic argon under the influence of acoustic waves. When the specified threshold is exceeded, then a superluminescence (in the form of light flashes) from the overpopulated electronic levels of atomic argon is observed

  20. 21 CFR 874.4490 - Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and... Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (a) Identification. The argon laser device for use in otology, rhinology, and laryngology is an electro-optical device which produces coherent...

  1. Multi-Ton Argon and Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo; Balascuta, Septimiu; Alton, Drew; Aprile, Elena; Giboni, Karl-Ludwig; Haruyama, Tom; Lang, Rafael; Melgarejo, Antonio Jesus; Ni, Kaixuan; Plante, Guillaume; Choi, Bin [et al.

    2009-01-01

    There is a wide range of astronomical evidence that the visible stars and gas in all galaxies, including our own, are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous matter, typically an order of magnitude greater in total mass. The existence of this ''dark matter'' is consistent with evidence from large-scale galaxy surveys and microwave background measurements, indicating that the majority of matter in the universe is non-baryonic. The nature of this non-baryonic component is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the ''dark matter puzzle'' is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. A leading explanation, motivated by supersymmetry theory, is the existence of as yet undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), formed in the early universe and subsequently clustered in association with normal matter. WIMPs could, in principle, be detected in terrestrial experiments by their collisions with ordinary nuclei, giving observable low energy (< 100 keV) nuclear recoils. The predicted low collision rates require ultra-low background detectors with large (0.1-10 ton) target masses, located in deep underground sites to eliminate neutron background from cosmic ray muons. The establishment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory for large-scale experiments of this type would strengthen the current leadership of US researchers in this and other particle astrophysics areas. We propose to detect nuclear recoils by scintillation and ionization in ton-scale liquid noble gas targets, using techniques already proven in experiments at the 0.01-0.1 ton level. The experimental challenge is to identify these events in the presence of background events from gammas, neutrons, and alphas.

  2. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  3. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  4. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  5. Treatment of Mallory-Weiss syndrome using argon plasma coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAŞ, Mehmet; KORKUT, Esin; İDİLMAN, Ramazan; KESKİN, Onur; ÜSTÜN, Yusuf; GUPTA, Vikas; BAHAR, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic hemostatic method has been introduced as a safe and effective mechanical approach to hemostasis for upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome. A 62-year-old male patient with chronic cough and a 27-year-old 10-week pregnant female were admitted to our clinic with gross hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and Mallory-Weiss syndrome was diagnosed. Coagulum and visible vessels were observed during the procedure. Argon plasma coagul...

  6. Argon laser photocoagulation of cyclodialysis clefts after cataract surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, B. [Univ. of Lund, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    Three patients with cyclodialysis clefts, hypotony and hypotonic retinopathy subsequent to cataract surgery were treated with argon laser photocoagulation. The hypotony was reversed in each patient and their visual acuity was normalized. Laser photocoagulation is a noninvasive treatment that can be repeated easily and safely. The complications of the treatment are minor. A hypertensive episode commonly occurs in the early postoperative period. (au) 8 refs.

  7. Cryogenic separation of an oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for the determination of isotope and molecular ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedakkadan, Habeeb Rahman; Abe, Osamu

    2015-04-30

    The separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures are critical in the high-precision analysis of Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) for geochemical applications. At present, chromatographic methods are used for the separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures or pure oxygen, but these methods require the use of high-purity helium as a carrier gas. Considerable interest has been expressed in the development of a helium-free cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples. The precise and simplified cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures from natural air samples presented here was made possible using a single 5A (30/60 mesh) molecular sieve column. The method involves the trapping of eluted gases using molecular sieves at liquid nitrogen temperature, which is associated with isotopic fractionation. We tested the proposed method for the determination of isotopic fractionations during the gas exchange between water and atmospheric air at equilibrium. The dependency of fractionation was studied at different water temperatures and for different methods of equilibration (bubbling and stirring). Isotopic and molecular fractionations during gas desorption from molecular sieves were studied for different amounts and types of molecular sieves. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (±SD) of 0.021 ‰, 0.044 ‰, 15 per meg and 1.9 ‰ for δ(17) O, δ(18) O, Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) values, respectively. We applied the method to determine equilibrium isotope fractionation during gas exchange between air and water. Consistent δ(18) O and Δ(17) O results were obtained with the latest two studies, whereas there was a significant difference in δ(18) O values between seawater and deionized water. We have revised a helium-free, cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratio analysis. The use of a single 13X (1/8" pellet) molecular sieve yielded the smallest isotopic

  8. Two dimensional condensation of argon adsorbed on lamellar halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millot, Francis.

    1976-03-01

    Lamellar halides such as NiCl 2 , FeCl 2 , NiBr 2 , MnBr 2 , MgBr 2 , CdBr 2 , CoI 2 , FeI 2 , MnI 2 , CaI 2 and PbI 2 were sublimed in a rapid stream of dry nitrogen. The adsorption of argon on such materials shows stepped isotherms which reveal two dimensional condensations. From sets of isotherms the Helmholtz free energy, the internal energy and the entropy of the successive layers are determined. From the entropy of the first layer the role of the potential relief of the adsorbent surface on the structure of the adsorbed layer may be determined while the Helmholtz free energy reveals how the ionic character of the adsorbent governs the attractive force of adsorption. The study of the second third and fourth layers shows that their growth follows quite a different behaviour depending on whether the Van der Waals diameter of argon is greater or smaller than the distance between adjacent anions on the crystal surface. A proposition is made to account for the difference in the critical temperatures of the first and second dense layers in terms of the vibrationnal state of their respective substrate. The occurence for the maximum critical temperature observed of corresponding to a triangular layer 3% more expanded than the (111) plane of solid argon is discussed [fr

  9. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  10. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kočišek, J.; Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M.; Slavíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H 2 O) n clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar + and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ∼28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar + * and water opens leading to new products Ar n H + and (H 2 O) n H + . On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H 2 O) n H 2 2+ and (H 2 O) n 2+ ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent

  11. Wear and Tribological Properties of Silicon-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon (Si-DLC) Coatings Synthesized with Nitrogen, Argon Plus Nitrogen, and Argon Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountzoulas, Costas

    1998-01-01

    ... in the average coating growth rate. The Knoop microhardness and nanohardness values of the coatings synthesized by the mixed argon and nitrogen ion beam were higher than the values for the coatings synthesized with 100% nitrogen or 100% argon ion beams...

  12. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anellis, L.G.; Johnson, A.G.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  13. Argon implantation gettering for a ''through-oxide'' arsenic-implanted layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, K.; Harada, H.

    1977-01-01

    Argon implantation gettering was investigated to improve p-n junctions made by high-dose arsenic implantation through oxide film. Arsenic was implanted into p-type silicon through 520 A oxide at 2 x 10 15 to 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , 100--110 keV. When argon was implanted on the wafer back side at 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , 200 keV following arsenic implantation, all junctions showed hard breakdown. However, many junctions without argon implantation showed soft breakdown with large leakage current. Argon implantation reduced etch pits appearing in the arsenic-implanted region

  14. MEASUREMENTS OF TOTAL ENERGY RADIATED FROM AN ARGON ARCJET

    Science.gov (United States)

    to the 7.2 power when the peak (centerline) temperature at the arcjet exit plane was 23,000 R. Total radiated energy from the arcjet , including the...downstream-directed component from the cathode face, was found to be less than 0.8% of the net jet power under these conditions. This rather low level...The total energy radiation of an argon arcjet was measured by a simple collimated thermopile. Radiation from the luminous jet was found to vary as T

  15. Relaxation rates studies in an argon cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Dengra, A.; Colomer, V.

    1986-01-01

    The single Langmuir probe method has been used to determine the relaxation rates of the electron density and temperature in an argon afterglow dc cylindrical plasma. The ion-electron recombination was found to be the fundamental mechanism of density decay during the early afterglow while the ambipolar diffusion controlles the density decay for later afterglow. Electron temperature cooling curves have been interpreted via electron-neutral collisons. Measurements of the electron-ion recombination and the ambipolar diffusion coefficients have been made, as well as of the electron-neutral collision frequency and the momentum transfer cross sections. Good agreement is obtained with previously published data. (author)

  16. The main properties of microwave argon plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E; Pencheva, M

    2010-01-01

    Plasma torch sustained by surface wave at atmospheric pressure is theoretically studied by means of 1D model. A steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge is numerically solved together with Maxwell's equations for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave. The axial dependences of the electrons, excited atoms, atomic and molecular ions densities as well as the electron temperature, the mean power per electron and the effective electron-neutral collision frequency are determined. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

  17. Near-threshold electron impact excitation of argon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, P.C.; Burke, P.G.; Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury; Taylor, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical cross sections are reported for the elastic and inelastic scattering of low-energy electrons (10.8-13.4eV) from the ground state of argon atoms. The calculations are carried out in the LS coupling scheme and include nine target states in the expansion of the total wavefunction. The energies and shapes of the resonances are found to agree well with the experiments of Brunt et al (J. Phys. B.; 9:2195 (1976), 10:1289 and 3781 (1977)) in most cases and their grandparent model is also confirmed although some of the present resonant assignments are different. (author)

  18. Penning transfer in argon-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, O; Tapan, I; Ozmutlu, E N

    2010-01-01

    Penning transfers, a group of processes by which excitation energy is used to ionise the gas, increase the gas gain in some detectors. Both the probability that such transfers occur and the mechanism by which the transfer takes place, vary with the gas composition and pressure. With a view to developing a microscopic electron transport model that takes Penning transfers into account, we use this dependence to identify the transfer mechanisms at play. We do this for a number of argon-based gas mixtures, using gain curves from the literature.

  19. Laser induced fluorescence in a pulsed argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl; Biloiu, Costel; Compton, Christopher; Doss, Forrest; Venture, Daniel; Heard, John; Choueiri, Edgar; Spektor, Rostislav

    2005-01-01

    A time-resolved laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for pulsed argon plasmas is described. A low power, tunable diode laser pumps a three level Ar II transition sequence at a wavelength of 668.6138 nm. With a standard LIF system designed for steady-state plasmas (e.g., 4 kHz optical chopper, 20 kHz band-width detector, and a lock-in amplifier), we demonstrate that the evolution of the ion velocity distribution can be resolved with a time resolution of 1 ms through a combination of time-series averaging and post-acquisition digital signal processing

  20. Electron drift velocity in argon-methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakeem, N.El; Mathieson, E.

    1978-01-01

    Described are the results of a series of measurements of electron drift velocity taken with samples of chemically pure grade gas mixture of Ar-10% CH 4 (N 2 2 2 2 O<2 ppm). The measured drift velocity is plotted as a function of the ratio of electric field to pressure in the range from 0.05 to 0.8 V/cmxtorr. The measurements are reproducible only to within 4%. The results of numerical calculations employing the well-established argon elastic and methane elastic and inelastic cross sections are also included. The disagreement from the present experimental results, and from those obtained elsewhere, is rather puzzling

  1. Diffraction experiments of argon or helium on polluted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, J.P.; Constans, A.; Daury, G.; Lostis, P.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering patterns of molecular beams of argon or helium from metal surfaces (bulk metal or thin films) are reported. The pressure in the scattering chamber is about 10 -6 torr. So, the surfaces are polluted. Diffraction peaks are observed which can be interpreted very well by assuming that nitrogen, oxygen or carbon atoms are adsorbed of the surface. On the other hand, diffraction peaks from a silicon crystal have been observed which can be reproduced very well by using silicon crystal lattice. These experiments are not interpreted accurately, but show that molecular reflection can be used for some surface studies [fr

  2. Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N2). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.

  3. Separation of argon isotopes by porous membrane method, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fujine, Sachio; Matsuda, Yuji; Maruyama, Yoichiro

    1978-09-01

    In the research program of uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion process at JAERI, an engineering-scale cascade in argon isotopes separation experiment has been constructed to study the cascade performance under different conditions assuming the practical plant. This report describes design phylosophy and specifications of the facility. Results of test operation of the whole system revealed the following: (1) Cascade components, vacuum systems, sampling system and auxiliary systems are operable under experimental conditions. (2) The cascade system is excellent in ease of operation and controllability. (3) Leakage of the cascade is below the level of 5 x 10 -5 atm-cm 3 (He)/sec. (author)

  4. Gastric explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, John Saul; Hampe, Toni

    2014-12-01

    We describe the occurrence of an iatrogenic explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation in a 70-year-old man undergoing gastroscopy. Combustible gases in the stomach may have been released by bacterial overgrowth as a result of partial gastric outlet obstruction (caused by a gastric tumor) and reduced acidity (from proton pump inhibitor therapy). We propose a stepwise process during upper endoscopy to prevent this devastating complication, comprising aspiration, preinsufflation with CO2, and then coagulation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid surface. II. Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-11-01

    The rates of evaporation and condensation of methanol under the vapor-liquid equilibrium condition at the temperature of 300 and 350 K are investigated with a molecular dynamics computer simulation. Compared with the argon system (reported in part I), the ratio of self-reflection is similar (˜10%), but the ratio of molecule exchange is several times larger than the argon, which suggests that the conventional assumption of condensation as a unimolecular process completely fails for associating fluids. The resulting total condensation coefficient is 20%-25%, and has a quantitative agreement with a recent experiment. The temperature dependence of the evaporation-condensation behavior is not significant.

  6. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  7. Strong pressure-energy correlations in van der Waals liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    in the crystal and glass phases reflect an effective inverse power-law repulsive potential dominating fluctuations, even at zero and slightly negative pressure. In experimental data for supercritical argon, the correlations are found to be approximately 96%. Consequences for viscous liquid dynamics are discussed.......Strong correlations between equilibrium fluctuations of the configurational parts of pressure and energy are found in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones liquid and other simple liquids, but not for hydrogen-bonding liquids such as methanol and water. The correlations that are present also...

  8. Model of a stationary microwave argon discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.

    2008-01-01

    The many applications of microwave gas discharges at atmospheric pressure in various fields of science, technology and medicine require an adequate model of these discharges. Such a model is based on the electromagnetic wave's propagation properties and on the elementary processes in the discharge bulk. In contrast to the microwave discharges at low-gas pressures, where many elementary processes might be ignored because of their negligible contribution to the electron and heavy particle's balance equations, for such discharges at atmospheric pressure the consideration of a large number of collisional processes is mandatory. For the build of a successful discharge-column model one needs three important quantities, notably the power θ necessary for sustaining an electron - ion pair, electron - neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer v en , and gas temperature T g . The first two key parameters are obtained by a collisional-radiative model of the argon at atmospheric pressure, while the microwave frequency ω/2π = 2.45 GHz, plasma column radius R, gas pressure p and gas temperature T g are fixed external parameters determined by the experimental conditions. Here, we present a model of a capillary argon microwave plasma column with a length L ≅ 14 cm, sustained by wave power of 110 W - the model yields the longitudinal distributions of the plasma density, expended wave power, wave electric field magnitude, and complex wave number

  9. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutro argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Ramos, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 12), np(n=4 to 8) and nd(n=3 to 8) of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 7), np(n=4 to 7) and nd(n=3 to 8). 3.- Comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author)

  10. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs

  11. Effect of accelerated argon ions on the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, W.; Krebs, I.; Merriam, G.R. Jr.; Worgul, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    It has been postulated that high energy heavy ions cause a unique form of damage in living tissue, which results from the high linear energy transfer of accelerated single particles. We have searched for these single-particle effects, so-called microlesions, in composite electron micrographs of retinas of rats which had been irradiated with a dose of 1 Gy of 570 MeV/amu argon ions. The calculated rate of energy deposition of the radiation in the retina was about 100 keV/micron and the influence was four particles per 100 micron 2. Different areas of the irradiated retinas which combined would have been expected to be traversed by approximately 2400 particles were examined. We were unable to detect ultrastructural changes in the irradiated retinas distinct from those of controls. The spatial cellular densities of pigment epithelial and photoreceptor cells remained within the normal range when examined at 24 h and at 6 months after irradiation. These findings suggest that the retina is relatively resistant to heavy-ion irradiation and that under the experimental conditions the passage of high energy argon ions does not cause retinal microlesions that can be detected by ultrastructural analysis

  12. The thermal accommodation of helium and argon on hot tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the momentum flux of gas atoms, remitted normal to the surface of a hot clean tungsten ribbon immersed in a low pressure of helium or argon, is measured with a torsion balance and the thermal accommodation coefficient deduced. Data are presented in which the tungsten temperature range was 700 to 1900 K for helium and 1100 to 1700 K for argon. A model is proposed which assumes that atoms impinging on and remitted from the hot tungsten ribbon conserve momentum in directions parallel to the surface. This results in a remitted flux, in the direction of the normal, greater than the cosine emission relation would predict. The resulting accommodation coefficients are then of the same order as those found using the total heat loss method. The accuracy of the reported method increases with the temperature of the hot solid. Measurement of translational thermal accommodation is possible without relying on the temperature coefficient of resistance of the solid and hence is applicable to alloys and to non-metals. For metals, which have a normal temperature coefficient of resistance, the method allows translational accommodation to be measured and internal energy accommodation to be deduced. (U.K.)

  13. Liquid uranium contaimment in refractories metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, J.L.; Padilha, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were performed on metalic materials for liquid uranium containment up to 2100 0 C. The materials Nb, Mo, Ta and W in the form of crucibles were tested at 2100 0 C for one hour in the presence of flowing argon. After testing, the crucibles were etched using HCl and analysed by optical metallography and electron proble microanalysis. The results are discussed in terms of Berthoud equation and indicated that the solubility limit of the crucible material in uranium at the temperature controlls the crucible dissolution by liquid uranium. The various phases formed, the mechanism of dissolution and the possible material for future use are presented and discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Characterising the light output from Argon bombs by two simultaneous diagnostic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light output from Argon-bombs was investigated by means of ultra high speed photography (Cordin Model 550-32 camera) and locally developed photodiode sensors. Tubes of various sizes were inflated with Argon gas, and were detonated on one side...

  15. The effect of electrical conductivity on nanosecond discharges in distilled water and in methanol with argon bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-03-27

    We investigated the effect of a liquid\\'s electrical conductivity (EC) on the physical characteristics of electrical discharges in liquids with gaseous bubbles. Argon gas was supplied into the liquid to form an array of gaseous bubbles in between two electrodes (a pin-to-hollow electrode setup). Methanol and water were considered as base liquids, representing a low and a high dielectric permittivity (ϵ) liquid respectively, while potassium chloride (KCl) was added to control the EC of the liquids. When increasing the EC of the liquids, we found that the discharge probability was reduced by 46% for in-water and 38% for in-methanol discharges. We also found that the injected charge decreased by ∼4 μC as the EC increased. Moreover, as the gap distance increased from 1 to 2.5 mm, the injected charge decreased by 2 μC for in-water discharge and by 4 μC for in-methanol discharge. The plasma emission is another important parameter in characterizing discharges. With increasing the EC, the plasma emission volume decreased linearly by a factor of ∼5. The plasma lifetime was shortened by around 33% for in-water and 20% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 1 mm, while the decrease was 40% for in-water and 30% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 2.5 mm. Using the broadening characteristics of the Hα line, the electron density was estimated during the first 100 ns by ∼3 × 10 cm for in-water discharges and by ∼2 × 10 cm for in-methanol discharges, and it decreased by about one order of magnitude after 800 ns; note that n dependence on the EC was not significant. The reported findings provide further understanding of electrical discharges in bubbled liquids and highlight the influence of a liquid\\'s EC, which are useful in the development and optimization of the applications based on such process.

  16. Teeming stream protection using an argon shroud during casting of steel ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-jie; Bao, Yan-ping; Wang, Min; Zhang, Le-chen

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of argon shroud protection devices with two different basic structures were designed and investigated. Industrial experiments and numerical simulations were used to examine the protection effect, and the mechanism of air entrapment during the casting of steel ingots was analyzed. The influence of the structure of the argon shroud protection device on the protection effect was investigated. An argon shroud protection device mounted to the nozzle holder on the bottom of the ladle does not provide a good protection effect because air can easily flow into the teeming system and cause reoxidation of molten steel during teeming. By contrast, an argon shroud protection device seated on the top of the central trumpet provides an excellent protection effect, where air has little chance of flowing into the teeming system during casting. The feasibilities of the argon shroud protection devices are discussed.

  17. Retrospective analysis for detecting seismic precursors in groundwater argon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the groundwater Argon content data sampled from 1988 to 2001 at two wells in Kamchatka (Russia and anomalous increases appeared clearly during June-July 1996. On 21 June, a shallow (1km earthquake with M=7.1 occurred at a distance less than 250km from the wells and so the previous increases could be related to this earthquake and, in particular, could be considered premonitory anomalies. In order to support this raw interpretation, we analysed the data collected in details. At first we smoothed out the high frequency fluctuations arising from the errors in a single measurement. Next we considered the known external effects on the water of a well that are the slow tectonic re-adjustment processes, the meteorology and the gravity tides and we separated these effects applying band-pass filters to the Argon content raw trends. Then we identified the largest fluctuations in these trends applying the 3 σ criterion and we found three anomalies in a case and two anomalies in other case. Comparing the time occurrence of the anomalies at the two wells we found out that a coincidence exists only in the case of the premonitory anomalies we are studying. The simultaneous appearance of well definite anomalies in the residual trends of the same parameter at two different sites supports their meaning and the possibility that they are related to some large scale effect, as the occurrence of a strong earthquake. But, other earthquakes similar to the June 1996 event took place during the Argon content measurements time and no anomaly appeared in this content. In the past, some of the authors of this paper studied the Helium content data collected in three natural springs of the Caucasus during seven years. A very similar result, that is the simultaneous appearance of clear premonitory anomalies only on the occasion of a strong (M=7.0 but shallow (2–4km earthquake, was obtained. The correspondence with the case of the Caucasus validates the

  18. Liquid crystal light valve structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, N. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved photosensor film and liquid crystal light valves embodying said film is provided. The photosensor film and liquid crystal light valve is characterized by a significant lower image retention time while maintaining acceptable photosensitivity. The photosensor film is produced by sputter depositing CdS onto an ITO substrate in an atmosphere of argon/H2S gas while maintaining the substrate at a temperature in the range of about 130 C to about 200 C and while introducing nitrogen gas into the system to the extent of not more than about 1% of plasma mixture. Following sputter deposition of the CdS, the film is annealed in an inert gas at temperatures ranging from about 300 C to about 425 C.

  19. Grid pattern Argon Laser photocoagulation for diabetic diffuse macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkhane R

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of Grid pattern laser photocoagulation on diabetic diffuse macular edema with assessment of visual outcome. Patients & Methods: The author reviewed the medical records of 84 eyes of 62 patients with diabetic diffuse macular edema treated with Grid pattern green Argon laser photocoagulation in Farabi Eye Hospital between the years 1992-1995, the follow-up period was 16-48 months (average 24.55±6.42, median 28 mounths. Results: Visual acuity was improved in 11.9%; unchanged in 65.4% and worsened in 22.7% of eyes. Conclusion: In assessing long-term visual outcome, Grid laser photocoagulation is an effective modality in maintaining or improving visual acuity.

  20. Properties of radio-frequency heated argon confined uranium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to aid in determining the characteristics of uranium plasma core reactors. Pure uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) was injected into an argon-confined, steady-state, rf-heated plasma, within a fused-silica peripheral wall test chamber. Exploratory tests conducted using an 80 kW rf facility and different test chamber flow configurations permitted selection of the configuration demonstrating the best confinement characteristics and minimum uranium compound wall coating. The test chamber selected was 10-cm-long and 5.7-cm-inside diameter; operating pressures were up to 12 atm. A UF 6 handling and feeder system to provide a controlled and steady flow of heated UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 0 K and mass flow rates up to 0.21 g/s was employed

  1. Electron-ion recombination study in argon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafrouni, Hanna.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with a wall-stabilized arc burning in argon at atmospheric pressure. A transient mode is obtained using a fast thyristor connected to the electrodes, which short-circuits the discharge. By means of two wavelengths laser interferometry and spectroscopy measurements we have determined the temporal changes of the electron density, ground state atom density and excited atom density. We have shown that, when the electric field is suppressed, the electron temperature rapidly decreases to the gas temperature before changing electron and atom densities. This phenomenon is applied to determine the gas temperature and to evaluate the role played by ionization in electron density balance. The coefficients of ambipolar diffusion, ionization and recombination and an apparent recombination coefficient are determined versus electron temperature and compared with theoretical values [fr

  2. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  3. Effect of the levitating microparticle cloud on radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  4. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, in-situ synchrotron diffraction and hot-stage microscopy as well as room temperature optical microscopy. Melting...... takes place around 90 °C and evidence was found for solidification of the melt at 260–300 °C, i.e. close to the onset of decomposition. Between 300 °C and 450 °C, Y(C4H9CO2)3 decomposes in a single step into Y2O2CO3 with release of gaseous CO2 and C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone). Final conversion to Y2O3 takes...

  5. Controlled argon beam-induced desulfurization of monolayer molybdenum disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quan; Odenthal, Patrick M; Mann, John; Le, Duy; Wang, Chen S; Zhu, Yeming; Chen, Tianyang; Sun, Dezheng; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Tran, Tai; Wurch, Michelle; McKinley, Jessica L; Wyrick, Jonathan; Magnone, KatieMarie; Heinz, Tony F; Rahman, Talat S; Kawakami, Roland; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-06-26

    Sputtering of MoS2 films of single-layer thickness by low-energy argon ions selectively reduces the sulfur content of the material without significant depletion of molybdenum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows little modification of the Mo 3d states during this process, suggesting the absence of significant reorganization or damage to the overall structure of the MoS2 film. Accompanying ab initio molecular dynamics simulations find clusters of sulfur vacancies in the top plane of single-layer MoS2 to be structurally stable. Measurements of the photoluminescence at temperatures between 175 and 300 K show quenching of almost 80% for an ~10% decrease in sulfur content.

  6. Energy band dispersion in photoemission spectra of argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, Marko; Mucke, Melanie; Arion, Tiberiu; Lischke, Toralf; Barth, Silko; Ulrich, Volker; Ohrwall, Gunnar; Bjoerneholm, Olle; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradshaw, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    Using photoemission we have investigated free argon clusters from a supersonic nozzle expansion in the photon energy range from threshold up to 28 eV. Measurements were performed both at high resolution with a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser and at lower resolution with a magnetic bottle device. The latter experiments were performed for various mean cluster sizes. In addition to the ∼1.5 eV broad 3p-derived valence band seen in previous work, there is a sharper feature at ∼15 eV binding energy. Surprisingly for non-oriented clusters, this peak shifts smoothly in binding energy over the narrow photon energy range 15.5-17.7 eV, indicating energy band dispersion. The onset of this bulk band-like behaviour could be determined from the cluster size dependence.

  7. Atmospheric dispersion of argon-41 from anuclear research reactor: measurement and modeling of plume geometry and gamma radiation field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent; Astrup, Poul; Drews, Martin

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine release of argon-41 from the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Simultaneous measurements of plume geometry and radiation fields for argon-41 decay were performed as well as measurements of the argon...

  8. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  9. Overview of the Liquid Argon Cryogenics for the Short Baseline Neutrino Program (SBN) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Barry [Fermilab; Bremer, Johan [CERN; Chalifour, Michel [Fermilab; Delaney, Mike [Fermilab; Dinnon, Mike [Fermilab; Doubnik, Roza [Fermilab; Geynisman, Michael [Fermilab; Hentschel, Steve [Fermilab; Kim, Min Jeong [Fermilab; Stefanik, Andy [Fermilab; Tillman, Justin [Fermilab; Zuckerbrot, Mike [Fermilab

    2017-01-01

    The Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) physics program will involve three LAr-TPC detectors located along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab. This new SBN Program will deliver a rich and compelling physics opportunity, including the ability to resolve a class of experimental anomalies in neutrino physics and to perform the most sensitive search to date for sterile neutrinos at the eV mass-scale through both appearance and disappearance oscillation channels. The Program will be composed of an existing and operational detector known as Micro Boone (170 ton LAr mass) plus two new experiments known as the SBN Near Detector (SBND, ~ 260 ton) and the SBN Far Detector (SBN-FD, ~ 600 tons). Fermilab is now building two new facilities to house the experiments and incorporate all cryogenic and process systems to operate these detectors beginning in the 2018-2019 time frame. The SBN cryogenics are a collaborative effort between Fermilab and CERN. The SBN cryogenic systems for both detectors are composed of several sub-systems: External/Infrastructure (or LN2), Proximity (or LAr), and internal cryogenics. For each detector the External/Infrastructure cryogenics includes the equipment used to store and the cryogenic fluids needed for the operation of the Proximity cryogenics, including the LN2 and LAr storage facilities. The Proximity cryogenics consists of all the systems that take the cryogenic fluids from the external/infrastructure cryogenics and deliver them to the internal at the required pressure, temperature, purity and mass flow rate. It includes the condensers, the LAr and GAr purification systems, the LN2 and LAr phase separators, and the interconnecting piping. The Internal cryogenics is comprised of all the cryogenic equipment located within the cryostats themselves, including the GAr and LAr distribution piping and the piping required to cool down the cryostats and the detectors. These cryogenic systems will be engineered, manufactured, commissioned, and qualified by an international engineering team. This contribution presents the performance, the functional requirements and the modes of operation of the SBN cryogenics, and details the current status of the design, present and future needs.

  10. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tatsuya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is foreseen to be upgraded during the shut-down period of 2018-2019 to deliver about 3 times the instantaneous design luminosity. Since the ATLAS trigger system, at that time, will not support such an increase of the trigger rate an improvement of the trigger system is required. The ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout will therefore be modified and digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity will be provided to the trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 Super Cells which achieves a 5-10 better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The Super Cell readout is composed of custom developed 12-bit combined SAR ADCs in 130 nm CMOS technology which will be installed on-detector in a radiation environment and digitizes the detector pulses at 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back end using a custom serializer and optical converter applying 5.44 Gb/s optical links. These components are install...

  11. Liquid Argon Scintillation Detection Utilizing Wavelength-Shifting Plates and Light Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B. [Indiana U.

    2018-02-06

    In DUNE, the event timing provided by the detection of the relatively prompt scintillation photons will improve spatial resolution in the drift direction of the time-projection chamber (TPC) and is especially useful for non-beam physics topics such as supernova neutrinos and nucleon decay. The baseline design for the first 10kt single phase TPC fits the photon detector system in the natural gap between the wire planes of adjacent TPC volumes. A prototype photon detector design utilizes wavelength-shifter coated plates to convert the vacuum ultraviolet scintillation light to the optical and commercially-produced wavelength-shifting light guides to trap some of this light and transport it to an array of silicon photomultipliers at the end. This system and the testing performed to characterize the system and determine the efficiency are discussed.

  12. Study, construction and test of a liquid argon preshower detector for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahout, G.

    1995-01-01

    The CERN is planning the construction of a new particle collider, the LHC, a p-p collider which operational energies will be greater than 1 TeV. A position detector or preshower detector will form a part of the Atlas detector which will analyze the interaction products; it will be used to spatially identify the disintegration of the Higgs boson, the signature of the Higgs mechanism into two photons. It will also provide an energy correction for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This paper gives simulation results for its spatial and angular resolution as well as the energy resolution achieved for the electromagnetic calorimeter when the preshower's energy correction is applied. A prototype and beam tests are presented; results are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulations. 110 fig., 31 ref

  13. Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Barrel Cryostat Construction and Testing May-June 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    US, ATLAS

    1999-01-01

    Photo 1 - Outer Cold Cryostat showing 'Y' support. Photo 2 - Outer Cold Vessel half showing 'X' and 'Z' stops and 'Y' supports. Photo 3 - Cold Vessel Bulkhead, End 'C'. Photo 4 - Outer Cold Vessel half, showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 5 - End of Outer Cold Vessel showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 6 - Al/SST Transitions for Signal and High Voltage feedthroughs. Test weld blocks shown in background. Photo 7 - Welding of Al/SST Transitions onto Outer Cold Vessel. Photo 8 - Al/SST Transitions, including test pumpouts. Photo 9 - Machining of Inner Cold vessel. Photo 10 - Warm Vessel being assembled for leak testing Photo 11 - Setting up Warm Vessel on test stand. Photo 12 - Warm Vessel assembly for testing complete. Photo 13 - Dial indicators mounted against the Warm Vessel Bulkhead during testing. Photo 14 - Pumping on Warm Vessel. Photo 15 - Pumping on the Warm Vessel. Photo 16 - Checking the Solenoid Chimney. Photo 17 - Leak checking the Inner Warm Vessel/Bulkhead flange in the area of ID co...

  14. Monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, Jul (2014), s. 1-39 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : missing-energy * data acquisition * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll * monitoring performance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  15. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Bazalová, Magdalena; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Jahoda, M.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kus, V.; Kvasnička, J.; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Popule, Jiří; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Sluka, T.; Staroba, Pavel; Šťastný, Jan; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Valenta, Jan; Vrba, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2010), s. 755-758 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * LAr Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/pdf/1002.4189

  16. Performance of the ATLAS liquid argon forward calorimeter in beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, J P; Cadabeschi, M; Epshteyn, V; Galt, C; Gillberg, D; Gorbounov, P; Heelan, L; Khakzad, M; Khovanskiy, V; Krieger, P; Loch, P; McCarthy, T G; Oakham, F G; Orr, R S; Rutherfoord, J; Savine, A; Schram, M; Shatalov, P; Shaver, L; Shupe, M; Strickland, V; Thompson, P; Tsukerman, I

    2013-01-01

    One of two ATLAS Forward Calorimeters, consisting of threemodules, one behind the other, was exposed to particle beams ofknown energies in order to study the detector performance with andwithout the presence of upstream material in the beam, and at theinner edge of the acceptance where shower energy containment isincomplete. Data were taken in the H6 beamline at CERN usingelectron and hadron beams with energies from 10 to 200 GeV.Results related to the intrinsic detector calibration, based on datataken with a minimal amount of material in front of the detector,have been previously published, but are updated here. This paperfocuses on studies of data taken with additional upstream materialin place. The effects of this additional material on the linearityand resolution of the response are presented. The response at theinner edge of the acceptance is also investigated. For all analyses,results based on a GEANT4 simulation of the beam-test setup anddetector response are also presented.

  17. Evaporating short-circuits in the ATLAS liquid argon barrel presampler 006

    CERN Document Server

    Belhorma, B; Lund-Jensen, B; Rydström, S; Yamouni, M

    2005-01-01

    A technique to eliminate or limit the implications of short-circuits in the ATLAS barrel presampler is described. A high voltage capacitor with a large capacity is charged at different high voltages and discharged through the short-circuit which allows either to disintegrate the dust being the origin of the short-circuit, or to burn away a thin etched copper strip which acts as a fuse on the corresponding presampler anode. This effect is possible even in the presence of a resistive HV cable (10 to 30 ohms) in series which dampens the pulse.

  18. RT2016 Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)478829; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz. The data is transferred via optical links to a digital processing system which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance and on the performance of the prototype boards in the demonstrator system based on various measurements with the 13 TeV collision data. R...

  19. Liquid argon scintillation detection utilizing wavelength-shifting plates and light guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B.

    2018-02-01

    In DUNE, the event timing provided by the detection of the relatively prompt scintillation photons will improve spatial resolution in the drift direction of the time-projection chamber (TPC) and is especially useful for non-beam physics topics such as supernova neutrinos and nucleon decay. The baseline design for the first 10kt single phase TPC fits the photon detector system in the natural gap between the wire planes of adjacent TPC volumes. A prototype photon detector design utilizes wavelength-shifter coated plates to convert the vacuum ultraviolet scintillation light to the optical and commercially-produced wavelength-shifting light guides to trap some of this light and transport it to an array of silicon photomultipliers at the end. This system and the testing performed to characterize the system and determine the efficiency are discussed.

  20. Argon-Doped Capsule Implosion Experiments on the Shenguang-II Laser Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhimin; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Miao, Wenyong; Chen, Jiabin; Yang, Guohong; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun; Zhang, Baohan

    2017-10-01

    Argon is often doped in the hydrogen isotope capsule as the tracer for diagnosing the status of the hot spot in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. Implosion performance could be affected by the doped argon. For instance, it could bring about the concentration of the heavier argon ions in the center of hot spot, thus degrading the implosion performance. Moreover, implosion mix could be investigated by doping heavier elements in hydrogen isotope capsule, and the atomic-mix effects have been investigated in the pioneering studies. In this talk, we present the performance of argon-doped implosion experiments, in which D-D reaction was used for the substitute of D-T fuel. The experiments were conducted on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The doping-fraction of argon was set as 1%, 2% and 10% (atomic fraction). The temperature and density of electrons are determined by the K-shell emission spectra of the highly-ionized argon. The size of hot spot was recorded by a time-resolving x-ray monochromatic imaging system. The neutron yield were detected by both BF3 and scintillator detectors. A strong correlation between argon x-ray line intensity and neutron yields have been found in the experiments, and the convergence ratios deduced from the hot-spot imaging agree well with numerical simulation for the difference doping fraction which brings about the change of the equations of states and radiative opacity. NSFC Grant under Contract No. 11675158.

  1. Tissue gas and blood analyses of human subjects breathing 80% argon and 20% oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Wells, C. H.; Guest, M. M.; Hart, G. B.; Goodpasture, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Eight human volunteers, individually studied in a hyperbaric chamber, breathed: (1) air at 1 ATA; (2) 80% argon and 20% oxygen at 1 ATA for 30 min; (3) air at 1 ATA for 30 min; (4) 100% O2 at 1 ATA for 30 min; (5) air at 1 ATA for 30 min; (6) 100% O2 at 2 ATA for 60 min; and (7) 80% argon and 20% oxygen at 1 ATA for 30 min. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and argon tensions were measured in muscle and subcutaneous tissue by mass spectroscopic analyses. Venous blood obtained at regular intervals was analyzed for coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. Inert gas narcosis was not observed. After breathing argon for 30 min, muscle argon tensions were almost three times the subcutaneous tensions. Argon wash-in mirrored nitrogen wash-out. Argon wash-in and wash-out had no effect on tissue PO2 or PCO2. Coagulation and fibrinolytic changes usually associated with vascular bubbles were absent.

  2. Carbon and chromium oxidation kinetics on argon-oxygen refining of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolotskij, D.Ya.; Zyryanov, S.V.; Kirilenko, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made into the process of carbon and chromium oxidation when refining stainless steels with 14.5-17.9 % Cr in a 100 t electric furnace. During argon-oxygen refining the oxidation of carbon is shown to proceed under varying kinetic conditions at carbon contents about 0.2 %. At low carbon contents a mixed regime of internal and external diffusion takes place. Oxidation rate is defined by carbon concentration, oxygen consumption and oxidation potential of argon-oxygen mixture. Chromium is oxidized concurrently with carbon. Its oxidation rate is dependent on the consumption of the oxygen blow in combination with argon. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking in automatic building-up of copper and copper base alloys in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, V.R.; Andronik, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking during automatic building-up of copper and bronze in argon. The investigation was carried out on the 0kh18n10t steel in argon. It had been established, that the degree of copper penetration into the steel inceases with the increase in the time of the 0Kh18n10t steel contact with liquid copper. Liquid copper and copper base alloys have a detrimental effect on mechanical properties of the steel under external tensile load during intercontant. It is shown that in building-up of copper base alloys on the steel-0Kh18n10t, tendency of the steel to cracking decreases with increase in stiffness of a surfaced weld metal plate and with decrease in building-up energy per unit length. The causes of macrocracking in steel at building-up non-ferrous metals are explained. The technological procedures to avoid cracking are suggested

  4. Discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges with argon/nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Gao Xing; Luo Huiying

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in γ mode with argon/nitrogen as the plasma-forming gas using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz are achieved. The preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics show that, induced by the α-γ coexisting mode or γ mode discharge of argon, argon-nitrogen mixture with any mixing ratios, even pure nitrogen, can be employed to generate the stable γ mode radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges and the discharge voltage rises with increasing the fraction of nitrogen in the argon-nitrogen mixture for a constant total gas flow rate

  5. Comparison of krypton and argon laser photocoagulation. Results of stimulated clinical treatment of primate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiddy, W E; Fine, S L; Quigley, H A; Hohman, R M; Addicks, E A

    1984-07-01

    We compared the clinical and histological effects of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), argon green laser (AGL), and krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation on the primate retina. Burns were produced in juxtafoveal and papillomacular bundle and in nonmacular areas in a manner simulating treatment of a choroidal neovascular membrane (NVM). In the juxtafoveal and papillomacular bundle areas, ABGL photocoagulation caused extensive inner retinal damage while KRL photocoagulation spared inner retinal structures. The effects of AGL photocoagulation in the fovea were intermediate in extent between KRL and ABGL photocoagulation. Axonal transport studies also showed differential effects of these wavelengths on retinal ganglion cell function. Nonmacular effects were similar for all three modalities. These results suggest that the krypton red wavelength may be more suitable than the argon green or argon blue-green wavelengths in treating choroidal NVMs near the fovea.

  6. The radiolytic formation of nitric acid in argon/air/water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.; Stinchcombe, D.; White, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The extent of nitric acid formation in the γ-radiolysis of argon/air/water mixtures has been assessed. The yields of nitric acid are found to increase as water vapour pressure is increased but are lower in the presence of a discrete water phase. G values for the formation of nitric acid from argon/air mixtures based on energy absorbed in the air are increased in the presence of argon but the yields in an atmosphere of argon containing small amounts of moist air are smaller than from an atmosphere of moist air alone. The G value for nitric acid formation from pure air in the presence of a distinct water phase is 2, based on energy absorbed in the air. (author)

  7. Saturation spectroscopy of an optically opaque argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    A pure argon (Ar) plasma formed by a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge was analyzed using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The expected line shape was a characteristic of sub-Doppler spectra in the presence of velocity-changing collisions, a narrow Lorentzian centered on a Doppler pedestal, but the observed line shapes contain a multi-peak structure, attributed to opacity of the medium. Laser absorption and inter-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were made to validate opacity as a driving factor of the observed line shapes. Spectral line shapes are further complicated by the spatial dependence of the pump laser, probe laser and of the absorbing medium, as well as the large absorbance of the transition under investigation. A numerical line shape was derived by accounting for the spatial variation of the pump and probe with a saturated line shape obtained from the rate equations for an equivalent two-level system. This simulated line shape shows good qualitative agreement with the trends observed in the data.

  8. Aluminium Morphological Modification by Nitrogen-Argon Mixture PIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munnoz-Castro, A.E.; Valencia Alvarado, R.; Penna-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Rodriguez-Mendez, B.G.; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la

    2011-01-01

    With incident fluences of ∼ 10 12 atoms/cm 2 aluminium samples have been plasma immersion ion implanted with either pure nitrogen or argon/nitrogen mixtures at temperatures around 450 o C. X-ray diffraction studies have validated the formation of the cubic phase of AlN, in samples treated with both the gas mixtures and pure nitrogen. Likewise, the presence of the hexagonal phase of AlN has been detected when either pure nitrogen or a 70% N/30% Ar mixture have been used. The signature peak of AlN has also been confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy. The maximal microhardness values were found in samples treated with the mixture. The maximal roughness was achieved with the equal part mixture in all cases, although increasing with the implantation pulse width up to a 300 nm peak at 150 μs. The latter critical value remains invariant under the pure nitrogen plasma treatment, provided that implantation periods in the order of 4.5 h are carried out. (author)

  9. Numerical simulation of nonequilibrium effects in an argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Departures from thermal (translational), ionization, and excitation equilibrium in an axisymmetric argon plasma jet have been studied by two-dimensional numerical simulations. Electrons, ions, and excited and ground states of neutral atoms are represented as separate chemical species in the mixture. Transitions between excited states, as well as ionization/recombination reactions due to both collisional and radiative processes, are treated as separate chemical reactions. Resonance radiation transport is represented using Holstein escape factors to simulate both the optically thin and optically thick limits. The optically thin calculation showed significant underpopulation of excited species in the upstream part of the jet core, whereas in the optically thick calculation this region remains close to local thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with previous experimental observations. Resonance radiation absorption is therefore an important effect. The optically thick calculation results also show overpopulations (relative to equilibrium) of excited species and electron densities in the fringes and downstream part of the jet core. In these regions, however, the electrons and ions are essentially in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium with the excited state at the electron temperature, even though the ionized and excited states are no longer in equilibrium with the ground state. Departures from partial local thermodynamic equilibrium are observed in the outer fringes and far downstream part of the jet. These results are interpreted in terms of the local relative time scales for the various physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasma

  10. Recurrence Spectroscopy of Autoionizing Rydberg Argon in an Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Previously, we have performed single uv-photon excitation of metastable argon to spin-orbit autoionizing states between the first and second fine structure ionization limits. [1] A pulsed frequency-doubled dye laser excites the valence electron to a Rydberg state and excites the ionic core from j=1/2 to j=3/2. The core then relaxes and ejects the Rydberg electron. We have developed a new apparatus that allows us to measure these autoionizing states in an electric field using a fast beam. Using this apparatus we have extended the field-free measurements to probe the semi-classical dynamics of this system in an electric field using the method of recurrence spectroscopy [2]. Recurrence spectra for the autoionizing states in an electric will be compared to the corresponding spectra in the bound state region. Work supported by National Science Foundation. [1] J.D. Wright, P.A. Walker, J.H. Gurian, M. van Lier-Walqui, J.M. Lambert, H. Flores-Rueda, and T.J. Morgan; Bulletin of the American Physical Society (2004) [2] M L Keeler, H Flores-Rueda, J D Wright, and T J Morgan; J. Phys. B. 37, 809-815 (2004)

  11. Using History To Teach Scientific Method: The Case of Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Carmen J.

    1998-10-01

    The history of science is full of stories that exhibit scientific methodology to an exemplary degree. Such stories can be vehicles for the teaching of scientific thought to non-science majors in general-education science courses, particularly if they do not involve much technical background and are told in ordinary language. This paper illustrates the kind of lessons that can be gleaned from such stories by examining the discovery of argon, an episode replete with examples of how scientists pursue knowledge. Lord Rayleigh's use of multiple methods to determine the density of nitrogen; his persistent tracking down of a small but real anomaly in those measurements; his and William Ramsay's eventual realization that the anomaly was due to a previously unknown but relatively plentiful component of the atmosphere, an inert, monatomic gas; and Ramsay's subsequent successful search for other members of the inert gas family all illustrate the scientific approach to knowledge. This story can be presented to students in Rayleigh's words, annotated to supply background material and to pose questions.

  12. Isomerization dynamics and thermodynamics of ionic argon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F.; Gadéa, F. X.; Lombardi, A.; Aquilanti, V.

    2006-09-01

    The dynamics and thermodynamics of small Arn+ clusters, n =3, 6, and 9, are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) and exchange Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A diatomic-in-molecule Hamiltonian provides an accurate model for the electronic ground state potential energy surface. The microcanonical caloric curves calculated from MD and MC methods are shown to agree with each other, provided that the rigorous conservation of angular momentum is accounted for in the phase space density of the MC simulations. The previously proposed projective partition of the kinetic energy is used to assist MD simulations in interpreting the cluster dynamics in terms of inertial, internal, and external modes. The thermal behavior is correlated with the nature of the charged core in the cluster by computing a dedicated charge localization order parameter. We also perform systematic quenches to establish a connection with the various isomers. We find that the Ar3+ cluster is very stable in its linear ground state geometry up to about 300K, and then isomerizes to a T-shaped isomer in which a quasineutral atom lies around a charged dimer. In Ar6+ and Ar9+, the covalent trimer core is solvated by neutral atoms, and the weakly bound solvent shell melts at much lower energies, occasionally leading to a tetramer or pentamer core with weakly charged extremities. At high energies the core itself becomes metastable and the cluster transforms into Ar2+ solvated by a fluid of neutral argon atoms.

  13. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  14. Effects of uranium bombardment by 20-40 KeV argon ions, Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadovic, T.; Jurela, Z.

    1966-01-01

    This paper shows the results of argon ions interaction with the polycrystal natural uranium. Thin foil of uranium about 200 μ was bombarded by 20-40 KeV argon ions. Coefficients of cathode scattering δ and secondary electrons emission γ were measured, during the process A + →U. The foil was then studied by transmission method and method of single step replica using an electron microscope [sr

  15. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the lesions induced by retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clairambault, P.; Pairault, C.; Droy-Lefaix, M.T.; Magnier, B.; Magnier, M.

    1986-01-09

    In rabbits, retinal argon laser photocoagulation disrupts the arrangement of cell layers and produces interstitial edema. Photochemical and thermal energy is released with production of free oxygenated radicals that are responsible for destruction of cell membranes. Retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits was used as a pharmacologic model to evaluate the protective effect of EGB 761 against membrane lesions and edema. As a strong free radicals scavengers, EGB 761 confirms its protective action on cells membranes and its anti-edema effect.

  16. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  17. Ion charge-state production and photoionization near the K edge in argon and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Azuma, Y.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.; LeBrun, T.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the time-of-flight charge distributions of ions of argon and potassium following x-ray absorption at energies near their respective K edges. We confirm previously observed enhancements of the higher charge states at energies up to 100 eV below the K edge in argon. The measurements confirm recent calculations suggesting excitation of a virtual 1s state in this energy range

  18. Effect of Argon Laser on Enamel Demineralization around Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of argon laser irradiation on development and progress of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.Fifty caries-free, intact human premolars were randomly assigned to one of the following five equal groups: Groups 1 (control and 2: The brackets were bonded using conventional halogen light for 40s and argon laser for 10s, respectively. Teeth in group 3 were lased with argon laser for 10s before bracket bonding with halogen light. Group 4 was the same as group 3 except that brackets were also bonded with argon laser. In group 5 samples were bonded conventionally, immersed in an artificial caries solution for two days and then irradiated for 10s with argon laser. All samples were subjected to demineralization by artificial caries solution for 10 days. After bracket removal, samples were buccolingually sectioned and evaluated by polarized light microscopy. Decalcified lesion depth in each section was measured by a trained examiner in a blind fashion. Data were analyzed in SPSS 14 using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test.The control group showed the greatest mean lesion depth while group 5 revealed the lowest. The laser-treated groups had significantly lower mean lesion depth compared with the control group (P<0.05 except for group 4 (P=0.192.Argon laser irradiation for 10s before or during bracket bonding can increase caries resistance of intact and demineralized enamel.

  19. Condensed argon isentropic compression with ultrahigh magnetic field pressure: Experimental design. Post-shot report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, A.I.; Boriskov, G.V.; Dolotenko, M.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report continues the series of work devoted to experimental study of a high-dense condensed argon state. Remember that according to work of Kwon et. al., hexagonal close-packed structure is profitable in terms of energy rather than face-centered argon structure (stable with zero pressure). What is most interesting and intriguing here is the issue of possible argon metallization, when it is compressed up to the densities more than 9.17 g/cm{sup 3}. In the experiment of 1995 (the arrangement and data are described in a cited reference) the authors recorded appearance of conductivity in argon, which is non-conductive in the initial state, when it is compressed more than a factor of four. The peak value of argon specific conductivity recorded in this experiment did not exceed 10 (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. This value of conductivity is characteristic of semiconductors, but not metals, which have 10{sup 4} (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. At this stage of the work the main attention is paid to recording of argon conductive state and studying the possibilities of multiframed radiography of the sample in the compressed state.

  20. The effect of electrical conductivity on nanosecond discharges in distilled water and in methanol with argon bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Čerņevičs, Kristiāns; Cha, Min Suk

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a liquid’s electrical conductivity (EC) on the physical characteristics of electrical discharges in liquids with gaseous bubbles. Argon gas was supplied into the liquid to form an array of gaseous bubbles in between two electrodes (a pin-to-hollow electrode setup). Methanol and water were considered as base liquids, representing a low and a high dielectric permittivity (ɛ) liquid respectively, while potassium chloride (KCl) was added to control the EC of the liquids. When increasing the EC of the liquids, we found that the discharge probability was reduced by 46% for in-water and 38% for in-methanol discharges. We also found that the injected charge decreased by ~4 µC as the EC increased. Moreover, as the gap distance increased from 1 to 2.5 mm, the injected charge decreased by 2 µC for in-water discharge and by 4 µC for in-methanol discharge. The plasma emission is another important parameter in characterizing discharges. With increasing the EC, the plasma emission volume decreased linearly by a factor of ~5. The plasma lifetime was shortened by around 33% for in-water and 20% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d  =  1 mm, while the decrease was 40% for in-water and 30% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d  =  2.5 mm. Using the broadening characteristics of the Hα line, the electron density was estimated during the first 100 ns by ~3  ×  1017 cm-3 for in-water discharges and by ~2  ×  1018 cm-3 for in-methanol discharges, and it decreased by about one order of magnitude after 800 ns; note that n e dependence on the EC was not significant. The reported findings provide further understanding of electrical discharges in bubbled liquids and highlight the influence of a liquid’s EC, which are useful in the development and optimization of the applications based on such process.

  1. Some Results from Studies of Microwave Discharges in Liquid Heavy Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averin, K. A.; Lebedev, Yu. A.; Shakhatov, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    Some results from studies of microwave discharges in heavy hydrocarbons are presented. Microwave energy was introduced into liquid hydrocarbon via a coaxial line. The pressure above the liquid surface was equal to the atmospheric pressure. The discharge was ignited in a mixture of argon and hydrocarbon vapor. Argon was supplied through a channel in the central conductor of the coaxial line. The emission spectra of discharges in different liquid hydrocarbons were studied. It is shown that the emission spectra mainly consist of sequences of Swan bands, while radiation of other plasma components is on the noise level. Spectra of plasma emission are presented for discharges in liquid n-heptane, nefras, and C-9 oil used to produce chemical fibers. The rotational (gas) and vibrational temperatures are determined by processing the observed spectra.

  2. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  3. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R; Heyes, David M; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2018-02-28

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  4. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  5. Diffusion and evaporation of a liquid droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K. N.

    1980-06-01

    The process of evaporation and diffusion of a spherical liquid droplet in an atmosphere of noncondensable gas is studied theoretically. An equation for the shrinkage of the radius of the droplet is derived on the basis of continuity and momentum equations. Further, a conjugate problem consisting of the energy and mass balance for the gaseous environment is formulated. An approximation of thin thermal and diffusion boundary-layers is introduced to simplify the analysis. Results are presented for methanol-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, and sodium-argon systems. It has been observed that the droplet of highly viscous fluid exhibits rapid contraction.

  6. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  7. Effect of cold argon plasma on eggs of the blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Boonyawan, Dheerawan; Umongno, Chanchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Leksomboon, Rattana; Sukontason, Kom

    2017-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma has been used in many medical applications, including treatment of living cells, blood coagulation, wound healing, and sterilization. The process uses an environmentally friendly gas (e.g., argon, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen) to destroy bacteria cells with no serious adverse effect on humans or animals. However, information on the effect of argon plasma on blow fly eggs is lacking. In this study, we explored the ability of cold argon plasma to destroy the eggs of the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830); its larvae are a myiasis-producing agent in both human and animals. We tested the effect of cold argon plasma exposure for 1, 2, 3 and 5min on L. cuprina eggs. Since the temperature of cold Ar plasma is around 30°C, to clarify the effect of temperature on the fly eggs, hot air from an electric dryer was tested for comparison. Cold argon plasma exposure in eggs significantly reduced the survival rates of second instar larvae at all exposures tested; the effects were time dependent, with a stronger effect at longer exposure (32% survival rate after a 1-min treatment; 20%, 2min; 20%, 3min; and 6%, 5min), compared to the control (86%). No significant differences were observed in larval survival rates from eggs treated with hot air (80-84%, after 1- to 5-min treatments) versus the control (86%). These results were supported by observing the treated eggshells under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found noticeable aberrations only in the plasma treated groups. The emission spectrum of the argon gas discharge revealed emission lines of hydroxyl radicals at 309.1nm; these may cause the deterioration of the treated L. cuprina eggs. Our results have shown the possibility of using cold argon plasma in medical applications, in particular treating myiasis wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of metal nanosuspensions by high-pressure DC-sputtering on running liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M.; Murty, B.S.; Guenther, B. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    A modified VERL-process (vacuum evaporation on running liquids) employing high pressure magnetron sputtering has been used for the preparation of suspensions with metal nanoparticles. The method has been tested for Ag- and Fe-suspensions by varying the pressure of the Argon sputtering atmosphere in the range of 1 to 30 Pa. A narrow particle size distribution with a mean particle size ranging from 5--18 nm has been found. The mean particle size increases with increasing Argon pressure in the pressure range under investigation. A descriptive model for the process of particle formation as a function of sputtering gas pressure is given.

  9. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  10. EPR spectrum of the Y@C82 metallofullerene isolated in solid argon matrix: hyperfine structure from EPR spectroscopy and relativistic DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misochko, Eugenii Ya; Akimov, Alexander V; Belov, Vasilii A; Tyurin, Daniil A; Bubnov, Vyacheslav P; Kareev, Ivan E; Yagubskii, Eduard B

    2010-08-21

    The EPR spectrum of the Y@C(82) molecules isolated in solid argon matrix was recorded for the first time at a temperature of 5 K. The isotropic hyperfine coupling constant (hfcc) A(iso) = 0.12 +/- 0.02 mT on the nucleus (89)Y as derived from the EPR spectrum is found in more than two times greater than that obtained in previous EPR measurements in liquid solutions. Comparison of the measured hfcc on a metal atom with that predicted by density-functional theory calculations (PBE/L22) indicate that relativistic method provides good agreement between experiment in solid argon and theory. Analysis of the DFT calculated dipole-dipole hf-interaction tensor and electron spin distribution in the endometallofullerenes with encaged group 3 metal atoms Sc, Y and La has been performed. It shows that spin density on the scandium atom represents the Sc d(yz) orbital lying in the symmetry plane of the C(2v) fullerene isomer and interacting with two carbon atoms located in the para-position on the fullerene hexagon. In contrast, the configuration of electron spin density on the heavier atoms, Y and La, is associated with the hybridized orbital formed by interaction of the metal d(yz) and p(y) electronic orbitals.

  11. Argon: Systematic Review on Neuro- and Organoprotective Properties of an “Inert” Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Höllig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Argon belongs to the group of noble gases, which are regarded as chemically inert. Astonishingly some of these gases exert biological properties and during the last decades more and more reports demonstrated neuroprotective and organoprotective effects. Recent studies predominately use in vivo or in vitro models for ischemic pathologies to investigate the effect of argon treatment. Promising data has been published concerning pathologies like cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, models applied and administration of the therapeutic gas vary. Here we provide a systematic review to summarize the available data on argon’s neuro- and organoprotective effects and discuss its possible mechanism of action. We aim to provide a summary to allow further studies with a more homogeneous setting to investigate possible clinical applications of argon.

  12. Rotational study on the van der Waals complex 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane-argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Junhua; Feng, Gang; Xia, Zhining; Gou, Qian

    2018-03-15

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex formed between 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane and argon has been investigated by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Only one set of rotational transitions belonging to the lowest energy conformer has been observed and assigned, although theoretical calculations suggest six stable conformers that might be observed. The observed conformer, according to the experimental evidence from two isotopologues ( 35 Cl and 37 Cl), adopts a configuration in which the argon atom is located, close to the CF 2 Cl top, between the CCF and CCCl planes (the dihedral angle ∠ArCCCl is 65.2°). The distance between argon atom and the center of mass of CH 3 CF 2 Cl is 3.949(2) Å. The dissociation energy, with pseudo diatomic approximation, is evaluated to be 2.4kJmol -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of Gamble 2 argon gas puff experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, J.W.; Young, F.C.; Whitney, K.G.; Davis, J.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative MHD analysis of an imploding argon gas puff plasma is performed. The calculations are set up to approximate the conditions of a series of argon gas puff experiments that were carried out on the NRL Gamble II generator. Annular gas puffs (2.5 cm diameter) are imploded with a 1.2-MA peak driving current for different initial argon mass loadings. Comparisons are made with the experimental results for implosion times, K, L-shell x-ray emission, and energy coupled from the generator to the plasma load. The purpose of these calculations is to provide a foundation from which a variety of physical phenomena which influence the power and total energy of the x-ray emission can be analyzed. Comparisons with similar experimental and theoretical results for aluminum plasmas are discussed

  14. Plasma heating and acceleration in current sheets formed in discharges in argon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrie N.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to present notion, flares on the sun and other stars, substorms in magnetospheres of Earth and other planets, and disruptive instabilities in tokamak plasma are connected to development of current sheets in magnetized plasma. Therefore, current sheet dynamics and magnetic reconnection processes were studied actively during the last several decades. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of plasma heating and acceleration in current sheets formed in discharges in argon. The temperature and energy of directed motion of argon ions of different degrees of ionization were measured by spectroscopic methods. It was found that Ar II, Ar III and Ar IV ions are localized in different regions of the sheet. It was shown that Ampere forces applied to the sheet can accelerate the argon ions to observed energies.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of matrix deposition. III. Site structure analysis for porphycene in argon and xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, Alexander; Waluk, Jacek

    2005-08-08

    Porphycene (1) and porphyrin (2), two constitutional isomers, reveal completely different electronic spectral patterns in argon and xenon matrices. For the former the spectra recorded in the two solidified gases resemble each other, whereas for the latter they are completely different. This difference can be rationalized by molecular-dynamics simulations of the structure of the microenvironment carried out for the two chromophores embedded in argon and xenon hosts. For 1, the structure of the main substitutional site is the same for Ar and Xe and consists of a hexagonal cavity obtained by removing seven host atoms from the [111] crystallographic plane. An analogous structure is obtained for 2 in xenon. However, in argon the porphyrin chromophore environment is shared between several different sites, with the number of replaced host atoms ranging from seven to ten. These results demonstrate that a relatively minor structural alternation may lead to major changes in the spectral pattern of molecules embedded in rare-gas cryogenic matrices.

  16. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  17. Cleaning method of aluminium surface by argon discharge for photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Watabe, Hiromi; Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Mathewson, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    In the Photon Factory program of High Energy Research Laboratory, in which the electron storage ring as a photon source stores the electron beam of 2.5 GeV and 500 mA, beam intensity the probability of gas discharge from the inner surface of doughnut wall due to electron bombardment (for 100 eV electorns) must be limited to 1 x 10 -6 or less, according to the estimation by A.G. Mathewson and others. The pressure inside the ring can be maintained at 1 x 10 -9 Torr only with the above probability value. The standard surface treatment of degreasing and evacuation for 24 hours with heating at 150 deg. C can be of no practical use. Since the ion bombardment of surfaces by argon glow discharge is effective for decreasing the probability, the reduction of the probability by argon discharge cleaning was measured with the surface of aluminium, which is planned to be used as the doughnut material. Two methods were employed for the measurement; the one is analysis of gases being discharged, by introducting them to the analyzing chamber during argon discharge and the other is the measurement of the probability when bombardment with electrons of 100 eV is applied, after stopping argon introduction and evacuating after argon discharge had been performed for a definite period. As a result, the probability of approximately 2 x 10 -5 at the beginning of electron beam incidence was obtained by adding argon discharge cleaning to the standard method. This is estimated to correspondent to approximately 25 mA of beam intensity, which is equivalent to 1/20 of the planned value. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. 40Ar/39Ar systematics and argon diffusion in amber: implications for ancient earth atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Snee, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Argon isotope data indicate retained argon in bulk amber (matrix gas) is radiogenic [40Ar/39Ar ???32o] than the much more abundant surface absorbed argon [40Ar/39Ar ???295.5]. Neutron-induced 39Ar is retained in amber during heating experiments to 150?? -250??C, with no evidence of recoiled 39Ar found after irradiation. A maximum permissible volume diffusion coefficient of argon in amber (at ambient temperature) D???1.5 x 10-17 cm2S-1 is calculated from 39Ar retention. 40Ar/39Ar age calculations indicate Dominican Republic amber is ??? 45 Ma and North Dakota amber is ??? 89 Ma, both at least reasonable ages for the amber based upon stratigraphic and paleontological constraints and upon the small amount of radiogenic 40Ar. To date, over 300 gas analyses of ambers and resins of Cretaceous to Recent age that are geographically distributed among fifteen noted world locations identify mixtures of gases in different sites within amber (Berner and Landis, 1988). The presence of multiple mixing trends between compositionally distinct end-members gases within the same sample and evidence for retained radiogenic argon within the amber argue persuasivley against rapid exchange by diffusion of amber-contained gases with moder air. Only gas in primary bubbles entrapped between successive flows of tree resin has been interpreted as original "ancient air", which is an O2-rich end-member gas with air-like N2/Ar ratios. Gas analyses of these primary bubbles indicate atmospheric O2 levels in the Late Cretaceous of ??? 35%, and that atmospheric O2 dropped by early Tertiary time to near a present atmospheric level of 21% O2. A very low argon diffusion coefficient in amber persuasively argues for a gas in primary bubbles trapped in amber being ancient air (possibly modified only by O2 reaction with amber). ?? 1991.

  19. Detection of gas entrainment into liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, T., E-mail: t.vogt@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Boden, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Andruszkiewicz, A. [Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland); Eckert, K. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present liquid metal experiments dedicated to gas entrainment on the free surface. • Ultrasonic and X-ray attenuation techniques have been used to study the mechanisms of gas entrainment. • A comparison between bubbly flow in water and GaInSn showed substantial differences. • Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation. - Abstract: Entrainment of cover gas into the liquid metal coolant is one of the principal safety issues in the design of innovative liquid metal-cooled fast reactors. We present generic experimental studies of this phenomenon in low-melting metals. Ultrasonic and X-ray diagnostic tools were considered for a visualization of gas entrainment at the free surface of the melt. Laboratory experiments were conducted using the eutectic alloy GaInSn, which is liquid at room temperature. Vortex-activated entrainment of air at the free surface of a rotating flow was revealed by ultrasonic techniques. X-ray radioscopy was used to visualize the behavior of argon bubbles inside a slit geometry. The measurements reveal distinct differences between water and GaInSn, especially with respect to the process of bubble formation and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles. Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation.

  20. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  1. Characterization of weakly ionized argon flows for radio blackout mitigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, L.; Koch, U.; Esser, B.; Gülhan, A.

    2017-06-01

    For reproducing the so-called E × B communication blackout mitigation scheme inside the L2K arc heated facility of the DLR in weakly ionized argon §ows, a §at plate model has been equipped with a superconducting magnet, electrodes, and a setup comprising microwave plasma transmission spectroscopy (MPTS). A thorough characterization of the weakly ionized argon §ow has been performed including the use of microwave interferometry (MWI), Langmuir probe measurements, Pitot probe pro¦les, and spectroscopic methods like diode laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS) and emission spectroscopy.

  2. Heat transfer from rarefied ionized argon gas to a biased wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzawa, A.; Honda, T.; Hayashi, T.

    1979-01-01

    The heat transfer rates from an argon plasma jet at 507 Pa to a 0.15-mm-i.d. tungsten wire to which various potentials are applied against the plasma jet were measured and compared with the theoretical calculation. The heat flow rate was obtained from the electric resistance change of the wire. When the wire is biased, the probe current obstructs the accurate measurement. Therefore, the current was cut off by a switching circuit. And, the accommodation coefficients of argon atoms and ions were determined 0.62 and 0.48. (author)

  3. Fast argon ion irradiation effect on the characteristics of silicon planar structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karatetskii, S S; Sokolov, V I

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating by the argon ions with the energy of 40 MeV on the planar structures parameters is studied with the purpose of determining the possibilities of their controlled change. It is shown, that the planar structures irradiation by the argon ions with the energy of 40 MeV leads to decrease in the capacitance of the MOS-condensers and narrows the area of the photosensitivity of the p - n-transitions. The observed effects are explained by the specificity of violations, created by fast ions in the crystal

  4. Flow properties in expansion tube with helium, argon, air, and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    Test flow velocities from 5 to 7 km/sec were generated in a 6-in. expansion tube using helium, argon, air, and CO2 test gases. Pitot pressure profiles across the flow at the test section are presented for the four test gases, and measured flow quantities are compared to computer predicted values. Comparison of predicted and measured flow quantities suggests the expansion to be near thermochemical equilibrium for all test gases and implies the existence of a totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm. Argon, air, and CO2 flows were observed to attenuate while traversing the acceleration section, whereas no attenuation was observed for helium.

  5. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  6. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  7. Mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment: Influence of UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Spaay, B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of the immobilization of the surfactant sodium 10-undecenoate (C11(:)) on poly(ethylene) (PE) by means of an argon plasma treatment has been investigated. In particular, the influence of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the argon plasma on the immobilization was

  8. Pressure effects on some argon spectral lines belonging to the 3p54p-3p5nd (n=5-7) transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnikowski, J.; Wawrzynski, J.; Bielski, A.; Szudy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low pressure broadening and shift of four spectral lines of argon: 518.7 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d'), 522.1 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 7d), 549.6 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 6d) and 603.2 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d) have been investigated by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The values of the pressure broadening and shift coefficients for argon-argon, argon-neon and argon-helium interactions in the low-current glow discharge conditions are determined. For all lines in the pure argon a red shift and in the argon-neon and argon-helium mixtures a blue shift has been found. The results cannot be interpreted on the basis of the existing simple interaction potential models within the framework of the adiabatic impact broadening theory. (orig.)

  9. Proton and antiproton interactions in hydrogen, argon and xenon at 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, P.

    1984-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the production of particles emitted into forward hemisphere in 200 GeV proton and antiproton interactions with hydrogen, argon and xenon targets is presented. Two-particle rapidity correlations and long-range multiplicity correlations are also discussed. (author)

  10. Accurate description of argon and water adsorption on surfaces of graphene-based carbon allotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysilka, Jiří; Rubeš, Miroslav; Grajciar, Lukáš; Nachtigall, Petr; Bludský, Ota

    2011-10-20

    Accurate interaction energies of nonpolar (argon) and polar (water) adsorbates with graphene-based carbon allotropes were calculated by means of a combined density functional theory (DFT)-ab initio computational scheme. The calculated interaction energy of argon with graphite (-9.7 kJ mol(-1)) is in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The calculated interaction energy of water with graphene and graphite is -12.8 and -14.6 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The accuracy of combined DFT-ab initio methods is discussed in detail based on a comparison with the highly precise interaction energies of argon and water with coronene obtained at the coupled-cluster CCSD(T) level extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. A new strategy for a reliable estimate of the CBS limit is proposed for systems where numerical instabilities occur owing to basis-set near-linear dependence. The most accurate estimate of the argon and water interaction with coronene (-8.1 and -14.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively) is compared with the results of other methods used for the accurate description of weak intermolecular interactions.

  11. Transport diffusion of argon in AIPO4-5 from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jacob; Tepper, H.L.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Briels, Willem J.

    2000-01-01

    Transport diffusion of argon in the unidirectional channels of the molecular sieve AlPO4-5 has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Using the Green–Kubo formalism, this nonequilibrium property is, for the first time, extracted from just one equilibrium simulation. Apart from the

  12. Ab initio ground state phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulski, Hubert; Fernandez, Berta; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface by fitting a representative number of ab initio interaction energies to an analytic function. These energies are calculated at a grid of intermolecular geometries, using the CCSD(T) method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set ...... Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4742153]...

  13. Experimental study of a negative corona in atmospheric-pressure argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandaron, G.-N. B.; Baldanov, B. B.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of a negative point-to-plane dc corona in atmospheric-pressure argon. Several operating modes are identified: a hysteresis region, a repetitive mode, and a glow-discharge mode. The effect of gas-dynamic parameters on the characteristics of a repetitive negative corona is investigated

  14. Low-Temperature Positive Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Neat and Argon-Diluted Organic Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Harry T.; Michl, Josef; King, Robert N.; Andrade, Joseph D.

    1978-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry of neat solid propane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene, and of propane imbedded in an argon matrix were observed at temperatures varying from 10 to 110 K and show fragmentation patterns similar to those known from ordinary electron impact mass spectrometry. The effects of

  15. The argon spectrum in the range of 1200-2000 cm.sup.-1./sup.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zanozina, Ekaterina; Naskidashvili, A. V.; Chernov, V. E.; Civiš, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Ferus, Martin; Juha, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 5 (2016), s. 655-664 ISSN 0030-400X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : atomic argon * time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy * quantum-defect method Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2016

  16. Pilot study about dose-effect relationship of ocular injury in argon laser photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Zhang, C. P.; Fu, X. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Wang, C. Z.; Qian, H. W.; San, Q.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this article was to study the injury effect of either convergent or parallel argon laser beam on rabbit retina, get the dose-effect relationship for the two types of laser beams, and calculate the damage threshold of argon laser for human retinas. An argon laser therapeutic instrument for ophthalmology was used in this study. A total of 80 rabbit eyes were irradiated for 600 lesions, half of which were treated by convergent laser and the other half were done with parallel laser beam. After irradiation, slit lamp microscope and fundus photography were used to observe the lesions, change and the incidence of injury was processed statistically to get the damage threshold of rabbit retina. Based on results from the experiments on animals and the data from clinical cases of laser treatment, the photocoagulation damage thresholds of human retinas for convergent and parallel argon laser were calculated to be 0.464 and 0.285 mJ respectively. These data provided biological reference for safely operation when employing laser photocoagulation in clinical practice and other fields.

  17. Fabrication of poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-switching diodes using thermal nanoimprint lithography and argon milling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kettle, J.; Whitelegg, S.; Song, M.; Madec, M. B.; Yeates, S.; Turner, M. L.; Kotačka, L.; Kolařík, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2009), s. 2801-2804 ISSN 1071-1023 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/2325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : argon * milling * nanolithography * organic semiconductors * semiconductor diodes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.460, year: 2009

  18. Gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronie, E.

    1982-08-01

    A method of gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxygen, is presented. Experiments were carried out in a static system. Conditions for the application of the method in dynamic systems are specified. Sensibility of the method: 5 10 -4 cm 3 Ar per cm 3 of air. (author)

  19. Contribution to the evaluation of diffusion coefficients in plasmas containing argon and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N V

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical values of the numerical evaluation of the electron and ion diffusion coefficients in plasmas from mixtures of argon and fluorine are presented. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for low-pressure (from 0.1 to 1.0 kPa) and low-temperature (from 500 to 5000 K) argon plasmas with 20% and 30% of added fluorine are investigated. These values are results of the applications of the specific numerical model to the evaluation plasma composition and transport coefficients in argon plasma with fluorine as additive. It is assumed that the system is kept under constant pressure and that a corresponding state of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) is attained. Since the LTE can be assumed, a Maxwellian electron distribution function will be adopted. The hypothesis of LTE, which is commonly used in most of the numerical evaluations, is analysed with the modified Debye radius r D *. The binary electron and ion diffusion coefficients are calculated with the equilibrium plasma composition and with the collision frequencies. Strictly speaking, Maxwellian distribution function (in the state LTE) is not valid for low pressure, but in this case with the aid of the modified Debye radius, a Maxwellian f e M is assumed correctly. It is shown that the electron diffusion coefficients are about four orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding overall diffusion coefficients of ions. Both diffusion coefficients are lower in argon plasma with 30% than with 20% of fluorine additives, in the whole temperature range examined

  20. Electronic excitation in XPS spectra of argon and potassium implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, M.

    1988-01-01

    XPS (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy) spectra were obtained for argon and potassium implanted in aluminium to study the plasmons excitation which are produced during photoemission. It was found that in these systems it was produced more intrinsic plasmons than extrinsic. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Influence of argon on temperature modulation and neurological outcome in hypothermia treated rats following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Anne; Bleilevens, Christian; Föhr, Philipp; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Combining xenon and mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) after cardiac arrest (CA) confers a degree of protection that is greater than either of the two interventions alone. However, xenon is very costly which might preclude a widespread use. We investigated whether the inexpensive gas argon would enhance hypothermia induced neurologic recovery in a similar manner. Following nine minutes of CA and three minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive MTH (33°C for 6h), MTH plus argon (70% for 1h), or no treatment. A first day condition score assessed behaviour, motor activity and overall condition. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for seven days following the experiment before the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analysis. All animals survived. Animals that received MTH alone showed best overall neurologic function. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in the argon-augmented MTH group, where animals showed worse neurologic outcome being significant in the first day condition score and on day one to three and five in the NDS in comparison to MTH treated rats. Results were reflected by the neurohistopathological analysis. Our study demonstrates that argon augmented MTH does not improve functional recovery after CA in rats, but may even worsen neurologic function in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  3. Removal of pendant groups of vinyl polymers by argon plasma treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, L.M.H.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were treated with an argon plasma to create unsaturated bonds at the surface. By use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared measurements, it was shown that the pendant groups of these polymers are removed by the

  4. Implantation of keV-energy argon clusters and radiation damage in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2012-01-01

    We show that for impacting argon clusters, both mean projected ranges of the constituents and depths of radiation damage in diamond scale linearly with momentum. The same dependence was earlier found for keV-energy cluster implantation in graphite, thus suggesting the universality of this scaling...

  5. Impact of keV-energy argon clusters on diamond and graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2012-01-01

    the graphene planes, significant radiation damage is already introduced by impact of clusters with low kinetic energies (a few tens of eV/atom). However, collisions of the argon clusters cause very elastic response of the graphene planes that leads to efficient closure of the craters which could be formed...

  6. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why t...

  7. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de...

  8. First Measurement of one Pion Production in Charged Current Neutrino and Antineutrino events on Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Scanavini,Giacomo [Yale U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a work done in the context of the Fermilab Neutrino Intensity Frontier. In this analysis, the cross section of single charged pion production in charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions with the argon nucleus target are measured. These measurements are performed using the Argon Neutrino Test (ArgoNeuT) detector exposed to the Fermilab Neutrino From The Main Injector (NuMI) beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The signal is a charged-current μ interaction in the detector, with exactly one charged pion exiting the target nucleus, with momentum above 100 MeV/c. There shouldn’t be any 0 or kaons in the final state. There is no restriction on other mesons or nucleons. Total and differential cross section measurements are presented. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum, outgoing pion angle and angle between outgoing pion and muon. The total cross sections, averaged over the flux, are found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 (stat) +0.9 -1.1 (syst) × 10-38 cm2 per argon nuclei and 2.5 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst) × 10-37 cm2 per argon nuclei for antineutrino and neutrino respectively at a mean neutrino energy of 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos) and 9.6 GeV (neutrinos). This is the first time the single pion production in charged-current interactions cross section is measured on argon nuclei.

  9. Plasma of Argon Increases Cell Attachment and Bacterial Decontamination on Different Implant Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canullo, Luigi; Genova, Tullio; Wang, Hom-Lay; Carossa, Stefano; Mussano, Federico

    This in vitro study tested the effects of argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) on different implant surfaces with regard to physical changes, bacterial decontamination, and osteoblast adhesion. Seven hundred twenty disks with three different surface topographies-machined (MAC), titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS), and zirconia-blasted and acid-etched (ZRT)-were tested in this experiment. Bacterial adhesion tests were performed repeatedly on a simplified biofilm of Streptococcus mitis. Bacteria were incubated in the presence of the samples, which were subsequently either left untreated as controls or treated with APDBD for 30, 60, and 120 seconds. Samples were then metalized, prior to the recurring acquisition of images using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Protein adsorption, surface wettability, and early biologic response were determined for both treated (120 seconds) and untreated implant surfaces. For depicting the eukaryotic cell behavior, preosteoblastic murine cells were used. Cells were conveniently stained, and nuclei were counted. Cell viability was assessed by a chemiluminescent assay at 1, 2, and 3 days. On all treated samples, values of the contact angle measurements were lower than 10 degrees. The untreated samples showed values of contact angle of 80, 100, and 110 degrees, respectively, for MAC, TPS, and ZRT. The protein adsorption on TPS and ZRT was significantly increased after the plasma of argon treatment. However, no significant effect was noted on the MAC disks. The number and the cell spreading area of adherent osteoblasts significantly increased in all treated surfaces. Nonetheless, argon treatment did not influence the osteoblast proliferation and viability at different time points. Bacteria adhesion was significantly reduced, even after 60 seconds of argon treatment. Preliminary data showed that argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge disinfected the implant surface, with potential to promote

  10. Metastable liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Balibar, S

    2003-01-01

    How far can one supercool a liquid before it crystallizes? How much can one stretch it before cavitation occurs? In order to answer such questions, we have studied liquid helium, a model system. In this review, we show the limitations of the elementary 'standard nucleation theory'. We then show that the existence of 'spinodal' limits needs to be considered in the framework of 'density functional' methods. We also briefly consider the possibility of nucleation by quantum tunnelling. The main emphasis is on cavitation and crystallization in liquid helium, but we also mention several connections with more classical systems, in particular water.

  11. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  12. Reaction of coal in argon and argon--hydrogen plasmas. [Produces H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, C/sub 4/H/sub 2/, and oxides of C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, W.; Graves, R.D.; Hiteshue, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    Coals of various rank were reacted by the Bureau of Mines in plasma jets generated from argon and argon-hydrogen mixtures containing up to 33 volume-percent hydrogen. Average plasma temperatures ranged from about 3,400 to 12,000/sup 0/C. Products were a solid residue and a gas containing hydrogen, methane, acetylene, diacetylene, and oxides of carbon. The highest yield of acetylene obtained with argon plasmas was 15 percent by weight of moisture- and ash-free coal. The data indicated that acetylene yields of 40 percent of higher can be obtained from the reaction of coal in argon-hydrogen plasmas, although results from these experiments could not be correlated with operating variables because of low recoveries. The plasmas contained sufficient energy to heat the coal to temperatures as high as 9,000/sup 0/ or 10,000/sup 0/C, but complete devolatilization did not occur in any experiment.

  13. Argon-41 ALARA, or reduction of argon-41 released from the OSTR by use of a nitrogen purging system for the rotating rack facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    During a generally concurrent era, the NRC began emphasizing the concept of keeping all radiation doses and releases of radioactivity to the environment 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). In much the same way as the physical security regulations were expanded, the ALARA idea was defined for a number of different NRC licensee categories, but the underlying principle remained the same, namely, reduce occupational doses and releases of radioactivity. In keeping with this NRC policy (i.e., regulatory requirement), the OSTR staff conducted a study of the argon-41 production sites throughout the facility, with the idea of minimizing the production without increasing the potential for higher occupational doses to the staff. The reduction in argon-41 production and release should, after a full year's implementation, result in the 41.68 curie value documented for the past reporting year (July 1, 1980 through June 30, 1981) being cut to about 9 curies per year. This value is based on the fact that the LN purging system was used about the last four months of the stated reporting period. From a dose commitment standpoint, this should reduce the maximum projected annual dose in the unrestricted area under the worst case hypothetical conditions from the currently estimated 1.04 mrem per year to about 0.23 mrem per year

  14. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon; Compilacion de resultados de secciones eficaces de excitacion para niveles del Argon neutro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-07-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs.

  15. Thermodynamic description of liquid-state limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Leslie V

    2012-03-29

    A state of random close packing (RCP) of spheres is found to have a thermodynamic status and a fundamental role in the description of liquid-state equilibria. The RCP limiting amorphous ground state, with reproducible density and well-characterized structure, is obtained by well-defined irreversible and reversible processes. The limiting packing fraction y(RCP) = 0.6366 ± 0.0005 (Buffon's constant within the uncertainty), and a residual entropy per sphere ΔS((RCP-FCC)) is approximately equal to k(B) (Boltzmann's constant). Since the Mayer virial expansion does not represent dense fluid equations-of-state for densities exceeding the available-volume percolation transition (ρ(pa)), we infer that a RCP state belongs to the same thermodynamic phase as prepercolation equilibrium dense hard-sphere fluid and likewise for hard-core fluids with attractive forces. Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the liquid-state coexistence properties of square-well (SW) attractive spheres, together with existing MC results for liquid-vapor coexistence in the SW fluid, support this conclusion. Further findings for liquid-vapor coexistence limits are reported. The extremely weak second-order available-volume percolation transition of the hard-sphere fluid is strengthened by square-well perturbation as temperature is reduced. At the critical temperature, this transition becomes first order, whereupon a liquid at the percolation density coexists in thermodynamic equilibrium with its vapor at a lower density. The critical coexisting vapor density relates to the extended-volume bonded cluster percolation transition ρ(pe)(λ) defined for given well width (λ). Taking experimental liquid argon data as an example, it can be seen that the thermodynamic description of the coexistence limits, found here for square-well fluids, applies to real liquids.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopy of Naphthalene Aggregation and Cluster Formation in Argon Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, J. E.; Allamondola, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier-transform mid-infrared absorption spectra of mixed argon/naphthalene matrices at 5 K are shown with ratios of argon-to-naphthalene that vary from 1000 to 0. These spectra show the changes as naphthalene clustering and aggregation occurs, with moderate spectral shifts affecting the C-H vibrational modes and relatively small or no shifts to the C-C and C-C-C vibrational modes. The possible contribution of homogeneous naphthalene clusters to the interstellar unidentified infrared bands is discussed. The contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters to the 7.7 micron emission plateau and the blue shading of the 12.7 micron emission band are identified as promising candidates for future research. In addition, since PAH clusters are model components of Jupiter and Titan's atmospheres, the information presented here may also be applicable to the spectroscopy of these objects.

  17. Oxidized dahlia-like carbon nanohorns: adsorption of argon, methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Migone, Aldo; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2010-03-01

    Different types of nanohorns, and nanohorn aggregates, can be produced depending on the parameters used during their production. We used a sample consisting mainly of dahlia-like nanohorn aggregates. In the dahlia-like aggregates the individual nanohorns are aligned radially, forming a sphere, with their individual ends protruding from the outer surface of the spherule. Our sample was oxidized by flowing pure oxygen. This treatment opened entry ports into the spaces at the interior of the individual nanohorns. We measured volumetric adsorption isotherms at 77.3 K with argon, methane, and nitrogen. For argon and methane two distinct substeps are present in the adsorption data; the steps for each of these two gases are comparable in size. For nitrogen there is a clear step present at lower adsorbent loadings, and a more gradual growth in the amount adsorbed as saturation is approached.

  18. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    1996-01-01

    Argon L 2.3 -M 2.3 M 2.3 Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with Kα fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons

  19. Reparative processes of the iris after irradiation with the argon-ion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.K.; Zypen, E. van der; Fankhauser, F.

    1979-01-01

    The reparative processes of the pigmented iris of the rabbit were analysed with ultrastructural methods. Clearing of the damaged area by macrophages is the first step in the reparative processes. Clump cells are macrophages which are observed from the first day of the injury until the ninth week. Repair of the anterior surface of the iris is largely finished after 32 days. The repair of collagenous fibres reaches its maximum activity 32 days after irradiation. The pigment epithelium has only an insignificant regeneration potential. Irradiation of the iris by the argon-ion laser results in an atropic, hyperpigmented scar. The rapid regeneration of a lesion induced by the argon-ion laser in the rabbit iris casts doubt as to whether this method could be applied to the human eye with equal success. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MB

  20. Investigation of the continuum radiation from a high pressure argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, J.; Chapelle, J.

    1975-01-01

    At the high electronic densities existing in high temperature strongly correlated plasmas (with number of electrons in the Debye sphere Nd<<1) it is sometimes difficult to find lines for which Stark broadening allows determination of electronic density. Since the broadening effect is rather strong, the lines overlap or could not be easily extracted from the intense continuous background. The continuum emission in the UV, visible and near infra-red regions, principally due to the radiative recombination, could thus be widely used for the diagnostics of such plasmas. So far a limited number of data on the continuum emission of Argon plasma is available. At the same time certain discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experiments have also been found. The aim of this work is to obtain more elaborated data on the Argon continuum emission at high pressure, where the differences were found to be the largest. (Auth.)

  1. Nanometer-scale sharpening and surface roughening of ZnO nanorods by argon ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shyamal; Behera, Akshaya K.; Banerjee, Amarabha; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Som, Tapobrata; Ayyub, Pushan

    2012-07-01

    We report the effects of exposing a hydrothermally grown, single crystalline ZnO nanorod array to a beam of 50 keV argon ions at room temperature. High resolution electron microscopy reveals that the ion bombardment results in a nanometer-scale roughening of the nanorod sidewalls, which were almost atomically flat in the pristine sample. Ion bombardment further causes the flat, ≈100 nm diameter nanorod tips to get sharpened to ultrafine points less than 10 nm across. While tip sharpening is attributed to preferential sputtering, the formation of crystalline surface protuberances can be ascribed to surface instability due to curvature dependent sputtering and surface diffusion under argon-ion bombardment. Both the nanoscale roughening as well as the tip sharpening are expected to favorably impact a wide variety of applications, such as those involving catalysis, gas sensing, solar cells, field emission and gas discharge.

  2. Nanometer-scale sharpening and surface roughening of ZnO nanorods by argon ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Shyamal, E-mail: shyamal@iitbbs.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Behera, Akshaya K. [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Banerjee, Amarabha; Tribedi, Lokesh C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Som, Tapobrata [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: pushan@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-07-01

    We report the effects of exposing a hydrothermally grown, single crystalline ZnO nanorod array to a beam of 50 keV argon ions at room temperature. High resolution electron microscopy reveals that the ion bombardment results in a nanometer-scale roughening of the nanorod sidewalls, which were almost atomically flat in the pristine sample. Ion bombardment further causes the flat, Almost-Equal-To 100 nm diameter nanorod tips to get sharpened to ultrafine points less than 10 nm across. While tip sharpening is attributed to preferential sputtering, the formation of crystalline surface protuberances can be ascribed to surface instability due to curvature dependent sputtering and surface diffusion under argon-ion bombardment. Both the nanoscale roughening as well as the tip sharpening are expected to favorably impact a wide variety of applications, such as those involving catalysis, gas sensing, solar cells, field emission and gas discharge.

  3. Tensile strength of laser welded cobalt-chromium alloy with and without an argon atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Anna; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2010-06-01

    The tensile strength and depth of weld of two cobalt chromium alloys before and after laser welding with and without an argon gas atmosphere were investigated. Using two cobalt chromium alloys, rod shaped specimens (5 cm x 1.5 mm) were cast. Specimens were sand blasted, sectioned and welded with a pulsed Nd: YAG laser welding machine and tested in tension using an Instron universal testing machine. A statistically significant difference in tensile strength was observed between the two alloys. The tensile strength of specimens following laser welding was significantly less than the unwelded controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the micro-structure of the cast alloy was altered in the region of the weld. No statistically significant difference was found between specimens welded with or without an argon atmosphere.

  4. Mallory-Weiss sendromunun argon plazma koagülasyonu ile tedavisi

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAŞ, Mehmet; KORKUT, Esin; İDİLMAN, Ramazan; KESKİN, Onur; ÜSTÜN, Yusuf; GUPTA, Vikas; BAHAR, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Endoskopik hemostaz metotları Mallory-Weiss Sendromuna ba¤lı üst gastrointestinal kanamalarda güvenli ve etkin bir yaklaşım olarak kabul edilmektedir. Kronik öksürü¤ü olan 62 yaşındaki bir erkek hasta ve 27 yaşında 10 haftalık gebe hasta klini¤imize ciddi hematemez bulgularıyla başvurdu. Bu hastalara üst gastrointestinal endoskopi uygulandı ve Mallory Weiss sendromu tanısı kondu. İşlem sırasında koagülum ve visible vessel görüldü ve bu lezyonlara argon plazma koagülasyonu uygulandı. Argon pl...

  5. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of argon atoms in an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeler, M L; Flores-Rueda, H; Wright, J D; Morgan, T J [Physics Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06457 (United States)

    2004-02-28

    We have measured the scaled-energy absorption spectra of argon Rydberg states in a uniform electric field. The experiment utilized laser spectroscopy from the metastable 4s[3/2]{sub 2} state in a fast atom beam. The scaled absorption spectra are Fourier transformed to obtain recurrence spectra that allow semiclassical analysis. Argon recurrence spectra reveal bias towards populating downhill-oriented classical trajectories and show large-scale modulations. A quantum calculation indicates that the asymmetric trajectory distribution is caused by the large p-quantum defect and that d-f excitation from the initial metastable state is influential in shaping the observed oscillations in the recurrence maps. The analysis serves to highlight the correspondence between quantum oscillator strengths and classical orbits.

  6. Simulation of propagation of the HPM in the low-pressure argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigang, LI; Zhongcai, YUAN; Jiachun, WANG; Jiaming, SHI

    2018-02-01

    The propagation of the high-power microwave (HPM) with a frequency of 6 GHz in the low-pressure argon plasma was studied by the method of fluid approximation. The two-dimensional transmission model was built based on the wave equation, the electron drift-diffusion equations and the heavy species transport equations, which were solved by means of COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation results showed that the propagation characteristic of the HPM was closely related to the average electron density of the plasma. The attenuation of the transmitted wave increased nonlinearly with the electron density. Specifically, the growth of the attenuation slowed down as the electron density increased uniformly. In addition, the concrete transmission process of the HPM wave in the low-pressure argon plasma was given.

  7. Metastable decay of argon clusters after photoionisation at high excess energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.; Vries, J. de; Kamke, W.; Hertel, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently Maerk and collaborators reported the metastable emission of large fractions from argon and neon cluster ions after electron impact ionisation at high excess energies. The decay was interpreted as the result of an intra-cluster excitation of a metastable state by one of the electrons involved in the ionisation process. Here we report the first direct observation of such a correlated two electron process during photoionisation of argon clusters using synchrotron radiation and the TPEPICO technique. We observe at least two distinct maxima of the metastable TPEPICO spectrum at around 27 eV and 28.5 eV, the former being consistent with the previously reported energetic threshold for electron impact ionisation. (orig.)

  8. Modelling of indium(I) iodide-argon low pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Truong, W; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2014-01-01

    A new collisional-radiative model for a mercury-free low pressure plasma based on an indium(I) iodide-argon system is presented. The electron impact cross sections and rate coefficients for ionization, excitation and dissociation, as well as de-excitation, three-body recombination and dissociative recombination, of studied fillings have been calculated. Additionally, the coefficients for free and ambipolar diffusion were determined. The rate balance equations for individual generation and loss processes have been created. Densities of ions, electrons and neutral particles (ground or metastable state) are presented as a function of electron temperature for varied lamp parameters, such as argon buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature (coldest point of discharge vessel). With the help of the presented model, the line emission coefficients of essential emission lines of indium for given electron temperatures and densities can be predicted. (paper)

  9. A simplified model for computing equation of state of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Caixia; Tian Yangmeng

    2006-01-01

    The paper present a simplified new model of computing equation of state and ionization degree of Argon plasma, which based on Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical model: the authors fitted the numerical results of the ionization potential calculated by Thomas-Fermi statistical model and gained the analytical function of the potential versus the degree of ionization, then calculated the ionization potential and the average degree of ionization for Argon versus temperature and density in local thermal equilibrium case at 10-1000 eV. The results calculated of this simplified model are basically in agreement with several sets of theory data and experimental data. This simplified model can be used to calculation of the equation of state of plasmas mixture and is expected to have a more wide use in the field of EML technology involving the strongly ionized plasmas. (authors)

  10. Surface modification of fluorosilicone acrylate RGP contact lens via low-temperature argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shiheng; Wang Yingjun; Ren Li; Zhao Lianna; Kuang Tongchun; Chen Hao; Qu Jia

    2008-01-01

    A fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was modified via argon plasma to improve surface hydrophilicity and resistance to protein deposition. The influence of plasma treatment on surface chemical structure, hydrophilicity and morphology of RGP lens was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The contact angle results showed that the hydrophilicity of the contact lens was improved after plasma treatment. XPS results indicated that the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups on surface and the transformation of silicone into hydrophilic silicate after plasma treatment are the main reasons for the surface hydrophilicity improvement. SEM results showed that argon plasma with higher power could lead to surface etching

  11. Vibrational Spectra of Linear BC3 and Linear B2C2 in Argon at 10K(a)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presilla-Marquez, Jose

    1998-01-01

    .... Mixtures of boron and carbon powders were vaporized in a resistively heated ( 3000 K) oven. BC3 was produced during co-deposition of the vapors with argon onto a CsI substrate maintained at 10 K...

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  13. The influence of methane/argon plasma composition on the formation of the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Weng, Chih-Chiang; Hsieh, Jui-Fu; Chang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsien; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the a-C:H films was particularly correlated with the mixed ratio of methane/argon plasma. For a constant supply of energy and flowing rate, the optical emission from H α intensity linearly increased with the addition of methane in argon plasma, while that from intensities of radiation of diatmoic radicals (CH*and C 2 *) exponentially decreased. For the a-C:H films, the added methane in argon plasma tended to raise the quantity of hydrogenated carbon or sp 3 C-H structure, which exponentially decreased the nano-hardness and friction coefficient of the films. In contrast, the electric resistance of the films enlarged dramatically with the increase of the methane content in argon plasma. It is therefore advantageous to balance the mechanical properties and electrical resistance of the a-C:H film by adjusting plasma composition in the course of the film-growing process.

  14. Simulation of charged and excited particle transport in the low-current discharge in argon-mercury mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, G G; Fisher, M R; Kristya, V I

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of the electron, ion and metastable excited atom transport in the argon-mercury mixture low-current discharge is fulfilled. Distributions of the particle densities along the discharge gap under different mixture temperatures are obtained and it is demonstrated that the principal mechanism of mercury ion generation is the Penning ionization of mercury atoms by argon metastables, which contribution grows sharply with the mixture temperature due to mercury density increase. Calculations show that the mercury and argon ion flow densities near the cathode are of the same order already under the relative mercury content of about 10 −4 corresponding at the argon pressure 10 3 Pa to the mixture temperature 30 C. Therefore, at the room temperature the electrodes of mercury illuminating lamps at the stage of their ignition are sputtered predominantly by mercury ions.

  15. Diamond-like carbon and nanocrystalline diamond film surfaces sputtered by argon cluster ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Houdková, Jana; Artemenko, Anna; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, Sep (2016), s. 37-41 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond-like carbon * nanocrystalline diamond * argon cluster ion beam * XPS * C sp2 * C sp3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2016