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Sample records for alleles

  1. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Soderlund

    Full Text Available Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor, where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense, and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available

  2. Delimiting Allelic Imbalance of TYMS by Allele-Specific Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Beltrán, Emilia; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel; Barros, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Allelic imbalance of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is attributed to polymorphisms in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR). These polymorphisms have been related to the risk of suffering different cancers, for example leukemia, breast or gastric cancer, and response to different drugs, among which are methotrexate glutamates, stavudine, and specifically 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as TYMS is its direct target. A vast literature has been published in relation to 5-FU, even suggesting the sole use of these polymorphisms to effectively manage 5-FU dosage. Estimates of the extent to which these polymorphisms influence in TYMS expression have in the past been based on functional analysis by luciferase assays and quantification of TYMS mRNA, but both these studies, as the association studies with cancer risk or with toxicity or response to 5-FU, are very contradictory. Regarding functional assays, the artificial genetic environment created in luciferase assay and the problems derived from quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs), for example the use of a reference gene, may have distorted the results. To avoid these sources of interference, we have analyzed the allelic imbalance of TYMS by allelic-specific analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients.Allelic imbalance in PBMCs, taken from 40 patients with suspected myeloproliferative haematological diseases, was determined by fluorescent fragment analysis (for the 3'-UTR polymorphism), Sanger sequencing and allelic-specific qPCR in multiplex (for the 5'-UTR polymorphisms).For neither the 3'- nor the 5'-UTR polymorphisms did the observed allelic imbalance exceed 1.5 fold. None of the TYMS polymorphisms is statistically associated with allelic imbalance.The results acquired allow us to deny the previously established assertion of an influence of 2 to 4 fold of the rs45445694 and rs2853542 polymorphisms in the expression of TYMS and narrow its allelic imbalance to 1.5 fold, in our population

  3. Assessment of the myostatin Q204X allele using an allelic discrimination assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Puentes-Montiel,Herlinda E.; Moreno-Medina,Víctor R.; Rosa-Reyna,Xóchitl F. de la

    2006-01-01

    An allelic discrimination assay was designed and used to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the myostatin (MSTN) gene Q204X allele from two Mexican Full-French herds. The assay is a simple high throughput genotyping method that could be applied to investigate the effect of the Q204X allele on the Charolais breed.

  4. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  5. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles are associated with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans O.

    2002-01-01

    /GCA, MBL variant alleles were associated with signs of increased inflammatory activity and clinical signs of arteritic manifestations. This was not found for HLA-DR4 alleles. These findings indicate that HLA-DR4 and MBL are contributing to the pathophysiology of GCA at different levels in the disease...... alleles in controls, patients with PMR only, and patients with GCA was 37, 32, and 53% (p = 0.01), respectively. HLA-DRB1*04 was found in 47% of patients with PMR only and in 54% of patients with GCA, which differed significantly from the 35% found in controls (p = 0.01). HLA-DR4 alleles were...... not associated with any clinical phenotypes of PMR/GCA, whereas MBL variant alleles were associated with cranial arteritis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and low B-hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: We found MBL variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles to be weak susceptibility markers for GCA. In patients with PMR...

  6. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  7. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  8. Abnormal segregation of alleles in CEPH pedigree DNAs arising from allele loss in lymphoblastoid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1993-01-01

    Somatic events that result in the reduction to hemi- or homozygosity at all loci affected by the event have been identified in lymphoblastoid DNA from mothers of two CEPH families. Using suitably informative probes, the allele deficiencies were detected by the abnormal transmission of alleles from grandparents to grandchildren, with the apparent absence of the alleles from the parent. Undetected somatic deficiencies in family DNAs could result in misscoring of recombination events and consequently introduce errors into linkage analysis.

  9. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per

    2015-01-01

    the possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility...... of RNA sequencing. The visualization features can reveal notable, non-trivial allelic imbalance behavior over specific regions, such as exons. Conclusions: The software provides a complete framework to perform allelic imbalance analyses of aligned RNA sequencing data, from detection to visualization...

  10. Estimated allele substitution effects underlying genomic evaluation models depend on the scaling of allele counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Aniek C.; Hayes, Ben J.; Calus, Mario P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genomic evaluation is used to predict direct genomic values (DGV) for selection candidates in breeding programs, but also to estimate allele substitution effects (ASE) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Scaling of allele counts influences the estimated ASE, because scaling of

  11. Enhancement of allele discrimination by introduction of nucleotide mismatches into siRNA in allele-specific gene silencing by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi is therapeutically useful for specifically inhibiting the expression of disease-associated alleles without suppressing the expression of corresponding wild-type alleles. To realize such allele-specific RNAi (ASP-RNAi, the design and assessment of small interfering RNA (siRNA duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi is vital; however, it is also difficult. In a previous study, we developed an assay system to assess ASP-RNAi with mutant and wild-type reporter alleles encoding the Photinus and Renilla luciferase genes. In line with experiments using the system, we realized that it is necessary and important to enhance allele discrimination between mutant and corresponding wild-type alleles. Here, we describe the improvement of ASP-RNAi against mutant alleles carrying single nucleotide variations by introducing base substitutions into siRNA sequences, where original variations are present in the central position. Artificially mismatched siRNAs or short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs against mutant alleles of the human Prion Protein (PRNP gene, which appear to be associated with susceptibility to prion diseases, were examined using this assessment system. The data indicates that introduction of a one-base mismatch into the siRNAs and shRNAs was able to enhance discrimination between the mutant and wild-type alleles. Interestingly, the introduced mismatches that conferred marked improvement in ASP-RNAi, appeared to be largely present in the guide siRNA elements, corresponding to the 'seed region' of microRNAs. Due to the essential role of the 'seed region' of microRNAs in their association with target RNAs, it is conceivable that disruption of the base-pairing interactions in the corresponding seed region, as well as the central position (involved in cleavage of target RNAs, of guide siRNA elements could influence allele discrimination. In addition, we also suggest that nucleotide mismatches at the 3'-ends of sense

  12. Human minisatellite alleles detectable only after PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that a proportion of alleles at two human minisatellite loci is undetected by standard Southern blot hybridization. In each case the missing allele(s) can be identified after PCR amplification and correspond to tandem arrays too short to detect by hybridization. At one locus, there is only one undetected allele (population frequency 0.3), which contains just three repeat units. At the second locus, there are at least five undetected alleles (total population frequency 0.9) containing 60-120 repeats; they are not detected because these tandem repeats give very poor signals when used as a probe in standard Southern blot hybridization, and also cross-hybridize with other sequences in the genome. Under these circumstances only signals from the longest tandemly repeated alleles are detectable above the nonspecific background. The structures of these loci have been compared in human and primate DNA, and at one locus the short human allele containing three repeat units is shown to be an intermediate state in the expansion of a monomeric precursor allele in primates to high copy number in the longer human arrays. We discuss the implications of such loci for studies of human populations, minisatellite isolation by cloning, and the evolution of highly variable tandem arrays.

  13. A strategy to discover genes that carry multi-allelic or mono-allelic risk for common diseases: A cohort allelic sums test (CAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenthaler, Stephan; Thilly, William G.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described to discover if a gene carries one or more allelic mutations that confer risk for any specified common disease. The method does not depend upon genetic linkage of risk-conferring mutations to high frequency genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Instead, the sums of allelic mutation frequencies in case and control cohorts are determined and a statistical test is applied to discover if the difference in these sums is greater than would be expected by chance. A statistical model is presented that defines the ability of such tests to detect significant gene-disease relationships as a function of case and control cohort sizes and key confounding variables: zygosity and genicity, environmental risk factors, errors in diagnosis, limits to mutant detection, linkage of neutral and risk-conferring mutations, ethnic diversity in the general population and the expectation that among all exonic mutants in the human genome greater than 90% will be neutral with regard to any effect on disease risk. Means to test the null hypothesis for, and determine the statistical power of, each test are provided. For this 'cohort allelic sums test' or 'CAST', the statistical model and test are provided as an Excel (TM) program, CASTAT (C) at http://epidemiology.mit.edu. Based on genetics, technology and statistics, a strategy of enumerating the mutant alleles carried in the exons and splice sites of the estimated ∼25,000 human genes in case cohort samples of 10,000 persons for each of 100 common diseases is proposed and evaluated: A wide range of possible conditions of multi-allelic or mono-allelic and monogenic, multigenic or polygenic (including epistatic) risk are found to be detectable using the statistical criteria of 1 or 10 ''false positive'' gene associations per 25,000 gene-disease pair-wise trials and a statistical power of >0.8. Using estimates of the distribution of both neutral and gene-inactivating nondeleterious mutations in humans and

  14. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1998-01-01

    , alleles act codominantly in both pollen and style, in the SSIdom model, alleles form a dominance hierarchy, and in SSIdomcod, alleles are codominant in the style and show a dominance hierarchy in the pollen. Coalescence times of alleles rarely differ more than threefold from those under gametophytic self...

  15. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  16. ALEA: a toolbox for allele-specific epigenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesy, Hamid; Möller, Torsten; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Cheng, Jeffrey B; Costello, Joseph F; Lorincz, Matthew C; Karimi, Mohammad M; Jones, Steven J M

    2014-04-15

    The assessment of expression and epigenomic status using sequencing based methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify and correlate allelic differences with epigenomic status. We present ALEA, a computational toolbox for allele-specific epigenomics analysis, which incorporates allelic variation data within existing resources, allowing for the identification of significant associations between epigenetic modifications and specific allelic variants in human and mouse cells. ALEA provides a customizable pipeline of command line tools for allele-specific analysis of next-generation sequencing data (ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, etc.) that takes the raw sequencing data and produces separate allelic tracks ready to be viewed on genome browsers. The pipeline has been validated using human and hybrid mouse ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data. The package, test data and usage instructions are available online at http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/alea CONTACT: : mkarimi1@interchange.ubc.ca or sjones@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Database for the ampC alleles in Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Nabil Karah

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a troublesome opportunistic pathogen with a high capacity for clonal dissemination. We announce the establishment of a database for the ampC locus in A. baumannii, in which novel ampC alleles are differentiated based on the occurrence of ≥ 1 nucleotide change, regardless of whether it is silent or missense. The database is openly accessible at the pubmlst platform for A. baumannii (http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/. Forty-eight distinctive alleles of the ampC locus have so far been identified and deposited in the database. Isolates from clonal complex 1 (CC1, according to the Pasteur multilocus sequence typing scheme, had a variety of the ampC locus alleles, including alleles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, and 18. On the other hand, isolates from CC2 had the ampC alleles 2, 3, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, and 46. Allele 3 was characteristic for sequence types ST3 or ST32. The ampC alleles 10, 16, and 25 were characteristic for CC10, ST16, and CC25, respectively. Our study points out that novel gene databases, in which alleles are numbered based on differences in their nucleotide identities, should replace traditional records that use amino acid substitutions to define new alleles.

  18. Procedures for identifying S-allele genotypes of Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D H

    1979-11-01

    Procedures are described for efficient selection of: (1) homozygous and heterozygous S-allele genotypes; (2) homozygous inbreds with the strong self- and sib-incompatibility required for effective seed production of single-cross F1 hybrids; (3) heterozygous genotypes with the high self- and sib-incompatibility required for effective seed production of 3- and 4-way hybrids.From reciprocal crosses between two first generation inbred (I1) plants there are three potential results: both crosses are incompatible; one is incompatible and the other compatible; and both are compatible. Incompatibility of both crosses is useful information only when combined with data from other reciprocal crosses. Each compatible cross, depending on whether its reciprocal is incompatible or compatible, dictates alternative reasoning and additional reciprocal crosses for efficiently and simultaneously identifying: (A) the S-allele genotype of all individual I1 plants, and (B) the expressions of dominance or codominance in pollen and stigma (sexual organs) of an S-allele heterozygous genotype. Reciprocal crosses provide the only efficient means of identifying S-allele genotypes and also the sexual-organ x S-allele-interaction types.Fluorescent microscope assay of pollen tube penetration into the style facilitates quantitation within 24-48 hours of incompatibility and compatibility of the reciprocal crosses. A procedure for quantitating the reciprocal difference is described that maximizes informational content of the data about interactions between S alleles in pollen and stigma of the S-allele-heterozygous genotype.Use of the non-inbred Io generation parent as a 'known' heterozygous S-allele genotype in crosses with its first generation selfed (I1) progeny usually reduces at least 7 fold the effort required for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3, compared to the method of making reciprocal crosses only among I1 plants.Identifying the heterozygous and both homozygous S-allele genotypes during

  19. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

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    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  20. HLA Dr beta 1 alleles in Pakistani patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqi, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 alleles in rheumatoid arthritis in Pakistani patients. Study Design: Cross sectional / analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Rheumatology departments of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: HLA DR beta 1 genotyping of one hundred Pakistani patients, diagnosed as having RA as per American College of Rheumatology revised criteria 1987, was done. HLA DR beta 1 genotyping was carried out at allele group level (DR beta 1*01-DR beta 1*16) by sequence specific primers in RA patients. Comparison of HLA DR beta 1 allele frequencies between patients and control groups was made using Pearson's chi-square test to find possible association of HLA DR?1 alleles with RA in Pakistani rheumatoid patients. Results: HLA DR beta 1*04 was expressed with significantly increased frequency in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p <0.05). HLA DR?1*11 was expressed statistically significantly more in control group as compared to rheumatoid patients indicating a possible protective effect. There was no statistically significant difference observed in frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 allele *01, DR beta 1 allele *03, DR beta 1 allele *07, DR beta 1 allele *08, DR beta 1 allele *09, DR beta 1 allele *10, DR beta 1 allele *12, DR beta 1 allele *13, DR beta 1 allele *14, DR?1 allele *15 and DR beta 1 allele *16 between patients and control groups. Conclusion: The identification of susceptible HLA DR beta 1 alleles in Pakistani RA patients may help physicians to make early decisions regarding initiation of early intensive therapy with disease modifying anti rheumatic medicines and biological agents decreasing disability in RA patients. (author)

  1. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop-out...... of true alleles is possible. As part of the validation of the IrisPlex assay in our ISO17025 accredited, forensic genetic laboratory, we estimated the probability of drop-out of specific SNP alleles using 29 and 30 PCR cycles and 25, 50 and 100 Single Base Extension (SBE) cycles. We observed no drop-out...... when the amount of DNA was greater than 125 pg for 29 cycles of PCR and greater than 62 pg for 30 cycles of PCR. With the use of a logistic regression model, we estimated the allele specific probability of drop-out in heterozygote systems based on the signal strength of the observed allele...

  2. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0-2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score......, as it is likely more sensitive in detecting associations with risks of other endpoints than breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast cancer incidence in the 19,010 women was increased across allele sum quintiles (log-rank trend test; p=1*10(-12)), but not incidence of other cancers (p=0.41). Age- and study-adjusted hazard...... ratio for the 5(th) vs. 1(st) allele sum quintile was 1.82(95% confidence interval;1.53-2.18). Corresponding hazard ratios per allele were 1.04(1.03-1.05) and 1.05(1.02-1.08) for breast cancer incidence and mortality, similar across risk factors. In 50-year old women, the starting age for screening...

  3. Quantitative threefold allele-specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR) for highly sensitive JAK2 V617F mutant allele detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapparoli, Giada V; Jorissen, Robert N; Hewitt, Chelsee A; McBean, Michelle; Westerman, David A; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation is the most frequent somatic change in myeloproliferative neoplasms, making it an important tumour-specific marker for diagnostic purposes and for the detection of minimal residual disease. Sensitive quantitative assays are required for both applications, particularly for the monitoring of minimal residual disease, which requires not only high sensitivity but also very high specificity. We developed a highly sensitive probe-free quantitative mutant-allele detection method, Quantitative Threefold Allele-Specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR), that is performed in a closed-tube system, thus eliminating the manipulation of PCR products. QuantTAS-PCR uses a threefold approach to ensure allele-specific amplification of the mutant sequence: (i) a mutant allele-specific primer, (ii) a 3′dideoxy blocker to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template and (iii) a PCR specificity enhancer, also to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. Mutant alleles were quantified relative to exon 9 of JAK2. We showed that the addition of the 3′dideoxy blocker suppressed but did not eliminate false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. However, the addition of the PCR specificity enhancer near eliminated false-positive amplification from the wild-type allele. Further discrimination between true and false positives was enabled by using the quantification cycle (Cq) value of a single mutant template as a cut-off point, thus enabling robust distinction between true and false positives. As 10,000 JAK2 templates were used per replicate, the assay had a sensitivity of 1/10 -4 per replicate. Greater sensitivity could be reached by increasing the number of replicates analysed. Variation in replicates when low mutant-allele templates were present necessitated the use of a statistics-based approach to estimate the load of mutant JAK2 copies. QuanTAS-PCR showed comparable quantitative results when validated against a

  4. Multimer Formation Explains Allelic Suppression of PRDM9 Recombination Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher L; Petkova, Pavlina; Walker, Michael; Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Petkov, Petko M; Paigen, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Genetic recombination during meiosis functions to increase genetic diversity, promotes elimination of deleterious alleles, and helps assure proper segregation of chromatids. Mammalian recombination events are concentrated at specialized sites, termed hotspots, whose locations are determined by PRDM9, a zinc finger DNA-binding histone methyltransferase. Prdm9 is highly polymorphic with most alleles activating their own set of hotspots. In populations exhibiting high frequencies of heterozygosity, questions remain about the influences different alleles have in heterozygous individuals where the two variant forms of PRDM9 typically do not activate equivalent populations of hotspots. We now find that, in addition to activating its own hotspots, the presence of one Prdm9 allele can modify the activity of hotspots activated by the other allele. PRDM9 function is also dosage sensitive; Prdm9+/- heterozygous null mice have reduced numbers and less active hotspots and increased numbers of aberrant germ cells. In mice carrying two Prdm9 alleles, there is allelic competition; the stronger Prdm9 allele can partially or entirely suppress chromatin modification and recombination at hotspots of the weaker allele. In cell cultures, PRDM9 protein variants form functional heteromeric complexes which can bind hotspots sequences. When a heteromeric complex binds at a hotspot of one PRDM9 variant, the other PRDM9 variant, which would otherwise not bind, can still methylate hotspot nucleosomes. We propose that in heterozygous individuals the underlying molecular mechanism of allelic suppression results from formation of PRDM9 heteromers, where the DNA binding activity of one protein variant dominantly directs recombination initiation towards its own hotspots, effectively titrating down recombination by the other protein variant. In natural populations with many heterozygous individuals, allelic competition will influence the recombination landscape.

  5. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaoyong, Zhu [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Odeberg, Jacob [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hamsten, Anders [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Per [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  6. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  7. A new electrophoresis technique to separate microsatellite alleles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new electrophoresis technique to separate microsatellite alleles* ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... with the CEQTM 8000 Genetic Analysis System and ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer easily separated products and determined allelic size, ...

  8. Directional Positive Selection on an Allele of Arbitrary Dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Teshima, Kosuke M.; Przeworski, Molly

    2006-01-01

    Most models of positive directional selection assume codominance of the beneficial allele. We examine the importance of this assumption by implementing a coalescent model of positive directional selection with arbitrary dominance. We find that, for a given mean fixation time, a beneficial allele has a much weaker effect on diversity at linked neutral sites when the allele is recessive.

  9. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  10. Erasure and reestablishment of random allelic expression imbalance after epigenetic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Aaron Richard; Uwanogho, Dafe Aghogho; Cocks, Graham; Perfect, Leo William; Dempster, Emma; Mill, Jonathan; Price, Jack

    2016-10-01

    Clonal level random allelic expression imbalance and random monoallelic expression provides cellular heterogeneity within tissues by modulating allelic dosage. Although such expression patterns have been observed in multiple cell types, little is known about when in development these stochastic allelic choices are made. We examine allelic expression patterns in human neural progenitor cells before and after epigenetic reprogramming to induced pluripotency, observing that loci previously characterized by random allelic expression imbalance (0.63% of expressed genes) are generally reset to a biallelic state in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We subsequently neuralized the iPSCs and profiled isolated clonal neural stem cells, observing that significant random allelic expression imbalance is reestablished at 0.65% of expressed genes, including novel loci not found to show allelic expression imbalance in the original parental neural progenitor cells. Allelic expression imbalance was associated with altered DNA methylation across promoter regulatory regions, with clones characterized by skewed allelic expression being hypermethylated compared to their biallelic sister clones. Our results suggest that random allelic expression imbalance is established during lineage commitment and is associated with increased DNA methylation at the gene promoter. © 2016 Jeffries et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  12. Origin of allelic diversity in antirrhinum S locus RNases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Carpenter, R; Dickinson, H G; Coen, E S

    1996-01-01

    In many plant species, self-incompatibility (SI) is genetically controlled by a single multiallelic S locus. Previous analysis of S alleles in the Solanaceae, in which S locus ribonucleases (S RNases) are responsible for stylar expression of SI, has demonstrated that allelic diversity predated speciation within this family. To understand how allelic diversity has evolved, we investigated the molecular basis of gametophytic SI in Antirrhinum, a member of the Scrophulariaceae, which is closely related to the Solanaceae. We have characterized three Antirrhinum cDNAs encoding polypeptides homologous to S RNases and shown that they are encoded by genes at the S locus. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Antirrhinum S RNase are primarily expressed in the stylar transmitting tissue. This expression is consistent with their proposed role in arresting the growth of self-pollen tubes. S alleles from the Scrophulariaceae form a separate group from those of the Solanaceae, indicating that new S alleles have been generated since these families separated (approximately 40 million years). We propose that the recruitment of an ancestral RNase gene into SI occurred during an early stage of angiosperm evolution and that, since that time, new alleles subsequently have arisen at a low rate. PMID:8672882

  13. RHD alleles in the Tunisian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchari, Mouna; Jemni-Yaacoub, Saloua; Chakroun, Taher; Abdelkefi, Saida; Houissa, Batoul; Hmida, Slama

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in Tunisia population was lacking. The aim of this study was to use a multiplex RHD typing assay for simultaneous detection of partial D especially with RHD/RHCE deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence exchange mechanism and some weak D alleles. Materials and Methods: Six RHD specific primer sets were designed to amplify RHD exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9. DNA from 2000 blood donors (1777 D+ and 223 D-) from several regions was selected for RHD genotyping using a PCR multiplex assay. Further molecular investigations were done to characterize the RHD variants that were identified by the PCR multiplex assay. Results: In the 1777 D+ samples, only 10 individuals showed the absence of amplification of exons 4 and 5 that were subsequently identified by PCR-SSP as weak D type 4 variants. No hybrid allele was detected. In the 223 D-, RHD amplification of some exons was observed only in 5 samples: 4 individuals expressed only RHD exon 9, and one subject lacking exons 4 and 5. These samples were then screened by PCR-SSPs on d(C) ces and weak D type 4, respectively. Conclusion: The weak D type 4 appears to be the most common D variant allele. We have not found any partial D variant. Findings also indicated that RHD gene deletion is the most prevalent cause of the D- phenotype in the Tunisian population. PMID:24014941

  14. Allele and genotype frequencies of -β lactoglobulin gene in Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Blood samples were supplied from 80 Najdi cattle and 80 buffalo from different cities of Khouzestan province. ... The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both. Najdi cattle and buffalo. .... that of the B allele in both groups of animals studied. Expected heterozygosity ...

  15. S-allele diversity in Sorbus aucuparia and Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae: Maloideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspé, O; Kohn, J R

    2002-06-01

    RT-PCR was used to obtain the first estimates from natural populations of allelic diversity at the RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in the Rosaceae. A total of 20 alleles were retrieved from 20 Sorbus aucuparia individuals, whereas 17 alleles were found in 13 Crataegus monogyna samples. Estimates of population-level allele numbers fall within the range observed in the Solanaceae, the only other family with RNase-based incompatibility for which estimates are available. The nucleotide diversity of S-allele sequences was found to be much lower in the two Rosaceae species as compared with the Solanaceae. This was not due to a lower sequence divergence among most closely related alleles. Rather, it is the depth of the entire genealogy that differs markedly in the two families, with Rosaceae S-alleles exhibiting more recent apparent coalescence. We also investigated patterns of selection at the molecular level by comparing nucleotide diversity at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. Stabilizing selection was inferred for the 5' region of the molecule, while evidence of diversifying selection was present elsewhere.

  16. Association mapping and favourable QTL alleles for fibre quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Guang Dong

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 allele loci, and 403 ... identified as containing favourable allele loci related to fibre quality traits. The identified .... environment. Field management followed respective local practices.

  17. Allele Frequency - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd 39 SNPs are assayed in three (POP_*) and two (RIKEN_japanese_*) panels, respectively. Derived from Flat f... assay (JBIC-allele and RIKEN_japanese_*), TaqMan assay (RIKEN-allele) or direct sequencing / allelic discri...unteers under informed consent RIKEN_japanese_normal_weight - 711 unrelated japanese normal weight volunteer...s ( body mass index RIKEN_japanese_obese - 796 unrelated japanese obese patients

  18. Allelic inhibition of displacement activity: a simplified one tube allele-specific PCR for evaluation of ITPA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmozzi, E; Facchetti, F; Degasperi, E; Aghemo, A; Lampertico, P

    2013-02-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have identified two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene, that are associated strongly and independently with hemolytic anemia in patients exposed to pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combined therapy. Here has been developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay named allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) for evaluation of ITPA polymorphisms. AIDA system relies on three unlabeled primers only, two outer common primers and one inner primer with allele-specific 3' terminus mismatch. DNA samples from 192 patients with chronic HCV infection were used to validate the AIDA system and results were compared with the gold standard TaqMan(®) SNP genotyping assay. Concordant data were obtained for all samples, granting for high specificity of the method. In conclusion, AIDA is a practical one-tube method to reproducibly and to assess accurately rs7270101 and rs1127354 ITPA SNPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CYP3A4 allelic variants with amino acid substitutions in exons 7 and 12: evidence for an allelic variant with altered catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, F; Sapone, A; Elizondo, G; Stocker, P; Miller, V P; Zheng, W; Raunio, H; Crespi, C L; Gonzalez, F J

    2000-01-01

    To determine the existence of mutant and variant CgammaP3A4 alleles in three racial groups and to assess functions of the variant alleles by complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) expression. A bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the complete CgammaP3A4 gene was isolated and the exons and surrounding introns were directly sequenced to develop primers to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify and sequence the gene from lymphocyte DNA. DNA samples from Chinese, black, and white subjects were screened. Mutating the affected amino acid in the wild-type cDNA and expressing the variant enzyme with use of the baculovirus system was used to functionally evaluate the variant allele having a missense mutation. To investigate the existence of mutant and variant CgammaP3A4 alleles in humans, all 13 exons and the 5'-flanking region of the human CgammaP3A4 gene in three racial groups were sequenced and four alleles were identified. An A-->G point mutation in the 5'-flanking region of the human CgammaP3A4 gene, designated CgammaP3A4*1B, was found in the three different racial groups. The frequency of this allele in a white population was 4.2%, whereas it was 66.7% in black subjects. The CgammaP3A4*1B allele was not found in Chinese subjects. A second variant allele, designated CgammaP3A4*2, having a Ser222Pro change, was found at a frequency of 2.7% in the white population and was absent in the black subjects and Chinese subjects analyzed. Baculovirus-directed cDNA expression revealed that the CYP3A4*2 P450 had a lower intrinsic clearance for the CYP3A4 substrate nifedipine compared with the wild-type enzyme but was not significantly different from the wild-type enzyme for testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. Another rare allele, designated CgammaP3A4*3, was found in a single Chinese subject who had a Met445Thr change in the conserved heme-binding region of the P450. These are the first examples of potential function polymorphisms resulting from missense mutations in

  20. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell ... alleles were more resistant to clinical mastitis. ... DRB3.2 allele pattern in two Iranian Holstein cow .... observed and the number of immune parameters with.

  1. Tri-allelic SNP markers enable analysis of mixed and degraded DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Antoinette A; Matai, Anuska S; Laros, Jeroen F J; Meiland, Hugo C; Jasper, Mandy; de Leeuw, Wiljo J F; de Knijff, Peter; Sijen, Titia

    2009-09-01

    For the analysis of degraded DNA in disaster victim identification (DVI) and criminal investigations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been recognized as promising markers mainly because they can be analyzed in short sized amplicons. Most SNPs are bi-allelic and are thereby ineffective to detect mixtures, which may lead to incorrect genotyping. We developed an algorithm to find non-binary (i.e. tri-allelic or tetra-allelic) SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP database. We selected 31 potential tri-allelic SNPs with a minor allele frequency of at least 10%. The tri-allelic nature was confirmed for 15 SNPs residing on 14 different chromosomes. Multiplex SNaPshot assays were developed, and the allele frequencies of 16 SNPs were determined among 153 Dutch and 111 Netherlands Antilles reference samples. Using these multiplex SNP assays, the presence of a mixture of two DNA samples in a ratio up to 1:8 could be recognized reliably. Furthermore, we compared the genotyping efficiency of the tri-allelic SNP markers and short tandem repeat (STR) markers by analyzing artificially degraded DNA and DNA from 30 approximately 500-year-old bone and molar samples. In both types of degraded DNA samples, the larger sized STR amplicons failed to amplify whereas the tri-allelic SNP markers still provided valuable information. In conclusion, tri-allelic SNP markers are suited for the analysis of degraded DNA and enable the detection of a second DNA source in a sample.

  2. A high-throughput method for genotyping S-RNase alleles in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new efficient screening tool for detection of S-alleles in apple. The protocol using general and multiplexed primers for PCR reaction and fragment detection on an automatized capillary DNA sequencer exposed a higher number of alleles than any previous studies. Analysis of alleles...

  3. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  4. Seasonal Changes in Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding in Short Serotonin Transporter Linked Polymorphic Region-Allele Carriers but Not in Long-Allele Homozygotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus K

    2010-01-01

    of the short 5-HTTLPR allele but not in homozygote carriers of the long allele. Conclusions: Our findings are in line with S-carriers having an increased response in neural circuits involved in emotional processing to stressful environmental stimuli but here demonstrated as a endophenotype with dynamic changes...

  5. Implication of HLA-DMA Alleles in Corsican IDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cucchi-Mouillot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The HLA-DM molecule catalyses the CLIP/antigen peptide exchange in the classical class II peptide-binding groove. As such, DM is an antigen presentation regulator and may be linked to autoimmune diseases. Using PCR derived methods, a relationship was revealed between DM gene polymorphism and IDDM, in a Corsican population. The DMA*0101 allele was observed to confer a significant predisposition to this autoimmune disease while the DMA*0102 allele protected significantly. Experiments examining polymorphism of the HLA-DRB1 gene established that these relationships are not a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1 alleles implicated in this pathology. The study of the DMA gene could therefore be an additional tool for early IDDM diagnosis in the Corsican population.

  6. Allele frequency changes due to hitch-hiking in genomic selection programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huiming; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Meuwissen, Theo H E

    2014-01-01

    of inbreeding due to changes in allele frequencies and hitch-hiking. This study aimed at understanding the impact of using long-term genomic selection on changes in allele frequencies, genetic variation and the level of inbreeding. Methods Selection was performed in simulated scenarios with a population of 400......-BLUP, Genomic BLUP and Bayesian Lasso. Changes in allele frequencies at QTL, markers and linked neutral loci were investigated for the different selection criteria and different scenarios, along with the loss of favourable alleles and the rate of inbreeding measured by pedigree and runs of homozygosity. Results...

  7. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stringer Saundra L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In addition, LOH caused by mitotic crossing over might be discernable in tissues because this event produces a pair of neighboring monochromatic cells that are different colors. Results As a step in assessing the utility of this approach, we derived primary embryonic fibroblast populations and embryonic stem cell lines from mice that carried two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles at the chromosome 6 locus, ROSA26. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS showed that the vast majority of cells in each line expressed the two marker proteins at similar levels, and that populations exhibited expression noise similar to that seen in bacteria and yeast. Cells with a monochromatic phenotype were present at frequencies on the order of 10-4 and appeared to be produced at a rate of approximately 10-5 variant cells per mitosis. 45 of 45 stably monochromatic ES cell clones exhibited loss of the expected allele at the ROSA26 locus. More than half of these clones retained heterozygosity at a locus between ROSA26 and the centromere. Other clones exhibited LOH near the centromere, but were disomic for chromosome 6. Conclusion Allelic fluorescent markers allowed LOH at the ROSA26 locus to be detected by FACS. LOH at this locus was usually not accompanied by LOH near the centromere, suggesting that mitotic recombination was the major cause of ROSA26 LOH. Dichromatic mouse embryonic cells provide a novel system for studying genetic/karyotypic stability and factors

  8. Detecting imbalanced expression of SNP alleles by minisequencing on microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlgren Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each of the human genes or transcriptional units is likely to contain single nucleotide polymorphisms that may give rise to sequence variation between individuals and tissues on the level of RNA. Based on recent studies, differential expression of the two alleles of heterozygous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be frequent for human genes. Methods with high accuracy to be used in a high throughput setting are needed for systematic surveys of expressed sequence variation. In this study we evaluated two formats of multiplexed, microarray based minisequencing for quantitative detection of imbalanced expression of SNP alleles. We used a panel of ten SNPs located in five genes known to be expressed in two endothelial cell lines as our model system. Results The accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative detection of allelic imbalance was assessed for each SNP by constructing regression lines using a dilution series of mixed samples from individuals of different genotype. Accurate quantification of SNP alleles by both assay formats was evidenced for by R2 values > 0.95 for the majority of the regression lines. According to a two sample t-test, we were able to distinguish 1–9% of a minority SNP allele from a homozygous genotype, with larger variation between SNPs than between assay formats. Six of the SNPs, heterozygous in either of the two cell lines, were genotyped in RNA extracted from the endothelial cells. The coefficient of variation between the fluorescent signals from five parallel reactions was similar for cDNA and genomic DNA. The fluorescence signal intensity ratios measured in the cDNA samples were compared to those in genomic DNA to determine the relative expression levels of the two alleles of each SNP. Four of the six SNPs tested displayed a higher than 1.4-fold difference in allelic ratios between cDNA and genomic DNA. The results were verified by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation and

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1997-01-01

    codominantly in both pollen and style (SSIcod), in the second, alleles form a dominance hierarchy in pollen and style (SSIdom). In the third model, alleles interact codominantly in the style and form a dominance hierarchy in the pollen (SSIdomcod). The SSIcod model behaves similarly to the model...

  10. Allele-specific characterization of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase variants associated with primary hyperoxaluria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Lage

    Full Text Available Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1 is a rare autosomal recessive kidney stone disease caused by deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, which is involved in glyoxylate detoxification. Over 75 different missense mutations in AGT have been found associated with PH1. While some of the mutations have been found to affect enzyme activity, stability, and/or localization, approximately half of these mutations are completely uncharacterized. In this study, we sought to systematically characterize AGT missense mutations associated with PH1. To facilitate analysis, we used two high-throughput yeast-based assays: one that assesses AGT specific activity, and one that assesses protein stability. Approximately 30% of PH1-associated missense mutations are found in conjunction with a minor allele polymorphic variant, which can interact to elicit complex effects on protein stability and trafficking. To better understand this allele interaction, we functionally characterized each of 34 mutants on both the major (wild-type and minor allele backgrounds, identifying mutations that synergize with the minor allele. We classify these mutants into four distinct categories depending on activity/stability results in the different alleles. Twelve mutants were found to display reduced activity in combination with the minor allele, compared with the major allele background. When mapped on the AGT dimer structure, these mutants reveal localized regions of the protein that appear particularly sensitive to interactions with the minor allele variant. While the majority of the deleterious effects on activity in the minor allele can be attributed to synergistic interaction affecting protein stability, we identify one mutation, E274D, that appears to specifically affect activity when in combination with the minor allele.

  11. Apolipoprotein E4 allele does not influence serum triglyceride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how the APOε4 allele affects the serum triglyceride response after a fatmeal in apparently healthy black South African young adults. Sixty students were successfully screened for APOE genotype using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and were divided into four groups; the ε2 allele ...

  12. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... the normal cellular process of replication of DNA molecules. ... probability of a certain genetic variant (alleles) occuring in ... have preservatives that hinder spoilage and are easily packaged .... Allele distribution at Nine STR.

  13. DQB1*06:02 allele-specific expression varies by allelic dosage, not narcolepsy status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner Lachmi, Karin; Lin, Ling; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2012-01-01

    The association of narcolepsy-cataplexy, a sleep disorder caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, with DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 is one of the tightest known single-allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. In this study, we explored genome-wide expression...

  14. QuASAR: quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris T; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Davis, Gordon O; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-04-15

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have discovered thousands of genetic variants that regulate gene expression, enabling a better understanding of the functional role of non-coding sequences. However, eQTL studies are costly, requiring large sample sizes and genome-wide genotyping of each sample. In contrast, analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) is becoming a popular approach to detect the effect of genetic variation on gene expression, even within a single individual. This is typically achieved by counting the number of RNA-seq reads matching each allele at heterozygous sites and testing the null hypothesis of a 1:1 allelic ratio. In principle, when genotype information is not readily available, it could be inferred from the RNA-seq reads directly. However, there are currently no existing methods that jointly infer genotypes and conduct ASE inference, while considering uncertainty in the genotype calls. We present QuASAR, quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads, a novel statistical learning method for jointly detecting heterozygous genotypes and inferring ASE. The proposed ASE inference step takes into consideration the uncertainty in the genotype calls, while including parameters that model base-call errors in sequencing and allelic over-dispersion. We validated our method with experimental data for which high-quality genotypes are available. Results for an additional dataset with multiple replicates at different sequencing depths demonstrate that QuASAR is a powerful tool for ASE analysis when genotypes are not available. http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR. fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu Supplementary Material is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Linyong; Fang, Yayin; Campbell, Michael; Southerland, William M

    2017-11-10

    Obesity is emerging as a global health problem, with more than one-third of the world's adult population being overweight or obese. In this study, we investigated worldwide population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). We collected a total of 225 obesity-associated SNPs from a public database. Their population-level allele frequencies were derived based on the genotype data from 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3). We used hypergeometric model to assess whether the effect allele at a given SNP is significantly enriched or depleted in each of the 26 populations surveyed in the 1000 Genomes Project with respect to the overall pooled population. Our results indicate that 195 out of 225 SNPs (86.7%) possess effect alleles significantly enriched or depleted in at least one of the 26 populations. Populations within the same continental group exhibit similar allele enrichment/depletion patterns whereas inter-continental populations show distinct patterns. Among the 225 SNPs, 15 SNPs cluster in the first intron region of the FTO gene, which is a major gene associated with body-mass index (BMI) and fat mass. African populations exhibit much smaller blocks of LD (linkage disequilibrium) among these15 SNPs while European and Asian populations have larger blocks. To estimate the cumulative effect of all variants associated with obesity, we developed the personal composite genetic risk score for obesity. Our results indicate that the East Asian populations have the lowest averages of the composite risk scores, whereas three European populations have the highest averages. In addition, the population-level average of composite genetic risk scores is significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.35, P = 0.0060) with obesity prevalence. We have detected substantial population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs. The results will help elucidate the genetic basis which may contribute to population

  16. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  17. A common mutation associated with the Duarte galactosemia allele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Dembure, P.P.; Langley, S.; Paulk, E.M.; Hjelm, L.N.; Fridovich-Keil, J. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The human cDNA and gene for galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) have been cloned and sequenced. A prevalant mutation (Q188R) is known to cause classic galactosemia (G/G). G/G galactosemia has an incidence of 1/38,886 in 1,396,766 Georgia live-born infants, but a more common variant of galactosemia, Duarte, has an unknown incidence. The proposed Duarte biochemical phenotypes of GALT are as follows: D/N, D/D, and D/G, which have [approximately]75%, 50%, and 25% of normal GALT activity, respectively. In addition, the D allele has isoforms of its enzyme that have more acidic pI than normal. Here the authors systematically determine (a) the prevalence of an A-to-G transition at base pair 2744 of exon 10 in the GALT gene, a transition that produces a codon change converting asparagine to aspartic acid at position 314 (N314D), and (b) the association of this mutation with the Duarte biochemical phenotype. The 2744G nucleotide change adds an AvaII (SinI) cut site, which was identified in PCR-amplified DNA. In 111 biochemically unphenotyped controls with no history of galactosemia, 13 N314D alleles were identified (prevalence 5.9%). In a prospective study, 40 D alleles were biochemically phenotyped, and 40 N314D alleles were found. By contrast, in 36 individuals known not to have the Duarte biochemical phenotype, no N314D alleles were found. The authors conclude that the N314D mutation is a common allele that probably causes the Duarte GALT biochemical phenotype and occurs in a predominantly Caucasian, nongalactosemic population, with a prevalence of 5.9%. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Clonal Ordering of 17p and 5q Allelic Losses in Barrett Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Patricia L.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Yin, Jing; Huang, Ying; Krasna, Mark J.; Reid, Brian J.

    1993-04-01

    Both 17p and 5q allelic losses appear to be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of many human solid tumors. In colon carcinogenesis, there is strong evidence that the targets of the 17p and 5q allelic losses are TP53, the gene encoding p53, and APC, respectively. It is widely accepted that 5q allelic losses precede 17p allelic losses in the progression to colonic carcinoma. The data, however, supporting this proposed order are largely based on the prevalence of 17p and 5q allelic losses in adenomas and unrelated adenocarcinomas from different patients. We investigated the order in which 17p and 5q allelic losses developed during neoplastic progression in Barrett esophagus by evaluating multiple aneuploid cell populations from the same patient. Using DNA content flow cytometric cell sorting and polymerase chain reaction, 38 aneuploid cell populations from 14 patients with Barrett esophagus who had high grade dysplasia, cancer or both were evaluated for 17p and 5q allelic losses. 17p allelic losses preceded 5q allelic losses in 7 patients, both 17p and 5q allelic losses were present in all aneuploid populations of 4 patients, and only 17p (without 5q) allelic losses were present in the aneuploid populations of 3 patients. In no patient did we find that a 5q allelic loss preceded a 17p allelic loss. Our data suggest that 17p allelic losses typically occur before 5q allelic losses during neoplastic progression in Barrett esophagus.

  19. Overdispersion in allelic counts and θ-correction in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical model for incorporating the extra variability in allelic counts due to subpopulation structures. In forensic genetics, this effect is modelled by the identical-by-descent parameter θ, which measures the relationship between pairs of alleles within a population relative...... with computation of the profile log-likelihood, confidence intervals and hypothesis testing. In order to compare our method with existing methods, we reanalysed FBI data from Budowle and Moretti (1999) with allele counts in six US subpopulations. Furthermore, we investigate properties of our methodology from...

  20. Allele specific expression in worker reproduction genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harindra E. Amarasinghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.

  1. Comparative frequency and allelic distribution of ABO and Rh (D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gourab Dewan

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... desh and having borders with India and Myanmar (Fig. 1). It is a hilly area with ..... calculated allelic frequencies for ABO/Rh systems previously. Therefore, allelic .... in backward caste population of Uttar Pradesh, India. Not Sci.

  2. An Updated Collection of Sequence Barcoded Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of Yeast Essential Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Megan; Milbury, Karissa L; Chiang, Jennifer H; Sinha, Sunita; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-07-14

    Systematic analyses of essential gene function using mutant collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been conducted using collections of heterozygous diploids, promoter shut-off alleles, through alleles with destabilized mRNA, destabilized protein, or bearing mutations that lead to a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. We previously described a method for construction of barcoded ts alleles in a systematic fashion. Here we report the completion of this collection of alleles covering 600 essential yeast genes. This resource covers a larger gene repertoire than previous collections and provides a complementary set of strains suitable for single gene and genomic analyses. We use deep sequencing to characterize the amino acid changes leading to the ts phenotype in half of the alleles. We also use high-throughput approaches to describe the relative ts behavior of the alleles. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental usefulness of the collection in a high-content, functional genomic screen for ts alleles that increase spontaneous P-body formation. By increasing the number of alleles and improving the annotation, this ts collection will serve as a community resource for probing new aspects of biology for essential yeast genes. Copyright © 2015 Kofoed et al.

  3. Peripheral subnuclear positioning suppresses Tcrb recombination and segregates Tcrb alleles from RAG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elizabeth A W; Teng, Grace; Corbett, Elizabeth; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Bassing, Craig H; Schatz, David G; Krangel, Michael S

    2013-11-26

    Allelic exclusion requires that the two alleles at antigen-receptor loci attempt to recombine variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments [V(D)J recombination] asynchronously in nuclei of developing lymphocytes. It previously was shown that T-cell receptor β (Tcrb) alleles frequently and stochastically associate with the nuclear lamina and pericentromeric heterochromatin in CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes. Moreover, rearranged alleles were underrepresented at these locations. Here we used 3D immunofluorescence in situ hybridization to identify recently rearranged Tcrb alleles based on the accumulation of the DNA-repair protein 53BP1. We found that Tcrb alleles recombine asynchronously in double-negative thymocytes and that V(D)J recombination is suppressed on peripheral as compared with central Tcrb alleles. Moreover, the recombination events that did take place at the nuclear periphery preferentially occurred on Tcrb alleles that were partially dissociated from the nuclear lamina. To understand better the mechanism by which V(D)J recombination is suppressed at the nuclear periphery, we evaluated the subnuclear distribution of recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) protein. We found that RAG2 abundance was reduced at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, RAG2 was distributed differently from RNA polymerase II and histone H3K4 trimethylation. Our data suggest that the nuclear periphery suppresses V(D)J recombination, at least in part, by segregating Tcrb alleles from RAG proteins.

  4. The number of self-incompatibility alleles in a finite, subdivided population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H

    1998-01-01

    The actual and effective number of gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles maintained at mutation-drift-selection equilibrium in a finite population subdivided as in the island model is investigated by stochastic simulations. The existing theory founded by Wright predicts that for a given...... population size the number of alleles maintained increases monotonically with decreasing migration as is the case for neutral alleles. The simulation results here show that this is not true. At migration rates above Nm = 0.01-0.1, the actual and effective number of alleles is lower than for an undivided...... of individuals in the population but it underestimates the neutral effective size of the subdivided population. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jun...

  5. Intrinsic MYH7 expression regulation contributes to tissue level allelic imbalance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Judith; Syring, Mandy; Rose, Julia; Weber, Anna-Lena; Ernstberger, Pia; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Becker, Edgar; Keyser, Britta; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Perrot, Andreas; van der Velden, Jolanda; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francesco; Ho, Carolyn Yung; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2017-08-01

    HCM, the most common inherited cardiac disease, is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes. More than a third of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding for the β-myosin heavy chain. In HCM-patients, expression of the mutant and the wildtype allele can be unequal, thus leading to fractions of mutant and wildtype mRNA and protein which deviate from 1:1. This so-called allelic imbalance was detected in whole tissue samples but also in individual cells. There is evidence that the severity of HCM not only depends on the functional effect of the mutation itself, but also on the fraction of mutant protein in the myocardial tissue. Allelic imbalance has been shown to occur in a broad range of genes. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the MYH7-alleles are intrinsically expressed imbalanced or whether the allelic imbalance is solely associated with the disease. We compared the expression of MYH7-alleles in non-HCM donors and in HCM-patients with different MYH7-missense mutations. In the HCM-patients, we identified imbalanced as well as equal expression of both alleles. Also at the protein level, allelic imbalance was determined. Most interestingly, we also discovered allelic imbalance and balance in non-HCM donors. Our findings therefore strongly indicate that apart from mutation-specific mechanisms, also non-HCM associated allelic-mRNA expression regulation may account for the allelic imbalance of the MYH7 gene in HCM-patients. Since the relative amount of mutant mRNA and protein or the extent of allelic imbalance has been associated with the severity of HCM, individual analysis of the MYH7-allelic expression may provide valuable information for the prognosis of each patient.

  6. Investigating the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in children: a subtle effect of the normal allele range on the normal ability range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loat, C S; Craig, G; Plomin, R; Craig, I W

    2006-09-01

    The FMR1 gene contains a trinucleotide repeat tract which can expand from a normal size of around 30 repeats to over 200 repeats, causing mental retardation (Fragile X Syndrome). Evidence suggests that premutation males (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to a late-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome and females to premature ovarian failure, and that intermediate alleles ( approximately 41-55 repeats) and premutations may be in excess in samples with special educational needs. We explored the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in 621 low ability and control children assessed at 4 and 7 years, as well as 122 students with high IQ. The low and high ability and control samples showed no between-group differences in incidence of longer alleles. In males there was a significant negative correlation between allele length and non-verbal ability at 4 years (p = 0.048), academic achievement in maths (p = 0.003) and English (p = 0.011) at 7 years, and IQ in the high ability group (p = 0.018). There was a significant negative correlation between allele length and a standardised score for IQ and general cognitive ability at age 7 in the entire male sample (p = 0.002). This suggests that, within the normal spectrum of allele length, increased repeat numbers may have a limiting influence on cognitive performance.

  7. Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Monika; Musa, Lutfi; Zakizadeh, Sonia; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-11-01

    Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

  8. The protease inhibitor PI*S allele and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersh, C P; Ly, N P; Berkey, C S

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, the protease inhibitor (SERPINA1) PI*S allele is more common than PI*Z, the allele responsible for most cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. However, the risk of COPD due to the PI*S allele is not clear. The current...... authors located studies that addressed the risk of COPD or measured lung function in individuals with the PI SZ, PI MS and PI SS genotypes. A separate meta-analysis for each genotype was performed. Aggregating data from six studies, the odds ratio (OR) for COPD in PI SZ compound heterozygotes compared...... with PI MM (normal) individuals was significantly increased at 3.26 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.24-8.57). In 17 cross-sectional and case-control studies, the OR for COPD in PI MS heterozygotes was 1.19 (95%CI: 1.02-1.38). However, PI MS genotype was not associated with COPD risk after correcting...

  9. Fine mapping of dominant X-linked incompatibility alleles in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Daniel R; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    Sex chromosomes have a large effect on reproductive isolation and play an important role in hybrid inviability. In Drosophila hybrids, X-linked genes have pronounced deleterious effects on fitness in male hybrids, which have only one X chromosome. Several studies have succeeded at locating and identifying recessive X-linked alleles involved in hybrid inviability. Nonetheless, the density of dominant X-linked alleles involved in interspecific hybrid viability remains largely unknown. In this report, we study the effects of a panel of small fragments of the D. melanogaster X-chromosome carried on the D. melanogaster Y-chromosome in three kinds of hybrid males: D. melanogaster/D. santomea, D. melanogaster/D. simulans and D. melanogaster/D. mauritiana. D. santomea and D. melanogaster diverged over 10 million years ago, while D. simulans (and D. mauritiana) diverged from D. melanogaster over 3 million years ago. We find that the X-chromosome from D. melanogaster carries dominant alleles that are lethal in mel/san, mel/sim, and mel/mau hybrids, and more of these alleles are revealed in the most divergent cross. We then compare these effects on hybrid viability with two D. melanogaster intraspecific crosses. Unlike the interspecific crosses, we found no X-linked alleles that cause lethality in intraspecific crosses. Our results reveal the existence of dominant alleles on the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster which cause lethality in three different interspecific hybrids. These alleles only cause inviability in hybrid males, yet have little effect in hybrid females. This suggests that X-linked elements that cause hybrid inviability in males might not do so in hybrid females due to differing sex chromosome interactions.

  10. Estimating and testing the effect of allelic recombination on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-01-21

    Jan 21, 2011 ... The significance of the correlation coefficient as well as the fitted regression model was obtained using. Analysis of Variance method. Key words: Allele, genotype, regression, correlation, F-ratio, analysis of variance. INTRODUCTION .... while if the allelic replacement is being made on an Aa individual the ...

  11. Comparative frequency and allelic distribution of ABO and Rh (D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allelic distribution of major blood groups (ABO and rhesus) has not been defined in Bangladeshi population. Determinants of blood group frequency in this region have not been studied properly. Aim: To determine ABO and rhesus blood group frequency and allelic distribution in a multiethnic area of ...

  12. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These

  13. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele

  14. A risk allele for nicotine dependence in CHRNA5 is a protective allele for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Stitzel, Jerry A; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Cloninger, C Robert; Neuman, Rosalind J; Budde, John P; Fox, Louis; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kramer, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Tischfield, Jay; Nurnberger, John I; Almasy, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A; Edenberg, Howard J; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2008-12-01

    A nonsynonymous coding polymorphism, rs16969968, of the CHRNA5 gene that encodes the alpha-5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been found to be associated with nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the association of this variant with cocaine dependence. Genetic association analysis was performed in two independent samples of unrelated case and control subjects: 1) 504 European Americans participating in the Family Study on Cocaine Dependence (FSCD) and 2) 814 European Americans participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). In the FSCD, there was a significant association between the CHRNA5 variant and cocaine dependence (odds ratio = .67 per allele, p = .0045, assuming an additive genetic model), but in the reverse direction compared with that previously observed for nicotine dependence. In multivariate analyses that controlled for the effects of nicotine dependence, both the protective effect for cocaine dependence and the previously documented risk effect for nicotine dependence were statistically significant. The protective effect for cocaine dependence was replicated in the COGA sample. In COGA, effect sizes for habitual smoking, a proxy phenotype for nicotine dependence, were consistent with those observed in FSCD. The minor (A) allele of rs16969968, relative to the major G allele, appears to be both a risk factor for nicotine dependence and a protective factor for cocaine dependence. The biological plausibility of such a bidirectional association stems from the involvement of nAChRs with both excitatory and inhibitory modulation of dopamine-mediated reward pathways.

  15. Semiparametric Allelic Tests for Mapping Multiple Phenotypes: Binomial Regression and Mahalanobis Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arunabha; Witte, John S; Ghosh, Saurabh

    2015-12-01

    Binary phenotypes commonly arise due to multiple underlying quantitative precursors and genetic variants may impact multiple traits in a pleiotropic manner. Hence, simultaneously analyzing such correlated traits may be more powerful than analyzing individual traits. Various genotype-level methods, e.g., MultiPhen (O'Reilly et al. []), have been developed to identify genetic factors underlying a multivariate phenotype. For univariate phenotypes, the usefulness and applicability of allele-level tests have been investigated. The test of allele frequency difference among cases and controls is commonly used for mapping case-control association. However, allelic methods for multivariate association mapping have not been studied much. In this article, we explore two allelic tests of multivariate association: one using a Binomial regression model based on inverted regression of genotype on phenotype (Binomial regression-based Association of Multivariate Phenotypes [BAMP]), and the other employing the Mahalanobis distance between two sample means of the multivariate phenotype vector for two alleles at a single-nucleotide polymorphism (Distance-based Association of Multivariate Phenotypes [DAMP]). These methods can incorporate both discrete and continuous phenotypes. Some theoretical properties for BAMP are studied. Using simulations, the power of the methods for detecting multivariate association is compared with the genotype-level test MultiPhen's. The allelic tests yield marginally higher power than MultiPhen for multivariate phenotypes. For one/two binary traits under recessive mode of inheritance, allelic tests are found to be substantially more powerful. All three tests are applied to two different real data and the results offer some support for the simulation study. We propose a hybrid approach for testing multivariate association that implements MultiPhen when Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) is violated and BAMP otherwise, because the allelic approaches assume HWE

  16. [Analysis of allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li; Shen, Xiao-li; Xue, Shi-jie; Hu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    To analyze allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing in order to determine the accurate genotype. To use a two STR loci genotyping system to verify an abnormal genotype for the TH01 locus with PCR using specific primers, cloning and DNA sequencing. A rare allele at TH01 locus named 5.2, which was undetectable with PowerPlex 21 system, was detected with an Identifiler system. Genetic variations may result in rare alleles and loci loss. To avoid misjudgment, laboratories should have a variety of methods for detecting loci loss.

  17. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth G; Sanderson, Brian J; McNeil, Casey L; Long, Anthony D; Macdonald, Stuart J

    2014-05-01

    Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  18. Enhanced low-template DNA analysis conditions and investigation of allele dropout patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Dufva, Charlotte; Ansell, Ricky; Mostad, Petter; Hedman, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Forensic DNA analysis applying PCR enables profiling of minute biological samples. Enhanced analysis conditions can be applied to further push the limit of detection, coming with the risk of visualising artefacts and allele imbalances. We have evaluated the consecutive increase of PCR cycles from 30 to 35 to investigate the limitations of low-template (LT) DNA analysis, applying the short tandem repeat (STR) analysis kit PowerPlex ESX 16. Mock crime scene DNA extracts of four different quantities (from around 8-84 pg) were tested. All PCR products were analysed using 5, 10 and 20 capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection seconds. Bayesian models describing allele dropout patterns, allele peak heights and heterozygote balance were developed to assess the overall improvements in EPG quality with altered PCR/CE settings. The models were also used to evaluate the impact of amplicon length, STR marker and fluorescent label on the risk for allele dropout. The allele dropout probability decreased for each PCR cycle increment from 30 to 33 PCR cycles. Irrespective of DNA amount, the dropout probability was not affected by further increasing the number of PCR cycles. For the 42 and 84 pg samples, mainly complete DNA profiles were generated applying 32 PCR cycles. For the 8 and 17 pg samples, the allele dropouts decreased from 100% using 30 cycles to about 75% and 20%, respectively. The results for 33, 34 and 35 PCR cycles indicated that heterozygote balance and stutter ratio were mainly affected by DNA amount, and not directly by PCR cycle number and CE injection settings. We found 32 and 33 PCR cycles with 10 CE injection seconds to be optimal, as 34 and 35 PCR cycles did not improve allele detection and also included CE saturation problems. We find allele dropout probability differences between several STR markers. Markers labelled with the fluorescent dyes CXR-ET (red in electropherogram) and TMR-ET (shown as black) generally have higher dropout risks compared with those

  19. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Konrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array

  20. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Deleterious alleles in the human genome are on average younger than neutral alleles of the same frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiezun, Adam; Pulit, Sara L.; Francioli, Laurent C.; van Dijk, Freerk; Swertz, Morris; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Ommen, G. J. B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.

    Large-scale population sequencing studies provide a complete picture of human genetic variation within the studied populations. A key challenge is to identify, among the myriad alleles, those variants that have an effect on molecular function, phenotypes, and reproductive fitness. Most non-neutral

  2. Allele frequency distribution for 21 autosomal STR loci in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, T; van Driem, G L; Opgenort, J R M L; Tuladhar, N M; de Knijff, P

    2007-05-24

    The allele frequency distributions of 21 autosomal loci contained in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler, the Powerplex 16 and the FFFL multiplex PCR kits, was studied in 953 unrelated individuals from Nepal. Several new alleles (i.e. not yet reported in the NIST Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet DataBase [http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/]) have been detected in the process.

  3. Population based allele frequencies of disease associated polymorphisms in the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Deanna S; Ivacic, Lynn C; Stefanski, Elisha L; McCarty, Catherine A

    2010-06-17

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the frequency of disease associated polymorphisms in populations and population attributable risk for many populations remains unknown. Factors that could affect the association of the allele with disease, either positively or negatively, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, may not be possible to determine without population based allele frequencies.Here we used a panel of 51 polymorphisms previously associated with at least one disease and determined the allele frequencies within the entire Personalized Medicine Research Project population based cohort. We compared these allele frequencies to those in dbSNP and other data sources stratified by race. Differences in allele frequencies between self reported race, region of origin, and sex were determined. There were 19544 individuals who self reported a single racial category, 19027 or (97.4%) self reported white Caucasian, and 11205 (57.3%) individuals were female. Of the 11,208 (57%) individuals with an identifiable region of origin 8337 or (74.4%) were German.41 polymorphisms were significantly different between self reported race at the 0.05 level. Stratification of our Caucasian population by self reported region of origin revealed 19 polymorphisms that were significantly different (p = 0.05) between individuals of different origins. Further stratification of the population by gender revealed few significant differences in allele frequencies between the genders. This represents one of the largest population based allele frequency studies to date. Stratification by self reported race and region of origin revealed wide differences in allele frequencies not only by race but also by region of origin within a single racial group. We report allele frequencies for our Asian/Hmong and American Indian populations; these two minority groups are not typically selected for population allele frequency detection. Population wide allele frequencies are important for the design and

  4. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  5. QuASAR-MPRA: accurate allele-specific analysis for massively parallel reporter assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Cynthia A; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Brown, Christopher; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2018-03-01

    The majority of the human genome is composed of non-coding regions containing regulatory elements such as enhancers, which are crucial for controlling gene expression. Many variants associated with complex traits are in these regions, and may disrupt gene regulatory sequences. Consequently, it is important to not only identify true enhancers but also to test if a variant within an enhancer affects gene regulation. Recently, allele-specific analysis in high-throughput reporter assays, such as massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs), have been used to functionally validate non-coding variants. However, we are still missing high-quality and robust data analysis tools for these datasets. We have further developed our method for allele-specific analysis QuASAR (quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads) to analyze allele-specific signals in barcoded read counts data from MPRA. Using this approach, we can take into account the uncertainty on the original plasmid proportions, over-dispersion, and sequencing errors. The provided allelic skew estimate and its standard error also simplifies meta-analysis of replicate experiments. Additionally, we show that a beta-binomial distribution better models the variability present in the allelic imbalance of these synthetic reporters and results in a test that is statistically well calibrated under the null. Applying this approach to the MPRA data, we found 602 SNPs with significant (false discovery rate 10%) allele-specific regulatory function in LCLs. We also show that we can combine MPRA with QuASAR estimates to validate existing experimental and computational annotations of regulatory variants. Our study shows that with appropriate data analysis tools, we can improve the power to detect allelic effects in high-throughput reporter assays. http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR/tree/master/mpra. fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu. Supplementary data are available online at Bioinformatics. © The Author (2017). Published by

  6. Microangiopathic complications related to different alleles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Journal Home ... Microangiopathic complications related to different alleles of manganese superoxide dismutase gene in diabetes mellitus type 1. TM EL Masry ... 23(2) 2005: 155-167 ...

  7. The geographic spread of the CCR5 Delta32 HIV-resistance allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Novembre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Delta32 mutation at the CCR5 locus is a well-studied example of natural selection acting in humans. The mutation is found principally in Europe and western Asia, with higher frequencies generally in the north. Homozygous carriers of the Delta32 mutation are resistant to HIV-1 infection because the mutation prevents functional expression of the CCR5 chemokine receptor normally used by HIV-1 to enter CD4+ T cells. HIV has emerged only recently, but population genetic data strongly suggest Delta32 has been under intense selection for much of its evolutionary history. To understand how selection and dispersal have interacted during the history of the Delta32 allele, we implemented a spatially explicit model of the spread of Delta32. The model includes the effects of sampling, which we show can give rise to local peaks in observed allele frequencies. In addition, we show that with modest gradients in selection intensity, the origin of the Delta32 allele may be relatively far from the current areas of highest allele frequency. The geographic distribution of the Delta32 allele is consistent with previous reports of a strong selective advantage (>10% for Delta32 carriers and of dispersal over relatively long distances (>100 km/generation. When selection is assumed to be uniform across Europe and western Asia, we find support for a northern European origin and long-range dispersal consistent with the Viking-mediated dispersal of Delta32 proposed by G. Lucotte and G. Mercier. However, when we allow for gradients in selection intensity, we estimate the origin to be outside of northern Europe and selection intensities to be strongest in the northwest. Our results describe the evolutionary history of the Delta32 allele and establish a general methodology for studying the geographic distribution of selected alleles.

  8. Tumor transcriptome sequencing reveals allelic expression imbalances associated with copy number alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Tuch

    Full Text Available Due to growing throughput and shrinking cost, massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to microarrays for the genome-wide study of gene expression and copy number alterations in primary tumors. The sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq should offer several advantages over microarray-based methods, including the ability to detect somatic mutations and accurately measure allele-specific expression. To investigate these advantages we have applied a novel, strand-specific RNA-Seq method to tumors and matched normal tissue from three patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, to better understand the genomic determinants of the gene expression changes observed, we have sequenced the tumor and normal genomes of one of these patients. We demonstrate here that our RNA-Seq method accurately measures allelic imbalance and that measurement on the genome-wide scale yields novel insights into cancer etiology. As expected, the set of genes differentially expressed in the tumors is enriched for cell adhesion and differentiation functions, but, unexpectedly, the set of allelically imbalanced genes is also enriched for these same cancer-related functions. By comparing the transcriptomic perturbations observed in one patient to his underlying normal and tumor genomes, we find that allelic imbalance in the tumor is associated with copy number mutations and that copy number mutations are, in turn, strongly associated with changes in transcript abundance. These results support a model in which allele-specific deletions and duplications drive allele-specific changes in gene expression in the developing tumor.

  9. Analysis of FBN1 allele expression by dermal fibroblasts from Marfan syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, E.A.; Cao, S.N.; Milewicz, D.M. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Screening for mutations in the FBN1 cDNA from Marfan patient cell strains has detected mutations in only 10-15% of patients. In an attempt to explain this poor detection rate, we examined FBN1 allele expression and fibrillin synthesis by 26 cell strains from Marfan patients. DNA from the patients and 10 controls was assessed for the presence of a polymorphic Rsa I restriction site in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the FBN1 gene. Twelve of 26 patient and 5 of 10 control DNAs were heterozygous. Fibroblast RNA from the heterozygous cell strains was reverse-transcribed and subsequently PCR amplified using a [{sup 32}P]-labelled primer, digested with Rsa I and analyzed. Although 3 samples showed no transcript from one allele by ethidium bromide staining, a Betagen scanner detected low levels (10-15%) of that allele. In addition, there was unequal expression of the two alleles in three other patients; for example, only 30% expression from one allele. The remaining patients and the controls had equal expression of each allele. Fibrillin protein synthesis by fibroblasts from these heterozygous patients was also examined. After a 30 minute pulse with [{sup 35}S]-cysteine, cell lysates were collected and proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The amount of fibrillin produced relative to a reference protein was determined using a Betagen scanner. Fibrillin protein synthesis was reduced in 2 of the 3 patients with very low RNA production from one of the FBN1 alleles. All other Marfan and control cell strains showed normal amounts of fibrillin synthesized. The low expression levels from one allele may contribute to, but not fully account for, the low detection rate of FBN1 mutations. Interestingly, protein synthesis levels were not affected in 4 of 6 cell strains demonstrating low levels of RNA expression.

  10. Diversity Outbred Mice at 21: Maintaining Allelic Variation in the Face of Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa J. Chesler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parent populations (MPPs capture and maintain the genetic diversity from multiple inbred founder strains to provide a resource for high-resolution genetic mapping through the accumulation of recombination events over many generations. Breeding designs that maintain a large effective population size with randomized assignment of breeders at each generation can minimize the impact of selection, inbreeding, and genetic drift on allele frequencies. Small deviations from expected allele frequencies will have little effect on the power and precision of genetic analysis, but a major distortion could result in reduced power and loss of important functional alleles. We detected strong transmission ratio distortion in the Diversity Outbred (DO mouse population on chromosome 2, caused by meiotic drive favoring transmission of the WSB/EiJ allele at the R2d2 locus. The distorted region harbors thousands of polymorphisms derived from the seven non-WSB founder strains and many of these would be lost if the sweep was allowed to continue. To ensure the utility of the DO population to study genetic variation on chromosome 2, we performed an artificial selection against WSB/EiJ alleles at the R2d2 locus. Here, we report that we have purged the WSB/EiJ allele from the drive locus while preserving WSB/EiJ alleles in the flanking regions. We observed minimal disruption to allele frequencies across the rest of the autosomal genome. However, there was a shift in haplotype frequencies of the mitochondrial genome and an increase in the rate of an unusual sex chromosome aneuploidy. The DO population has been restored to genome-wide utility for genetic analysis, but our experience underscores that vigilant monitoring of similar genetic resource populations is needed to ensure their long-term utility.

  11. Prevalence of Huntington's disease gene CAG trinucleotide repeat alleles in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S; Lee, Jong-Min; Alonso, Isabel; Gusella, James F; Smoller, Jordan W; Sklar, Pamela; MacDonald, Marcy E; Perlis, Roy H

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that are caused by huntingtin gene (HTT) CAG trinucleotide repeat alleles of 36 or more units. A greater than expected prevalence of incompletely penetrant HTT CAG repeat alleles observed among individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder raises the possibility that another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, could likewise be associated with Huntington's disease. We assessed the distribution of HTT CAG repeat alleles in a cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder. HTT CAG allele sizes from 2,229 Caucasian individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were compared to allele sizes in 1,828 control individuals from multiple cohorts. We found that HTT CAG repeat alleles > 35 units were observed in only one of 4,458 chromosomes from individuals with bipolar disorder, compared to three of 3,656 chromosomes from control subjects. These findings do not support an association between bipolar disorder and Huntington's disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mutation intolerant genes and targets of FMRP are enriched for nonsynonymous alleles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonenko, Ganna; Richards, Alexander L; Walters, James T; Pocklington, Andrew; Chambert, Kimberly; Al Eissa, Mariam M; Sharp, Sally I; O'Brien, Niamh L; Curtis, David; Bass, Nicholas J; McQuillin, Andrew; Hultman, Christina; Moran, Jennifer L; McCarroll, Steven A; Sklar, Pamela; Neale, Benjamin M; Holmans, Peter A; Owen, Michael J; Sullivan, Patrick F; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2017-10-01

    Risk of schizophrenia is conferred by alleles occurring across the full spectrum of frequencies from common SNPs of weak effect through to ultra rare alleles, some of which may be moderately to highly penetrant. Previous studies have suggested that some of the risk of schizophrenia is attributable to uncommon alleles represented on Illumina exome arrays. Here, we present the largest study of exomic variation in schizophrenia to date, using samples from the United Kingdom and Sweden (10,011 schizophrenia cases and 13,791 controls). Single variants, genes, and gene sets were analyzed for association with schizophrenia. No single variant or gene reached genome-wide significance. Among candidate gene sets, we found significant enrichment for rare alleles (minor allele frequency [MAF] schizophrenia by excluding a role for uncommon exomic variants (0.01 ≤ MAF ≥ 0.001) that confer a relatively large effect (odds ratio [OR] > 4). We also show risk alleles within this frequency range exist, but confer smaller effects and should be identified by larger studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  14. Association between the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele and late onset of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Timm, Sally; Wang, August G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 32-bp deletion allele in chemokine receptor CCR5 has been associated with several immune-mediated diseases and might be implicated in schizophrenia as well. METHOD: The authors genotyped DNA samples from 268 schizophrenia patients and 323 healthy subjects. Age at first admission...... of the deletion allele in the latter subgroup of patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele is a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia with late onset. Alternatively, the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele may act as a modifier by delaying the onset of schizophrenia without...

  15. Association between the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele and late onset of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.B.; Timm, S.; Wang, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 32-bp deletion allele in chemokine receptor CCR5 has been associated with several immune-mediated diseases and might be implicated in schizophrenia as well. METHOD: The authors genotyped DNA samples from 268 schizophrenia patients and 323 healthy subjects. Age at first admission...... to a psychiatric hospital department served as a measure of disease onset. RESULTS: Patients and comparison subjects differed marginally in their genotype distribution, with a slightly higher frequency of the deletion allele seen in the patients. The authors found the deletion allele to be associated with higher......-onset schizophrenia) and healthy subjects differed significantly. This was reflected in an increased frequency of the deletion allele in the patient subgroup. Patients with ages at first admission below and above 40 years significantly differed in distribution of genotypes and alleles, with an overrepresentation...

  16. Rapid detection of the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele by Pyrosequencing® technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Margaret L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of CYP2A6 alleles associated with reduced enzyme activity is important in the study of inter-individual differences in drug metabolism. CYP2A6*12 is a hybrid allele that results from unequal crossover between CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes. The 5' regulatory region and exons 1–2 are derived from CYP2A7, and exons 3–9 are derived from CYP2A6. Conventional methods for detection of CYP2A6*12 consist of two-step PCR protocols that are laborious and unsuitable for high-throughput genotyping. We developed a rapid and accurate method to detect the CYP2A6*12 allele by Pyrosequencing technology. Methods A single set of PCR primers was designed to specifically amplify both the CYP2A6*1 wild-type allele and the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele. An internal Pyrosequencing primer was used to generate allele-specific sequence information, which detected homozygous wild-type, heterozygous hybrid, and homozygous hybrid alleles. We first validated the assay on 104 DNA samples that were also genotyped by conventional two-step PCR and by cycle sequencing. CYP2A6*12 allele frequencies were then determined using the Pyrosequencing assay on 181 multi-ethnic DNA samples from subjects of African American, European Caucasian, Pacific Rim, and Hispanic descent. Finally, we streamlined the Pyrosequencing assay by integrating liquid handling robotics into the workflow. Results Pyrosequencing results demonstrated 100% concordance with conventional two-step PCR and cycle sequencing methods. Allele frequency data showed slightly higher prevalence of the CYP2A6*12 allele in European Caucasians and Hispanics. Conclusion This Pyrosequencing assay proved to be a simple, rapid, and accurate alternative to conventional methods, which can be easily adapted to the needs of higher-throughput studies.

  17. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus, implications for psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide-range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to TNF-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to up-regulation by key pro-inflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele. PMID:22113476

  18. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus: implications for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2012-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to upregulation by key proinflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele.

  19. Preferential Allele Expression Analysis Identifies Shared Germline and Somatic Driver Genes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Najeeb M.; Martinez, Alejandra; Al-Farsi, Halema; Mery, Eliane; Puydenus, Laurence; Pujol, Pascal; Khalak, Hanif G.; McLurcan, Cameron; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Al-Azwani, Iman; Al-Dous, Eman; Mohamoud, Yasmin A.; Malek, Joel A.; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genes where a variant allele is preferentially expressed in tumors could lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and optimization of targeted therapy. However, tumor sample heterogeneity complicates standard approaches for detecting preferential allele expression. We therefore developed a novel approach combining genome and transcriptome sequencing data from the same sample that corrects for sample heterogeneity and identifies significant preferentially expressed alleles. We applied this analysis to epithelial ovarian cancer samples consisting of matched primary ovary and peritoneum and lymph node metastasis. We find that preferentially expressed variant alleles include germline and somatic variants, are shared at a relatively high frequency between patients, and are in gene networks known to be involved in cancer processes. Analysis at a patient level identifies patient-specific preferentially expressed alleles in genes that are targets for known drugs. Analysis at a site level identifies patterns of site specific preferential allele expression with similar pathways being impacted in the primary and metastasis sites. We conclude that genes with preferentially expressed variant alleles can act as cancer drivers and that targeting those genes could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26735499

  20. Effects of the APOE ε2 Allele on Mortality and Cognitive Function in the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Tan, Qihua; Mengel-From, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Some studies indicate that the APOE ε2 allele may have a protective effect on mortality and mental health among the elderly adults. We investigated the effect of the APOE ε2 allele on cognitive function and mortality in 1651 members of the virtually extinct Danish 1905 birth cohort. We found...... no protective effect of the APOE ε2 allele on mortality compared with the APOE ε3 allele. The point estimates indicated an increased protection against cognitive decline over time for persons with the APOE ε2 allele. Cognitive score did not significantly modify the mortality risk of the various APOE genotypes....... We did not find a protective effect of the APOE ε2 allele on mortality among the oldest old, but in agreement with our previous findings, we found a 22% increased mortality risk for APOE ε4 carriers. The APOE ε2 allele may be protective on cognitive decline among the oldest old....

  1. Pyramiding of transgenic Pm3 alleles in wheat results in improved powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Teresa; Brunner, Susanne; Herren, Gerhard; Hurni, Severine; Keller, Beat

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of enhanced total transgene expression level and allele-specificity combination in transgenic allele-pyramided Pm3 wheat lines result in improved powdery mildew field resistance without negative pleiotropic effects. Allelic Pm3 resistance genes of wheat confer race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) and encode nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors. Transgenic wheat lines overexpressing alleles Pm3a, b, c, d, f, and g have previously been generated by transformation of cultivar Bobwhite and tested in field trials, revealing varying degrees of powdery mildew resistance conferred by the transgenes. Here, we tested four transgenic lines each carrying two pyramided Pm3 alleles, which were generated by crossbreeding of lines transformed with single Pm3 alleles. All four allele-pyramided lines showed strongly improved powdery mildew resistance in the field compared to their parental lines. The improved resistance results from the two effects of enhanced total transgene expression levels and allele-specificity combinations. In contrast to leaf segment tests on greenhouse-grown seedlings, no allelic suppression was observed in the field. Plant development and yield scores of the pyramided lines were similar to the mean scores of the corresponding parental lines, and thus, the allele pyramiding did not cause any negative effects. On the contrary, in pyramided line, Pm3b × Pm3f normal plant development was restored compared to the delayed development and reduced seed set of parental line Pm3f. Allele-specific RT qPCR revealed additive transgene expression levels of the two Pm3 alleles in the pyramided lines. A positive correlation between total transgene expression level and powdery mildew field resistance was observed. In summary, allele pyramiding of Pm3 transgenes proved to be successful in enhancing powdery mildew field resistance.

  2. Lower Frequency of HLA-DRB1 Type 1 Diabetes Risk Alleles in Pediatric Patients with MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Inés; Martínez, Rosa; López-Euba, Tamara; Velayos, Teresa; Martínez de LaPiscina, Idoia; Bilbao, José Ramón; Rica, Itxaso; Castaño, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes in a cohort of pediatric patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of MODY. 160 families with a proband diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 74 families with a molecular diagnosis of MODY (61 GCK-MODY and 13 HNF1A-MODY) were categorized at high definition for HLA-DRB1 locus. According to the presence or absence of the susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes, we considered three different HLA-DRB1 genotypes: 0 risk alleles (no DR3 no DR4); 1 risk allele (DR3 or DR4); 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4). Compared with type 1 diabetes, patients with MODY carried higher frequency of 0 risk alleles, OR 22.7 (95% CI: 10.7-48.6) and lower frequency of 1 or 2 risk alleles, OR 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.96) and OR 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18), respectively. The frequency of HLA-DRB1 risk alleles for type 1 diabetes is significantly lower in patients with MODY. In children and adolescents with diabetes, the presence of 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4) reduces the probability of MODY diagnosis, whereas the lack of risk alleles increases it. Therefore, we might consider that HLA-DRB1 provides additional information for the selection of patients with high probability of monogenic diabetes.

  3. Lower Frequency of HLA-DRB1 Type 1 Diabetes Risk Alleles in Pediatric Patients with MODY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Urrutia

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes in a cohort of pediatric patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of MODY.160 families with a proband diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 74 families with a molecular diagnosis of MODY (61 GCK-MODY and 13 HNF1A-MODY were categorized at high definition for HLA-DRB1 locus. According to the presence or absence of the susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes, we considered three different HLA-DRB1 genotypes: 0 risk alleles (no DR3 no DR4; 1 risk allele (DR3 or DR4; 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4.Compared with type 1 diabetes, patients with MODY carried higher frequency of 0 risk alleles, OR 22.7 (95% CI: 10.7-48.6 and lower frequency of 1 or 2 risk alleles, OR 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.96 and OR 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18, respectively.The frequency of HLA-DRB1 risk alleles for type 1 diabetes is significantly lower in patients with MODY. In children and adolescents with diabetes, the presence of 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4 reduces the probability of MODY diagnosis, whereas the lack of risk alleles increases it. Therefore, we might consider that HLA-DRB1 provides additional information for the selection of patients with high probability of monogenic diabetes.

  4. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  5. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  6. Recombinational micro-evolution of functionally different metallothionein promoter alleles from Orchesella cincta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straalen Nico M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metallothionein (mt transcription is elevated in heavy metal tolerant field populations of Orchesella cincta (Collembola. This suggests that natural selection acts on transcriptional regulation of mt in springtails at sites where cadmium (Cd levels in soil reach toxic values This study investigates the nature and the evolutionary origin of polymorphisms in the metallothionein promoter (pmt and their functional significance for mt expression. Results We sequenced approximately 1600 bp upstream the mt coding region by genome walking. Nine pmt alleles were discovered in NW-European populations. They differ in the number of some indels, consensus transcription factor binding sites and core promoter elements. Extensive recombination events between some of the alleles can be inferred from the alignment. A deviation from neutral expectations was detected in a cadmium tolerant population, pointing towards balancing selection on some promoter stretches. Luciferase constructs were made from the most abundant alleles, and responses to Cd, paraquat (oxidative stress inducer and moulting hormone were studied in cell lines. By using paraquat we were able to dissect the effect of oxidative stress from the Cd specific effect, and extensive differences in mt induction levels between these two stressors were observed. Conclusion The pmt alleles evolved by a number of recombination events, and exhibited differential inducibilities by Cd, paraquat and molting hormone. In a tolerant population from a metal contaminated site, promoter allele frequencies differed significantly from a reference site and nucleotide polymorphisms in some promoter stretches deviated from neutral expectations, revealing a signature of balancing selection. Our results suggest that the structural differences in the Orchesella cincta metallothionein promoter alleles contribute to the metallothionein -over-expresser phenotype in cadmium tolerant populations.

  7. Allele frequencies of AVPR1A and MAOA in the Afrikaner population

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    J. Christoff Erasmus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Afrikaner population was founded mainly by European immigrants that arrived in South Africa from 1652. However, female slaves from Asia and Africa and local KhoeSan women may have contributed as much as 7% to this population’s genes. We quantified variation at two tandem repeats to see if this historical founder effect and/or admixture could be detected. The two loci were chosen because they are in the promoters of genes of neurotransmitters that are known to be correlated with social behaviour. Specifically, arginine vasopressin receptor 1A’s (AVPR1A RS3 locus has been shown to correlate with age of sexual onset and happiness in monogamous relationships while the tandem repeat in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA gene correlates with reactive aggression. The Afrikaner population contained more AVPR1A RS3 alleles than other Caucasoid populations, potentially reflecting a history of admixture. Even though Afrikaners have one of the lowest recorded non-paternity rates in the world, the population did not differ at AVPR1A RS3 locus form other European populations, suggesting a non-genetic explanation, presumably religion, for the low non-paternity rate. By comparing population allele-frequency spectra it was found that different studies have confused AVPR1A RS3 alleles and we make some suggestions to rectify these mistakes in future studies. While MAOA allele frequencies differed between racial groups, the Afrikaner population showed no evidence of admixture. In fact, Afrikaners had more 4-repeat alleles than other populations of European origin, not fewer. The 4-repeat allele may have been selected for during colonisation.

  8. Allele Age Under Non-Classical Assumptions is Clarified by an Exact Computational Markov Chain Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Bianca; Krukov, Ivan; de Koning, A P Jason

    2017-09-19

    Determination of the age of an allele based on its population frequency is a well-studied problem in population genetics, for which a variety of approximations have been proposed. We present a new result that, surprisingly, allows the expectation and variance of allele age to be computed exactly (within machine precision) for any finite absorbing Markov chain model in a matter of seconds. This approach makes none of the classical assumptions (e.g., weak selection, reversibility, infinite sites), exploits modern sparse linear algebra techniques, integrates over all sample paths, and is rapidly computable for Wright-Fisher populations up to N e  = 100,000. With this approach, we study the joint effect of recurrent mutation, dominance, and selection, and demonstrate new examples of "selective strolls" where the classical symmetry of allele age with respect to selection is violated by weakly selected alleles that are older than neutral alleles at the same frequency. We also show evidence for a strong age imbalance, where rare deleterious alleles are expected to be substantially older than advantageous alleles observed at the same frequency when population-scaled mutation rates are large. These results highlight the under-appreciated utility of computational methods for the direct analysis of Markov chain models in population genetics.

  9. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. The link between some alleles on human leukocyte antigen system and autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Shehab, Abeer A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2013-02-15

    The reason behind the initiation of autoimmunity to brain in some patients with autism is not well understood. There is an association between some autoimmune disorders and specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Thus, we examined the frequency of some HLA-DRB1 alleles in 100 autistic children and 100 healthy matched-children by differential hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The risk of association between acquisition or absence of these alleles and autism and also a history of autoimmune diseases in autistic relatives was studied. Autistic children had significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 allele than controls (P<0.001). In contrast, autistic children had significantly lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*03 allele than controls (P<0.001). Acquisition of HLA-DRB1*011 and absence of HLA-DRB1*3 had significant risk for association with autism (odds ratio: 3.21 and 0.17, respectively; 95% CI: 1.65-6.31 and 0.06-0.45, respectively). HLA-DRB1*11 had a significant risk for association with a family history of autoimmunity in autistic children (odds ratio: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.07-16.3). In conclusions, the link of some HLA alleles to autism and to family history of autoimmunity indicates the possible contributing role of these alleles to autoimmunity in some autistic children. Despite a relatively small sample size, we are the first to report a probable protective association of HLA-DRB1*03 allele with autism. It warrants a replication study of a larger sample to validate the HLA-DRB1 genetic association with autism. This is important to determine whether therapeutic modulations of the immune function are legitimate avenues for novel therapy in selected cases of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Ppd-B1 alleles in common wheat cultivars by CAPS marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, S; Kowalczyk, K; Miazga, D

    2012-05-01

    Photoperiod response is a major determinant of the duration of growth stages in common wheat. In common wheat, many genes play a role in determining flowering time, but the Ppd genes located on the homoeologous group 2 play a major role. Of these Ppd-B1 is located on the short arm of 2B. In 107 common wheat cultivars grown in Poland and neighboring countries, the identification of Ppd-B1 alleles using in-del analysis by using a CAPS markers was investigated. 87 cultivars were shown to carry dominant Ppd-B1 alleles. This shows that Ppd-B1 alleles is have been widely used in common wheat breeding programme in these countries. Recessive ppd-B1 alleles were found only in 20 cultivars (12 Polish, 5 former Soviet Union, 2 German, 1 Swedish).

  12. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Thorsten; Wissenbach, Ulrich; Grobholz, Rainer; Flockerzi, Veit

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is a Ca 2+ selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6 alleles in healthy control individuals and prostate cancer patients

  13. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Thorsten; Wissenbach, Ulrich; Grobholz, Rainer; Flockerzi, Veit

    2009-10-26

    The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is a Ca(2+) selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6 alleles in healthy control individuals and prostate cancer patients

  14. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flockerzi Veit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6 is a Ca2+ selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Methods Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Conclusion Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6

  15. Genetic structure, diversity, and allelic richness in composite collection and reference set in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

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    Gowda Cholenahalli LL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant genetic resources (PGR are the basic raw materials for future genetic progress and an insurance against unforeseen threats to agricultural production. An extensive characterization of PGR provides an opportunity to dissect structure, mine allelic variations, and identify diverse accessions for crop improvement. The Generation Challenge Program http://www.generationcp.org conceptualized the development of "composite collections" and extraction of "reference sets" from these for more efficient tapping of global crop-related genetic resources. In this study, we report the genetic structure, diversity and allelic richness in a composite collection of chickpea using SSR markers, and formation of a reference set of 300 accessions. Results The 48 SSR markers detected 1683 alleles in 2915 accessions, of which, 935 were considered rare, 720 common and 28 most frequent. The alleles per locus ranged from 14 to 67, averaged 35, and the polymorphic information content was from 0.467 to 0.974, averaged 0.854. Marker polymorphism varied between groups of accessions in the composite collection and reference set. A number of group-specific alleles were detected: 104 in Kabuli, 297 in desi, and 69 in wild Cicer; 114 each in Mediterranean and West Asia (WA, 117 in South and South East Asia (SSEA, and 10 in African region accessions. Desi and kabuli shared 436 alleles, while wild Cicer shared 17 and 16 alleles with desi and kabuli, respectively. The accessions from SSEA and WA shared 74 alleles, while those from Mediterranean 38 and 33 alleles with WA and SSEA, respectively. Desi chickpea contained a higher proportion of rare alleles (53% than kabuli (46%, while wild Cicer accessions were devoid of rare alleles. A genotype-based reference set captured 1315 (78% of the 1683 composite collection alleles of which 463 were rare, 826 common, and 26 the most frequent alleles. The neighbour-joining tree diagram of this reference set represents

  16. Sex-specific allelic transmission bias suggests sexual conflict at MC1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, Valérie; Gaigher, Arnaud; Simon, Céline; Goudet, Jérôme; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Sexual conflict arises when selection in one sex causes the displacement of the other sex from its phenotypic optimum, leading to an inevitable tension within the genome - called intralocus sexual conflict. Although the autosomal melanocortin-1-receptor gene (MC1R) can generate colour variation in sexually dichromatic species, most previous studies have not considered the possibility that MC1R may be subject to sexual conflict. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), the allele MC1RWHITE is associated with whitish plumage coloration, typical of males, and the allele MC1RRUFOUS is associated with dark rufous coloration, typical of females, although each sex can express any phenotype. Because each colour variant is adapted to specific environmental conditions, the allele MC1RWHITE may be more strongly selected in males and the allele MC1RRUFOUS in females. We therefore investigated whether MC1R genotypes are in excess or deficit in male and female fledglings compared with the expected Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Our results show an overall deficit of 7.5% in the proportion of heterozygotes in males and of 12.9% in females. In males, interannual variation in assortative pairing with respect to MC1R explained the year-specific deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, whereas in females, the deficit was better explained by the interannual variation in the probability of inheriting the MC1RWHITE or MC1RRUFOUS allele. Additionally, we observed that sons inherit the MC1RRUFOUS allele from their fathers on average slightly less often than expected under the first Mendelian law. Transmission ratio distortion may be adaptive in this sexually dichromatic species if males and females are, respectively, selected to display white and rufous plumages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population.

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    Grażyna Adler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12% and lower in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%. Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Hercegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina (DNA collected 2011-2013.  Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (±10.7 years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary. 

  18. Genotype calling in tetraploid species from bi-allelic marker data using mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Gort, G.; Vosman, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automated genotype calling in tetraploid species was until recently not possible, which hampered genetic analysis. Modern genotyping assays often produce two signals, one for each allele of a bi-allelic marker. While ample software is available to obtain genotypes (homozygous for either

  19. Precision-engineering the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome with two-step allelic exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hmelo, Laura R; Borlee, Bradley R; Almblad, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Allelic exchange is an efficient method of bacterial genome engineering. This protocol describes the use of this technique to make gene knockouts and knock-ins, as well as single-nucleotide insertions, deletions and substitutions, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike other approaches to allelic exch...

  20. Correlation between carboxylesterase alleles and insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, large amounts of chemical insecticides are applied in fields or indoors every year, directly or indirectly bringing selection pressure on vector mosquitoes. Culex pipiens complex has evolved to be resistant to all types of chemical insecticides, especially organophosphates, through carboxylesterases. Six resistant carboxylesterase alleles (Ester were recorded previously and sometimes co-existed in one field population, representing a complex situation for the evolution of Ester genes. Results In order to explore the evolutionary scenario, we analyzed the data from an historical record in 2003 and a recent investigation on five Culex pipiens pallens populations sampled from north China in 2010. Insecticide bioassays showed that these five populations had high resistance to pyrethroids, medium resistance to organophosphates, and low resistance to carbamates. Six types of Ester alleles, EsterB1, Ester2, Ester8, Ester9, EsterB10, and Ester11 were identified, and the overall pattern of their frequencies in geographic distribution was consistent with the report seven years prior to this study. Statistical correlation analysis indicated that Ester8 and Ester9 positively correlated with resistance to four insecticides, and EsterB10 to one insecticide. The occurrences of these three alleles were positively correlated, while the occurrence of EsterB1 was negatively correlated with Ester8, indicating an allelic competition. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that one insecticide can select multiple Ester alleles and one Ester allele can work on multiple insecticides. The evolutionary scenario of carboxylesterases under insecticide selection is possibly "one to many".

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  2. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur...

  3. A new mutation for Huntington disease following maternal transmission of an intermediate allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semaka, Alicia; Kay, Chris; Belfroid, René D. M.; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; Losekoot, Monique; van Langen, Irene M.; van Maarle, Merel C.; Oosterloo, Mayke; Hayden, Michael R.; van Belzen, Martine J.

    2015-01-01

    New mutations for Huntington disease (HD) originate from CAG repeat expansion of intermediate alleles (27-35 CAG). Expansions of such alleles into the pathological range (≥ 36 CAG) have been exclusively observed in paternal transmission. We report the occurrence of a new mutation that defies the

  4. Sensory Gating and Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene Allelic Variants in Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura F.; Leonard, Sherry; Hall, Mei-Hua; Tregellas, Jason R.; Freedman, Robert; Olincy, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide allelic variants in the promoter region of the chromosome 15 alpha-7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) are associated with both schizophrenia and the P50 auditory evoked potential sensory gating deficit. The purpose of this study was to determine if CHRNA7 promoter allelic variants are also associated with abnormal P50 ratios in persons with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Methods P50 auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a paired stimulus paradigm in 17 subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The P50 test to conditioning ratio was used as the measure of sensory gating. Mutation screening of the CHRNA7 promoter region was performed on the subjects’ DNA samples. Comparisons to previously obtained data from persons with schizophrenia and controls were made. Results Subjects with schizophrenia, regardless of allele status, had an abnormal mean P50 ratio. Subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type and a variant allele had an abnormal mean P50 ratio, whereas those schizoaffective subjects with the common alleles had a normal mean P50 ratio. Normal control subjects had a normal mean ratio, but controls with variant alleles had higher P50 ratios. Conclusions In persons with bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, CHRNA7 promoter region allelic variants are linked to the capacity to inhibit the P50 auditory evoked potential and thus are associated with a type of illness genetically and biologically more similar to schizophrenia. PMID:17192894

  5. The acylphosphatase (Acyp) alleles associate with male hybrid sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Pawel; Ma, Daina

    2008-06-15

    Hybrid defects are believed to result from genetic incompatibilities between genes that have evolved in separate parental lineages. These genetic dysfunctions on the hybrid genomic background, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, can be an incipient signature of speciation, and as such - a subject of active research. Here we present evidence that Acyp locus (CG16870) that encodes acylphosphatase, a small enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylphosphates and participates in ion transport across biological membranes, is involved in genetic incompatibilities leading to male sterility in hybrids between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. There is a strong association between Acyp alleles (genotype) and the sterility/fertility pattern (phenotype), as well as between the phenotype, the genotype and its transcriptional activity. Allele-specific expression in hybrids heterozygous for Acyp suggests a cis-type regulation of this gene, where an allele from one of the parental species (D. simulans) is consistently overexpressed.

  6. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Irving, Helen; Yunta, Cristina; Paine, Mark J I; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-10-01

    Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser) from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies.

  7. Diversity of Lactase Persistence Alleles in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, BL; Raga, TO; Liebert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The persistent expression of lactase into adulthood in humans is a recent genetic adaptation that allows the consumption of milk from other mammals after weaning. In Europe, a single allele (−13910∗T, rs4988235) in an upstream region that acts as an enhancer to the expression of the lactase gene ...

  8. Association of primary biliary cirrhosis with the allele HLA-DPB1*0301 in a German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, J G; Roschmann, E; Maier, K P; Volk, B A

    1995-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II alleles at the HLA-DPB1 locus were investigated in 32 German Caucasoid patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and compared with those from 47 normal control patients using molecular genotyping techniques. The second exon of the HLA-DPB1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridized with 25 sequence-specific oligonucleotides (SSOs) to assign the HLA-DPB1 alleles on the basis of known sequence variations, according to the protocols of the Eleventh International Histocompatibility Workshop. A strong association of PBC was found with the allele HLA-DPB1*0301. The allele HLA DPB1*0301 was present in 50% (16 of 32) of the patients with PBC compared with 13% (6 of 47) of normal controls (P corrected < .015), whereas the other HLA-DPB1 alleles showed no significant differences in both groups. The relative risk (RR) estimate for the allele HLA-DPB1*0301 was 6.8 (95% confidence limits: 2.27 to 20.57). In summary, this study clearly demonstrates an association of PBC with the HLA-DPB1*0301 allele in German Caucasoids and may add new data to the immunogenetic background of PBC, suggesting a contribution of the HLA-DPB1 gene to the genetic susceptibility of the disease.

  9. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Human leukocyte antigen class II susceptibility conferring alleles among non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipu, H.N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II susceptibility conferring alleles among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients, in comparison with healthy controls. Cross-sectional comparative study. Patients with non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus meeting World Health Organization criteria were studied. These were compared with age and gender matched healthy control subjects. For each subject (patients as well as controls), DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetra-acetate sample and HLA class II DRB1 typing was carried out at allele group level (DRB1*01-DRB1*16) by sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Frequencies were determined as number of an allele divided by total number of alleles per group; p-value was computed using Pearson's chi-square test. Among the 100 patients, there were 63 males and 37 females with 68 controls. A total of 13 different HLA DRB1 alleles were detected, with DRB1*15 being the commonest in both the groups. The allele DRB1*13 had statistically significant higher frequency in patient group as compared to controls (p 0.005). HLA DRB1*13 was found with a significantly increased frequency in non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus. (author)

  11. Interlaboratory comparison of fig (Ficus carica L. microsatellite genotyping data and determination of reference alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been identified as the marker of choice in plant genotyping projects. However, due to length discrepancies obtained between different laboratories for the same allele, interlaboratory comparison of fingerprinting results is often a difficult task. The objectives of this study were to compare genotyping results of two laboratories, to evaluate genetic parameters of microsatellite markers and to determine reference allele sizes for fig cultivars from the Istrian peninsula.Genotyping results of ninety fig (Ficus carica L. accessions were comparable between the laboratories despite differences observed when comparing electropherograms of different capillary electrophoresis systems. Differences in lengths of the same alleles were detected due to different PCR methods and laboratory equipment, but the distances between alleles of the same locus were preserved. However, locus FSYC01 exhibited one allele dropout which led to misidentification of 28 heterozygotes as homozygote individuals suggesting this locus as unreliable. Allele dropout was assigned to the tail PCR technology or to a touchdown PCR protocol.Genotypes of twenty-four reference cultivars from the Istrian peninsula were confirmed by both laboratories. These results will contribute to the usage of markers with greater reliability, discrimination power and consequently, to more reliable standardization with other fig genotyping projects.

  12. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  13. Systematic Functional Interrogation of Rare Cancer Variants Identifies Oncogenic Alleles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer genome characterization efforts now provide an initial view of the somatic alterations in primary tumors. However, most point mutations occur at low frequency, and the function of these alleles remains undefined. We have developed a scalable systematic approach to interrogate the function of cancer-associated gene variants. We subjected 474 mutant alleles curated from 5,338 tumors to pooled in vivo tumor formation assays and gene expression profiling. We identified 12 transforming alleles, including two in genes (PIK3CB, POT1) that have not been shown to be tumorigenic.

  14. Identification and distribution of three serologically undetected alleles of HLA-DR by oligonucleotide x DNA typing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiercy, J.M.; Gorski, J.; Jeannet, M.; Mach, B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the molecular biology of human major histocompatibility complex class II genes (HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR) have shown that the genetic complexity and allelic polymorphism are greater than expected. In the case of HLA-DR, three DR β-chain loci have been identified and linked, two of which (DR βI and DR βIII, now assigned names HLA-DR1B and HLA-DR3B) are functional. The authors have shown that the HLA micropolymorphism detected at the DNA sequence level can easily be analyzed by hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides (HLA oligotyping). In the case of the HLA DRw52 supertypic specificity, which includes the DR3, DR5, DRw6, and DRw8 haplotypes, three alleles, referred to as DRw52a, DRw52b, and DRw52c, have recently been identified at the HLA-DR3B locus by DNA sequencing. Hybridization with locus- and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes (designated 52a, 52b, and 52c) has been performed on DNA from normal individuals forming a panel of 82 haplotypes to establish the distribution of these three alleles. Individuals of the DR3 haplotype had either the DRw52a or DRw52b allele, and individuals of extended haplotype HLA-A1,B8,DR3 had only the DRw52a allele. DR5 individuals all had the DRw52b allele, while individuals of DRw6 haplotype had the DRw52a, -52b, or -52c allele. None of these three alleles are found in DRw8 individuals. Analysis of this micropolymorphism, undetectable by common typing procedures, is therefore now operational for more accurate HLA matching for transplantation and for improving correlations between HLA and disease susceptibility

  15. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Kerr

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions.

  16. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jennifer E; Abramian, Jared R; Dao, Doan-Hieu V; Rigney, Todd W; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions.

  17. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the genes associated with body composition and locomotion traits in Myanmar native horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yu; Moe, Hla Hla; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Shimizu, Yuki; Nishioka, Kenji; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kanemaki, Misao; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2017-08-01

    Myanmar native horses are small horses used mainly for drafting carts or carriages in rural areas and packing loads in mountainy areas. In the present study, we investigated genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the LCORL/NCAPG, MSTN and DMRT3 genes, which are associated with body composition and locomotion traits of horses, in seven local populations of Myanmar native horses. The genotyping result of LCORL/NCAPG showed that allele frequencies of C allele associated with higher withers height ranged from 0.08 to 0.27, and 0.13 in average. For MSTN, allele frequencies of C allele associated with higher proportion of Type 2B muscular fiber ranged from 0.05 to 0.23, and 0.09 in average. For DMRT3, allele frequencies of A allele associated with ambling gait ranged from 0 to 0.04, and 0.01 in average. The presences of the minor alleles of these genes at low frequencies suggest a possibility that these horse populations have not been under strong selection pressure for particular locomotion traits and body composition. Our findings of the presence of these minor alleles in Southeast Asian native horses are also informative for considering the origins of these minor alleles associated with body composition and locomotion traits in horse populations. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Molecular analyses of the agouti allele in the Japanese house mouse identify a novel variant of the agouti gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Masahiro A; Kawamura, Sayaka; Myoshu, Hikari; Suzuki, Taichi A

    2018-03-01

    It has been thought that the Japanese house mouse carries the A w allele at the agouti locus causing light-colored bellies, but they do not always show this coloration. Thus, the presence of the A w allele seems to be doubtful in them. To ascertain whether the A w allele is present, a two-pronged approach was used. First, we compared lengths of DNA fragments obtained from three PCRs conducted on them to the known fragment sizes generated from mouse strains exhibiting homozygosities of either a/a, A/A, or A w /A w . PCR I, PCR II, and PCR III amplify only in the A and A w alleles, the a and A w alleles, and the a allele, respectively, and we detected amplifications in strains with A/A and A w /A w by PCR I, in those with a/a and the Japanese house mouse by PCR II, and in those with a/a by PCR III. Second, we sequenced the exon 1A region of the agouti gene and obtained sequences corresponding to the above strains and the Japanese house mouse, but their sequences were similar to those of the a allele. We concluded that their agouti allele is not identical to the A w allele and seems to be a novel type similar to the a allele.

  20. Two domain-disrupted hda6 alleles have opposite epigenetic effects on transgenes and some endogenous targets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ShouDong; Zhan, Xiangqiang; Xu, Xiaoming; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xia, Yiji; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    HDA6 is a RPD3-like histone deacetylase. In Arabidopsis, it mediates transgene and some endogenous target transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) via histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. Here, we characterized two hda6 mutant alleles that were recovered as second-site suppressors of the DNA demethylation mutant ros1–1. Although both alleles derepressed 35S::NPTII and RD29A::LUC in the ros1–1 background, they had distinct effects on the expression of these two transgenes. In accordance to expression profiles of two transgenes, the alleles have distinct opposite methylation profiles on two reporter gene promoters. Furthermore, both alleles could interact in vitro and in vivo with the DNA methyltransferase1 with differential interactive strength and patterns. Although these alleles accumulated different levels of repressive/active histone marks, DNA methylation but not histone modifications in the two transgene promoters was found to correlate with the level of derepression of the reporter genes between the two had6 alleles. Our study reveals that mutations in different domains of HDA6 convey different epigenetic status that in turn controls the expression of the transgenes as well as some endogenous loci.

  1. Two domain-disrupted hda6 alleles have opposite epigenetic effects on transgenes and some endogenous targets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ShouDong

    2015-12-15

    HDA6 is a RPD3-like histone deacetylase. In Arabidopsis, it mediates transgene and some endogenous target transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) via histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. Here, we characterized two hda6 mutant alleles that were recovered as second-site suppressors of the DNA demethylation mutant ros1–1. Although both alleles derepressed 35S::NPTII and RD29A::LUC in the ros1–1 background, they had distinct effects on the expression of these two transgenes. In accordance to expression profiles of two transgenes, the alleles have distinct opposite methylation profiles on two reporter gene promoters. Furthermore, both alleles could interact in vitro and in vivo with the DNA methyltransferase1 with differential interactive strength and patterns. Although these alleles accumulated different levels of repressive/active histone marks, DNA methylation but not histone modifications in the two transgene promoters was found to correlate with the level of derepression of the reporter genes between the two had6 alleles. Our study reveals that mutations in different domains of HDA6 convey different epigenetic status that in turn controls the expression of the transgenes as well as some endogenous loci.

  2. A common allele on chromosome 9 associated with coronary heartdisease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Ruth; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kavaslar, Nihan; Stewart, Alexandre; Roberts, Robert; Cox, David R.; Hinds, David; Pennachio, Len; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle,Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2007-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in Western countries. Here we used genome-wide association scanning to identify a 58 kb interval on chromosome 9 that was consistently associated with CHD in six independent samples. The interval contains no annotated genes and is not associated with established CHD risk factors such as plasma lipoproteins, hypertension or diabetes. Homozygotes for the risk allele comprise 20-25% of Caucasians and have a {approx}30-40% increased risk of CHD. These data indicate that the susceptibility allele acts through a novel mechanism to increase CHD risk in a large fraction of the population.

  3. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes).

  4. Alleles versus genotypes: Genetic interactions and the dynamics of selection in sexual populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Physical interactions between amino-acids are essential for protein structure and activity, while protein-protein interactions and regulatory interactions are central to cellular function. As a consequence of these interactions, the combined effect of two mutations can differ from the sum of the individual effects of the mutations. This phenomenon of genetic interaction is known as epistasis. However, the importance of epistasis and its effects on evolutionary dynamics are poorly understood, especially in sexual populations where recombination breaks up existing combinations of alleles to produce new ones. Here, we present a computational model of selection dynamics involving many epistatic loci in a recombining population. We demonstrate that a large number of polymorphic interacting loci can, despite frequent recombination, exhibit cooperative behavior that locks alleles into favorable genotypes leading to a population consisting of a set of competing clones. As the recombination rate exceeds a certain critical value this ``genotype selection'' phase disappears in an abrupt transition giving way to ``allele selection'' - the phase where different loci are only weakly correlated as expected in sexually reproducing populations. Clustering of interacting sets of genes on a chromosome leads to the emergence of an intermediate regime, where localized blocks of cooperating alleles lock into genetic modules. Large populations attain highest fitness at a recombination rate just below critical, suggesting that natural selection might tune recombination rates to balance the beneficial aspect of exploration of genotype space with the breaking up of synergistic allele combinations.

  5. Allele frequency analysis of Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for allele frequency detection in bulk samples. The abundance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in bulk leaf samples was detected using fluorescent labeled Simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and an Applied biosystems (AB) automatic DNA analyzer.

  6. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Allele Determination Using Next-Generation Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bercelin Maniangou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural killer (NK cell alloreactivity on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT outcome is still debated due to the complexity of graft parameters, HLA class I environment, the nature of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR/KIR ligand genetic combinations studied, and KIR+ NK cell repertoire size. KIR genes are known to be polymorphic in terms of gene content, copy number variation, and number of alleles. These allelic polymorphisms may impact both the phenotype and function of KIR+ NK cells. We, therefore, speculate that polymorphisms may alter donor KIR+ NK cell phenotype/function thus modulating post-HSCT KIR+ NK cell alloreactivity. To investigate KIR allele polymorphisms of all KIR genes, we developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS technology on a MiSeq platform. To ensure the reliability and specificity of our method, genomic DNA from well-characterized cell lines were used; high-resolution KIR typing results obtained were then compared to those previously reported. Two different bioinformatic pipelines were used allowing the attribution of sequencing reads to specific KIR genes and the assignment of KIR alleles for each KIR gene. Our results demonstrated successful long-range KIR gene amplifications of all reference samples using intergenic KIR primers. The alignment of reads to the human genome reference (hg19 using BiRD pipeline or visualization of data using Profiler software demonstrated that all KIR genes were completely sequenced with a sufficient read depth (mean 317× for all loci and a high percentage of mapping (mean 93% for all loci. Comparison of high-resolution KIR typing obtained to those published data using exome capture resulted in a reported concordance rate of 95% for centromeric and telomeric KIR genes. Overall, our results suggest that NGS can be used to investigate the broad KIR allelic polymorphism. Hence, these data improve our knowledge, not only on KIR+ NK cell alloreactivity in

  7. The loss-of-allele assay for ES cell screening and mouse genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendewey, David; Chernomorsky, Rostislav; Esau, Lakeisha; Om, Jinsop; Xue, Yingzi; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Valenzuela, David M

    2010-01-01

    Targeting vectors used to create directed mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells consist, in their simplest form, of a gene for drug selection flanked by mouse genomic sequences, the so-called homology arms that promote site-directed homologous recombination between the vector and the target gene. The VelociGene method for the creation of targeted mutations in ES cells employs targeting vectors, called BACVecs, that are based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Compared with conventional short targeting vectors, BacVecs provide two major advantages: (1) their much larger homology arms promote high targeting efficiencies without the need for isogenicity or negative selection strategies; and (2) they enable deletions and insertions of up to 100kb in a single targeting event, making possible gene-ablating definitive null alleles and other large-scale genomic modifications. Because of their large arm sizes, however, BACVecs do not permit screening by conventional assays, such as long-range PCR or Southern blotting, that link the inserted targeting vector to the targeted locus. To exploit the advantages of BACVecs for gene targeting, we inverted the conventional screening logic in developing the loss-of-allele (LOA) assay, which quantifies the number of copies of the native locus to which the mutation was directed. In a correctly targeted ES cell clone, the LOA assay detects one of the two native alleles (for genes not on the X or Y chromosome), the other allele being disrupted by the targeted modification. We apply the same principle in reverse as a gain-of-allele assay to quantify the copy number of the inserted targeting vector. The LOA assay reveals a correctly targeted clone as having lost one copy of the native target gene and gained one copy of the drug resistance gene or other inserted marker. The combination of these quantitative assays makes LOA genotyping unequivocal and amenable to automated scoring. We use the quantitative polymerase chain reaction

  8. Deducing the pathogenic contribution of recessive ABCA4 alleles in an outbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Emily I; Nylen, Erik L; Ko, Audrey C; Affatigato, Louisa M; Heggen, Andrew C; Wang, Kai; Sheffield, Val C; Stone, Edwin M

    2010-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenic effects of specific genotypes is important for the design and execution of clinical trials as well as for meaningful counseling of individual patients. However, for many autosomal recessive diseases, it can be difficult to deduce the relative pathogenic contribution of individual alleles because relatively few affected individuals share the same two disease-causing variations. In this study, we used multiple regression analysis to estimate the pathogenicity of specific alleles of ABCA4 in patients with retinal phenotypes ranging from Stargardt disease to retinitis pigmentosa. This analysis revealed quantitative allelic effects on two aspects of the visual phenotype, visual acuity (P disease and will also aid in the optimal selection of subjects for clinical trials of new therapies.

  9. Haptoglobin genotyping of Vietnamese: global distribution of HP del, complete deletion allele of the HP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Mikiko; Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Lan, Vi Thi Mai; Minh, Tu Binh; Takahashi, Shin; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    The haptoglobin (HP) gene deletion allele (HP(del)) is responsible for anhaptoglobinemia and a genetic risk factor for anaphylaxis reaction after transfusion due to production of the anti-HP antibody. The distribution of this allele has been explored by several groups including ours. Here, we studied the frequency of HP(del) in addition to the distribution of common HP genotypes in 293 Vietnamese. The HP(del) was encountered with the frequency of 0.020. The present result suggested that this deletion allele is restricted to East and Southeast Asians. Thus, this allele seems to be a potential ancestry informative marker for these populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  11. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-specificity detection of rare alleles with Paired-End Low Error Sequencing (PELE-Seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jessica L; Royall, Ariel E; Randel, Melissa A; Sikkink, Kristin L; Phillips, Patrick C; Johnson, Eric A

    2016-06-14

    Polymorphic loci exist throughout the genomes of a population and provide the raw genetic material needed for a species to adapt to changes in the environment. The minor allele frequencies of rare Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within a population have been difficult to track with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), due to the high error rate of standard methods such as Illumina sequencing. We have developed a wet-lab protocol and variant-calling method that identifies both sequencing and PCR errors, called Paired-End Low Error Sequencing (PELE-Seq). To test the specificity and sensitivity of the PELE-Seq method, we sequenced control E. coli DNA libraries containing known rare alleles present at frequencies ranging from 0.2-0.4 % of the total reads. PELE-Seq had higher specificity and sensitivity than standard libraries. We then used PELE-Seq to characterize rare alleles in a Caenorhabditis remanei nematode worm population before and after laboratory adaptation, and found that minor and rare alleles can undergo large changes in frequency during lab-adaptation. We have developed a method of rare allele detection that mitigates both sequencing and PCR errors, called PELE-Seq. PELE-Seq was evaluated using control E. coli populations and was then used to compare a wild C. remanei population to a lab-adapted population. The PELE-Seq method is ideal for investigating the dynamics of rare alleles in a broad range of reduced-representation sequencing methods, including targeted amplicon sequencing, RAD-Seq, ddRAD, and GBS. PELE-Seq is also well-suited for whole genome sequencing of mitochondria and viruses, and for high-throughput rare mutation screens.

  13. JAK2V617F mutation is associated with special alleles in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Liu, Yi-Chang; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Lee, Ching-Ping; Hsu, Jui-Feng; Lin, Sheng-Fung

    2011-03-01

    Janus kinase 2 mutation (JAK2V617F) has been identified in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Furthermore, special single nucleoside polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found to be associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. Therefore, the associations among JAK2V617F and special SNPs and the allelic location between them were investigated in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). A total of 61 patients with ET and 106 healthy individuals were enrolled. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to investigate the pattern of three SNPs, rs10974944, rs12343867, and rs12340895. Allele-specific PCR was used to examine the allelic location between rs10974944 and JAK2V617F. Among the patients with ET, 34 (55.7%, 34/61) were JAK2V617F positive (heterozygous) while the other 27 (44.3%, 27/61) were negative, and there were no MPLW515L/K mutations noted. The pattern of special SNPs in JAK2V617F(+) was significantly different from that in normal individuals (p <0.05), while there was no difference between JAK2V617F(-) patients and normal individuals. Allele-specific PCR showed high association of a cis-location between the special G-allele of rs10974944 and JAK2V617F(+). Based on this small numbered study, the results show the association between special SNPs and JAK2V617F mutation and a cis-location between the special G-allelic form of rs10974944 and the JAK2V617F mutation. These data highlight a close relationship between them in patients with ET.

  14. Identification of common bean alleles resistant to anthracnose using RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.M. Castanheira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were identified close to common bean alleles responsible for resistance to the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and may be useful in selecting plants resistant to this pathogen. DNA from F2 plants of the crosses Carioca 300V x P45, Carioca 300V x Ouro and P24 x Ouro was amplified by RAPD. Line P45 has the Co.4 allele for resistance, and the Ouro cultivar has the Co.5 allele. The primer OPC08 amplified a DNA fragment of about 1059 bp linked to the Co.4 allele. The recombination frequency was 0.133 (SE = 0.039; 95% CI = 0.056-0.211. Using the primer OPF10 a DNA fragment of about 912 bp was amplified and found to be associated with the Co.5 allele. The recombination frequency was 0.115 (SE = 0.038; 95% CI = 0.041-0.189. A second marker (1122 pb amplified by the OPR03 primer was identified in the population P24 x Ouro. The recombination frequency for this marker was 0.363 (SE = 0.081; 95% CI = 0.205-0.522. Both these markers flanked the Co.5 allele. The markers identified in this study may be useful in identifying lines with the Co.4 and Co.5 alleles.Marcadores RAPD foram identificados próximos de alelos do feijão responsáveis pela resistência ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, visando auxiliar na seleção de plantas resistentes ao patógeno. Empregou-se o método dos bulks segregantes de DNA extraídos de plantas F2 dos seguintes cruzamentos: Carioca 300V x P45, Carioca 300V x Ouro e P24 x Ouro. A linhagem P45 é portadora do alelo Co.4 de resistência e o cultivar Ouro é portador do alelo Co.5, os quais foram marcados. Procedeu-se à reação RAPD dos bulks e foi identificado o iniciador OPC08 que amplificou um fragmento de DNA com cerca de 1059 pb, ligado ao alelo Co.4. A freqüência de recombinação foi de 0,133 (erro padrão 0,039 e o intervalo de confiança foi 0,056 e 0,211, com 95% de probabilidade. Em relação ao alelo Co.5 foi identificado um fragmento de DNA amplificado pelo iniciador OPF10 com cerca de 912 pb, na

  15. Association of gliadin antibodies, HLA alleles, and schizophrenia in Cuban population patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Galván

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several lines of evidence have suggested an interesting link between gluten ingestion and schizophrenia. For example, increased levels of gliadin and transglutaminase antibodies have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: To verify these observations we compared the prevalence of gliadin and transglutaminse antibodies, as well as the presence of the HLA alleles, HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 (DQ2 and HLA-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DQ8, among patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A total of 108 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls were evaluated. Gliadin antibodies were determined by a visual semiquantitative assay and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were determined both by one-step immunochromatografic assay and ELISA. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification using sequence-specific primers for each allele. Results: We found a strong association between the presence of gliadin antibodies and schizophrenia (OR 3.488; 95% CI, 1.43-8.44. However, tissue transglutaminase antibodies were not detected in either group neither by immunochromatograpic or ELISA. No significant association was found for the DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimer and the disease, but a significant positive association between schizophrenia and HLA alleles DQA1*0301 and DQB1*02 was present (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.27-6.17, and OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.24-4.53, respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that the presence of gliadin antibodies was not correlated with the presence of HLA DQA1*0301 or DQB1*02 alleles within the group of patients with schizophrenia. Our study replicates the findings that anti-gliadin antibodies are associated with schizophrenia but also suggests that the presence of these antibodies and the HLA alleles DQB1*02 and DQA1*0301 are independently associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  16. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  17. Population estimators or progeny tests: what is the best method to assess null allele frequencies at SSR loci?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oddou-Muratorio, S.; Vendramin, G.G.; Buiteveld, J.; Fady, B.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear SSRs are notorious for having relatively high frequencies of null alleles, i.e. alleles that fail to amplify and are thus recessive and undetected in heterozygotes. In this paper, we compare two kinds of approaches for estimating null allele frequencies at seven nuclear microsatellite

  18. Correlation in chicken between the marker LEI0258 alleles and Major Histocompatibility Complex sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazara, Olympe; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Chang, Chi-Seng

    Background The LEI0258 marker is located within the B region of the chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and is surprisingly well associated with serology. Therefore, the correlation between the LEI0258 alleles and the MHC class I and the class II alleles at the level of sequences is w...

  19. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shyh-Yuh, Liou; Sawamoto, Taiji; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suematsu, Koji; Shinagawa, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago.

  20. Allele-specific physical interactions regulate the heterotic traits in hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis is an important phenomenon for the breeding in agricultural crops as it influences yield related traits such as biomass yield, seed number and weight, adaptive and reproductive traits. However, the level of heterosis greatly varies for different traits and different genotypes. The present study focuses on identification of physical interactions between alleles and their role in transcriptional regulation in heterotic plants. Here, we used two Arabidopsis ecotypes; Col-0 and C24 as parent for crosses. We performed crossing between these ecotypes and screened the F1 hybrids on the basis of different SSR markers. Further, we used Hi-C to capture intra- and inter-chromosomal physical interactions between alleles on genome-wide level. Then, we identified allele-specific chromatin interactions and constructed genome-wide allele-specific contact maps at different resolutions for the entire chromosome. We also performed RNA-seq of hybrids and their parents. RNA-seq analysis identified several differentially expressed genes and non-additively expressed genes in hybrids with respect to their parents. Further, to understand the biological significance of these chromatin interactions, we annotated these interactions and correlated with the transcriptome data. Thus, our study provides alleles-specific chromatin interactions in genome-wide fashion which play a crucial role in regulation of different genes that may be important for heterosis.

  1. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and the risk of arterial thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlaeger, Tommy; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene are associated with SLE as well as with severe atherosclerosis. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin variant alleles were associated...

  2. Comparison between subjects with long- and short-allele carriers in the BOLD signal within amygdala during emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    Emotional tasks may result in a strong blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala in 5- HTTLRP short-allele. Reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala connectivity in short-allele provides a potential mechanistic account for the observed increase in amygdala activity. In our study, fearful and threatening facial expressions were presented to two groups of 12 subjects with long- and short-allele carriers. The BOLD signals of the left amygdala of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the model parameters to elucidate the underlying hemodynamic mechanism. Our results showed a positive BOLD signal in the left amygdala for short-allele individuals, and a negative BOLD signal in the same region for long-allele individuals. This is due to the fact that short-allele is associated with lower availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and this leads to an increase of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the cACC-amygdala synapse.

  3. Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: Allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachse, C.; Brockmoeller, J.; Bauer, S.; Roots, I. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes many important drugs. CYP2D6 activity ranges from complete deficiency to ultrafast metabolism, depending on at least 16 different known alleles. Their frequencies were determined in 589 unrelated German volunteers and correlated with enzyme activity measured by phenotyping with dextromethorphan or debrisoquine. For genotyping, nested PCR-RFLP tests from a PCR amplificate of the entire CYP2D6 gene were developed. The frequency of the CYP2D6*1 allele coding for extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype was .364. The alleles coding for slightly (CYP2D6*2) or moderately (*9 and *10) reduced activity (intermediate metabolizer phenotype [IM]) showed frequencies of .324, .018, and .015, respectively. By use of novel PCR tests for discrimination, CYP2D6 gene duplication alleles were found with frequencies of.005 (*1 x 2), .013 (* 2 x 2), and .001 (*4 x 2). Frequencies of alleles with complete deficiency (poor metabolizer phenotype [PM]) were .207 (*4), .020 (*3 and *5), .009 (*6), and .001 (*7, *15, and *16). The defective CYP2D6 alleles *8, *11, *12, *13, and *14 were not found. All 41 PMs (7.0%) in this sample were explained by five mutations detected by four PCR-RFLP tests, which may suffice, together with the gene duplication test, for clinical prediction of CYP2D6 capacity. Three novel variants of known CYP2D6 alleles were discovered: *1C (T{sub 1957}C), *2B (additional C{sub 2558}T), and *4E (additional C{sub 2938}T). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in enzymatic activity measured by the dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (MR) between carriers of EN/PM (mean MR = .006) and IM/PM (mean MR = .014) alleles and between carriers of one (mean MR = .009) and two (mean MR = .003) functional alleles. The results of this study provide a solid basis for prediction of CYP2D6 capacity, as required in drug research and routine drug treatment. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Allelic prevalence of intron 3 insertion/deletion genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leila Fallahzadeh-Abarghooei

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... Tabriz (East Azerbaijan province; belong to Azaris), and Yasuj (Kohgiluyeh va Boyer-Ahmad pro- vince; belong to Lurs), respectively. Genotypic analysis of the Ins/Del XRCC4 polymorphism was detected by the PCR method. Results: The prevalence of the Del allele in Shiraz, Abarku, Tabriz, and Yasuj was ...

  5. Identification of the Rare, Four Repeat Allele of IL-4 Intron-3 VNTR Polymorphism in Indian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Henu Kumar; Jha, Aditya Nath; Khodiar, Prafulla Kumar; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Bhaskar, Lakkakula Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines are cell signaling molecules which upon release by cells facilitate the recruitment of immune-modulatory cells towards the sites of inflammation. Genetic variations in cytokine genes are shown to regulate their production and affect the risk of infectious as well as autoimmune diseases. Intron-3 of interleukin-4 gene (IL-4) harbors 70-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) that may alter the expression level of IL-4 gene. To determine the distribution of IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in seven genetically heterogeneous populations of Chhattisgarh, India and their comparison with the finding of other Indian and world populations. A total of 371 healthy unrelated individuals from 5 caste and 2 tribal populations were included in the present study. The IL-4 70-bp VNTR genotyping was carried out using PCR and electrophoresis. Overall, 3 alleles of IL-4 70-bp VNTR (a2, a3 and a4) were detected. The results demonstrated the variability of the IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in Chhattisgarh populations. Allele a3 was the most common allele at the 70-bp VNTR locus in all populations followed by a2 allele. This study reports the presence four repeat allele a4 at a low frequency in the majority of the Chhattisgarh populations studied. Further, the frequency of the minor allele (a2) in Chhattisgarh populations showed similarity with the frequencies of European populations but not with the East Asian populations where the a2 allele is a major allele. Our study provides a baseline for future research into the role of the IL-4 locus in diseases linked to inflammation in Indian populations.

  6. Parkinson’s disease and low frequency alleles found together throughout LRRK2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Washecka, Nicole; Nath, Priti; Singleton, Andrew B.; Corder, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations within LRRK2, most notably p.G2019S, cause Parkinson’s disease (PD) in rare monogenic families, and sporadic occurrences in diverse populations. We investigated variation throughout LRRK2 (84 SNPs; genotype or diplotype found for 49 LD blocks) for 275 cases (European ancestry, onset at age 60 or older) and 275 neurologically healthy control subjects (NINDS Neurogenetics Repository). Three grade-of-membership groups, i.e. genetic risk sets, were identified that exactly matched many subjects (cases: 46, 4, 137; controls: 0, 178, 0), and distinguished 94% of the subjects (i.e. > 50% likeness to one set). Set I, affected, carried certain low frequency alleles located in multiple functional domains. Set II was unaffected. Set III, also affected, resembled II except for slightly elevated frequencies of minor alleles not defining set I. We conclude that certain low frequency alleles distributed throughout LRRK2 are a genetic background to a third of cases, defining a distinct subset. PMID:19489756

  7. The Pleiotropic Phenotype of Apc Mutations in the Mouse: Allele Specificity and Effects of the Genetic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Richard B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; White, Alanna; Rasmussen, Kristin; Clipson, Linda; Pasch, Cheri; Sullivan, Ruth; Pitot, Henry C.; Dove, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a human cancer syndrome characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of colonic polyps and extracolonic lesions including desmoid fibromas, osteomas, epidermoid cysts, and congenital hypertrophy of the pigmented retinal epithelium. Afflicted individuals are heterozygous for mutations in the APC gene. Detailed investigations of mice heterozygous for mutations in the ortholog Apc have shown that other genetic factors strongly influence the phenotype. Here we report qualitative and quantitative modifications of the phenotype of Apc mutants as a function of three genetic variables: Apc allele, p53 allele, and genetic background. We have found major differences between the Apc alleles Min and 1638N in multiplicity and regionality of intestinal tumors, as well as in incidence of extracolonic lesions. By contrast, Min mice homozygous for either of two different knockout alleles of p53 show similar phenotypic effects. These studies illustrate the classic principle that functional genetics is enriched by assessing penetrance and expressivity with allelic series. The mouse permits study of an allelic gene series on multiple genetic backgrounds, thereby leading to a better understanding of gene action in a range of biological processes. PMID:18723878

  8. TumorBoost: Normalization of allele-specific tumor copy numbers from a single pair of tumor-normal genotyping microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuvial Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genotyping microarrays assess both total DNA copy number and allelic composition, which makes them a tool of choice for copy number studies in cancer, including total copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH analyses. Even after state of the art preprocessing methods, allelic signal estimates from genotyping arrays still suffer from systematic effects that make them difficult to use effectively for such downstream analyses. Results We propose a method, TumorBoost, for normalizing allelic estimates of one tumor sample based on estimates from a single matched normal. The method applies to any paired tumor-normal estimates from any microarray-based technology, combined with any preprocessing method. We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of allelic signals, making it significantly easier to detect allelic imbalances. Conclusions TumorBoost increases the power to detect somatic copy-number events (including copy-neutral LOH in the tumor from allelic signals of Affymetrix or Illumina origin. We also conclude that high-precision allelic estimates can be obtained from a single pair of tumor-normal hybridizations, if TumorBoost is combined with single-array preprocessing methods such as (allele-specific CRMA v2 for Affymetrix or BeadStudio's (proprietary XY-normalization method for Illumina. A bounded-memory implementation is available in the open-source and cross-platform R package aroma.cn, which is part of the Aroma Project (http://www.aroma-project.org/.

  9. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  10. Null alleles and sequence variations at primer binding sites of STR loci within multiplex typing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yining; Yang, Qinrui; Shao, Chengchen; Liu, Baonian; Zhou, Yuxiang; Xu, Hongmei; Zhou, Yueqin; Tang, Qiqun; Xie, Jianhui

    2018-01-01

    Rare variants are widely observed in human genome and sequence variations at primer binding sites might impair the process of PCR amplification resulting in dropouts of alleles, named as null alleles. In this study, 5 cases from routine paternity testing using PowerPlex ® 21 System for STR genotyping were considered to harbor null alleles at TH01, FGA, D5S818, D8S1179, and D16S539, respectively. The dropout of alleles was confirmed by using alternative commercial kits AGCU Expressmarker 22 PCR amplification kit and AmpFℓSTR ® . Identifiler ® Plus Kit, and sequencing results revealed a single base variation at the primer binding site of each STR locus. Results from the collection of previous reports show that null alleles at D5S818 were frequently observed in population detected by two PowerPlex ® typing systems and null alleles at D19S433 were mostly observed in Japanese population detected by two AmpFℓSTR™ typing systems. Furthermore, the most popular mutation type appeared the transition from C to T with G to A, which might have a potential relationship with DNA methylation. Altogether, these results can provide helpful information in forensic practice to the elimination of genotyping discrepancy and the development of primer sets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional PMS2 hybrid alleles containing a pseudogene-specific missense variant trace back to a single ancient intrachromosomal recombination event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Christina; Wernstedt, Annekatrin; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Messiaen, Ludwine; Schmidt, Konrad; Rahner, Nils; Heinimann, Karl; Fonatsch, Christa; Zschocke, Johannes; Wimmer, Katharina

    2010-05-01

    Sequence exchange between PMS2 and its pseudogene PMS2CL, embedded in an inverted duplication on chromosome 7p22, has been reported to be an ongoing process that leads to functional PMS2 hybrid alleles containing PMS2- and PMS2CL-specific sequence variants at the 5'-and the 3'-end, respectively. The frequency of PMS2 hybrid alleles, their biological significance, and the mechanisms underlying their formation are largely unknown. Here we show that overall hybrid alleles account for one-third of 384 PMS2 alleles analyzed in individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. Depending on the population, 14-60% of hybrid alleles carry PMS2CL-specific sequences in exons 13-15, the remainder only in exon 15. We show that exons 13-15 hybrid alleles, named H1 hybrid alleles, constitute different haplotypes but trace back to a single ancient intrachromosomal recombination event with crossover. Taking advantage of an ancestral sequence variant specific for all H1 alleles we developed a simple gDNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can be used to identify H1-allele carriers with high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 99%, respectively). Because H1 hybrid alleles harbor missense variant p.N775S of so far unknown functional significance, we assessed the H1-carrier frequency in 164 colorectal cancer patients. So far, we found no indication that the variant plays a major role with regard to cancer susceptibility. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Beta2-adrenergic receptor allele frequencies in the Quechua, a high altitude native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Monsalve, M V; Devine, D V; Hochachka, P W

    2000-03-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor is involved in the control of numerous physiological processes and, as the primary catecholamine receptor in the lungs, is of particular importance in the regulation of pulmonary function. There are several polymorphic loci in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene that have alleles that alter receptor function, including two (A/G46, G/C79) that increase agonist sensitivity. As such a phenotype may increase vaso and bronchial dilation, thereby facilitating air and blood flow through the lungs, we hypothesized that selection may have favoured these alleles in high altitude populations as part of an adaptive strategy to deal with the hypoxic conditions characteristic of such environments. We tested this hypothesis by determining the allele frequencies for these two polymorphisms, as well one additional missense mutation (C/T491) and two silent mutations (G/A252 and C/A523) in 63 Quechua speaking natives from communities located between 3200 and 4200 m on the Peruvian altiplano. These frequencies were compared with those of two lowland populations, one native American (Na-Dene from the west coast of Canada) and one Caucasian of Western European descent. The Quechua manifest many of the pulmonary characteristics of high altitude populations and differences in allele frequencies between the Quechua and lowlanders could be indicative of a selective advantage conferred by certain genotypes in high altitude environments. Allele frequencies varied between populations at some loci and patterns of linkage disequilibrium differed between the old-world and new-world samples; however, as these populations are not closely related, significant variation would be expected due to stochastic effects alone. Neither of the alleles associated with increased receptor sensitivity (A46, G79) was significantly over-represented in the Quechua compared with either lowland group. The Quechua were monomorphic for the C allele at base 79. This variant has been

  13. A Maximum-Likelihood Method to Correct for Allelic Dropout in Microsatellite Data with No Replicate Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Schroeder, Kari B.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Allelic dropout is a commonly observed source of missing data in microsatellite genotypes, in which one or both allelic copies at a locus fail to be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Especially for samples with poor DNA quality, this problem causes a downward bias in estimates of observed heterozygosity and an upward bias in estimates of inbreeding, owing to mistaken classifications of heterozygotes as homozygotes when one of the two copies drops out. One general approach for avoiding allelic dropout involves repeated genotyping of homozygous loci to minimize the effects of experimental error. Existing computational alternatives often require replicate genotyping as well. These approaches, however, are costly and are suitable only when enough DNA is available for repeated genotyping. In this study, we propose a maximum-likelihood approach together with an expectation-maximization algorithm to jointly estimate allelic dropout rates and allele frequencies when only one set of nonreplicated genotypes is available. Our method considers estimates of allelic dropout caused by both sample-specific factors and locus-specific factors, and it allows for deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium owing to inbreeding. Using the estimated parameters, we correct the bias in the estimation of observed heterozygosity through the use of multiple imputations of alleles in cases where dropout might have occurred. With simulated data, we show that our method can (1) effectively reproduce patterns of missing data and heterozygosity observed in real data; (2) correctly estimate model parameters, including sample-specific dropout rates, locus-specific dropout rates, and the inbreeding coefficient; and (3) successfully correct the downward bias in estimating the observed heterozygosity. We find that our method is fairly robust to violations of model assumptions caused by population structure and by genotyping errors from sources other than allelic dropout. Because the data sets

  14. Differential allelic expression of a fibrillin gene (FBNI) in patients with Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, D.; Lynch, J.; Sykes, B. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Firth, H. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Child, A. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a connective-tissue disorder affecting cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. The major Marfan locus has been identified as the FBN1 gene on chromosome 15; this codes for the extracellular-matrix protein fibrillin, a 350-kD constituent of the 8-10-nm elastin-associated microfibrils. The authors identified five MFS patients who were heterozygous for an RsaI restriction-site dimorphism in the 3{prime} UTR of the FBN1 gene. This expressed variation was used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two FBN1 alleles in fibroblast cultures from these five patients. Three of the patients were shown to produce <5% of the normal level of FBN1 transcripts from one of their alleles. This null-allele phenotype was not observed in 10 nonmarfanoid fibroblast cell lines. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Role of the B Allele of Influenza A Virus Segment 8 in Setting Mammalian Host Range and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Matthew L; Wise, Helen M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Smith, Nikki; Dunfee, Rebecca L; Beard, Philippa M; Jagger, Brett W; Ligertwood, Yvonne; Hardisty, Gareth R; Xiao, Haixia; Benton, Donald J; Coburn, Alice M; Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P; McCauley, John W; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Lycett, Samantha J; Weekes, Michael P; Dutia, Bernadette M; Digard, Paul

    2016-10-15

    Two alleles of segment 8 (NS) circulate in nonchiropteran influenza A viruses. The A allele is found in avian and mammalian viruses, but the B allele is viewed as being almost exclusively found in avian viruses. This might reflect the fact that one or both of its encoded proteins (NS1 and NEP) are maladapted for replication in mammalian hosts. To test this, a number of clade A and B avian virus-derived NS segments were introduced into human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. In no case was the peak virus titer substantially reduced following infection of various mammalian cell types. Exemplar reassortant viruses also replicated to similar titers in mice, although mice infected with viruses with the avian virus-derived segment 8s had reduced weight loss compared to that achieved in mice infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) parent. In vitro, the viruses coped similarly with type I interferons. Temporal proteomics analysis of cellular responses to infection showed that the avian virus-derived NS segments provoked lower levels of expression of interferon-stimulated genes in cells than wild type-derived NS segments. Thus, neither the A nor the B allele of avian virus-derived NS segments necessarily attenuates virus replication in a mammalian host, although the alleles can attenuate disease. Phylogenetic analyses identified 32 independent incursions of an avian virus-derived A allele into mammals, whereas 6 introductions of a B allele were identified. However, A-allele isolates from birds outnumbered B-allele isolates, and the relative rates of Aves-to-Mammalia transmission were not significantly different. We conclude that while the introduction of an avian virus segment 8 into mammals is a relatively rare event, the dogma of the B allele being especially restricted is misleading, with implications in the assessment of the pandemic potential of avian influenza viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) can adapt to poultry and mammalian species, inflicting a great socioeconomic

  16. Selection on alleles affecting human longevity and late-life disease: the example of apolipoprotein E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Drenos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that genes affecting health in old age, such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, are beyond the reach of natural selection. We show in a simulation study based on known genetic (apolipoprotein E and non-genetic risk factors (gender, diet, smoking, alcohol, exercise that, because there is a statistical distribution of ages at which these genes exert their influence on morbidity and mortality, the effects of selection are in fact non-negligible. A gradual increase with each generation of the epsilon2 and epsilon3 alleles of the gene at the expense of the epsilon4 allele was predicted from the model. The epsilon2 allele frequency was found to increase slightly more rapidly than that for epsilon3, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two. Our result may explain the recent evolutionary history of the epsilon 2, 3 and 4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene and has wider relevance for genes affecting human longevity.

  17. Allelic Dropout During Polymerase Chain Reaction due to G-Quadruplex Structures and DNA Methylation Is Widespread at Imprinted Human Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Stevens

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss of one allele during polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of DNA, known as allelic dropout, can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. Allelic dropout during PCR may have profound implications for molecular diagnostic and research procedures that depend on PCR and assume biallelic amplification has occurred. Complete allelic dropout due to the combined effects of cytosine methylation and G-quadruplex formation was previously described for a differentially methylated region of the human imprinted gene, MEST. We now demonstrate that this parent-of-origin specific allelic dropout can potentially occur at several other genomic regions that display genomic imprinting and have propensity for G-quadruplex formation, including AIM1, BLCAP, DNMT1, PLAGL1, KCNQ1, and GRB10. These findings demonstrate that systematic allelic dropout during PCR is a general phenomenon for regions of the genome where differential allelic methylation and G-quadruplex motifs coincide, and suggest that great care must be taken to ensure biallelic amplification is occurring in such situations.

  18. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    High molecular weight glutenins are often effective in identifying wheat (Triticum ... There were highly significant differences between genotypes and banding ... was without deliberate selection pressure towards high Glu-1 scoring alleles ...

  19. HLA-DR alleles among Pakistani patients of coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether certain DR alleles might also contribute to the genetic susceptibility among Coeliac disease patients in Pakistan. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from October 2011 to January 2012, and analysed 25 children diagnosed to have coeliac disease as per the criteria set by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, which included histopathological alterations in duodenal biopsies, clinical response to gluten withdrawal, and presence of anti-endomyseal antibodies. Patients were compared with a group of 150 healthy subjects. Dioxyribonucleic acid was extracted from peripheral blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.K3. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 typing was carried out on allele level (DRB1*01 - DRB1*16) using sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Phenotype frequency of various alleles among the patient group and the control group was calculated by direct counting, and significance of their association was determined by Fisher Exact Test. Results: A total of 11 (44%) female paediatric coeliac patients in age range 1-9 (mean 7.2+-4.8 years) and 14 (56%) male paediatric patients in the age range 6-14 (mean 8.6+-5.1 years) were genotyped for HLA-DRB1 loci. A statistically significant positive association of the disease with HLA-DRB1*03 (n=23; 92% versus n=31; 21% in controls, p <0.01) was observed. Conclusion: HLA-DRB1*03 is associated with increased risk of developing coeliac disease. (author)

  20. Exploring new alleles for frost tolerance in winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Wiltrud; Bauer, Eva; Fowler, D Brian; Gordillo, Andres; Korzun, Viktor; Ponomareva, Mira; Schmidt, Malthe; Schmiedchen, Brigitta; Wilde, Peer; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-10-01

    Rye genetic resources provide a valuable source of new alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance in rye breeding programs. Frost tolerance is a must-have trait for winter cereal production in northern and continental cropping areas. Genetic resources should harbor promising alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance of winter rye elite lines. For frost tolerance breeding, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the choice of optimum genome-based selection methods are essential. We identified genomic regions involved in frost tolerance of winter rye by QTL mapping in a biparental population derived from a highly frost tolerant selection from the Canadian cultivar Puma and the European elite line Lo157. Lines per se and their testcrosses were phenotyped in a controlled freeze test and in multi-location field trials in Russia and Canada. Three QTL on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R were consistently detected across environments. The QTL on 5R is congruent with the genomic region harboring the Frost resistance locus 2 (Fr-2) in Triticeae. The Puma allele at the Fr-R2 locus was found to significantly increase frost tolerance. A comparison of predictive ability obtained from the QTL-based model with different whole-genome prediction models revealed that besides a few large, also small QTL effects contribute to the genomic variance of frost tolerance in rye. Genomic prediction models assigning a high weight to the Fr-R2 locus allow increasing the selection intensity for frost tolerance by genome-based pre-selection of promising candidates.

  1. The Rh allele frequencies in Gaza city in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaik Younis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rh blood group system is the second most clinically significant blood group system. It includes 49 antigens, but only five (D, C, E, c and e are the most routinely identified due to their unique relation to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN and transfusion reactions. Frequency of the Rh alleles showed variation, with regard to race and ethnic. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to document the Rh alleles′ frequencies amongst males (M and females (F in Gaza city in Palestine. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two blood samples (110 M and 122 F were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-C,anti-c, anti-E, anti-e and a blend of monoclonal/polyclonal IgM/IgG anti-D. The expected Rh phenotypes were calculated using gene counting method. Results: The most frequent Rh antigen in the total sample was e, while the least frequent was E.The order of the combined Rh allele frequencies in both M and F was CDe > cDe > cde > CdE > cDE > Cde > CDE. A significant difference was reported between M and F regarding the phenotypic frequencies (P < 0.05. However, no significance (P > 0.05 was reported with reference to the observed and expected Rh phenotypic frequencies in either M or F students. Conclusion: It was concluded that the Rh antigens, alleles and phenotypes in Gaza city have unique frequencies, which may be of importance to the Blood Transfusion Center in Gaza city and anthropology.

  2. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reac...

  3. Genome Wide Allele Frequency Fingerprints (GWAFFs) of populations via genotyping by sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Czaban, Adrian; Studer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    -wide scale would be very powerful, examples include the breeding of outbreeding species, varietal protection in outbreeding species, monitoring changes in population allele frequencies. This motivated us to test the potential to use GBS to evaluate allele frequencies within populations. Perennial ryegrass...... these fingerprints can be used to distinguish between plant populations. Even at current costs and throughput, using sequencing to directly evaluate populations on a genome-wide scale is viable. GWAFFs should find many applications, from varietal development in outbreeding species right through to playing a role...... in protecting plant breeders’ rights....

  4. Cloning and Characterization of Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles from Chinese Wheat Landraces (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS are of great importance in processing quality and participate in the formation of polymers in wheat. In this study, eight new LMW-GS alleles were isolated from Chinese wheat landraces (Triticum aestivum L. and designated as Glu-A3-1a, Glu-A3-1b, Glu-B3-1a, Glu-B3-1b, Glu-B3-1c, Glu-D3-1a, Glu-D3-1b, and Glu-D3-1c, which were located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. Based on the proteins encoded, the number of deduced amino acids of Glu-B3 alleles was approximately 50 more than those of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles. The first cysteine of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles was located at the N-terminal domain, while that of Glu-B3 alleles was found in the repetitive domain, which may lead to the different functioning in forming disulfide bonds. All the eight genes were LMW-m types and the new allele of Glu-B3-1a which had nine cysteine residues may be the desirable LMW-GS gene for improving bread-making quality.

  5. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  6. Ultra-high resolution HLA genotyping and allele discovery by highly multiplexed cDNA amplicon pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lank Simon M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution HLA genotyping is a critical diagnostic and research assay. Current methods rarely achieve unambiguous high-resolution typing without making population-specific frequency inferences due to a lack of locus coverage and difficulty in exon-phase matching. Achieving high-resolution typing is also becoming more challenging with traditional methods as the database of known HLA alleles increases. Results We designed a cDNA amplicon-based pyrosequencing method to capture 94% of the HLA class I open-reading-frame with only two amplicons per sample, and an analogous method for class II HLA genes, with a primary focus on sequencing the DRB loci. We present a novel Galaxy server-based analysis workflow for determining genotype. During assay validation, we performed two GS Junior sequencing runs to determine the accuracy of the HLA class I amplicons and DRB amplicon at different levels of multiplexing. When 116 amplicons were multiplexed, we unambiguously resolved 99%of class I alleles to four- or six-digit resolution, as well as 100% unambiguous DRB calls. The second experiment, with 271 multiplexed amplicons, missed some alleles, but generated high-resolution, concordant typing for 93% of class I alleles, and 96% for DRB1 alleles. In a third, preliminary experiment we attempted to sequence novel amplicons for other class II loci with mixed success. Conclusions The presented assay is higher-throughput and higher-resolution than existing HLA genotyping methods, and suitable for allele discovery or large cohort sampling. The validated class I and DRB primers successfully generated unambiguously high-resolution genotypes, while further work is needed to validate additional class II genotyping amplicons.

  7. MICA diversity and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Gelmini, Geórgia Fernanda; da Silva, José Samuel; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2017-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located centromerically to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B. The short distance between these loci in the MHC indicates the presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Similarly to the HLA, the MICA is highly polymorphic, and this polymorphism has not been well documented in different populations. In this study, we estimated the allelic frequencies of MICA and the linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in 346 renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil. MICA and HLA were typed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method (PCR-SSO), combined with the Luminex technology. A total of 19 MICA allele groups were identified. The most frequent allele groups were MICA*008 (21.6%), MICA*002 (17.0%) and MICA*004 (14.8%). The most common haplotypes were MICA*009-B*51 (7.8%), MICA*004-B*44 (6.06%) and MICA*002-B*35 (5.63%). As expected from the proximity of the MICA and HLA-B loci, most haplotypes showed strong LD. Renal patients and healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil showed statistically significant differences in their MICA polymorphisms. The MICA*027 allele group was more frequent in renal patients (Pc = 0.018, OR: 3.421, 95% CI: 1.516-7.722), while the MICA*019 allele group was more frequent in healthy subjects (Pc = 0.001, OR: 0.027, 95% CI: 0.002-0.469). This study provided information on the distribution of MICA polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in Brazilian renal-transplant candidates. This information should help to determine the mechanisms of susceptibility to different diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in allograft rejection associated with MICA polymorphisms in a Brazilian population.

  8. EOMES-positive CD4+ T cells are increased in PTPN22 (1858T) risk allele carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Karine; Ramsköld, Daniel; Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Herrath, Jessica; Houtman, Miranda; Tandre, Karolina; Rönnblom, Lars; Catrina, Anca; Malmström, Vivianne

    2018-04-01

    The presence of the PTPN22 risk allele (1858T) is associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite a number of studies exploring the function of PTPN22 in T cells, the exact impact of the PTPN22 risk allele on T-cell function in humans is still unclear. In this study, using RNA sequencing, we show that, upon TCR-activation, naïve human CD4 + T cells homozygous for the PTPN22 risk allele overexpress a set of genes including CFLAR and 4-1BB, which are important for cytotoxic T-cell differentiation. Moreover, the protein expression of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (EOMES) was increased in T cells from healthy donors homozygous for the PTPN22 risk allele and correlated with a decreased number of naïve CD4 + T cells. There was no difference in the frequency of other CD4 + T-cell subsets (Th1, Th17, Tfh, Treg). Finally, an accumulation of EOMES + CD4 + T cells was observed in synovial fluid of RA patients with a more pronounced production of Perforin-1 in PTPN22 risk allele carriers. Altogether, we propose a novel mechanism of action of PTPN22 risk allele through the generation of cytotoxic CD4 + T cells and identify EOMES + CD4 + T cells as a relevant T-cell subset in RA pathogenesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Allelic Dropout in the ENG Gene, Affecting the Results of Genetic Testing in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Kjeldsen, A.D.; Ousager, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder with three disease-causing genes identified to date: ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4. We report an HHT patient with allelic dropout that on routine sequence analysis for a known mutation in the family (c.817......-3T>G in ENG) initially seemed to be homozygous for the mutation. Aim: To explore the possibility of allelic dropout causing a false result in this patient. Methods: Mutation analysis of additional family members was performed and haplotype analysis carried out. New primers were designed to reveal...... the presence of a possible sequence variant, which could explain the presumed allelic dropout. Results: Allelic dropout caused by a six-nucleotide duplication close to the standard reverse primer was the assumed cause of a false homozygous diagnosis. Conclusion: Sequence variants outside of the primer regions...

  10. Allelic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of the Gene Encoding Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-3 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaswong, Vorthon; Simpalipan, Phumin; Siripoon, Napaporn; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2015-04-01

    Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) of malaria parasites play critical roles during the erythrocyte invasion and so are potential candidates for malaria vaccine development. However, because MSPs are often under strong immune selection, they can exhibit extensive genetic diversity. The gene encoding the merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) of Plasmodium falciparum displays 2 allelic types, K1 and 3D7. In Thailand, the allelic frequency of the P. falciparum msp-3 gene was evaluated in a single P. falciparum population in Tak at the Thailand and Myanmar border. However, no study has yet looked at the extent of genetic diversity of the msp-3 gene in P. falciparum populations in other localities. Here, we genotyped the msp-3 alleles of 63 P. falciparum samples collected from 5 geographical populations along the borders of Thailand with 3 neighboring countries (Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia). Our study indicated that the K1 and 3D7 alleles coexisted, but at different proportions in different Thai P. falciparum populations. K1 was more prevalent in populations at the Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders, whilst 3D7 was more prevalent at the Thailand-Laos border. Global analysis of the msp-3 allele frequencies revealed that proportions of K1 and 3D7 alleles of msp-3 also varied in different continents, suggesting the divergence of malaria parasite populations. In conclusion, the variation in the msp-3 allelic patterns of P. falciparum in Thailand provides fundamental knowledge for inferring the P. falciparum population structure and for the best design of msp-3 based malaria vaccines.

  11. Frequency of null allele of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G locus in subjects to recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Alizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G is a non-classical class I molecule highly expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. Due to a single base pair deletion, its function can be compensated by other isoforms. Investigating the frequency of null allele in Recurrent Miscarriage (RM subjects could be useful in understanding the relationship between frequency of this allele and RM in a given population. Objective: This study aimed to determine the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele and its potential association with down-regulation of HLA-G in subjects with RM. Materials and Methods: Western blotting was used to assess the level of HLA-G protein expression. For investigating the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele in RM subjects, PCR-RFLP method was used. Exon 3 of HLA-G gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Subsequently, PpuM-1 enzyme was employed to digest the PCR products and fragments were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Results: Digestion using restriction enzyme showed the presence of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele in 10% of the test population. Western blotting results confirmed the decrease in expression of HLA-G in the placental tissue of subjects with RM compared to subjects who could give normal birth. Conclusion: The frequency of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele was high to some extent in subjects with RM. The mutation rate in subjects suggested that there is a significant association between RM and frequency of mutations in this allele.

  12. Frequency of null allele of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) locus in subjects to recurrent miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nazila; Mosaferi, Elnaz; Farzadi, Laya; Majidi, Jafar; Monfaredan, Amir; Yousefi, Bahman; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class I molecule highly expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. Due to a single base pair deletion, its function can be compensated by other isoforms. Investigating the frequency of null allele in Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) subjects could be useful in understanding the relationship between frequency of this allele and RM in a given population. Objective: This study aimed to determine the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele and its potential association with down-regulation of HLA-G in subjects with RM. Materials and Methods: Western blotting was used to assess the level of HLA-G protein expression. For investigating the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele in RM subjects, PCR-RFLP method was used. Exon 3 of HLA-G gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, PpuM-1 enzyme was employed to digest the PCR products and fragments were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Results: Digestion using restriction enzyme showed the presence of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele in 10% of the test population. Western blotting results confirmed the decrease in expression of HLA-G in the placental tissue of subjects with RM compared to subjects who could give normal birth. Conclusion: The frequency of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele was high to some extent in subjects with RM. The mutation rate in subjects suggested that there is a significant association between RM and frequency of mutations in this allele. PMID:27525330

  13. HLA-A alleles differentially associate with severity to Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), particularly HLA-B and class II alleles have been differentially associated with disease outcomes in different populations following infection with the malaria Plasmodium falciparum. However, the effect of HLA-A on malaria infection and/or disease is not fully understood. Recently, HLA-A ...

  14. Use of allele-specific FAIRE to determine functional regulatory polymorphism using large-scale genotyping arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J P Smith

    Full Text Available Following the widespread use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, focus is turning towards identification of causal variants rather than simply genetic markers of diseases and traits. As a step towards a high-throughput method to identify genome-wide, non-coding, functional regulatory variants, we describe the technique of allele-specific FAIRE, utilising large-scale genotyping technology (FAIRE-gen to determine allelic effects on chromatin accessibility and regulatory potential. FAIRE-gen was explored using lymphoblastoid cells and the 50,000 SNP Illumina CVD BeadChip. The technique identified an allele-specific regulatory polymorphism within NR1H3 (coding for LXR-α, rs7120118, coinciding with a previously GWAS-identified SNP for HDL-C levels. This finding was confirmed using FAIRE-gen with the 200,000 SNP Illumina Metabochip and verified with the established method of TaqMan allelic discrimination. Examination of this SNP in two prospective Caucasian cohorts comprising 15,000 individuals confirmed the association with HDL-C levels (combined beta = 0.016; p = 0.0006, and analysis of gene expression identified an allelic association with LXR-α expression in heart tissue. Using increasingly comprehensive genotyping chips and distinct tissues for examination, FAIRE-gen has the potential to aid the identification of many causal SNPs associated with disease from GWAS.

  15. Highly preferential association of NonF508del CF mutations with the M470 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, B M; Bonizzato, A; Bombieri, C; Pompei, F; Gabaldo, M; Ciccacci, C; Begnini, A; Holubova, A; Zorzi, P; Piskackova, T; Macek, M; Castellani, C; Modiano, G; Pignatti, P F

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of previous findings on random individuals, we hypothesized a preferential association of CF causing mutations with the M allele of the M470V polymorphic site of the CFTR gene. We have determined the M/V-CF mutation haplotype in a series of 201 North East Italian and 73 Czech CF patients who were not F508del homozygotes, as F508del was already known to be fully associated with the M allele. Out of 358 not F508del CF genes, 84 carried the V allele and 274 the less common M allele. In the N-E Italian population, MM subjects have a risk of carrying a CF causing mutation 6.9x greater than VV subjects when F508del is excluded and 15.4x when F508del is included. In the Czech population a similar, although less pronounced, association is observed. Besides the possible biological significance of this association, the possibility of exploiting it for a pilot screening program has been explored in a local North East Italian population for which CF patients were characterized for their CF mutation. General M470V genotyping followed by common CF mutation screening limited to couples in which each partner carries at least one M allele would need testing only 39% of the couples, which contribute 89% of the total risk, with a cost benefit.

  16. Genomic structural variation-mediated allelic suppression causes hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rongxin; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xupeng; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiucai; Xie, Xianrong; Zhu, Qinlong; Tang, Huiwu; Li, Qing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-03

    Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter. In Sc-j/Sc-i hybrids, the high-expression of Sc-i in sporophytic cells causes suppression of Sc-j expression in pollen and selective abortion of Sc-j-pollen, leading to transmission ratio distortion. Knocking out one or two of the three Sc-i copies by CRISPR/Cas9 rescues Sc-j expression and male fertility. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent allelic suppression as a mechanism of hybrid incompatibility, and provide an effective approach to overcome the reproductive barrier for hybrid breeding.

  17. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  18. DRD2 A1 allele and P300 abnormalities in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, K. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[PATH Foundation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Wood, R.; Sheridan, L.P.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous and prevalent disorder having both inheritable and environmental components. The role of the dopamine system in P300 has been implicated. We genotyped 193 neuropsychiatrically ill patients with and without comorbid drug and alcohol/abuse/dependence and obesity for the prevalence of the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene. We found a significant linear trend ({chi}{sup 2} = 40.4, df=1, p<0.00001) where the percent prevalence of the A1 increased with increasing polysubstance abuse. Where the A1 allele was found in 44% of 40 obese subjects, the A1 allele prevalence was found in as much as 91% of 11 obese subjects with comorbid polysubstance abuse. 53 obese subjects having a mean body weight (BMI) of 34.6{+-}8.2 were mapped for brain electrical activity and compared with 15 controls with a BMI of 22.3{+-}3.0 (P<.001). The P3 amplitude was significantly different (two tailed; t=3.24, df=16.2, P = 0.005), whereas P3 latency was not significant. Preliminarily, we found a significant decreased P3 amplitude correlated with parental polysubstance abuse (p=0.4) with prolongation of P3 latency correlated with the three risk factors of parental substance abuse, chemical dependency and carbohydrate bingeing (P<0.02). Finally, in a small sample, the A1 allele was present in 25% of probands having 0 risk compared to 66% in those obese subjects with any risk. This work represents the first electrophysiological data to implicate P3 abnormalities in a subset of obesity and further confirms an association of the DRD2 gene and a electrophysiological marker previously indicated to have predictive value in vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

  19. Efficient simulation and likelihood methods for non-neutral multi-allele models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul; Genz, Alan; Buzbas, Erkan Ozge

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1980s, Simon Tavaré made numerous significant contributions to population genetics theory. As genetic data, in particular DNA sequence, became more readily available, a need to connect population-genetic models to data became the central issue. The seminal work of Griffiths and Tavaré (1994a , 1994b , 1994c) was among the first to develop a likelihood method to estimate the population-genetic parameters using full DNA sequences. Now, we are in the genomics era where methods need to scale-up to handle massive data sets, and Tavaré has led the way to new approaches. However, performing statistical inference under non-neutral models has proved elusive. In tribute to Simon Tavaré, we present an article in spirit of his work that provides a computationally tractable method for simulating and analyzing data under a class of non-neutral population-genetic models. Computational methods for approximating likelihood functions and generating samples under a class of allele-frequency based non-neutral parent-independent mutation models were proposed by Donnelly, Nordborg, and Joyce (DNJ) (Donnelly et al., 2001). DNJ (2001) simulated samples of allele frequencies from non-neutral models using neutral models as auxiliary distribution in a rejection algorithm. However, patterns of allele frequencies produced by neutral models are dissimilar to patterns of allele frequencies produced by non-neutral models, making the rejection method inefficient. For example, in some cases the methods in DNJ (2001) require 10(9) rejections before a sample from the non-neutral model is accepted. Our method simulates samples directly from the distribution of non-neutral models, making simulation methods a practical tool to study the behavior of the likelihood and to perform inference on the strength of selection.

  20. [Cloning and sequencing of KIR2DL1 framework gene cDNA and identification of a novel allele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Wang, Chang; Zhen, Jianxin; Zhang, Guobin; Xu, Yunping; Deng, Zhihui

    2016-10-01

    To develop an assay for cDNA cloning and haplotype sequencing of KIR2DL1 framework gene and determine the genotype of an ethnic Han from southern China. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood sample, and complementary DNA (cDNA) transcript was synthesized by RT-PCR. The entire coding sequence of the KIR2DL1 framework gene was amplified with a pair of KIR2DL1-specific PCR primers. The PCR products with a length of approximately 1.2 kb were then subjected to cloning and haplotype sequencing. A specific target fragment of the KIR2DL1 framework gene was obtained. Following allele separation, a wild-type KIR2DL1*00302 allele and a novel variant allele, KIR2DL1*031, were identified. Sequence alignment with KIR2DL1 alleles from the IPD-KIR Database showed that the novel allele KIR2DL1*031 has differed from the closest allele KIR2DL1*00302 by a non-synonymous mutation at CDS nt 188A>G (codon 42 GAG>GGG) in exon 4, which has caused an amino acid change Glu42Gly. The sequence of the novel allele KIR2DL1*031 was submitted to GenBank under the accession number KP025960 and to the IPD-KIR Database under the submission number IWS40001982. A name KIR2DL1*031 has been officially assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO) Nomenclature Committee. An assay for cDNA cloning and haplotype sequencing of KIR2DL1 has been established, which has a broad applications in KIR studies at allelic level.

  1. Allelic Dropout During Polymerase Chain Reaction due to G-Quadruplex Structures and DNA Methylation Is Widespread at Imprinted Human Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Aaron J; Taylor, Millie G; Pearce, Frederick Grant; Kennedy, Martin A

    2017-03-10

    Loss of one allele during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA, known as allelic dropout, can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. Allelic dropout during PCR may have profound implications for molecular diagnostic and research procedures that depend on PCR and assume biallelic amplification has occurred. Complete allelic dropout due to the combined effects of cytosine methylation and G-quadruplex formation was previously described for a differentially methylated region of the human imprinted gene, MEST We now demonstrate that this parent-of-origin specific allelic dropout can potentially occur at several other genomic regions that display genomic imprinting and have propensity for G-quadruplex formation, including AIM1 , BLCAP , DNMT1 , PLAGL1 , KCNQ1 , and GRB10 These findings demonstrate that systematic allelic dropout during PCR is a general phenomenon for regions of the genome where differential allelic methylation and G-quadruplex motifs coincide, and suggest that great care must be taken to ensure biallelic amplification is occurring in such situations. Copyright © 2017 Stevens et al.

  2. HLA-class II alleles in patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A B; Kozhamkulov, U A; Vavilov, M N; Belova, E S; Bismilda, V L; Alenova, A H; Ismailov, S S; Momynaliev, K T

    2014-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has a major role in the regulation of the immune response as it is involved in the defense against pathogens. Some studies have reported that HLA class II genes play a strong role in severe cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in several populations. Thus the aim of the study was to compare the HLA-class II alleles of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis with those of healthy controls from the same ethnic group in Kazakhstan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of HLA-class II alleles by patients with drug resistant tuberculosis and the healthy controls of the same ethnic group in Kazakhstan. The HLA-class II alleles of 76 patients with tuberculosis (TB) and 157 healthy volunteers were investigated using sequence-based typing (SBT)-method. HLA-DQA1*03:02 HLA-DRB1*08:01 and DRB1*08:03 occurred more frequently (P = 0.05) in patients with drug resistant tuberculosis than in controls. We observed a possible association between certain HLA alleles and TB that are specific for the Kazakh population. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings using a larger number of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reliable allele detection using SNP-based PCR primers containing Locked Nucleic Acid: application in genetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trognitz Friederike

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid, Solanum caripense, a wild relative of potato and tomato, possesses valuable resistance to potato late blight and we are interested in the genetic base of this resistance. Due to extremely low levels of genetic variation within the S. caripense genome it proved impossible to generate a dense genetic map and to assign individual Solanum chromosomes through the use of conventional chromosome-specific SSR, RFLP, AFLP, as well as gene- or locus-specific markers. The ease of detection of DNA polymorphisms depends on both frequency and form of sequence variation. The narrow genetic background of close relatives and inbreds complicates the detection of persisting, reduced polymorphism and is a challenge to the development of reliable molecular markers. Nonetheless, monomorphic DNA fragments representing not directly usable conventional markers can contain considerable variation at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. This can be used for the design of allele-specific molecular markers. The reproducible detection of allele-specific markers based on SNPs has been a technical challenge. Results We present a fast and cost-effective protocol for the detection of allele-specific SNPs by applying Sequence Polymorphism-Derived (SPD markers. These markers proved highly efficient for fingerprinting of individuals possessing a homogeneous genetic background. SPD markers are obtained from within non-informative, conventional molecular marker fragments that are screened for SNPs to design allele-specific PCR primers. The method makes use of primers containing a single, 3'-terminal Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA base. We demonstrate the applicability of the technique by successful genetic mapping of allele-specific SNP markers derived from monomorphic Conserved Ortholog Set II (COSII markers mapped to Solanum chromosomes, in S. caripense. By using SPD markers it was possible for the first time to map the S. caripense alleles

  4. Cattle with the BoLA class II DRB3*0902 allele have significantly lower bovine leukemia proviral loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kirino, Yumi; Mitoma, Shuya; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Horii, Yoichiro; Norimine, Junzo

    2017-09-12

    The bovine MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 alleles are associated with polyclonal expansion of lymphocytes caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle. To examine whether the DRB3*0902 allele, one of the resistance-associated alleles, is associated with the proviral load, we measured BLV proviral load of BLV-infected cattle and clarified their DRB3 alleles. Fifty-seven animals with DRB3*0902 were identified out of 835 BLV-infected cattle and had significantly lower proviral load (Pclass II DRA/DRB3*0902 molecule plays an important immunological role in suppressing viral replication, resulting in resistance to the disease progression.

  5. Geostatistical analysis of allele presence patterns among American black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; King, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    Highways are one of the leading causes of wildlife habitat fragmentation and may particularly affect wide-ranging species, such as American black bears (Ursus americanus). We initiated a research project in 2000 to determine potential effects of a 4-lane highway on black bear ecology in Washington County, North Carolina. The research design included a treatment area (highway construction) and a control area and a pre- and post-construction phase. We used data from the pre-construction phase to determine whether we could detect scale dependency or directionality among allele occurrence patterns using geostatistics. Detection of such patterns could provide a powerful tool to measure the effects of landscape fragmentation on gene flow. We sampled DNA from roots of black bear hair at 70 hair-sampling sites on each study area for 7 weeks during fall of 2000. We used microsatellite analysis based on 10 loci to determine unique multi-locus genotypes. We examined all alleles sampled at ???25 sites on each study area and mapped their presence or absence at each hair-sample site. We calculated semivariograms, which measure the strength of statistical correlation as a function of distance, and adjusted them for anisotropy to determine the maximum direction of spatial continuity. We then calculated the mean direction of spatial continuity for all examined alleles. The mean direction of allele frequency variation was 118.3?? (SE = 8.5) on the treatment area and 172.3?? (SE = 6.0) on the control area. Rayleigh's tests showed that these directions differed from random distributions (P = 0.028 and P < 0.001, respectively), indicating consistent directional patterns for the alleles we examined in each area. Despite the small spatial scale of our study (approximately 11,000 ha for each study area), we observed distinct and consistent patterns of allele occurrence, suggesting different directions of gene flow between the study areas. These directions seemed to coincide with the

  6. An improved assay for the determination of Huntington`s disease allele size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, C.; Klinger, K.; Miller, G. [Intergrated Genetics, Framingham, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The hallmark of Huntington`s disease (HD) is the expansion of a polymorphic (CAG)n repeat. Several methods have been published describing PCR amplification of this region. Most of these assays require a complex PCR reaction mixture to amplify this GC-rich region. A consistent problem with trinucleotide repeat PCR amplification is the presence of a number of {open_quotes}stutter bands{close_quotes} which may be caused by primer or amplicon slippage during amplification or insufficient polymerase processivity. Most assays for HD arbitrarily select a particular band for diagnostic purposes. Without a clear choice for band selection such an arbitrary selection may result in inconsistent intra- or inter-laboratory findings. We present an improved protocol for the amplification of the HD trinucleotide repeat region. This method simplifies the PCR reaction buffer and results in a set of easily identifiable bands from which to determine allele size. HD alleles were identified by selecting bands of clearly greater signal intensity. Stutter banding was much reduced thus permitting easy identification of the most relevant PCR product. A second set of primers internal to the CCG polymorphism was used in selected samples to confirm allele size. The mechanism of action of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction is not clear. It may be possible that the minimal isostabilizing effect of N,N,N trimethylglycine at 2.5 M is significant enough to affect primer specificity. The use of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction facilitated identification of HD alleles and may be appropriate for use in other assays of this type.

  7. Association of LEI0258 microsatellite alleles with antibody response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... (MHC) B region on chicken Micro-chromosome 16 has been demonstrated by many workers to be ... promising DNA markers in characterizing MHC B genes. Identifying marker alleles (bands) ..... SAS/STAT Users' Guide,. Release 6.12 Edition, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina. USA. Taylor RL (2004).

  8. Allelic Variation of Bile Salt Hydrolase Genes in Lactobacillus salivarius Does Not Determine Bile Resistance Levels▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yin; Bumann, Mario; Raftis, Emma J.; Casey, Pat G.; Cooney, Jakki C.; Walsh, Martin A.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host. PMID:19592587

  9. Ankyrin-1 Gene Exhibits Allelic Heterogeneity in Conferring Protection Against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ming Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Allelic heterogeneity is a common phenomenon where a gene exhibits a different phenotype depending on the nature of its genetic mutations. In the context of genes affecting malaria susceptibility, it allowed us to explore and understand the intricate host–parasite interactions during malaria infections. In this study, we described a gene encoding erythrocytic ankyrin-1 (Ank-1 which exhibits allelic-dependent heterogeneous phenotypes during malaria infections. We conducted an ENU mutagenesis screen on mice and identified two Ank-1 mutations, one resulting in an amino acid substitution (MRI95845, and the other a truncated Ank-1 protein (MRI96570. Both mutations caused hereditary spherocytosis-like phenotypes and confer differing protection against Plasmodium chabaudi infections. Upon further examination, the Ank-1(MRI96570 mutation was found to inhibit intraerythrocytic parasite maturation, whereas Ank-1(MRI95845 caused increased bystander erythrocyte clearance during infection. This is the first description of allelic heterogeneity in ankyrin-1 from the direct comparison between two Ank-1 mutations. Despite the lack of direct evidence from population studies, this data further supported the protective roles of ankyrin-1 mutations in conferring malaria protection. This study also emphasized the importance of such phenomena in achieving a better understanding of host–parasite interactions, which could be the basis of future studies.

  10. Identification, genealogical structure and population genetics of S-alleles in Malus sieversii, the wild ancestor of domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Cai, Z; Liu, W; Ge, S; Tang, L

    2017-09-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris. We further sequenced 8 nuclear genes to provide a neutral reference, and investigated the evolution of S-alleles via genealogical and population genetic analyses. Both shared ancestral polymorphism and an excess of non-synonymous substitution were detected in the S-RNases of the tribe Maleae in Rosaceae, indicating the action of long-term balancing selection. Approximate Bayesian Computations based on the reference neutral loci revealed a severe bottleneck in four of the six studied M. sieversii populations, suggesting that the low number of S-alleles found in this species is mainly the result of diversity loss due to a drastic population contraction. Such a bottleneck may lead to ambiguous footprints of ongoing balancing selection detected at the S-locus. This study not only elucidates the constituents and number of S-alleles in M. sieversii but also illustrates the potential utility of S-allele number shifts in demographic inference for self-incompatible plant species.

  11. Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2014-04-01

    The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis. © 2013.

  12. Specific Silencing of L392V PSEN1 Mutant Allele by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Sierant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi technology provides a powerful molecular tool to reduce an expression of selected genes in eukaryotic cells. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs are the effector molecules that trigger RNAi. Here, we describe siRNAs that discriminate between the wild type and mutant (1174 C→G alleles of human Presenilin1 gene (PSEN1. This mutation, resulting in L392V PSEN1 variant, contributes to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Using the dual fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy we identified positions 8th–11th, within the central part of the antisense strand, as the most sensitive to mismatches. 2-Thiouridine chemical modification introduced at the 3′-end of the antisense strand improved the allele discrimination, but wobble base pairing adjacent to the mutation site abolished the siRNA activity. Our data indicate that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild type and mutant alleles of genes that differ by just a single nucleotide.

  13. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannfelt, L.; Lilius, L.; Viitanen, M.; Winblad, B.; Basun, H.; Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.; Hardy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer's disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.)

  14. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  15. The power and statistical behaviour of allele-sharing statistics when ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , using seven statistics, of which five are implemented in the computer program SimWalk2, and two are implemented in GENEHUNTER. Unlike most previous reports which involve evaluations of the power of allele-sharing statistics for a single ...

  16. Apolipoprotein e4 allele and cognitive decline in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Havekes, L.M.; Kalmijn, S.; Knijff, P. de; Launer, L.J.; Kromhout, D.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - To determine whether polymorphism of apolipoprotein E - notably, the e4 allele - predicts cognitive deterioration in the general population. Design - Population based cohort investigated in 1990 and in 1993. Setting - Zutphen, the Netherlands. Subjects - Representative cohort of 538

  17. The power and statistical behaviour of allele-sharing statistics when ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    3Human Genetics Division, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. Abstract ... that the statistic S-#alleles gives good performance for recessive ... (H50) of the families are linked to the single marker. The.

  18. Simultaneous SNP identification and assessment of allele-specific bias from ChIP-seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Yunyun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with many aspects of human development and disease, and many non-coding SNPs associated with disease risk are presumed to affect gene regulation. We have previously shown that SNPs within transcription factor binding sites can affect transcription factor binding in an allele-specific and heritable manner. However, such analysis has relied on prior whole-genome genotypes provided by large external projects such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. This requirement limits the study of allele-specific effects of SNPs in primary patient samples from diseases of interest, where complete genotypes are not readily available. Results In this study, we show that we are able to identify SNPs de novo and accurately from ChIP-seq data generated in the ENCODE Project. Our de novo identified SNPs from ChIP-seq data are highly concordant with published genotypes. Independent experimental verification of more than 100 sites estimates our false discovery rate at less than 5%. Analysis of transcription factor binding at de novo identified SNPs revealed widespread heritable allele-specific binding, confirming previous observations. SNPs identified from ChIP-seq datasets were significantly enriched for disease-associated variants, and we identified dozens of allele-specific binding events in non-coding regions that could distinguish between disease and normal haplotypes. Conclusions Our approach combines SNP discovery, genotyping and allele-specific analysis, but is selectively focused on functional regulatory elements occupied by transcription factors or epigenetic marks, and will therefore be valuable for identifying the functional regulatory consequences of non-coding SNPs in primary disease samples.

  19. Non-coding RNAs and epigenome: de novo DNA methylation, allelic exclusion and X-inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Halytskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs are widespread class of cell RNAs. They participate in many important processes in cells – signaling, posttranscriptional silencing, protein biosynthesis, splicing, maintenance of genome stability, telomere lengthening, X-inactivation. Nevertheless, activity of these RNAs is not restricted to posttranscriptional sphere, but cover also processes that change or maintain the epigenetic information. Non-coding RNAs can directly bind to the DNA targets and cause their repression through recruitment of DNA methyltransferases as well as chromatin modifying enzymes. Such events constitute molecular mechanism of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation. It is possible, that the RNA-DNA interaction is universal mechanism triggering DNA methylation de novo. Allelic exclusion can be also based on described mechanism. This phenomenon takes place, when non-coding RNA, which precursor is transcribed from one allele, triggers DNA methylation in all other alleles present in the cell. Note, that miRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing resembles allelic exclusion, because both miRNA gene and genes, which can be targeted by this miRNA, contain elements with the same sequences. It can be assumed that RNA-dependent DNA methylation and allelic exclusion originated with the purpose of counteracting the activity of mobile genetic elements. Probably, thinning and deregulation of the cellular non-coding RNA pattern allows reactivation of silent mobile genetic elements resulting in genome instability that leads to ageing and carcinogenesis. In the course of X-inactivation, DNA methylation and subsequent hete­rochromatinization of X chromosome can be triggered by direct hybridization of 5′-end of large non-coding RNA Xist with DNA targets in remote regions of the X chromosome.

  20. Persistent HPV16/18 infection in Indian women with the A-allele (rs6457617) of HLA-DQB1 and T-allele (rs16944) of IL-1β -511 is associated with development of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sankhadeep; Chakraborty, Chandraditya; Mandal, Ranajit Kumar; Basu, Partha; Biswas, Jaydip; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 infection and polymorphisms in the HLA-DQB1 (rs6457617) and IL-1β -511 (rs16944) loci with the development of uterine cervical cancer (CaCx). The distribution of HLA-DQB1 G > A and IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphisms was determined in HPV-negative cervical swabs from normal women (N = 111) and compared with cervical swabs of HPV-cleared normal women (once HPV infected followed by natural clearance of the infection, N = 86), HPV16/18-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, N = 41) and CaCx biopsies (N = 107). The A-allele containing genotypes (i.e. G/A and A/A) of HLA-DQB1 was significantly associated with CaCx compared with HPV-negative [OR = 2.56(1.42-4.62), p = 0.001] or HPV-cleared [OR = 2.07(1.12-3.87), p = 0.01] normal women, whereas the T-allele containing genotypes (i.e. C/T and T/T) of IL-1β showed increased risk of CIN [OR = 3.68(0.97-16.35), p = 0.03; OR = 3.59(0.92-16.38), p = 0.03] and CaCx development [OR = 2.03(1.03-5.2), p = 0.02; OR = 2.25(0.96-5.31), p = 0.04] compared with HPV-negative or HPV-cleared normal women. Considering these two loci together, it was evident that the T- and A-alleles rendered significantly increased susceptibility for development of CIN and CaCx compared with HPV-negative and HPV-cleared normal women. Moreover, the T-allele of IL-1β showed increased susceptibility for CIN [OR = 3.62(0.85-17.95), p = 0.04] and CaCx [OR = 2.39(0.91-6.37), p = 0.05] development compared with the HPV-cleared women, even in the presence of the HLA-DQB1 G-allele. Thus, our data suggest that persistent HPV16/18 infection in the cervix due to the presence of the HLA-DQB1 A-allele and chronic inflammation due to the presence of the IL-1β -511 T-allele might predispose women to CaCx development.

  1. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation and Its Interplay with Repressive Histone Marks at Promoter-Mutant TERT Genes

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    Josh Lewis Stern

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A mutation in the promoter of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT gene is the most frequent noncoding mutation in cancer. The mutation drives unusual monoallelic expression of TERT, allowing immortalization. Here, we find that DNA methylation of the TERT CpG island (CGI is also allele-specific in multiple cancers. The expressed allele is hypomethylated, which is opposite to cancers without TERT promoter mutations. The continued presence of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 on the inactive allele suggests that histone marks of repressed chromatin may be causally linked to high DNA methylation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TERT promoter DNA containing 5-methyl-CpG has much increased affinity for PRC2 in vitro. Thus, CpG methylation and histone marks appear to collaborate to maintain the two TERT alleles in different epigenetic states in TERT promoter mutant cancers. Finally, in several cancers, DNA methylation levels at the TERT CGI correlate with altered patient survival.

  2. Absence of the HLA-G*0113N allele in Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C; Moreau, Philippe; Simões, Aguinaldo L; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2010-04-01

    The HLA-G gene is predominantly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and has been associated with maternal-fetal tolerance. The HLA-G*0113N is a null allele defined by the insertion of a premature stop codon at exon 2, observed in a single Ghanaian individual. Likewise the G*0105N allele, the occurrence of the HLA-G*0113N in a population from an area with high pathogen load suggests that the reduced HLA-G expression in G*0113N heterozygous placentas could improve the intrauterine defense against infections. The presence of the G*0113N allele here was investigated in 150 Amerindians from five isolated tribes that inhabit the Central Amazon and in 295 admixed individuals from the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, previously genotyped for HLA-G. No copy of the G*0113N null allele was found in both population samples by exon 2 sequence-based analysis, reinforcing its restricted occurrence in Africa.

  3. Efficient computation of the joint probability of multiple inherited risk alleles from pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Braun, Danielle; Peng, Gang; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Trippa, Lorenzo

    2018-06-25

    The Elston-Stewart peeling algorithm enables estimation of an individual's probability of harboring germline risk alleles based on pedigree data, and serves as the computational backbone of important genetic counseling tools. However, it remains limited to the analysis of risk alleles at a small number of genetic loci because its computing time grows exponentially with the number of loci considered. We propose a novel, approximate version of this algorithm, dubbed the peeling and paring algorithm, which scales polynomially in the number of loci. This allows extending peeling-based models to include many genetic loci. The algorithm creates a trade-off between accuracy and speed, and allows the user to control this trade-off. We provide exact bounds on the approximation error and evaluate it in realistic simulations. Results show that the loss of accuracy due to the approximation is negligible in important applications. This algorithm will improve genetic counseling tools by increasing the number of pathogenic risk alleles that can be addressed. To illustrate we create an extended five genes version of BRCAPRO, a widely used model for estimating the carrier probabilities of BRCA1 and BRCA2 risk alleles and assess its computational properties. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. SNP calling, genotype calling, and sample allele frequency estimation from new-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical framework for estimation and application of sample allele frequency spectra from New-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data. In this method, we first estimate the allele frequency spectrum using maximum likelihood. In contrast to previous methods, the likelihood function is cal...... be extended to various other cases including cases with deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We evaluate the statistical properties of the methods using simulations and by application to a real data set....

  5. GST M1-T1 null allele frequency patterns in geographically assorted human populations: a phylogenetic approach.

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    Senthilkumar Pitchalu Kasthurinaidu

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in drug metabolism and disposition is mainly considered as the outcome of the inter-individual genetic variation in polymorphism of drug-xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME. Among the XMEs, glutathione-S-transferases (GST gene loci are an important candidate for the investigation of diversity in allele frequency, as the deletion mutations in GST M1 and T1 genotypes are associated with various cancers and genetic disorders of all major Population Affiliations (PAs. Therefore, the present population based phylogenetic study was focused to uncover the frequency distribution pattern in GST M1 and T1 null genotypes among 45 Geographically Assorted Human Populations (GAHPs. The frequency distribution pattern for GST M1 and T1 null alleles have been detected in this study using the data derived from literatures representing 44 populations affiliated to Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and the genome of PA from Gujarat, a region in western India. Allele frequency counting for Gujarat PA and scattered plot analysis for geographical distribution among the PAs were performed in SPSS-21. The GST M1 and GST T1 null allele frequencies patterns of the PAs were computed in Seqboot, Gendist program of Phylip software package (3.69 versions and Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean in Mega-6 software. Allele frequencies from South African Xhosa tribe, East African Zimbabwe, East African Ethiopia, North African Egypt, Caucasian, South Asian Afghanistan and South Indian Andhra Pradesh have been identified as the probable seven patterns among the 45 GAHPs investigated in this study for GST M1-T1 null genotypes. The patternized null allele frequencies demonstrated in this study for the first time addresses the missing link in GST M1-T1 null allele frequencies among GAHPs.

  6. Frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen system in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luana de Cassia Salvadori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HLA allele identification is used in bone marrow transplant programs as HLA compatibility between the donor and recipient may prevent graft rejection. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the HLA system in the region of Bauru and compare these with the frequencies found in other regions of the country. Methods: HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele frequencies and haplotypes were analyzed in a sample of 3542 volunteer donors at the National Registry of Voluntary Bone Marrow Donors (REDOME in Bauru. HLA low resolution typing was performed using reverse line blot with the Dynal Reli(tm SSO-HLA Typing Kit and automated Dynal AutoReli(tm48 device (Invitrogen, USA. Results: Twenty, 36, and 13 HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele groups, respectively, were identified. The most common alleles for each locus were HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, and HLA-DRB1*07. The most frequent haplotype was A*01-B*08-DRB1*03. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared to other regions in Brazil and the similarities and differences among populations are shown. Conclusion: The knowledge of the immunogenic profile of a population contributes to the comprehension of the historical and anthropological aspects of different regions. Moreover, this helps to find suitable donors quickly, thereby shortening waiting lists for transplants and thus increasing survival rates among recipients.

  7. Detection of MPL mutations by a novel allele-specific PCR-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Larissa V; Weigelin, Helmut C; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Betz, Bryan L

    2013-11-01

    MPL mutation testing is recommended in patients with suspected primary myelofibrosis or essential thrombocythemia who lack the JAK2 V617F mutation. MPL mutations can occur at allelic levels below 15%, which may escape detection by commonly used mutation screening methods such as Sanger sequencing. We developed a novel multiplexed allele-specific PCR assay capable of detecting most recurrent MPL exon 10 mutations associated with primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia (W515L, W515K, W515A, and S505N) down to a sensitivity of 2.5% mutant allele. Test results were reviewed from 15 reference cases and 1380 consecutive specimens referred to our laboratory for testing. Assay performance was compared to Sanger sequencing across a series of 58 specimens with MPL mutations. Positive cases consisted of 45 with W515L, 6 with S505N, 5 with W515K, 1 with W515A, and 1 with both W515L and S505N. Seven cases had mutations below 5% that were undetected by Sanger sequencing. Ten additional cases had mutation levels between 5% and 15% that were not consistently detected by sequencing. All results were easily interpreted in the allele-specific test. This assay offers a sensitive and reliable solution for MPL mutation testing. Sanger sequencing appears insufficiently sensitive for robust MPL mutation detection. Our data also suggest the relative frequency of S505N mutations may be underestimated, highlighting the necessity for inclusion of this mutation in MPL test platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A robust and powerful two-step testing procedure for local ancestry adjusted allelic association analysis in admixed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qing; Xu, Zheng; Raffield, Laura M; Chang, Suhua; Wu, Di; Lange, Ethan M; Reiner, Alex P; Li, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Genetic association studies in admixed populations allow us to gain deeper understanding of the genetic architecture of human diseases and traits. However, population stratification, complicated linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns, and the complex interplay of allelic and ancestry effects on phenotypic traits pose challenges in such analyses. These issues may lead to detecting spurious associations and/or result in reduced statistical power. Fortunately, if handled appropriately, these same challenges provide unique opportunities for gene mapping. To address these challenges and to take these opportunities, we propose a robust and powerful two-step testing procedure Local Ancestry Adjusted Allelic (LAAA) association. In the first step, LAAA robustly captures associations due to allelic effect, ancestry effect, and interaction effect, allowing detection of effect heterogeneity across ancestral populations. In the second step, LAAA identifies the source of association, namely allelic, ancestry, or the combination. By jointly modeling allele, local ancestry, and ancestry-specific allelic effects, LAAA is highly powerful in capturing the presence of interaction between ancestry and allele effect. We evaluated the validity and statistical power of LAAA through simulations over a broad spectrum of scenarios. We further illustrated its usefulness by application to the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) African American participants for association with hemoglobin levels. We were able to replicate independent groups' previously identified loci that would have been missed in CARe without joint testing. Moreover, the loci, for which LAAA detected potential effect heterogeneity, were replicated among African Americans from the Women's Health Initiative study. LAAA is freely available at https://yunliweb.its.unc.edu/LAAA. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele and outcomes of traumatic spinal cord injury in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chongyi; Ji, Guangrong; Liu, Qingpeng; Yao, Meng

    2011-10-01

    The association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 (ε4) allele and outcomes of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is still controversial and ambiguous. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that APOE polymorphisms are associated with outcomes after SCI in Chinese Han patients. APOE polymorphisms were determined in 100 patients with cervical SCI (C3-C8). The genotype frequency of this polymorphism was determined by using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Patients with an APOE ε4 allele had significantly less motor recovery during rehabilitation than did patients without an APOE ε4 allele (mean 3.7 vs. 6.1; P = 0.04) and a longer rehabilitation length of stay (LOS) (mean 117.4 vs. 94.5; P = 0.02), but better sensory-pinprick recovery (mean 6.1 vs. 4.0; P = 0.03). There were no significant differences by APOE ε4 allele status in sensory-light touch recovery or acute LOS. This study suggests that the APOE ε4 allele is associated with outcomes after SCI and longer rehabilitation LOS in Chinese Han patients.

  10. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lu; Yong-Cai Lai; Wei-Guang Du; Wei-Qun Man; Shou-Yi Chen; Jin-Song Zhang; Qing Xiong; Tong Cheng; Qing-Tian Li; Xin-Lei Liu; Ying-Dong Bi; Wei Li; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic loci during domestication.Introgression of genes from wild soybeans could broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits.In this study,through whole-genome sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44,and mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed weight,we discovered that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase in seed weight/size.PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes.We found that PP2C-1 is associated with GmBZR1,a soybean ortholog of Arabidopsis BZR1,one of key transcription factors in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling,and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1.In contrast,the PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at the N-terminus did not exhibit this function.Moreover,we showed that GmBZR1 could promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants.Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions,we found that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele,suggesting that these accessions can be improved by introduction of this allele.Taken together,our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1,which can enhance seed weight and/or size in soybean,and pinpoints that manipulation of this allele by molecular-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  11. Novel deletion alleles carrying CYP21A1P/A2 chimeric genes in Brazilian patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency

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    Guerra-Júnior Gil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by deletions, large gene conversions or mutations in CYP21A2 gene. The human gene is located at 6p21.3 within a locus containing the genes for putative serine/threonine Kinase RP, complement C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21 tenascin TNX, normally, in a duplicated cluster known as RCCX module. The CYP21 extra copy is a pseudogene (CYP21A1P. In Brazil, 30-kb deletion forming monomodular alleles that carry chimeric CYP21A1P/A2 genes corresponds to ~9% of disease-causing alleles. Such alleles are considered to result from unequal crossovers within the bimodular C4/CYP21 locus. Depending on the localization of recombination breakpoint, different alleles can be generated conferring the locus high degree of allelic variability. The purpose of the study was to investigate the variability of deleted alleles in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Methods We used different techniques to investigate the variability of 30-kb deletion alleles in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Alleles were first selected after Southern blotting. The composition of CYP21A1P/A2 chimeric genes was investigated by ASO-PCR and MLPA analyses followed by sequencing to refine the location of recombination breakpoints. Twenty patients carrying at least one allele with C4/CYP21 30-kb deletion were included in the study. Results An allele carrying a CYP21A1P/A2 chimeric gene was found unusually associated to a C4B/C4A Taq I 6.4-kb fragment, generally associated to C4B and CYP21A1P deletions. A novel haplotype bearing both p.P34L and p.H62L, novel and rare mutations, respectively, was identified in exon 1, however p.P30L, the most frequent pseudogene-derived mutation in this exon, was absent. Four unrelated patients showed this haplotype. Absence of p.P34L in CYP21A1P of normal controls indicated that it is not derived from pseudogene. In addition, the combination of different

  12. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution...

  13. D1S80 (pMCT118) allele frequencies in a Malay population sample from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, C L; Lim, M E; Ng, H S; Sam, C K

    1997-01-01

    The D1S80 allele frequencies in 124 unrelated Malays from the Malaysian population were determined and 51 genotypes and 19 alleles were encountered. The D1S80 frequency distribution met Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The observed heterozygosity was 0.80 and the power of discrimination was 0.96.

  14. Response to imazapyr and dominance relationships of two imidazolinone-tolerant alleles at the Ahasl1 locus of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano; Altieri, Emiliano; Weston, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    Imisun and CLPlus are two imidazolinone (IMI) tolerance traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) determined by the expression of different alleles at the same locus, Ahasl1-1 and Ahasl1-3, respectively. This paper reports the level of tolerance expressed by plants containing both alleles in a homozygous, heterozygous and in a heterozygous stacked state to increasing doses of IMI at the enzyme and whole plant levels. Six genotypes of the Ahasl1 gene were compared with each other in three different genetic backgrounds. These materials were treated at the V2-V4 stage with increasing doses of imazapyr (from 0 to 480 g a.i. ha(-1)) followed by an assessment of the aboveground biomass and herbicide phytotoxicity. The estimated dose of imazapyr required to reduce biomass accumulation by 50% (GR(50)) differed statistically for the six genotypes of the Ahasl1 gene. Homozygous CLPlus (Ahasl1-3/Ahasl1-3) genotypes and materials containing a combination of both tolerant alleles (Imisun/CLPlus heterozygous stack, Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-3) showed the highest values of GR(50), 300 times higher than the susceptible genotypes and more than 2.5 times higher than homozygous Imisun materials (Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1). In vitro AHAS enzyme activity assays using increasing doses of herbicide (from 0 to 100 μM) showed similar trends, where homozygous CLPlus materials and those containing heterozygous stacks of Imisun/CLPlus were statistically similar and showed the least level of inhibition of enzyme activity to increasing doses of herbicide. The degree of dominance for the accumulation of biomass after herbicide application calculated for the Ahasl1-1 allele indicated that it is co-dominant to recessive depending on the imazapyr dose used. By the contrary, the Ahasl1-3 allele showed dominance to semi dominance according to the applied dose. This last allele is dominant over Ahasl1-1 over the entire range of herbicide rates tested. At the level of enzymatic activity, however, both alleles showed

  15. The Study of Morphological Traits and Identification of Self-incompatibility Alleles in Almond Cultivars and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rasouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of an almond collection using morphological variables and identification of self-incompatibility genotype  is useful for selecting pollinizers and for the design of crossing in almond breeding programs. In this study, important morphological traits and self-incompatibilities in 71 almond cultivars and genotypes were studied. Simple and multiplex specific PCR analyses were used in order to identify self-incompatibility alleles. Based on the results, cultivars and genotypes including ‘Dir Ras–e-Savojbolagh’, ‘D-124’, ‘D-99’, ‘Shahrood 12’, ‘Tuono’, ‘Nonpareil’, ‘Price’, ‘Mirpanj-e-Tehran’, ‘Pakotahe-e- Taleghan’, ‘V-13-34’, ‘V-16-8, ‘V-11-10’, ‘Zarghan 10’, ‘Uromiyeh 68’, ‘Barg dorosht-e-Hamedan’ and ‘Yazd 60’ were late flowering and had the highest quality of nut and kernel characters. The result of the PCR method using combined primers AS1II and AmyC5R showed amplification of ten self-incompatibility alleles (S1, S2, S3, S5, S6, S7, S8, S10, S12,and S unknown allele and three Sfalleles. Moreover, S1 had the highest frequencies in comparison with other known S-alleles. Also, unknown alleles with different sizes were detected and 58 new bands were found in some cultivars.

  16. Association between diabetes type 1 and DQB1 alleles in a case-control study conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbacas, Adriana; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Javiel, Gerardo; Pisciottano, Carmen; Grignola, Rosario; Jorge, Ana María; Gallino, Juan Pablo; Gasagoite, Jackeline; Cardoso, Horacio

    2003-03-31

    We studied HLA DQB1 allele frequencies and the relative risk (RR) of various genotypes in 72 type 1 diabetic patients and 40 control individuals in Uruguay. This is a tri-racial (Caucasian, Black and Indo-American) mixed population. The products of the polymerase chain reaction amplifications were hybridized with oligonucleotides by allele-specific oligonucleotide reverse or dot blot methods. Significant differences between these two groups were observed only for allele DQB1*0302 (35%, RR = 7.34, P<0.001). The frequency of the alleles carrying a non-aspartic acid residue at position 57 was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (85 vs 53%, P<0.001). In contrast, the frequency of Asp alleles was negatively associated with type 1 diabetes (RR = 0.20, P<0.001). The genotype DQB1*0302/DQB1*0201 (33%, RR = 5.41, P<0.05) was positively associated with this disease. The genotype frequencies associated with type 1 diabetes in our population were significantly different from what is known for Caucasian and Black populations as well as compared with another admixed population, from Chile.

  17. Improvements to a Markerless Allelic Exchange System for Bacillus anthracis.

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    Roger D Plaut

    Full Text Available A system was previously developed for conducting I-SceI-mediated allelic exchange in Bacillus anthracis. In this system, recombinational loss of a chromosomally-integrated allelic exchange vector is stimulated by creation of a double-stranded break within the vector by the homing endonuclease I-SceI. Although this system is reasonably efficient and represents an improvement in the tools available for allelic exchange in B. anthracis, researchers are nonetheless required to "pick and patch" colonies in order to identify candidate "exchangeants." In the present study, a number of improvements have been made to this system: 1 an improved I-SceI-producing plasmid includes oriT so that both plasmids can now be introduced by conjugation, thus avoiding the need for preparing electro-competent cells of each integration intermediate; 2 antibiotic markers have been changed to allow the use of the system in select agent strains; and 3 both plasmids have been marked with fluorescent proteins, allowing the visualization of plasmid segregation on a plate and obviating the need for "picking and patching." These modifications have made the process easier, faster, and more efficient, allowing for parallel construction of larger numbers of mutant strains. Using this improved system, the genes encoding the tripartite anthrax toxin were deleted singly and in combination from plasmid pXO1 of Sterne strain 34F2. In the course of this study, we determined that DNA transfer to B. anthracis could be accomplished by conjugation directly from a methylation-competent E. coli strain.

  18. Allele-specific gene expression in a wild nonhuman primate population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J.; Akinyi, M. Y.; Mutura, S.; Altmann, J.; Wray, G. A.; Alberts, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations hold enormous potential for evolutionary genetic studies, especially when phenotypic, genetic and environmental data are all available on the same individuals. However, untangling the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations remains a major challenge. Here, we describe results of an investigation of one class of phenotype, allele-specific gene expression (ASGE), in the well-studied natural population of baboons of the Amboseli basin, Kenya. ASGE measurements identify cases in which one allele of a gene is overexpressed relative to the alternative allele of the same gene, within individuals, thus providing a control for background genetic and environmental effects. Here, we characterize the incidence of ASGE in the Amboseli baboon population, focusing on the genetic and environmental contributions to ASGE in a set of eleven genes involved in immunity and defence. Within this set, we identify evidence for common ASGE in four genes. We also present examples of two relationships between cis-regulatory genetic variants and the ASGE phenotype. Finally, we identify one case in which this relationship is influenced by a novel gene-environment interaction. Specifically, the dominance rank of an individual’s mother during its early life (an aspect of that individual’s social environment) influences the expression of the gene CCL5 via an interaction with cis-regulatory genetic variation. These results illustrate how environmental and ecological data can be integrated into evolutionary genetic studies of functional variation in natural populations. They also highlight the potential importance of early life environmental variation in shaping the genetic architecture of complex traits in wild mammals. PMID:21226779

  19. Distortion of maternal-fetal angiotensin II type 1 receptor allele transmission in pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L; Crawshaw, S; Baker, P N; Brookfield, J F; Broughton Pipkin, F; Kalsheker, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the fetal angiotensin II type 1 receptor genotype in pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Case-control study. POPULATION: Forty-one maternal-fetal pairs from pre-eclamptic pregnancies and 80 maternal-fetal pairs from normotensive pregnancies. METHODS: Maternal and fetal DNA was genotyped at three diallelic polymorphisms, at nucleotides 573, 1062, and 1166, in the coding exon of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene, and at a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in its 3' flanking region. RESULTS: Allele and genotype frequencies at the four polymorphic regions investigated did not differ between pre-eclamptic and normotensive groups, in either fetal or maternal samples. Mothers heterozygous for the dinucleotide repeat allele designated A4 transmitted this allele to the fetus in 15 of 18 informative pre-eclamptic pregnancies and in eight of 26 normotensive pregnancies. This was greater than the expected probability in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (p=0.04) and less than expected in normotensive pregnancies (p<0.005). The 573T variant, which is in partial linkage disequilibrium with the A4 allele, showed a similar distortion of maternal-fetal transmission. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the fetus may contribute to the aetiology of pre-eclampsia. It is unclear whether susceptibility is conferred by the fetal genotype acting alone, or by allele sharing by mother and fetus. Possible mechanisms for the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene are suggested by the association of the 573T variant with low levels of surface receptor expression on platelets. If receptor expression is similarly genetically determined in the placenta, responsiveness to angiotensin II may be affected, with the potential to influence placentation or placental prostaglandin secretion. PMID:9719367

  20. Induction of Terpene Biosynthesis in Berries of Microvine Transformed with VvDXS1 Alleles

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    Lorenza Dalla Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, especially monoterpenes, are major aroma-impact compounds in grape and wine. Previous studies highlighted a key regulatory role for grapevine 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (VvDXS1, the first enzyme of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. Here, the parallel analysis of VvDXS1 genotype and terpene concentration in a germplasm collection demonstrated that VvDXS1 sequence has a very high predictive value for the accumulation of monoterpenes and also has an influence on sesquiterpene levels. A metabolic engineering approach was applied by expressing distinct VvDXS1 alleles in the grapevine model system “microvine” and assessing the effects on downstream pathways at transcriptional and metabolic level in different organs and fruit developmental stages. The underlying goal was to investigate two potential perturbation mechanisms, the former based on a significant over-expression of the wild-type (neutral VvDXS1 allele and the latter on the ex-novo expression of an enzyme with increased catalytic efficiency from the mutated (muscat VvDXS1 allele. The integration of the two VvDXS1 alleles in distinct microvine lines was found to alter the expression of several terpenoid biosynthetic genes, as assayed through an ad hoc developed TaqMan array based on cDNA libraries of four aromatic cultivars. In particular, enhanced transcription of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and carotenoid pathway genes was observed. The accumulation of monoterpenes in ripe berries was higher in the transformed microvines compared to control plants. This effect is predominantly attributed to the improved activity of the VvDXS1 enzyme coded by the muscat allele, whereas the up-regulation of VvDXS1 plays a secondary role in the increase of monoterpenes.

  1. Always look on both sides: phylogenetic information conveyed by simple sequence repeat allele sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Barthe

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are widely used tools for inferences about genetic diversity, phylogeography and spatial genetic structure. Their applications assume that variation among alleles is essentially caused by an expansion or contraction of the number of repeats and that, accessorily, mutations in the target sequences follow the stepwise mutation model (SMM. Generally speaking, PCR amplicon sizes are used as direct indicators of the number of SSR repeats composing an allele with the data analysis either ignoring the extent of allele size differences or assuming that there is a direct correlation between differences in amplicon size and evolutionary distance. However, without precisely knowing the kind and distribution of polymorphism within an allele (SSR and the associated flanking region (FR sequences, it is hard to say what kind of evolutionary message is conveyed by such a synthetic descriptor of polymorphism as DNA amplicon size. In this study, we sequenced several SSR alleles in multiple populations of three divergent tree genera and disentangled the types of polymorphisms contained in each portion of the DNA amplicon containing an SSR. The patterns of diversity provided by amplicon size variation, SSR variation itself, insertions/deletions (indels, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs observed in the FRs were compared. Amplicon size variation largely reflected SSR repeat number. The amount of variation was as large in FRs as in the SSR itself. The former contributed significantly to the phylogenetic information and sometimes was the main source of differentiation among individuals and populations contained by FR and SSR regions of SSR markers. The presence of mutations occurring at different rates within a marker's sequence offers the opportunity to analyse evolutionary events occurring on various timescales, but at the same time calls for caution in the interpretation of SSR marker data when the distribution of within

  2. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anna Carbone

    Full Text Available The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC. We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  3. SSR allelic diversity changes in 480 European bread wheat varieties released from 1840 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, V; Leisova, L; Exbrayat, F; Stehno, Z; Balfourier, F

    2005-06-01

    A sample of 480 bread wheat varieties originating from 15 European geographical areas and released from 1840 to 2000 were analysed with a set of 39 microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles ranged from 4 to 40, with an average of 16.4 alleles per locus. When seven successive periods of release were considered, the total number of alleles was quite stable until the 1960s, from which time it regularly decreased. Clustering analysis on Nei's distance matrix between these seven temporal groups showed a clear separation between groups of varieties registered before and after 1970. Analysis of qualitative variation over time in allelic composition of the accessions indicated that, on average, the more recent the European varieties, the more similar they were to each other. However, European accessions appear to be more differentiated as a function of their geographical origin than of their registration period. On average, western European countries (France, The Netherlands, Great Britain, Belgium) displayed a lower number of alleles than southeastern European countries (former Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary) and than the Mediterranean area (Italy, Spain and Portugal), which had a higher number. A hierarchical tree on Nei's distance matrix between the 15 geographical groups of accessions exhibited clear opposition between the geographical areas north and south of the arc formed by the Alps and the Carpathian mountains. These results suggest that diversity in European wheat accessions is not randomly distributed but can be explained both by temporal and geographical variation trends linked to breeding practices and agriculture policies in different countries.

  4. A rare FANCA gene variation as a breast cancer susceptibility allele in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Sakineh; Rasouli, Mina

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) is also a potential breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. A novel allele with tandem duplication of 13 base pair sequence in promoter region was identified. To investigate whether the 13 base pair sequence of tandem duplication in promoter region of the FANCA gene is of high penetrance in patients with breast cancer and to determine if the presence of the duplicated allele was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer, the present study screened DNA in blood samples from 304 breast cancer patients and 295 normal individuals as controls. The duplication allele had a frequency of 35.4 and 21.2% in patients with breast cancer and normal controls, respectively. There was a significant increase in the frequency of the duplication allele in patients with familial breast cancer compared with controls (45.1%, P=0.001). Furthermore, the estimated risk of breast cancer in individuals with a homozygote [odds ratio (OR), 4.093; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.957‑8.561] or heterozygote duplicated genotype (OR, 3.315; 95% CI, 1.996‑5.506) was higher compared with the corresponding normal homozygote genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the higher the frequency of the duplicated allele, the higher the risk of breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report FANCA gene duplication in patients with breast cancer.

  5. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Mary Anna; Chen, Yuhong; Hughes, Guy A; Weinreb, Robert N; Zabriskie, Norman A; Zhang, Kang; Anholt, Robert R H

    2011-01-01

    The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC). We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  6. Natural host genetic resistance to lentiviral CNS disease: a neuroprotective MHC class I allele in SIV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Mankowski

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection frequently causes neurologic disease even with anti-retroviral treatment. Although associations between MHC class I alleles and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS have been reported, the role MHC class I alleles play in restricting development of HIV-induced organ-specific diseases, including neurologic disease, has not been characterized. This study examined the relationship between expression of the MHC class I allele Mane-A*10 and development of lentiviral-induced central nervous system (CNS disease using a well-characterized simian immunodeficiency (SIV/pigtailed macaque model. The risk of developing CNS disease (SIV encephalitis was 2.5 times higher for animals that did not express the MHC class I allele Mane-A*10 (P = 0.002; RR = 2.5. Animals expressing the Mane-A*10 allele had significantly lower amounts of activated macrophages, SIV RNA, and neuronal dysfunction in the CNS than Mane-A*10 negative animals (P<0.001. Mane-A*10 positive animals with the highest CNS viral burdens contained SIV gag escape mutants at the Mane-A*10-restricted KP9 epitope in the CNS whereas wild type KP9 sequences dominated in the brain of Mane-A*10 negative animals with comparable CNS viral burdens. These concordant findings demonstrate that particular MHC class I alleles play major neuroprotective roles in lentiviral-induced CNS disease.

  7. Identification, genetic localization, and allelic diversity of selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci in lettuce and wild relatives (Lactuca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsenboer, H; Michelmore, R W; Vogel, J

    1997-12-01

    Selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic locus (SAMPL) analysis is a method of amplifying microsatellite loci using generic PCR primers. SAMPL analysis uses one AFLP primer in combination with a primer complementary to microsatellite sequences. SAMPL primers based on compound microsatellite sequences provided the clearest amplification patterns. We explored the potential of SAMPL analysis in lettuce to detect PCR-based codominant microsatellite markers. Fifty-eight SAMPLs were identified and placed on the genetic map. Seventeen were codominant. SAMPLs were dispersed with RFLP markers on 11 of the 12 main linkage groups in lettuce, indicating that they have a similar genomic distribution. Some but not all fragments amplified by SAMPL analysis were confirmed to contain microsatellite sequences by Southern hybridization. Forty-five cultivars of lettuce and five wild species of Lactuca were analyzed to determine the allelic diversity for codominant SAMPLs. From 3 to 11 putative alleles were found for each SAMPL; 2-6 alleles were found within Lactuca sativa and 1-3 alleles were found among the crisphead genotypes, the most genetically homogeneous plant type of L. sativa. This allelic diversity is greater than that found for RFLP markers. Numerous new alleles were observed in the wild species; however, there were frequent null alleles. Therefore, SAMPL analysis is more applicable to intraspecific than to interspecific comparisons. A phenetic analysis based on SAMPLs resulted in a dendrogram similar to those based on RFLP and AFLP markers.

  8. Distribution of HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphic alleles SDF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphic allelic variants of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5, as well as of stromal-derived factor-1 SDF-1, the ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4, are known to have protective effects against HIV-1 infection and to be involved with delay in disease progression. We have studied the DNA polymorphisms at ...

  9. VNTR alleles associated with the {alpha}-globin locus are haplotype and population related

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    The human {alpha}-globin complex contains several polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites (i.e., RFLPs) linked to form haplotypes and is flanked by two hypervariable VNTR loci, the 5{prime} hypervariable region (HVR) and the more highly polymorphic 3{prime}HVR. Using a combination of RFLP analysis and PCR, the authors have characterized the 5{prime}HVR and 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with the {alpha}-globin haplotypes of 133 chromosomes, and they here show that specific {alpha}-globin haplotypes are each associated with discrete subsets of the alleles observed at these two VNTR loci. This statistically highly significant association is observed over a region spanning {approximately} 100 kb. With the exception of closely related haplotypes, different haplotypes do not share identically sized 3{prime}HVR alleles. Earlier studies have shown that {alpha}-globin haplotype distributions differ between populations; the current findings also reveal extensive population substructure in the repertoire of {alpha}-globin VNTRs. If similar features are characteristic of other VNTR loci, this will have important implications for forensic and anthropological studies. 42 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Human hypervariable sequences in risk assessment: rare Ha-ras alleles in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krontiris, T.G.; DiMartino, N.A.; Mitcheson, H.D.; Lonergan, J.A.; Begg, C.; Parkinson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A variable tandem repeat (VTR) is responsible for the hyperallelism one kilobase 3' to the human c-Ha-ras-1 (Ha-ras) gene. Thirty-two distinct restriction fragments, comprising 3 allelic classes by frequency of occurrence, have thus far been detected in a sample size of approximately 800 caucasians. Rare Ha-ras alleles, 21 in all, are almost exclusively confined to the genomes of cancer patients. From their data the authors have computed the relative cancer risk associated with possession of a rare Ha-ras allele to be 27. To understand the molecular basis for this phenomenon, they have begun to clone Ha-ras fragments from nontumor DNA of cancer patients. They report here the weak activation, as detected by transfection and transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse cells, of two Ha-ras genes which were obtained from lymphocyte DNA of a melanoma patient. They have mapped the regions that confer this transforming activity to the fragment containing the VTR in one Ha-ras clone and the fragment containing gene coding sequences in the other

  11. Fitness differences due to allelic variation at Esterase-4 locus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAVITA KRISHNAMOORTI

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Keywords. esterases; null allele; reproductive fitness; natural selection; Drosophila ananassae. .... cific substrate (1-naphthylacetate AR) and stain (fast blue. RR). On the ... transferred to fresh food vials and eggs were counted.

  12. An allele of an ancestral transcription factor dependent on a horizontally acquired gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Deborah; Jewett, Mollie W; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gene regulatory circuits often give rise to phenotypic differences among closely related organisms. In bacteria, these changes can result from alterations in the ancestral genome and/or be brought about by genes acquired by horizontal transfer. Here, we identify an allele of the ancestral transcription factor PmrA that requires the horizontally acquired pmrD gene product to promote gene expression. We determined that a single amino acid difference between the PmrA proteins from the human adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B and the broad host range S. enterica serovar Typhimurium rendered transcription of PmrA-activated genes dependent on the PmrD protein in the former but not the latter serovar. Bacteria harboring the serovar Typhimurium allele exhibited polymyxin B resistance under PmrA- or under PmrA- and PmrD-inducing conditions. By contrast, isogenic strains with the serovar Paratyphi B allele displayed PmrA-regulated polymyxin B resistance only when experiencing activating conditions for both PmrA and PmrD. We establish that the two PmrA orthologs display quantitative differences in several biochemical properties. Strains harboring the serovar Paratyphi B allele showed enhanced biofilm formation, a property that might promote serovar Paratyphi B's chronic infection of the gallbladder. Our findings illustrate how subtle differences in ancestral genes can impact the ability of horizontally acquired genes to confer new properties.

  13. An SSP-PCR method for the rapid detection of disease-associated alleles HLA-A*29 and HLA-B*51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, U; Schaerer, D; Andrey, G; Wirthmueller, U; Largiadèr, C R

    2018-05-15

    HLA-A*29 and HLA-B*51 are associated with birdshot uveitis and Behçet's disease, respectively, and are used as a diagnostic criterion in patients with suspected disease, requiring their detection in diagnostic laboratories. While commercial tests for individual HLA alleles are available for other disease-associated HLA variants, no similar allele-specific assays are available for HLA-A*29 and -B*51. Here, we report SSP-PCR methods for the detection of HLA-A*29 and -B*51 using a single PCR reaction per allele. The assays were tested in 30 and 32 previously HLA-typed samples, respectively, representing >97% of HLA-A alleles and >93% of HLA-B alleles in a European population. A concordance of 100% was observed with previous typing results, validating these methods for use in a diagnostic or research context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation and Its Interplay with Repressive Histone Marks at Promoter-Mutant TERT Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Paucek, Richard D; Huang, Franklin W; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Nwumeh, Ronald; Costello, James C; Cech, Thomas R

    2017-12-26

    A mutation in the promoter of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) gene is the most frequent noncoding mutation in cancer. The mutation drives unusual monoallelic expression of TERT, allowing immortalization. Here, we find that DNA methylation of the TERT CpG island (CGI) is also allele-specific in multiple cancers. The expressed allele is hypomethylated, which is opposite to cancers without TERT promoter mutations. The continued presence of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) on the inactive allele suggests that histone marks of repressed chromatin may be causally linked to high DNA methylation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TERT promoter DNA containing 5-methyl-CpG has much increased affinity for PRC2 in vitro. Thus, CpG methylation and histone marks appear to collaborate to maintain the two TERT alleles in different epigenetic states in TERT promoter mutant cancers. Finally, in several cancers, DNA methylation levels at the TERT CGI correlate with altered patient survival. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of the LUS in sequence allele designations to facilitate probabilistic genotyping of NGS-based STR typing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Rebecca S; Irwin, Jodi A

    2018-05-01

    Some of the expected advantages of next generation sequencing (NGS) for short tandem repeat (STR) typing include enhanced mixture detection and genotype resolution via sequence variation among non-homologous alleles of the same length. However, at the same time that NGS methods for forensic DNA typing have advanced in recent years, many caseworking laboratories have implemented or are transitioning to probabilistic genotyping to assist the interpretation of complex autosomal STR typing results. Current probabilistic software programs are designed for length-based data, and were not intended to accommodate sequence strings as the product input. Yet to leverage the benefits of NGS for enhanced genotyping and mixture deconvolution, the sequence variation among same-length products must be utilized in some form. Here, we propose use of the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) in allele designations as a simple method to represent sequence variation within the STR repeat regions and facilitate - in the nearterm - probabilistic interpretation of NGS-based typing results. An examination of published population data indicated that a reference LUS region is straightforward to define for most autosomal STR loci, and that using repeat unit plus LUS length as the allele designator can represent greater than 80% of the alleles detected by sequencing. A proof of concept study performed using a freely available probabilistic software demonstrated that the LUS length can be used in allele designations when a program does not require alleles to be integers, and that utilizing sequence information improves interpretation of both single-source and mixed contributor STR typing results as compared to using repeat unit information alone. The LUS concept for allele designation maintains the repeat-based allele nomenclature that will permit backward compatibility to extant STR databases, and the LUS lengths themselves will be concordant regardless of the NGS assay or analysis tools

  16. Natural Selection and Origin of a Melanistic Allele in North American Gray Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Rena M; Durvasula, Arun; Smith, Joel; Vohr, Samuel H; Stahler, Daniel R; Galaverni, Marco; Thalmann, Olaf; Smith, Douglas W; Randi, Ettore; Ostrander, Elaine A; Green, Richard E; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2018-05-01

    Pigmentation is often used to understand how natural selection affects genetic variation in wild populations since it can have a simple genetic basis, and can affect a variety of fitness-related traits (e.g., camouflage, thermoregulation, and sexual display). In gray wolves, the K locus, a β-defensin gene, causes black coat color via a dominantly inherited KB allele. The allele is derived from dog-wolf hybridization and is at high frequency in North American wolf populations. We designed a DNA capture array to probe the geographic origin, age, and number of introgression events of the KB allele in a panel of 331 wolves and 20 dogs. We found low diversity in KB, but not ancestral ky, wolf haplotypes consistent with a selective sweep of the black haplotype across North America. Further, North American wolf KB haplotypes are monophyletic, suggesting that a single adaptive introgression from dogs to wolves most likely occurred in the Northwest Territories or Yukon. We use a new analytical approach to date the origin of the KB allele in Yukon wolves to between 1,598 and 7,248 years ago, suggesting that introgression with early Native American dogs was the source. Using population genetic simulations, we show that the K locus is undergoing natural selection in four wolf populations. We find evidence for balancing selection, specifically in Yellowstone wolves, which could be a result of selection for enhanced immunity in response to distemper. With these data, we demonstrate how the spread of an adaptive variant may have occurred across a species' geographic range.

  17. Forensic genetic informativeness of an SNP panel consisting of 19 multi-allelic SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zehua; Chen, Xiaogang; Zhao, Yuancun; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shu; Yang, Yiwen; Wang, Yufang; Zhang, Ji

    2018-05-01

    Current research focusing on forensic personal identification, phenotype inference and ancestry information on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been widely reported. In the present study, we focused on tetra-allelic SNPs in the Chinese Han population. A total of 48 tetra-allelic SNPs were screened out from the Chinese Han population of the 1000 Genomes Database, including Chinese Han in Beijing (CHB) and Chinese Han South (CHS). Considering the forensic genetic requirement for the polymorphisms, only 11 tetra-allelic SNPs with a heterozygosity >0.06 were selected for further multiplex panel construction. In order to meet the demands of personal identification and parentage identification, an additional 8 tri-allelic SNPs were combined into the final multiplex panel. To ensure application in the degraded DNA analysis, all the PCR products were designed to be 87-188 bp. Employing multiple PCR reactions and SNaPshot minisequencing, 511 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Sichuan were genotyped. The combined match probability (CMP), combined discrimination power (CDP), and cumulative probability of exclusion (CPE) of the panel were 6.07 × 10 -11 , 0.9999999999393 and 0.996764, respectively. Based on the population data retrieved from the 1000 Genomes Project, Fst values between Chinese Han in Sichuan (SCH) and all the populations included in the 1000 Genomes Project were calculated. The results indicated that two SNPs in this panel may contain ancestry information and may be used as markers of forensic biogeographical ancestry inference. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Elite Allele Mining for Grain Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edzesi, Wisdom M; Dang, Xiaojing; Liang, Lijun; Liu, Erbao; Zaid, Imdad U; Hong, Delin

    2016-01-01

    Mining elite alleles for grain size and weight is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice and selection for market demand. In this study, association mapping for grain traits was performed on a selected sample of 628 rice cultivars using 262 SSRs. Grain traits were evaluated by grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain thickness (GT), grain length to width ratio (GL/GW), and 1000-grain weight (TGW) in 2013 and 2014. Our result showed abundant phenotypic and genetic diversities found in the studied population. In total, 2953 alleles were detected with an average of 11.3 alleles per locus. The population was divided into seven subpopulations and the levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) ranged from 34 to 84 cM. Genome-wide association mapping detected 10 marker trait association (MTAs) loci for GL, 1MTAs locus for GW, 7 MTAs loci for GT, 3 MTAs loci for GL/GW, and 1 MTAs locus for TGW. Twenty-nine, 2, 10, 5, and 3 elite alleles were found for the GL, GW, GT, GL/GW, and TGW, respectively. Optimal cross designs were predicted for improving the target traits. The accessions containing elite alleles for grain traits mined in this study could be used for breeding rice cultivars and cloning the candidate genes.

  19. Stress-related methylation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val 158 allele predicts human prefrontal cognition and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, Gianluca; Bollati, Valentina; Fazio, Leonardo; Porcelli, Annamaria; Iacovelli, Luisa; Catalani, Assia; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Rampino, Antonio; Taurisano, Paolo; Mancini, Marina; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Popolizio, Teresa; Baccarelli, Andrea; De Blasi, Antonio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-05-04

    DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides is associated with gene silencing, stress, and memory. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) allele in rs4680 is associated with differential enzyme activity, stress responsivity, and prefrontal activity during working memory (WM), and it creates a CpG dinucleotide. We report that methylation of the Val(158) allele measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Val/Val humans is associated negatively with lifetime stress and positively with WM performance; it interacts with stress to modulate prefrontal activity during WM, such that greater stress and lower methylation are related to reduced cortical efficiency; and it is inversely related to mRNA expression and protein levels, potentially explaining the in vivo effects. Finally, methylation of COMT in prefrontal cortex and that in PBMCs of rats are correlated. The relationship of methylation of the COMT Val(158) allele with stress, gene expression, WM performance, and related brain activity suggests that stress-related methylation is associated with silencing of the gene, which partially compensates the physiological role of the high-activity Val allele in prefrontal cognition and activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate how stress-related DNA methylation of specific functional alleles impacts directly on human brain physiology beyond sequence variation.

  20. No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; Roberts, E. [Univ. of Wales, College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for allelic association was observed between any of the markers and bipolar disorder. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide......-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon....

  2. Overdispersion in allelic counts and θ-correction in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model for incorporating the extra variability in allelic counts due to subpopulation structures is presented. In forensic genetics, this effect is modelled by the identical-by-decent-parameter, θ . It is shown, that θ may be defined as an overdispersion parameter capturing the extra...

  3. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  4. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Challa

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1 in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood. These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  5. Analysis of an "off-ladder" allele at the Penta D short tandem repeat locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y L; Wang, J G; Wang, D X; Zhang, W Y; Liu, X J; Cao, J; Yang, S L

    2015-11-25

    Kinship testing of a father and his son from Guangxi, China, the location of the Zhuang minority people, was performed using the PowerPlex® 18D System with a short tandem repeat typing kit. The results indicated that both the father and his son had an off-ladder allele at the Penta D locus, with a genetic size larger than that of the maximal standard allelic ladder. To further identify this locus, monogenic amplification, gene cloning, and genetic sequencing were performed. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that the fragment size of the Penta D-OL locus was 469 bp and the core sequence was [AAAGA]21, also called Penta D-21. The rare Penta D-21 allele was found to be distributed among the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China; therefore, this study improved the range of DNA data available for this locus and enhanced our ability for individual identification of gene loci.

  6. Allelic database and accession divergence of a Brazilian mango collection based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Ribeiro, I C N; Lima Neto, F P; Santos, C A F

    2012-12-19

    Allelic patterns and genetic distances were examined in a collection of 103 foreign and Brazilian mango (Mangifera indica) accessions in order to develop a reference database to support cultivar protection and breeding programs. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated using Jaccard's coefficients from a distance matrix based on 50 alleles of 12 microsatellite loci. The base pair number was estimated by the method of inverse mobility. The cophenetic correlation was 0.8. The accessions had a coefficient of similarity from 30 to 100%, which reflects high genetic variability. Three groups were observed in the UPGMA dendrogram; the first group was formed predominantly by foreign accessions, the second group was formed by Brazilian accessions, and the Dashehari accession was isolated from the others. The 50 microsatellite alleles did not separate all 103 accessions, indicating that there are duplicates in this mango collection. These 12 microsatellites need to be validated in order to establish a reliable set to identify mango cultivars.

  7. An unusual occurrence of repeated single allele variation on Y-STR locus DYS458

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Shrivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Six brothers were accused of gagging and raping a woman. A single male Y-STR profile was obtained from vaginal smear swab and clothes of the victim, which did not match with the DNA profile of the accused brothers. As a reference point, the blood sample of their father (aged 87 years was also analyzed with the same kit. The Y-STR haplotype of all six brothers was found to be the same as that of their father except at locus DYS458. At this locus, while the eldest, second and fourth siblings share allele 18 with their father, a loss of one repeat (allele 17 instead of 18 is observed in the third son while fifth and sixth siblings have allele 19 representing a gain of one repeat. Thus, two changes viz. a gain (twice and loss of one repeat at this locus in one generation is both interesting and unusual.

  8. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannfelt, L; Lilius, L; Viitanen, M; Winblad, B; Basun, H [Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, (Sweden); Houlden, H; Rossor, M [St. Mary` s Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Hardy, J [University of South Florida, Suncoast Alzheimer` s Disease Research Labs, Department of Psychiatry, Tampa (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer`s disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer`s disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer`s disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.).

  9. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A

    2016-02-13

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Relative frequencies of DRB1*11 alleles and their DRB3 associations in five major population groups in a United States bone marrow registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T F; Huang, A Y; Pappas, A; Slack, R; Ng, J; Hartzman, R J; Hurley, C K

    2000-08-01

    One hundred sixty-one individuals from each of five US population groups, Caucasians (CAU), African Americans (AFA), Asians/Pacific Islanders (API), Hispanics (HIS), and Native Americans (NAT), were randomly selected from a volunteer bone marrow registry database consisting of 14,452 HLA-DRB1*11 positive individuals. This sampling provided at least an 80% probability of detecting a rare allele that occurred at 1% in the DRB1*11 positive population. Samples were typed for DRB1*11 alleles by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe typing (PCR-SSOP). A total of 10 DRB1*11 alleles out of 27 possible alleles were detected. The distribution and diversity of DRB1*11 alleles varied among populations although DRB1*1101 was the predominant DRB1*11 allele in all populations. Caucasians were the least diversified; only four common alleles (DRB1*1101-*1104) were observed. As well as the four common alleles, other groups also carried one or two other less frequent alleles including DRB1*1105 (API), *1106 (API), *1110 (AFA), *1114 (HIS), *1115 (NAT), and *1117 (AFA). A subset (418) of these individuals were also typed for DRB3 alleles. Most (97.6%) showed a strong association of DRB1*11 with DRB3*0202.

  11. Allelic hierarchy of CDH23 mutations causing non-syndromic deafness DFNB12 or Usher syndrome USH1D in compound heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Julie M; Bhatti, Rashid; Madeo, Anne C; Turriff, Amy; Muskett, Julie A; Zalewski, Christopher K; King, Kelly A; Ahmed, Zubair M; Riazuddin, Saima; Ahmad, Nazir; Hussain, Zawar; Qasim, Muhammad; Kahn, Shaheen N; Meltzer, Meira R; Liu, Xue Z; Munisamy, Murali; Ghosh, Manju; Rehm, Heidi L; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Griffith, Andrew J; Zein, Wadih M; Brewer, Carmen C; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B

    2011-11-01

    Recessive mutant alleles of MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, and PCDH15 cause non-syndromic deafness or type 1 Usher syndrome (USH1) characterised by deafness, vestibular areflexia, and vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. For CDH23, encoding cadherin 23, non-syndromic DFNB12 deafness is associated primarily with missense mutations hypothesised to have residual function. In contrast, homozygous nonsense, frame shift, splice site, and some missense mutations of CDH23, all of which are presumably functional null alleles, cause USH1D. The phenotype of a CDH23 compound heterozygote for a DFNB12 allele in trans configuration to an USH1D allele is not known and cannot be predicted from current understanding of cadherin 23 function in the retina and vestibular labyrinth. To address this issue, this study sought CDH23 compound heterozygotes by sequencing this gene in USH1 probands, and families segregating USH1D or DFNB12. Five non-syndromic deaf individuals were identified with normal retinal and vestibular phenotypes that segregate compound heterozygous mutations of CDH23, where one mutation is a known or predicted USH1 allele. One DFNB12 allele in trans configuration to an USH1D allele of CDH23 preserves vision and balance in deaf individuals, indicating that the DFNB12 allele is phenotypically dominant to an USH1D allele. This finding has implications for genetic counselling and the development of therapies for retinitis pigmentosa in Usher syndrome. ACCESSION NUMBERS: The cDNA and protein Genbank accession numbers for CDH23 and cadherin 23 used in this paper are AY010111.2 and AAG27034.2, respectively.

  12. Human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles and cervical adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis of two epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh eSafaeian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Associations between human leukocyte antigens (HLA alleles and cervical cancer are largely representative of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the major histologic subtype. We evaluated the association between HLA class I (A, B, and C and class II (DRB1 and DQB1 loci and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC, a less common but aggressive histologic subtype.We pooled data from the Eastern and Western US cervical cancer studies, and evaluated the association between individual alleles and allele combinations and ADC (n=630 ADC; n=775 controls. Risk estimates were calculated for 11 a priori (based on known associations with cervical cancer regardless of histologic type and 38 non a priori common alleles, as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age and study. In exploratory analysis, we compared the risk associations between subgroups with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA in ADC tumor tissues in the Western US study cases and controls. Three of the a priori alleles were significantly associated with decreased risk of ADC (DRB1*13:01 (OR=0.61; 95%CI:0.41-0.93, DRB1*13:02 (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.31-0.77, and DQB1*06:03 (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.42-0.95; one was associated with increased risk (B*07:02(OR=1.39; 95%CI:1.07-1.79. Among alleles not previously reported, DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.27-0.78 was associated with decreased risk of ADC and C*07:02 (OR=1.41; 95%CI:1.09-1.81 was associated with increased risk. We did not observe a difference by histologic subtype. ADC was most strongly associated with increased risk with B*07:02/C*07:02 alleles (OR=1.33; 95%CI:1.01-1.76 and decreased risk with DRB1*13:02/DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.41; 95%CI:0.21-0.80. Results suggest that HLA allele associations with cervical ADC are similar to those for cervical SCC. An intriguing finding was the difference in risk associated with several alleles restricted to HPV16 or HPV18 related tumors, consistent with the hypothesis that HLA recognition is HPV type specific.

  13. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  14. Hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jane; Muskett, Julie A; King, Kelly A; Zalewski, Christopher K; Chattaraj, Parna; Butman, John A; Kenna, Margaret A; Chien, Wade W; Brewer, Carmen C; Griffith, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the severity and natural history of hearing loss, and the prevalence of having a cochlear implant in a maturing cohort of individuals with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4. Prospective cohort study of subjects ascertained between 1998 and 2015 at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Study subjects were 127 individuals (median age, 8 years; range, 0-59 years) with EVA in at least one ear. Ears with EVA and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4 had mean 0.5/1/2/4-kHz pure-tone averages of 62.6 and 52.9 dB HL, respectively, in contrast to EVA ears with two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 (88.1 dB HL; P zero, one, and two mutant alleles, respectively (P = .00833). This association was not independent (P = .534) but reflected underlying correlations with age at time of first audiogram (P = .003) or severity of hearing loss (P = .000). Ears with EVA and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4 have less severe hearing loss, no difference in prevalence of fluctuation, and a lower prevalence of cochlear implantation in comparison to ears with two mutant alleles of SLC26A4. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E238-E243, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered from some Iranian food items. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Conclusion: The presence of similar genotypes in H. pylori strains of foods and those of human clinical samples suggest that contaminated foods may be the source of bacteria ...

  16. Allelic frequencies of two microsatellite loci in four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    OpenAIRE

    EDIT VARDHAMI; ANILA HODA; ADIOLA BIBA; MANUELA GUALTIERI; MASSIMO MECATTI; AGIM REXHEPI

    2014-01-01

    Two microsatellite loci, Str60Inra and Ssa197, were PCR amplified on 30 individuals for each populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta). A total of 120 individuals were selected from rivers of the Florence province (Italy), Valbona and Cen (Albania), Lepenci (Kosovo). There were identified 32 different alleles for Str60Inra and 41 for the locus Ssa197. Mean number of alleles ranged from 9 (Cen) to 20.5 (Florence). The mean observed and expected heterosygosities values were 0.329 and 0.755, res...

  17. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  18. Allele-Selective Transcriptome Recruitment to Polysomes Primed for Translation: Protein-Coding and Noncoding RNAs, and RNA Isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available mRNA translation into proteins is highly regulated, but the role of mRNA isoforms, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs, and genetic variants remains poorly understood. mRNA levels on polysomes have been shown to correlate well with expressed protein levels, pointing to polysomal loading as a critical factor. To study regulation and genetic factors of protein translation we measured levels and allelic ratios of mRNAs and ncRNAs (including microRNAs in lymphoblast cell lines (LCL and in polysomal fractions. We first used targeted assays to measure polysomal loading of mRNA alleles, confirming reported genetic effects on translation of OPRM1 and NAT1, and detecting no effect of rs1045642 (3435C>T in ABCB1 (MDR1 on polysomal loading while supporting previous results showing increased mRNA turnover of the 3435T allele. Use of high-throughput sequencing of complete transcript profiles (RNA-Seq in three LCLs revealed significant differences in polysomal loading of individual RNA classes and isoforms. Correlated polysomal distribution between protein-coding and non-coding RNAs suggests interactions between them. Allele-selective polysome recruitment revealed strong genetic influence for multiple RNAs, attributable either to differential expression of RNA isoforms or to differential loading onto polysomes, the latter defining a direct genetic effect on translation. Genes identified by different allelic RNA ratios between cytosol and polysomes were enriched with published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs affecting RNA functions, and associations with clinical phenotypes. Polysomal RNA-Seq combined with allelic ratio analysis provides a powerful approach to study polysomal RNA recruitment and regulatory variants affecting protein translation.

  19. Tracking human migrations by the analysis of the distribution of HLA alleles, lineages and haplotypes in closed and open populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, Marcelo A. Fernandez; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Maiers, Martin; Klitz, William; Cano, Pedro; Mack, Steven; Single, Richard; Brautbar, Chaim; Israel, Shosahna; Raimondi, Eduardo; Khoriaty, Evelyne; Inati, Adlette; Andreani, Marco; Testi, Manuela; Moraes, Maria Elisa; Thomson, Glenys; Stastny, Peter; Cao, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) system shows extensive variation in the number and function of loci and the number of alleles present at any one locus. Allele distribution has been analysed in many populations through the course of several decades, and the implementation of molecular typing has significantly increased the level of diversity revealing that many serotypes have multiple functional variants. While the degree of diversity in many populations is equivalent and may result from functional polymorphism(s) in peptide presentation, homogeneous and heterogeneous populations present contrasting numbers of alleles and lineages at the loci with high-density expression products. In spite of these differences, the homozygosity levels are comparable in almost all of them. The balanced distribution of HLA alleles is consistent with overdominant selection. The genetic distances between outbred populations correlate with their geographical locations; the formal genetic distance measurements are larger than expected between inbred populations in the same region. The latter present many unique alleles grouped in a few lineages consistent with limited founder polymorphism in which any novel allele may have been positively selected to enlarge the communal peptide-binding repertoire of a given population. On the other hand, it has been observed that some alleles are found in multiple populations with distinctive haplotypic associations suggesting that convergent evolution events may have taken place as well. It appears that the HLA system has been under strong selection, probably owing to its fundamental role in varying immune responses. Therefore, allelic diversity in HLA should be analysed in conjunction with other genetic markers to accurately track the migrations of modern humans. PMID:22312049

  20. Allelic deletions of cell growth regulators during progression of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, H; von der Maase, H; Christensen, M

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth regulators include proteins of the p53 pathway encoded by the genes CDKN2A (p16, p14arf), MDM2, TP53, and CDKN1A (p21) as well as proteins encoded by genes like RB1, E2F, and MYCL. In the present study we investigated allelic deletions of all these genes in each recurrent bladder tumor...... difference in the numbers of gene loci hit by deletions muscle-invasive versus noninvasive tumors (P = 0.0000002), with the genes most often hit by deletions in muscle-invasive tumors being TP53, RB1, and MYCL. A number of novel findings were made. Losses of MYCL and RB1 alleles were more pronounced...... that a characteristic difference between recurrent noninvasive and recurrent progressing bladder tumors is loss of cell cycle-regulatory genes in the latter group....

  1. HLA alleles and haplotypes in Burmese (Myanmarese) and Karen in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmaroeng, C; Romphruk, A; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H; Dunn, D S; Romphruk, A V

    2015-09-01

    This is the first report on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype frequencies at three class I loci and two class II loci in unrelated healthy individuals from two ethnic groups, 170 Burmese and 200 Karen, originally from Burma (Myanmar), but sampled while residing in Thailand. Overall, the HLA allele and haplotype frequencies detected by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) at five loci (A, B, C, DRB1 and DRQB1) at low resolution showed distinct differences between the Burmese and Karen. In Burmese, five HLA-B*15 haplotypes with different HLA-A and HLA-DR/DQ combinations were detected with three of these not previously reported in other Asian populations. The data are important in the fields of anthropology, transplantation and disease-association studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. HLA-A AND HLA-B ALLELES ASSOCIATED IN PSORIASIS PATIENTS FROM MUMBAI, WESTERN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Shankarkumar; Pawar, Aruna; Mitra, R; Khuperkar, D; Devaraj, J P; Ghosh, K; Khopkar, U

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis, a common autoimmune disorder characterized by T cell-mediated keratinocyte hyperproliferation, is known to be associated with the presence of certain specific Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles. Aim: To evaluate distribution of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles and hence identify the susceptible allele of psoriasis from patients in Western India. Materials and Methods: The study design included 84 psoriasis patients and 291 normal individuals as controls from same geographical region. HLA-A and HLA-B typing was done using Serology typing. Standard statistical analysis was followed to identify the odds ratio (OR), allele frequencies, and significant P value using Graphpad software. Results: The study revealed significant increase in frequencies of HLA-A2 (OR-3.976, P<0.0001), B8 (OR-5.647, P<0.0001), B17 (OR-5.452, P<0.0001), and B44 (OR-50.460, P<0.0001), when compared with controls. Furthermore, the frequencies of HLA-A28 (OR-0.074, P=0.0024), B5 (OR-0.059, P<0.0001), B12 (OR-0.051, P=0.0002), and B15 (OR-0.237, P=0.0230) were significantly decreased in psoriasis patients. Conclusion: This study shows the strong association of HLA-A2, B8, and B17 antigens with psoriasis conferring susceptibility to psoriasis patients from Western India, while the antigens HLA-A28, B5, and B12 show strong negative association with the disease. PMID:22121262

  3. A small asparagine-rich protein required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, B; Mou, B; Canevascini, S; Bernatzky, R

    1999-11-09

    Although S-locus RNases (S-RNases) determine the specificity of pollen rejection in self-incompatible (SI) solanaceous plants, they alone are not sufficient to cause S-allele-specific pollen rejection. To identify non-S-RNase sequences that are required for pollen rejection, a Nicotiana alata cDNA library was screened by differential hybridization. One clone, designated HT, hybridized strongly to RNA from N. alata styles but not to RNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a species known to lack one or more factors necessary for S-allele-specific pollen rejection. Sequence analysis revealed a 101-residue ORF including a putative secretion signal and an asparagine-rich domain near the C terminus. RNA blot analysis showed that the HT-transcript accumulates in the stigma and style before anthesis. The timing of HT-expression lags slightly behind S(C10)-RNase in SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10) and is well correlated with the onset of S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the style. An antisense-HT construct was prepared to test for a role in pollen rejection. Transformed (N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10)) hybrids with reduced levels of HT-protein continued to express S(C10)-RNase but failed to reject S(C10)-pollen. Control hybrids expressing both S(C10)-RNase and HT-protein showed a normal S-allele-specific pollen rejection response. We conclude that HT-protein is directly implicated in pollen rejection.

  4. Fitness differences due to allelic variation at Esterase-4 Locus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... specific substrate (1-Naphthylacetate AR) and stain (Fast blue RR). On the basis of ... After 24 hr. each pair was transferred to fresh food vials .... derived from the natural populations harbour allelic variation that affects lifespan.

  5. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Bennett, Claire E.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD We included 4333 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS), of whom 2118 were early menopause cases (menopause under 46 years) and 2215 were controls. We analysed the relationship between length of FMR1 alleles and early menopause using logistic regression with allele length as continuous and categorical variables. We also conducted analyses with the outcome age at menopause as a quantitative trait as well as appropriate sensitivity and exploratory analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no association of the shorter or longer FMR1 allele or their combined genotype with the clinically relevant end point of early menopause in our main analysis. Likewise, there were no associations with age at menopause as a quantitative trait in our secondary analysis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Women with homozygous alleles in the normal range may have undetected FMR1 premutation alleles, although there was no evidence to suggest this. We

  6. Predominance of N-acetyl transferase 2 slow acetylator alleles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    The human N-acetyltransferase II (NAT2) gene may vary between individuals resulting in variability in the incidence of adverse drug reactions. We set out in this adhoc analysis to determine the distribution of allele frequencies of NAT2 gene variants among children less than ten years treated with artemisinin-based.

  7. Ploidy mosaicism and allele-specific gene expression differences in the allopolyploid Squalius alburnoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squalius alburnoides is an Iberian cyprinid fish resulting from an interspecific hybridisation between Squalius pyrenaicus females (P genome and males of an unknown Anaecypris hispanica-like species (A genome. S. alburnoides is an allopolyploid hybridogenetic complex, which makes it a likely candidate for ploidy mosaicism occurrence, and is also an interesting model to address questions about gene expression regulation and genomic interactions. Indeed, it was previously suggested that in S. alburnoides triploids (PAA composition silencing of one of the three alleles (mainly of the P allele occurs. However, not a whole haplome is inactivated but a more or less random inactivation of alleles varying between individuals and even between organs of the same fish was seen. In this work we intended to correlate expression differences between individuals and/or between organs to the occurrence of mosaicism, evaluating if mosaics could explain previous observations and its impact on the assessment of gene expression patterns. Results To achieve our goal, we developed flow cytometry and cell sorting protocols for this system generating more homogenous cellular and transcriptional samples. With this set-up we detected 10% ploidy mosaicism within the S. alburnoides complex, and determined the allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of mosaic and non-mosaic individuals coming from different rivers over a wide geographic range. Conclusions Ploidy mosaicism occurs sporadically within the S. alburnoides complex, but in a frequency significantly higher than reported for other organisms. Moreover, we could exclude the influence of this phenomenon on the detection of variable allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of triploid individuals. Finally, we determined that the expression patterns

  8. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko D. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  9. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  10. A PCR-based protocol to accurately size C9orf72 intermediate-length alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Archetti, Silvana; Di Lorenzo, Diego; Merola, Francesca; Paiardi, Giulia; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano; Bonvicini, Cristian; Caimi, Luigi; Zanella, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Although large expansions of the non-coding GGGGCC repeat in C9orf72 gene are clearly defined as pathogenic for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), intermediate-length expansions have also been associated with those and other neurodegenerative diseases. Intermediate-length allele sizing is complicated by intrinsic properties of current PCR-based methodologies, in that somatic mosaicism could be suspected. We designed a protocol that allows the exact sizing of intermediate-length alleles, as well as the identification of large expansions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-A1a and its effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sato, Mikako; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The Ppd-A1 genotype of 240 Japanese wheat cultivars and 40 foreign cultivars was determined using a PCR-based method. Among Japanese cultivars, only 12 cultivars, all of which were Hokkaido winter wheat, carried the Ppd-A1a allele, while this allele was not found in Hokkaido spring wheat cultivars or Tohoku-Kyushu cultivars. Cultivars with a photoperiod-insensitive allele headed 6.9-9.8 days earlier in Kanto and 2.5 days earlier in Hokkaido than photoperiod-sensitive cultivars. The lower effect of photoperiod-insensitive alleles observed in Hokkaido could be due to the longer day-length at the spike formation stage compared with that in Kanto. Pedigree analysis showed that 'Purple Straw' and 'Tohoku 118' were donors of Ppd-A1a and Ppd-D1a in Hokkaido wheat cultivars, respectively. Wheat cultivars recently developed in Hokkaido carry photoperiod-insensitive alleles at a high frequency. For efficient utilization of Ppd-1 alleles in the Hokkaido wheat-breeding program, the effect of Ppd-1 on growth pattern and grain yield should be investigated. Ppd-A1a may be useful as a unique gene source for fine tuning the heading time in the Tohoku-Kyushu region since the effect of Ppd-A1a on photoperiod insensitivity appears to differ from the effect of Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a.

  12. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Anupam; Temkin, Alexis M; Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  13. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Paliwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons, one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs, each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  14. Global phylogeography of the avian malaria pathogen Plasmodium relictum based on MSP1 allelic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Olof; Atkinson, Carter T.; Bensch, Staffan; Albayrak, Tamer; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ewen, John G.; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Lima, Marcos R.; Martin, Lynn; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Ricklefs, Robert; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Gediminas, Valkiunas; Tsuda, Yoshio; Marzal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the genetic variation that occurs in pathogen populations and how it is distributed across geographical areas is essential to understand parasite epidemiology, local patterns of virulence, and evolution of host-resistance. In addition, it is important to identify populations of pathogens that are evolutionarily independent and thus ‘free’ to adapt to hosts and environments. Here, we investigated genetic variation in the globally distributed, highly invasive avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, which has several distinctive mitochondrial haplotyps (cyt b lineages, SGS1, GRW11 and GRW4). The phylogeography of P. relictum was accessed using the highly variable nuclear gene merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a gene linked to the invasion biology of the parasite. We show that the lineage GRW4 is evolutionarily independent of GRW11 and SGS1 whereas GRW11 and SGS1 share MSP1 alleles and thus suggesting the presence of two distinct species (GRW4 versus SGS1 and GRW11). Further, there were significant differences in the global distribution of MSP1 alleles with differences between GRW4 alleles in the New and the Old World. For SGS1, a lineage formerly believed to have both tropical and temperate transmission, there were clear differences in MSP1 alleles transmitted in tropical Africa compared to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Further, we highlight the occurrence of multiple MSP1 alleles in GRW4 isolates from the Hawaiian Islands, where the parasite has contributed to declines and extinctions of endemic forest birds since it was introduced. This study stresses the importance of multiple independent loci for understanding patterns of transmission and evolutionary independence across avian malaria parasites.

  15. Allele frequency distribution for 21 autosomal STR loci in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; van Driem, George L; Tshering of Gaselô, Karma; de Knijff, Peter

    2007-07-20

    We studied the allele frequency distribution of 21 autosomal STR loci contained in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems), the Powerplex 16 (Promega) and the FFFL (Promega) multiplex PCR kits among 936 individuals from the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan. As such these are the first published autosomal DNA results from this country.

  16. Molecular monitoring of resistant dhfr and dhps allelic haplotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study assesses the frequency of resistant dhfr and dhps alleles in Morogoro-Mvomero district in south eastern Tanzania and contrast their rate of change during 17 years of SP second line use against five years of SP first line use. Methodology: Cross sectional surveys of asymptomatic infections were ...

  17. Allelic imbalance modulates surface expression of the tolerance-inducing HLA-G molecule on primary trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurisic, S; Teiblum, S; Tolstrup, C K; Christiansen, O B; Hviid, T V F

    2015-03-01

    The HLA-G molecule is expressed on trophoblast cells at the feto-maternal interface, where it interacts with local immune cells, and upholds tolerance against the semi-allogeneic fetus. Aberrant HLA-G expression in the placenta and reduced soluble HLA-G levels are observed in pregnancy complications, partly explained by HLA-G polymorphisms which are associated with differences in the alternative splicing pattern and of the stability of HLA-G mRNA. Of special importance is a 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the 3'-untranslated region of the HLA-G gene. In the current study, we present novel evidence for allelic imbalance of the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism, using a very accurate and sensitive Digital droplet PCR technique. Allelic imbalance in heterozygous samples was observed as differential expression levels of 14 bp insertion/deletion allele-specific mRNA transcripts, which was further associated with low levels of HLA-G surface expression on primary trophoblast cells. Full gene sequencing of HLA-G allowed us to study correlations between HLA-G extended haplotypes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms and HLA-G surface expression. We found that a 1:1 expression (allelic balance) of the 14 bp insertion/deletion mRNA alleles was associated with high surface expression of HLA-G and with a specific HLA-G extended haplotype. The 14 bp del/del genotype was associated with a significantly lower abundance of the G1 mRNA isoform, and a higher abundance of the G3 mRNA isoform. Overall, the present study provides original evidence for allelic imbalance of the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism, which influences HLA-G surface expression on primary trophoblast cells, considered to be important in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and other pregnancy complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Detection of MPLW515L/K mutations and determination of allele frequencies with a single-tube PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hiraku; Morishita, Soji; Araki, Marito; Edahiro, Yoko; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Hironaka, Yumi; Noda, Naohiro; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2014-01-01

    A gain-of-function mutation in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL) gene, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, has been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, subgroups of classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The presence of MPL gene mutations is a critical diagnostic criterion for these diseases. Here, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method of detecting two major MPL mutations, MPLW515L/K, in a single PCR assay; we termed this method DARMS (dual amplification refractory mutation system)-PCR. DARMS-PCR is designed to produce three different PCR products corresponding to MPLW515L, MPLW515K, and all MPL alleles. The amplicons are later detected and quantified using a capillary sequencer to determine the relative frequencies of the mutant and wild-type alleles. Applying DARMS-PCR to human specimens, we successfully identified MPL mutations in MPN patients, with the exception of patients bearing mutant allele frequencies below the detection limit (5%) of this method. The MPL mutant allele frequencies determined using DARMS-PCR correlated strongly with the values determined using deep sequencing. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of DARMS-PCR to detect MPL mutations and determine the allele frequencies in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  19. Detection of MPLW515L/K mutations and determination of allele frequencies with a single-tube PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takei

    Full Text Available A gain-of-function mutation in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL gene, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, has been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, subgroups of classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. The presence of MPL gene mutations is a critical diagnostic criterion for these diseases. Here, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method of detecting two major MPL mutations, MPLW515L/K, in a single PCR assay; we termed this method DARMS (dual amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. DARMS-PCR is designed to produce three different PCR products corresponding to MPLW515L, MPLW515K, and all MPL alleles. The amplicons are later detected and quantified using a capillary sequencer to determine the relative frequencies of the mutant and wild-type alleles. Applying DARMS-PCR to human specimens, we successfully identified MPL mutations in MPN patients, with the exception of patients bearing mutant allele frequencies below the detection limit (5% of this method. The MPL mutant allele frequencies determined using DARMS-PCR correlated strongly with the values determined using deep sequencing. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of DARMS-PCR to detect MPL mutations and determine the allele frequencies in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  20. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II alleles which confer susceptibility or protection in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-class I) and II (HLA-class II) alleles associated with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort by a nested case–control association study. Methods Morphea patients were included from MAC cohort and matched controls from the NIH/NIAMS Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA- Class II genotyping and SSCP typing was performed of HLA-A, -B, -C alleles. Associations between HLA-Class I and II alleles and morphea as well as its subphenotypes were determined. Results There were 211 cases available for HLA-class I typing with 726 matched controls and 158 cases available for HLA Class-II typing with 1108 matched controls. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–4.0 P=0.002) and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among Class I alleles (3.3, 95% CI 1.6–6.9, P= 0.0016). Comparison with risk alleles in systemic sclerosis determined using the same methods and control population revealed one common allele (DRB*04:04). Conclusion Results of the present study demonstrate specific HLA Class I and II alleles are associated with morphea and likely generalized and linear subtypes. The associated morphea alleles are different than in scleroderma, implicating morphea is also immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population based studies indicate patients with RA have increased risk of morphea, implicating a common susceptibility allele. PMID:25223600

  1. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd [binding affinity] and Bmax [number of binding sites]) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism

  2. Functional conservation of the Drosophila gooseberry gene and its evolutionary alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available The Drosophila Pax gene gooseberry (gsb is required for development of the larval cuticle and CNS, survival to adulthood, and male fertility. These functions can be rescued in gsb mutants by two gsb evolutionary alleles, gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3, which express the Drosophila Paired and mouse Pax3 proteins under the control of gooseberry cis-regulatory region. Therefore, both Paired and Pax3 proteins have conserved all the Gsb functions that are required for survival of embryos to fertile adults, despite the divergent primary sequences in their C-terminal halves. As gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3 uncover a gsb function involved in male fertility, construction of evolutionary alleles may provide a powerful strategy to dissect hitherto unknown gene functions. Our results provide further evidence for the essential role of cis-regulatory regions in the functional diversification of duplicated genes during evolution.

  3. Ancient DNA Investigation of a Medieval German Cemetery Confirms Long-Term Stability of CCR5-Δ32 Allele Frequencies in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Shved, Natallia; Akgül, Gülfirde; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2017-04-01

    The CCR5-Δ32 mutation present in European populations is among the most prominently debated cases of recent positive selection in humans. This allele, a 32-bp deletion that renders the T-cell CCR5 receptor nonfunctional, has important epidemiological and public health significance, as homozygous carriers are resistant to several HIV strains. However, although the function of this allele in preventing HIV infection is now well described, its human evolutionary origin is poorly understood. Initial attempts to determine the emergence of the CCR5-Δ32 allele pointed to selection during the 14th-century Black Death pandemic; however, subsequent analyses suggest that the allele rose in frequency more than 5,000 years ago, possibly through drift. Recently, three studies have identified populations predating the 14th century CE that are positive for the CCR5-Δ32 allele, supporting the claim for a more ancient origin. However, these studies also suggest poorly understood regional differences in the recent evolutionary history of the CCR5-Δ32 allele. Here a new hydrolysis-probe-based real-time PCR assay was designed to ascertain CCR5 allele frequency in 53 individuals from a 10th- to 12th-century CE church and convent complex in central Germany that predates outbreaks of the Black Death pandemic. High-confidence genotypes were obtained for 32 individuals, and results show that CCR5-Δ32 allele frequency has remained unchanged in this region of Central Europe over the last millennium, suggesting that there has been no strong positive selective pressure over this time period and confirming a more ancient origin for the allele.

  4. Geographical gradient of the eIF4E alleles conferring resistance to potyviruses in pea (Pisum) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Eva; Šafářová, Dana; Navrátil, Milan; Hanáček, Pavel; Coyne, Clarice; Flavell, Andrew; Vishnyakova, Margarita; Ambrose, Mike; Redden, Robert; Smýkal, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E was shown to be involved in resistance against several potyviruses in plants, including pea. We combined our knowledge of pea germplasm diversity with that of the eIF4E gene to identify novel genetic diversity. Germplasm of 2803 pea accessions was screened for eIF4E intron 3 length polymorphism, resulting in the detection of four eIF4E(A-B-C-S) variants, whose distribution was geographically structured. The eIF4E(A) variant conferring resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype was found in 53 accessions (1.9%), of which 15 were landraces from India, Afghanistan, Nepal, and 7 were from Ethiopia. A newly discovered variant, eIF4E(B), was present in 328 accessions (11.7%) from Ethiopia (29%), Afghanistan (23%), India (20%), Israel (25%) and China (39%). The eIF4E(C) variant was detected in 91 accessions (3.2% of total) from India (20%), Afghanistan (33%), the Iberian Peninsula (22%) and the Balkans (9.3%). The eIF4E(S) variant for susceptibility predominated as the wild type. Sequencing of 73 samples, identified 34 alleles at the whole gene, 26 at cDNA and 19 protein variants, respectively. Fifteen alleles were virologically tested and 9 alleles (eIF4E(A-1-2-3-4-5-6-7), eIF4E(B-1), eIF4E(C-2)) conferred resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype. This work identified novel eIF4E alleles within geographically structured pea germplasm and indicated their independent evolution from the susceptible eIF4E(S1) allele. Despite high variation present in wild Pisum accessions, none of them possessed resistance alleles, supporting a hypothesis of distinct mode of evolution of resistance in wild as opposed to crop species. The Highlands of Central Asia, the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and China were identified as important centers of pea diversity that correspond with the diversity of the pathogen. The series of alleles identified in this study provides the basis to study the co-evolution of potyviruses and the

  5. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Taane G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%. Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes

  6. Novel HLA Class I Alleles Associated with Indian Leprosy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Shankarkumar

    2003-01-01

    A*0101, Cw*04011, and Cw*0602 leprosy patients was observed when compared to the controls. Further haplotype A*1102-B*4006-Cw*1502 was significantly increased among the lepromatous leprosy patients when compared to the controls. It seems that HLA class I alleles play vital roles in disease association/pathogenesis with leprosy among Indians.

  7. A Theoretical Framework for Association Studies in F2 Family Pools Using Allele Frequencies from Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janss, Luc L; Ashraf, Bilal H; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    a sequencing approach to obtain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies is considered here. In this work we develop the theoretical framework to perform association studies using allele frequencies from such F2 family pools. We show that expected allele frequencies in the F2 families will have...

  8. Using high-resolution human leukocyte antigen typing of 11,423 randomized unrelated individuals to determine allelic varieties, deduce probable human leukocyte antigen haplotypes, and observe linkage disequilibria between human leukocyte antigen-B and-C and human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 and-DQB1 alleles in the Taiwanese Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report here the human leukocyte antigen (HLA allelic variety and haplotype composition in a cohort of the Taiwanese Chinese population and their patterns of linkage disequilibria on HLA-B: HLA-C alleles and HLA-DRB1: HLA-DQB1 alleles at a high-resolution level. Materials and Methods: Peripheral whole blood from 11,423 Taiwanese Chinese unrelated individuals was collected in acid citrate dextrose. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit. The DNA material was subjected to HLA genotyping for HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1, and-DQB1 loci using a commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT kit, the SeCore® A/B/C/DRB1/DQB1 Locus Sequencing kit. High-resolution allelic sequencing was performed as previously described. Results: The number of individual HLA-B alleles detected was greater than the number of alleles recognized in the both the HLA-A and-DRB1 loci. Several novel alleles were discovered as a result of employing the SBT method and the high number of donors tested. In addition, we observed a genetic polymorphic feature of association between HLA-A and-B, HLA-B and-C, and HLA-DRB1 and-DQB1 alleles. Further, the homozygous haplotype frequencies of HLA-A and-B; HLA-A,-C, and-B; HLA-A,-C,-B, and-DRB1; and HLA-A,-C,-B,-DRB1, and-DQB1 in Taiwanese Chinese population are presented. Conclusion: As increasing number of HLA alleles are being discovered, periodic HLA profile investigation in a given population is essential to recognize the HLA complexity in that population. Population study can also provide an up-to-date strategic plan for future needs in terms of compatibility measurement for HLA matching between transplant donors and patients.

  9. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulovari, Arvis; Li, Dawei

    2014-07-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of genotypes from SNP-arrays or deep

  10. Structural Analysis of Insulin Minisatellite Alleles Reveals Unusually Large Differences in Diversity between Africans and Non-Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, John D. H.; Jeffreys, Alec J.

    2002-01-01

    The insulin minisatellite (INS VNTR) associates with susceptibility to a variety of diseases. We have developed a high-resolution system for analyzing variant repeat distributions applicable to all known minisatellite alleles, irrespective of size, which allows lineages of related alleles to be identified. This system has previously revealed extremely low structural diversity in the minisatellite among northern Europeans from the United Kingdom, with all alleles belonging to one of only three highly diverged lineages called “I,” “IIIA,” and “IIIB.” To explore the origins of this remarkably limited lineage diversity, we have characterized an additional 780 alleles from three non-African and three African populations. In total, 22 highly diverged lineages were identified, with structural intermediates absent from extant populations, suggesting a bottleneck within the ancestry of all humans. The difference between levels of diversity in Africans and non-Africans is unusually large, with all 22 lineages identified in Africa compared with only three lineages seen not only in the United Kingdom but also in the other non-African populations. We also find evidence for overrepresentation of lineage I chromosomes in non-Africans. These data are consistent with a common out-of-Africa origin and an unusually tight bottleneck within the ancestry of all non-African populations, possibly combined with differential and positive selection for lineage I alleles in non-Africans. The important implications of these data for future disease-association studies are discussed. PMID:12404181

  11. Allele-dependent differences in quorum-sensing dynamics result in variant expression of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Edward; Chen, John; Novick, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    Agr is an autoinducing, quorum-sensing system that functions in many Gram-positive species and is best characterized in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, in which it is a global regulator of virulence gene expression. Allelic variations in the agr genes have resulted in the emergence of four quorum-sensing specificity groups in S. aureus, which correlate with different strain pathotypes. The basis for these predilections is unclear but is hypothesized to involve the phenomenon of quorum-sensing interference between strains of different agr groups, which may drive S. aureus strain isolation and divergence. Whether properties intrinsic to each agr allele directly influence virulence phenotypes within S. aureus is unknown. In this study, we examined group-specific differences in agr autoinduction and virulence gene regulation by utilizing congenic strains, each harboring a unique S. aureus agr allele, enabling a dissection of agr locus-dependent versus genotype-dependent effects on quorum-sensing dynamics and virulence factor production. Employing a reporter fusion to the principal agr promoter, P3, we observed allele-dependent differences in the timing and magnitude of agr activation. These differences were mediated by polymorphisms within the agrBDCA genes and translated to significant variations in the expression of a key transcriptional regulator, Rot, and of several important exoproteins and surface factors involved in pathogenesis. This work uncovers the contribution of divergent quorum-sensing alleles to variant expression of virulence determinants within a bacterial species.

  12. CARAT: A novel method for allelic detection of DNA copy number changes using high density oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shumpei

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA copy number alterations are one of the main characteristics of the cancer cell karyotype and can contribute to the complex phenotype of these cells. These alterations can lead to gains in cellular oncogenes as well as losses in tumor suppressor genes and can span small intervals as well as involve entire chromosomes. The ability to accurately detect these changes is central to understanding how they impact the biology of the cell. Results We describe a novel algorithm called CARAT (Copy Number Analysis with Regression And Tree that uses probe intensity information to infer copy number in an allele-specific manner from high density DNA oligonuceotide arrays designed to genotype over 100, 000 SNPs. Total and allele-specific copy number estimations using CARAT are independently evaluated for a subset of SNPs using quantitative PCR and allelic TaqMan reactions with several human breast cancer cell lines. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm are characterized using DNA samples containing differing numbers of X chromosomes as well as a test set of normal individuals. Results from the algorithm show a high degree of agreement with results from independent verification methods. Conclusion Overall, CARAT automatically detects regions with copy number variations and assigns a significance score to each alteration as well as generating allele-specific output. When coupled with SNP genotype calls from the same array, CARAT provides additional detail into the structure of genome wide alterations that can contribute to allelic imbalance.

  13. Analysis of a lin-42/period Null Allele Implicates All Three Isoforms in Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans Molting and Developmental Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa L. B. Edelman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene pathway regulates the relative timing of events during postembryonic development. lin-42, the worm homolog of the circadian clock gene, period, is a critical element of this pathway. lin-42 function has been defined by a set of hypomorphic alleles that cause precocious phenotypes, in which later developmental events, such as the terminal differentiation of hypodermal cells, occur too early. A subset of alleles also reveals a significant role for lin-42 in molting; larval stages are lengthened and ecdysis often fails in these mutant animals. lin-42 is a complex locus, encoding overlapping and nonoverlapping isoforms. Although existing alleles that affect subsets of isoforms have illuminated important and distinct roles for this gene in developmental timing, molting, and the decision to enter the alternative dauer state, it is essential to have a null allele to understand all of the roles of lin-42 and its individual isoforms. To remedy this problem and discover the null phenotype, we engineered an allele that deletes the entire lin-42 protein-coding region. lin-42 null mutants are homozygously viable, but have more severe phenotypes than observed in previously characterized hypomorphic alleles. We also provide additional evidence for this conclusion by using the null allele as a base for reintroducing different isoforms, showing that each isoform can provide heterochronic and molting pathway activities. Transcript levels of the nonoverlapping isoforms appear to be under coordinate temporal regulation, despite being driven by independent promoters. The lin-42 null allele will continue to be an important tool for dissecting the functions of lin-42 in molting and developmental timing.

  14. [Phenotypic effects of puroindoline gene alleles of bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotar, S V; Kurakina, K O; Khokhlov, O M; Chebotar, H O; Syvolap, Iu M

    2012-01-01

    85 winter bread wheat varieties and lines that have been developed mostly in Ukraine were analyzed with NIR for parameters of hardness and protein content. The hardness data were compared with the data of puroindoline gene alleles analysis done earlier and the published data. Significant variation of parameters of hardness was revealed when there was low polymorphism of puroindoline genes indicating the presence of additional genes that influence the hardness parameters.

  15. Dynamics of leaf and spikelet primordia initiation in wheat as affected by Ppd-1a alleles under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochagavía, Helga; Prieto, Paula; Savin, Roxana; Griffiths, Simon; Slafer, GustavoA

    2018-04-27

    Wheat adaptation is affected by Ppd genes, but the role of these alleles in the rates of leaf and spikelet initiation has not been properly analysed. Twelve near isogenic lines (NILs) combining Ppd-1a alleles from different donors introgressed in A, B, and/or D genomes were tested under field conditions during two growing seasons together with the wild type, Paragon. Leaf initiation rate was unaffected by Ppd-1a alleles so the final leaf number (FLN) was reduced in parallel with reductions in the duration of the vegetative phase. Spikelet primordia initiation was accelerated and consequently the effect on spikelets per spike was less than proportional to the effect on the duration of spikelet initiation. The magnitude of these effects on spikelet plastochron depended on the doses of Ppd-1 homoeoalleles and the specific insensitivity alleles carried. Double ridge was consistently later than floral initiation, but the difference between them was not affected by Ppd-1a alleles. These findings have potential for selecting the best combinations from the Ppd-1 homoeoallelic series for manipulating adaptation taking into consideration particular effects on spikelet number.

  16. Estimation of 2N(e)s from temporal allele frequency data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollback, Jonathan Paul; York, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating effective population sizes, Ne, and selection coefficients, s, from time-series data of allele frequencies sampled from a single diallelic locus. The method is based on calculating transition probabilities, using a numerical solution of the diffusion process...

  17. Differential ACE expression among tissues in allele-specific Wistar rat lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamilic, Jelena; Lely, A. Titia; van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik; Tent, Hilde; Navis, Gerjan J.; Korstanje, Ron

    In humans, the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene accounts for half of the variance in plasma ACE activity. The deletion allele is associated with high plasma ACE activity, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. In rat, a similar association is found

  18. Molecular characterization of both alleles in an unusual Tay-Sachs disease BI variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter-Mackie, M.B. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada) Child Health Research Institute, Children' s Hospital of Western Ontario, London (Canada) Child Parent Resource Institute, London, Ontario (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    In a recent report, the authors described an exon 6 mutation in a Tay-Sachs B1 variant patient, first reported by Gordon et al. (1988), who displayed a typical B1 variant biochemical phenotype - i.e., (a) significant levels of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity in an assay with a neutral synthetic substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-[beta]-N-acetylglucosamide, and (b) <2% of control Hex A in a test on the sulfated substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-[beta]-N-acetylglucosamide-6-sulfate. The patient was found to carry a double mutation (G[sub 574][yields]C [val[sub 192][yields]leu] and G[sub 598][yields]A [val[sub 200][yields]met]) inherited from her mother. Only the 574 mutation produced a deleterious effect on Hex A activity in transfected COS0-1 cells, producing a B1 variant biochemical phenotype. The paternal allele apparently caused decreased abundance of mRNA, since no candidate paternal mutations were found in cloned reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) products in the reported study. The biochemical phenotype of the original patient and the properties of the cDNA carrying the G[sub 574] [yields] C mutation in transient expression studies were compatible with a B1 variant mutation. The possibility remained that there might be some contribution from the paternal allele to the patient's phenotype. However, the paternal allele produces relatively low yields of a largely mis-spliced mRNA whose product would not be functional. Therefore, the G[sub 574] [yields] C (val[yields]leu) mutation in the maternal allele is clearly confirmed as a B1 variant mutation with all the ramifications for the substrate binding site and/or catalytic center that this implies.

  19. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a family with mosaicism and hypomorphic allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Jana; Štekrová, Jitka; Merta, Miroslav; Kotlas, Jaroslav; Elišáková, Veronika; Lněnička, Petr; Korabečná, Marie; Kohoutová, Milada; Tesař, Vladimír

    2013-03-15

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common form of inherited kidney disease that results in renal failure. ADPKD is a systemic disorder with cysts and connective tissue abnormalities involving many organs. ADPKD caused by mutations in PKD1 gene is significantly more severe than the cases caused by PKD2 gene mutations. The large intra-familial variability of ADPKD highlights a role for genetic background. Here we report a case of ADPKD family initially appearing unlinked to the PKD1 or PKD2 loci and the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele on the variability of the clinical course of the disease. A grandmother with the PKD1 gene mutation in mosaicism (p.Val1105ArgfsX4) and with mild clinical course of ADPKD (end stage renal failure at the age of 77) seemed to have ADPKD because of PKD2 gene mutation. On the other hand, her grandson had a severe clinical course (end stage renal disease at the age of 45) in spite of the early treatment of mild hypertension. There was found by mutational analysis of PKD genes that the severe clinical course was caused by PKD1 gene frameshifting mutation inherited from his father and mildly affected grandmother in combination with inherited hypomorphic PKD1 allele with described missense mutation (p.Thr2250Met) from his clinically healthy mother. The sister with two cysts and with PKD1 hypomorphic allele became the kidney donor to her severely affected brother. We present the first case of ADPKD with the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele of the PKD1 gene on clinical course of ADPKD in one family. Moreover, this report illustrates the role of molecular genetic testing in assessing young related kidney donors for patients with ADPKD.

  20. Allele-Specific Chromatin Recruitment and Therapeutic Vulnerabilities of ESR1 Activating Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeselsohn, Rinath; Bergholz, Johann S; Pun, Matthew; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Liu, Weihan; Nardone, Agostina; Xiao, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Qiu, Xintao; Buchwalter, Gilles; Feiglin, Ariel; Abell-Hart, Kayley; Fei, Teng; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Zhang, Tinghu; Gray, Nathanael; Melchers, Diane; Houtman, Rene; Liu, X Shirley; Cohen, Ofir; Wagle, Nikhil; Winer, Eric P; Zhao, Jean; Brown, Myles

    2018-02-12

    Estrogen receptor α (ER) ligand-binding domain (LBD) mutations are found in a substantial number of endocrine treatment-resistant metastatic ER-positive (ER + ) breast cancers. We investigated the chromatin recruitment, transcriptional network, and genetic vulnerabilities in breast cancer models harboring the clinically relevant ER mutations. These mutants exhibit both ligand-independent functions that mimic estradiol-bound wild-type ER as well as allele-specific neomorphic properties that promote a pro-metastatic phenotype. Analysis of the genome-wide ER binding sites identified mutant ER unique recruitment mediating the allele-specific transcriptional program. Genetic screens identified genes that are essential for the ligand-independent growth driven by the mutants. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of endocrine therapy resistance engendered by ER mutations and potential therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635

  2. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits. PMID:27200022

  3. Frequency of the CCRD32 allele in Brazilians: a study in colorectal cancer and in HTLV-I infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rinaldo W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of a 32-bp deletion in the cc-chemokine receptor-5 gene (CCR5delta32 allele that renders homozygous individuals highly resistant to HIV infection has prompted worldwide investigations of the frequency of the CCR5delta32 allele in regional populations. It is important to ascertain if CCR5delta32 is a factor to be considered in the overall epidemiology of HIV in individual populations. With this in mind we determined the CCR5delta32 allele frequency in a large sample (907 individuals of the southeastern Brazilian urban population, stratified as follows: 322 healthy unrelated individuals, 354 unselected colorectal cancer patients, and 229 blood donors. The three groups displayed essentially identical allelic frequencies of CCR5delta32 and pairwise comparisons did not show significant differences. Thus, our results can be pooled to provide a reliable estimate of the CCR5delta32 allele frequency in the southeastern Brazil of 0.053 ± 0.005. The blood donors comprised 50 HTLV-I serologically negative individuals, 115 non-symptomatic individuals HTLV-I positive by ELISA but with indeterminate Western blot results, 49 healthy blood donors HTLV-I positive both at ELISA and Western blot and 15 patients with clinical spinal cord disease (HAM. A suggestive trend was observed, with the CCR5delta32 frequencies decreasing progressively in these four categories. However, when we applied Fischer's exact test no significant differences emerged. We believe that further studies in larger cohorts should be performed to ascertain whether the CCR5delta32 allele influences the chance of becoming infected or developing clinical symptoms of HTLV-I infection.

  4. Association studies using family pools of outcrossing crops based on allele-frequency estimates from DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal; Jensen, Just; Asp, Torben

    2014-01-01

    effect from F2-family pools was verified and it was shown that the underestimation of the allele effect is correctly described. The optimal design for an association study when sequencing budget would be fixed is obtained using large sample size and lower sequence depth, and using higher SNP density......F2 families are frequently used in breeding of outcrossing species, for instance to obtain trait measurements on plots. We propose to perform association studies by obtaining a matching “family genotype” from sequencing a pooled sample of the family, and to directly use allele frequencies computed...... (resulting in higher LD with causative mutations) and lower sequencing depth. Therefore, association studies using genotyping by sequencing are optimal and use low sequencing depth per sample. The developed framework for association studies using allele frequencies from sequencing can be modified for other...

  5. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G

    2016-01-01

    , which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis......-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care...

  6. Natural Arabidopsis brx loss-of-function alleles confer root adaptation to acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujas, Bojan; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Hardtke, Christian S

    2012-10-23

    Soil acidification is a major agricultural problem that negatively affects crop yield. Root systems counteract detrimental passive proton influx from acidic soil through increased proton pumping into the apoplast, which is presumably also required for cell elongation and stimulated by auxin. Here, we found an unexpected impact of extracellular pH on auxin activity and cell proliferation rate in the root meristem of two Arabidopsis mutants with impaired auxin perception, axr3 and brx. Surprisingly, neutral to slightly alkaline media rescued their severely reduced root (meristem) growth by stimulating auxin signaling, independent of auxin uptake. The finding that proton pumps are hyperactive in brx roots could explain this phenomenon and is consistent with more robust growth and increased fitness of brx mutants on overly acidic media or soil. Interestingly, the original brx allele was isolated from a natural stock center accession collected from acidic soil. Our discovery of a novel brx allele in accessions recently collected from another acidic sampling site demonstrates the existence of independently maintained brx loss-of-function alleles in nature and supports the notion that they are advantageous in acidic soil pH conditions, a finding that might be exploited for crop breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification and Concentration of PCR Products Leads to Increased Signal intensities with Fewer Allelic Drop-Outs and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Irlund Pedersen, Line; Stangegaard, Michael; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2011-01-01

    and the quality of the DNA profiles without re-amplification of the sample. We have validated and implemented an automated method to purify and 2-fold concentrate PCR products resulting in allelic peaks with higher intensity (a median height across all loci from 130 to 404 RFU), fewer allelic dropouts...

  8. A matching-allele model explains host resistance to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijckx, Pepijn; Fienberg, Harris; Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2013-06-17

    The maintenance of genetic variation and sex despite its costs has long puzzled biologists. A popular idea, the Red Queen Theory, is that under rapid antagonistic coevolution between hosts and their parasites, the formation of new rare host genotypes through sex can be advantageous as it creates host genotypes to which the prevailing parasite is not adapted. For host-parasite coevolution to lead to an ongoing advantage for rare genotypes, parasites should infect specific host genotypes and hosts should resist specific parasite genotypes. The most prominent genetics capturing such specificity are matching-allele models (MAMs), which have the key feature that resistance for two parasite genotypes can reverse by switching one allele at one host locus. Despite the lack of empirical support, MAMs have played a central role in the theoretical development of antagonistic coevolution, local adaptation, speciation, and sexual selection. Using genetic crosses, we show that resistance of the crustacean Daphnia magna against the parasitic bacterium Pasteuria ramosa follows a MAM. Simulation results show that the observed genetics can explain the maintenance of genetic variation and contribute to the maintenance of sex in the facultatively sexual host as predicted by the Red Queen Theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Allele frequencies of ten short tandem repeats loci in the central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-03

    Apr 3, 2009 ... c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH NOTE. Allele frequencies of ten short tandem ... Statistical parameters of forensic importance, the power of discrimination (PD), observed and expected ... rameters indicated the usefulness of the loci in forensic per- sonal identification and paternity testing among ...

  10. A genomic study on distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A and HLA-B alleles in Lak population of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Shahsavar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA, provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population. Commercial HLA-Type kits from BAG (Lich, Germany company were used for determination of the HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in genomic DNA, based on polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP assay. The differences between the populations in distribution of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles were estimated by chi-squared test with Yate's correction. The most frequent HLA-A alleles were *24 (20%, *02 (18%, *03 (12% and *11 (10%, and the most frequent HLA-B alleles were *35 (24%, *51 (16%, *18 (6% and *38 (6% in Lak population. HLA-A*66 (1%, *74(1% and HLA-B*48 (1%, *55(1% were the least observed frequencies in Lak population. Our results based on HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies showed that Lak population possesses the previously reported general features of Iranians but still with unique.

  11. MASTR: A Technique for Mosaic Mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal Control of Recombination Using Conditional Floxed Alleles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Lao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic mutant analysis, the study of cellular defects in scattered mutant cells in a wild-type environment, is a powerful approach for identifying critical functions of genes and has been applied extensively to invertebrate model organisms. A highly versatile technique has been developed in mouse: MASTR (mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination, which utilizes the increasing number of floxed alleles and simultaneously combines conditional gene mutagenesis and cell marking for fate analysis. A targeted allele (R26MASTR was engineered; the allele expresses a GFPcre fusion protein following FLP-mediated recombination, which serves the dual function of deleting floxed alleles and marking mutant cells with GFP. Within 24 hr of tamoxifen administration to R26MASTR mice carrying an inducible FlpoER transgene and a floxed allele, nearly all GFP-expressing cells have a mutant allele. The fate of single cells lacking FGF8 or SHH signaling in the developing hindbrain was analyzed using MASTR, and it was revealed that there is only a short time window when neural progenitors require FGFR1 for viability and that granule cell precursors differentiate rapidly when SMO is lost. MASTR is a powerful tool that provides cell-type-specific (spatial and temporal marking of mosaic mutant cells and is broadly applicable to developmental, cancer, and adult stem cell studies.

  12. ACTN3 allele frequency in humans covaries with global latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Friedlander

    Full Text Available A premature stop codon in ACTN3 resulting in α-actinin-3 deficiency (the ACTN3 577XX genotype is common in humans and reduces strength, muscle mass, and fast-twitch fiber diameter, but increases the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle. Linkage disequilibrium data suggest that the ACTN3 R577X allele has undergone positive selection during human evolution. The allele has been hypothesized to be adaptive in environments with scarce resources where efficient muscle metabolism would be selected. Here we test this hypothesis by using recently developed comparative methods that account for evolutionary relatedness and gene flow among populations. We find evidence that the ACTN3 577XX genotype evolved in association with the global latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that environmental variables related to latitudinal variation, such as species richness and mean annual temperature, may have influenced the adaptive evolution of ACTN3 577XX during recent human history.

  13. Frequencies of two CYP2C19 defective alleles (CYP2C19*2, and *3 among Iranian population in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Shahabi-Majd

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: The result of the present study showed that the two inactive alleles of CYP2C19 accounted for 9.0% of CYP2C19 alleles in our sample versus 8.8 - 40.1% reported in other populations. The frequencies of the studied alleles resulted significant differences between our sample and African and Eastern Asian populations.

  14. Automated analysis of high-throughput B-cell sequencing data reveals a high frequency of novel immunoglobulin V gene segment alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Yaari, Gur; Uduman, Mohamed; Kleinstein, Steven H

    2015-02-24

    Individual variation in germline and expressed B-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires has been associated with aging, disease susceptibility, and differential response to infection and vaccination. Repertoire properties can now be studied at large-scale through next-generation sequencing of rearranged Ig genes. Accurate analysis of these repertoire-sequencing (Rep-Seq) data requires identifying the germline variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments used by each Ig sequence. Current V(D)J assignment methods work by aligning sequences to a database of known germline V(D)J segment alleles. However, existing databases are likely to be incomplete and novel polymorphisms are hard to differentiate from the frequent occurrence of somatic hypermutations in Ig sequences. Here we develop a Tool for Ig Genotype Elucidation via Rep-Seq (TIgGER). TIgGER analyzes mutation patterns in Rep-Seq data to identify novel V segment alleles, and also constructs a personalized germline database containing the specific set of alleles carried by a subject. This information is then used to improve the initial V segment assignments from existing tools, like IMGT/HighV-QUEST. The application of TIgGER to Rep-Seq data from seven subjects identified 11 novel V segment alleles, including at least one in every subject examined. These novel alleles constituted 13% of the total number of unique alleles in these subjects, and impacted 3% of V(D)J segment assignments. These results reinforce the highly polymorphic nature of human Ig V genes, and suggest that many novel alleles remain to be discovered. The integration of TIgGER into Rep-Seq processing pipelines will increase the accuracy of V segment assignments, thus improving B-cell repertoire analyses.

  15. Influence of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Alleles and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors (KIR) Types on Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Jason H; Shaffer, Christian M; Cronin, Robert; Bastarache, Lisa; Gaudieri, Silvana; James, Ian; Pavlos, Rebecca; Steiner, Heidi E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Mallal, Simon; Denny, Joshua C; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Roden, Dan M

    2017-09-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an unpredictable, life-threatening, immune-mediated reaction to heparin. Variation in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes is now used to prevent immune-mediated adverse drug reactions. Combinations of HLA alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are associated with multiple autoimmune diseases and infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of HLA alleles and KIR types, alone or in the presence of different HLA ligands, with HIT. HIT cases and heparin-exposed controls were identified in BioVU, an electronic health record coupled to a DNA biobank. HLA sequencing and KIR type imputation using Illumina OMNI-Quad data were performed. Odds ratios for HLA alleles and KIR types and HLA*KIR interactions using conditional logistic regressions were determined in the overall population and by race/ethnicity. Analysis was restricted to KIR types and HLA alleles with a frequency greater than 0.01. The p values for HLA and KIR association were corrected by using a false discovery rate qHIT cases and 350 matched controls were identified. No statistical differences in baseline characteristics were observed between cases and controls. The HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was significantly associated with HIT in the overall population (odds ratio 2.81 [1.57-5.02], p=2.1×10 -4 , q=0.02) and in individuals with European ancestry, independent of other alleles. No KIR types were associated with HIT, although a significant interaction was observed between KIR2DS5 and the HLA-C1 KIR binding group (p=0.03). The HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was identified as a potential risk factor for HIT. This class II HLA gene and allele represent biologically plausible candidates for influencing HIT pathogenesis. We found limited evidence of the role of KIR types in HIT pathogenesis. Replication and further study of the HLA-DRB3*01:01 association is necessary. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  16. Consequences for diversity when animals are prioritized for conservation of the whole genome or of one specific allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    When animals are selected for one specific allele, for example for inclusion in a gene bank, this may result in the loss of diversity in other parts of the genome. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of losing diversity across the genome when targeting a single allele for conservation

  17. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class IIβ alleles of New World ranid frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  19. HLA-DRB1 alleles in four Amerindian populations from Argentina and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the biological systems of major polymorphisms. The study of HLA class II variability has allowed the identification of several alleles that are characteristic to Amerindian populations, and it is an excellent tool to define the relations and biological affinities among them. In this work, we analyzed the allelic distribution of the HLA-DRB1 class II locus in four Amerindian populations: Mapuche (n = 34) and Tehuelche (n = 23) from the Patagonian region of Argentina, and Wichi SV (n = 24) and Lengua (n = 17) from the Argentinean and Paraguayan Chaco regions, respectively. In all of these groups, relatively high frequencies of Amerindian HLA-DRB1 alleles were observed (DRB1*0403, DRB1*0407, DRB1*0411, DRB1*0417, DRB1*0802, DRB1*0901, DRB1*1402, DRB1*1406 and DRB1*1602). However, we also detected the presence of non-Amerindian variants in Mapuche (35%) and Tehuelche (22%). We compared our data with those obtained in six indigenous groups of the Argentinean Chaco region and in a sample from Buenos Aires City. The genetic distance dendrogram showed a clear-cut division between the Patagonian and Chaco populations, which formed two different clusters. In spite of their linguistic differences, it can be inferred that the biological affinities observed are in concordance with the geographic distributions and interethnic relations established among the groups studied. PMID:21637670

  20. Allele frequency present within the DYS635, DYS437, DYS448 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ejiro

    2015-03-11

    Mar 11, 2015 ... institute and courts of law. Key words: Allele ... individual identification and relatedness testing polymor- phic (Yamamoto et al. ... haplogroup an individual matches, STR analysis typically provides a person haplotype. Most tests on the Y chromosome examine between 12 and 67 STR markers. (Jobling et al.

  1. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in Papua New Guinea: High frequency of previously uncharacterized CYP2D6 alleles and heterozygote excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahsen, Nicolas; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Gomorrai, Servina; Ura, Alice; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Davis, Timothy M E; Mueller, Ivo; Ilett, Kenneth F; Oellerich, Michael

    2010-08-18

    A high frequency of previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have been reported in Oceania populations. Genetic and functional properties of these alleles remain unknown. We performed analyses of the genetic variability of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes using AmpliChip genotyping in cohorts from two distinct Papua New Guinea (PNG) populations (Kunjingini, n=88; Alexishafen, n=84) focussing on the genetic characterisation of PNG-specific alleles by re-sequencing. Previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have population frequencies of 24% (Kunjingini) and 12% (Alexishafen). An allele similar to CYP2D6*1, but carrying the 1661G>C substitution, was the second most frequent CYP2D6 allele (20% Kunjingini and 10% Alexishafen population frequency). Sequencing suggests the CYP2D6* 1661G>C allele originated from a cross-over between CYP2D6*1 and *2 and thus is predicted to confer fully active CYP2D6 enzyme. Two additional predicted full activity alleles [1661G>C;4180G>C] and 31G>A were found in the Kunjingini cohort (frequencies 3 c/c and 1%, respectively) and a novel predicted reduced activity allele [100C>T;1039C>T] was found in the Alexishafen cohort (frequency 2%). A high frequency of ultra-rapid (15%) and notably low frequencies of intermediate and poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (exogamy and recent introduction of alleles by migration that are yet to reach HWE in relatively isolated populations. The CYP2D6*1661 allele common in Oceania may be regarded as functionally equivalent to the full activity CYP2D6*1 allele.

  2. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional...

  3. pfmdr1 Amplification and Fixation of pfcrt Chloroquine Resistance Alleles in Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean; Syphard, Luke; Sridaran, Sankar; McCollum, Andrea M.; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Vinayak, Sumiti; Villegas, Leopoldo; Barnwell, John W.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-01-01

    Molecular tools are valuable for determining evolutionary history and the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites. These tools have helped to predict decreased sensitivity to antimalarials and fixation of multidrug resistance genotypes in some regions. In order to assess how historical drug policies impacted Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela, we examined molecular changes in genes associated with drug resistance. We examined pfmdr1 and pfcrt in samples from Sifontes, Venezuela, and integrated our findings with earlier work describing dhfr and dhps in these samples. We characterized pfmdr1 genotypes and copy number variation, pfcrt genotypes, and proximal microsatellites in 93 samples originating from surveillance from 2003 to 2004. Multicopy pfmdr1 was found in 12% of the samples. Two pfmdr1 alleles, Y184F/N1042D/D1246Y (37%) and Y184F/S1034C/N1042D/D1246Y (63%), were found. These alleles share ancestry, and no evidence of strong selective pressure on mutations was found. pfcrt chloroquine resistance alleles are fixed with two alleles: StctVMNT (91%) and SagtVMNT (9%). These alleles are associated with strong selection. There was also an association between pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps genotypes/haplotypes. Duplication of pfmdr1 suggests a potential shift in mefloquine sensitivity in this region, which warrants further study. A bottleneck occurred in P. falciparum in Sifontes, Venezuela, and multidrug resistance genotypes are present. This population could be targeted for malaria elimination programs to prevent the possible spread of multidrug-resistant parasites. PMID:20145087

  4. Aberrant allele-specific replication, independent of parental origin, in blood cells of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotan, Zohar A; Dotan, Aviva; Ramon, Jacob; Avivi, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    Allelic counterparts of biallelically expressed genes display an epigenetic symmetry normally manifested by synchronous replication, different from genes subjected to monoallelic expression, which normally are characterized by an asynchronous mode of replication (well exemplified by the SNRPN imprinted locus). Malignancy was documented to be associated with gross modifications in the inherent replication-timing coordination between allelic counterparts of imprinted genes as well as of biallelically expressed loci. The cancer-related allelic replication timing aberrations are non-disease specific and appear in peripheral blood cells of cancer patients, including those with solid tumors. As such they offer potential blood markers for non-invasive cancer test. The present study was aimed to gain some insight into the mechanism leading to the replication timing alterations of genes in blood lymphocytes of cancer patients. Peripheral blood samples derived from patients with prostate cancer were chosen to represent the cancerous status, and samples taken from patients with no cancer but with benign prostate hyperplasia were used to portray the normal status. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) replication assay, applied to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood lymphocytes, was used to evaluate the temporal order (either synchronous or asynchronous) of genes in the patients' cells. We demonstrated that: (i) the aberrant epigenetic profile, as delineated by the cancer status, is a reversible modification, evidenced by our ability to restore the normal patterns of replication in three unrelated loci (CEN15, SNRPN and RB1) by introducing an archetypical demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine; (ii) following the rehabilitating effect of demethylation, an imprinted gene (SNRPN) retains its original parental imprint; and (iii) the choice of an allele between early or late replication in the aberrant asynchronous replication, delineated by the cancer status, is not

  5. Effect of APOE ε4 allele on survival and fertility in an adverse environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric van Exel

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein-ε4 allele (APOE-ε4 is strongly associated with detrimental outcomes in affluent populations including atherosclerotic disease, Alzheimer's disease, and reduced lifespan. Despite these detrimental outcomes, population frequencies of APOE-ε4 are high. We hypothesize that the high frequency of APOE-ε4 was maintained because of beneficial effects during evolution when infectious pathogens were more prevalent and a major cause of mortality. We examined a rural Ghanaian population with a high pathogen exposure for selective advantages of APOE-ε4, to survival and or fertility.This rural Ghanaian population (n = 4311 has high levels of mortality from widespread infectious diseases which are the main cause of death. We examined whether APOE-ε4 was associated with survival (total follow-up time was 30,262 years and fertility after stratifying by exposure to high or low pathogen levels. Households drawing water from open wells and rivers were classified as exposed to high pathogen levels while low pathogen exposure was classified as those drawing water from borehole wells. We found a non-significant, but positive survival benefit, i.e. the hazard ratio per APOE-ε4 allele was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.05, adjusted for sex, tribe, and socioeconomic status. Among women aged 40 years and older (n = 842, APOE-ε4 was not associated with the lifetime number of children. However, APOE-ε4 was associated with higher fertility in women exposed to high pathogen levels. Compared with women not carrying an APOE-ε4 allele, those carrying one APOE-ε4 allele had on average one more child and those carrying two APOE-ε4 alleles had 3.5 more children (p = 0.018.Contrary to affluent modern-day populations, APOE-ε4 did not carry a survival disadvantage in this rural Ghanaian population. Moreover, APOE-ε4 promotes fertility in highly infectious environments. Our findings suggest that APOE-ε4 may be considered as evolutionarily

  6. Effect of APOE ε4 allele on survival and fertility in an adverse environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Exel, Eric; Koopman, Jacob J E; Bodegom, David van; Meij, Johannes J; Knijff, Peter de; Ziem, Juventus B; Finch, Caleb E; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2017-01-01

    The apolipoprotein-ε4 allele (APOE-ε4) is strongly associated with detrimental outcomes in affluent populations including atherosclerotic disease, Alzheimer's disease, and reduced lifespan. Despite these detrimental outcomes, population frequencies of APOE-ε4 are high. We hypothesize that the high frequency of APOE-ε4 was maintained because of beneficial effects during evolution when infectious pathogens were more prevalent and a major cause of mortality. We examined a rural Ghanaian population with a high pathogen exposure for selective advantages of APOE-ε4, to survival and or fertility. This rural Ghanaian population (n = 4311) has high levels of mortality from widespread infectious diseases which are the main cause of death. We examined whether APOE-ε4 was associated with survival (total follow-up time was 30,262 years) and fertility after stratifying by exposure to high or low pathogen levels. Households drawing water from open wells and rivers were classified as exposed to high pathogen levels while low pathogen exposure was classified as those drawing water from borehole wells. We found a non-significant, but positive survival benefit, i.e. the hazard ratio per APOE-ε4 allele was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.05), adjusted for sex, tribe, and socioeconomic status. Among women aged 40 years and older (n = 842), APOE-ε4 was not associated with the lifetime number of children. However, APOE-ε4 was associated with higher fertility in women exposed to high pathogen levels. Compared with women not carrying an APOE-ε4 allele, those carrying one APOE-ε4 allele had on average one more child and those carrying two APOE-ε4 alleles had 3.5 more children (p = 0.018). Contrary to affluent modern-day populations, APOE-ε4 did not carry a survival disadvantage in this rural Ghanaian population. Moreover, APOE-ε4 promotes fertility in highly infectious environments. Our findings suggest that APOE-ε4 may be considered as evolutionarily adaptive. Its

  7. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnett Donna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST can evidence environmental selection pressures. Such genetic information is limited in Puerto Ricans, the second largest Hispanic ethnic group in the US, and a group with high prevalence of chronic disease. We determined allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 30 genes involved in major metabolic and disease-relevant pathways in Puerto Ricans (n = 969, ages 45–75 years and compared them to similarly aged non-Hispanic whites (NHW (n = 597. Results Minor allele frequency (MAF distributions for 45.5% of the SNPs assessed in Puerto Ricans were significantly different from those of NHW. Puerto Ricans carried risk alleles in higher frequency and protective alleles in lower frequency than NHW. Patterns of population differentiation showed that Puerto Ricans had SNPs with exceptional FST values in intronic, non-synonymous and promoter regions. NHW had exceptional FST values in intronic and promoter region SNPs only. Conclusion These observations may serve to explain and broaden studies on the impact of gene polymorphisms on chronic diseases affecting Puerto Ricans.

  8. Multimer Formation Explains Allelic Suppression of PRDM9 Recombination Hotspots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, C.L.; Petkova, P.; Walker, M.; Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondřej; Trachtulec, Zdeněk; Petkov, P.M.; Paigen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2015), e1005512-e1005512 ISSN 1553-7390 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/1931; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20728S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : recombination * PRDM9 * allelic competition Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.528, year: 2014

  9. Dominant hemimelia and En-1 on mouse chromosome 1 are not allelic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M; Hill, R E; West, J D

    1992-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that En-1, a homeobox-containing gene, maps close to or at the Dh locus in the mouse. Since homeobox-containing genes are key genes in the control of development the close proximity of En-1 to the developmentally significant gene Dh raised the possibility that the Dh mutation represented a mutant allele of En-1. A genetic analysis involving En-1, Dh, and other chromosome 1 markers (Emv-17, ln and Pep-3) shows that although Dh and En-1 are closely linked they are separable by recombination (4/563). The likely gene order and recombination frequencies of these loci are: ln (5.2 +/- 0.9) Emv-17 (1.1 +/- 0.4) Dh (0.7 +/- 0.4) En-1 (3.0 +/- 0.7) Pep-3. This shows that Dh is not a mutant allele of En-1.

  10. The derived allele of ASPM is associated with lexical tone perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The ASPM and MCPH1 genes have been implicated in the adaptive evolution of the human brain [Mekel-Bobrov N. et al., 2005. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in homo sapiens. Science 309; Evans P.D. et al., 2005. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309]. Curiously, experimental attempts have failed to connect the implicated SNPs in these genes with higher-level brain functions. These results stand in contrast with a population-level study linking the population frequency of their alleles with the tendency to use lexical tones in a language [Dediu D., Ladd D.R., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and microcephalin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104]. In the present study, we found a significant correlation between the load of the derived alleles of ASPM and tone perception in a group of European Americans who did not speak a tone language. Moreover, preliminary results showed a significant correlation between ASPM load and hemodynamic responses to lexical tones in the auditory cortex, and such correlation remained after phonemic awareness, auditory working memory, and non-verbal IQ were controlled. As in previous studies, no significant correlation between ASPM and cognitive measures were found. MCPH1 did not correlate with any measures. These results suggest that the association between the recently derived allele of ASPM is likely to be specific and is tied to higher level brain functions in the temporal cortex related to human communication.

  11. Haplotype analysis and a novel allele-sharing method refines a chromosome 4p locus linked to bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lee, Andrew J; Underwood, Sarah; Thomson, Pippa A; Morris, Stewart W; Torrance, Helen S; Anderson, Susan M; Adams, Richard R; Navarro, Pau; Christoforou, Andrea; Houlihan, Lorna M; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla; Owen, Michael J; Asherson, Philip; Muir, Walter J; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Wray, Naomi R; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2007-03-15

    Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are common conditions. Their causes are unknown, but they include a substantial genetic component. Previously, we described significant linkage of BPAD to a chromosome 4p locus within a large pedigree (F22). Others subsequently have found evidence for linkage of BPAD and SCZ to this region. We constructed high-resolution haplotypes for four linked families, calculated logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores, and developed a novel method to assess the extent of allele sharing within genes between the families. We describe an increase in the F22 LOD score for this region. Definition and comparison of the linked haplotypes allowed us to prioritize two subregions of 3.8 and 4.4 Mb. Analysis of the extent of allele sharing within these subregions identified 200 kb that shows increased allele sharing between families. Linkage of BPAD to chromosome 4p has been strengthened. Haplotype analysis in the additional linked families refined the 20-Mb linkage region. Development of a novel allele-sharing method allowed us to bridge the gap between conventional linkage and association studies. Description of a 200-kb region of increased allele sharing prioritizes this region, which contains two functional candidate genes for BPAD, SLC2A9, and WDR1, for subsequent studies.

  12. A study of the association of childhood asthma with HLA alleles in the population of Siliguri, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, M; Chatterjee, M; Chaudhuri, T K

    2014-09-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease for which a strong genetic basis is firmly established. It is a complex disorder influenced by gene-environment interaction. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been shown to be consistently associated with asthma and its related phenotypes in various populations. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the selected HLA classes I and II allelic groups in asthmatic and control groups. HLA typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific typing (PCR-SSP) method. The allele frequency was estimated by direct counting. Frequency of each HLA allelic group was compared between asthmatic group and control group using χ(2) test. P-value was corrected by multiplying with the number of the allelic groups studied. Odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each allelic group were calculated using graphpad instat 3.10. The results of this study showed a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*03 in asthmatics than in controls (11.43% vs 3.64%, OR = 3.78, 95% CI = 1.61-8.85, P = 0.0025, Pcorr  population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Allelic variation at the vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity loci in Chinese winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfen eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity.

  14. Maternal and fetal human leukocyte antigen class Ia and II alleles in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmery, J.; Hachmon, R.; Pyo, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    and -DPB1) alleles and the risk of developing severe preeclampsia/eclampsia were investigated in a detailed and large-scale study. In total, 259 women diagnosed with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia and 260 matched control women with no preeclampsia, together with their neonates, were included in the study....... HLA genotyping for mothers and neonates was performed using next-generation sequencing. The HLA-DPB1*04:01:01G allele was significantly more frequent (Pc=0.044) among women diagnosed with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia compared with controls, and the DQA1*01:02:01G allele frequency was significantly...... lower (Pc=0.042) among newborns born by women with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia compared with controls. In mothers with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, homozygosity was significantly more common compared with controls at the HLA-DPB1 locus (Pc=0.0028). Although the current large study shows some...

  15. An informational view of accession rarity and allele specificity in germplasm banks for management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Valdés, M Humberto; Burgueño, Juan; Singh, Sukhwinder; Martínez, Octavio; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola

    2018-01-01

    Germplasm banks are growing in their importance, number of accessions and amount of characterization data, with a large emphasis on molecular genetic markers. In this work, we offer an integrated view of accessions and marker data in an information theory framework. The basis of this development is the mutual information between accessions and allele frequencies for molecular marker loci, which can be decomposed in allele specificities, as well as in rarity and divergence of accessions. In this way, formulas are provided to calculate the specificity of the different marker alleles with reference to their distribution across accessions, accession rarity, defined as the weighted average of the specificity of its alleles, and divergence, defined by the Kullback-Leibler formula. Albeit being different measures, it is demonstrated that average rarity and divergence are equal for any collection. These parameters can contribute to the knowledge of the structure of a germplasm collection and to make decisions about the preservation of rare variants. The concepts herein developed served as the basis for a strategy for core subset selection called HCore, implemented in a publicly available R script. As a proof of concept, the mathematical view and tools developed in this research were applied to a large collection of Mexican wheat accessions, widely characterized by SNP markers. The most specific alleles were found to be private of a single accession, and the distribution of this parameter had its highest frequencies at low levels of specificity. Accession rarity and divergence had largely symmetrical distributions, and had a positive, albeit non-strictly linear relationship. Comparison of the HCore approach for core subset selection, with three state-of-the-art methods, showed it to be superior for average divergence and rarity, mean genetic distance and diversity. The proposed approach can be used for knowledge extraction and decision making in germplasm collections of

  16. Genotypic and allelic variability in CYP19A1 among populations of African and European ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Starlard-Davenport

    Full Text Available CYP19A1 facilitates the bioconversion of estrogens from androgens. CYP19A1 intron single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may alter mRNA splicing, resulting in altered CYP19A1 activity, and potentially influencing disease susceptibility. Genetic studies of CYP19A1 SNPs have been well documented in populations of European ancestry; however, studies in populations of African ancestry are limited. In the present study, ten 'candidate' intronic SNPs in CYP19A1 from 125 African Americans (AA and 277 European Americans (EA were genotyped and their frequencies compared. Allele frequencies were also compared with HapMap and ASW 1000 Genomes populations. We observed significant differences in the minor allele frequencies between AA and EA in six of the ten SNPs including rs10459592 (p<0.0001, rs12908960 (p<0.0001, rs1902584 (p = 0.016, rs2470144 (p<0.0001, rs1961177 (p<0.0001, and rs6493497 (p = 0.003. While there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between EA and CEU in the HapMap population, a 1.2- to 19-fold difference in allele frequency for rs10459592 (p = 0.004, rs12908960 (p = 0.0006, rs1902584 (p<0.0001, rs2470144 (p = 0.0006, rs1961177 (p<0.0001, and rs6493497 (p = 0.0092 was observed between AA and the Yoruba (YRI population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks and haplotype clusters that is unique to the EA population but not AA was also observed. In summary, we demonstrate that differences in the allele frequencies of CYP19A1 intron SNPs are not consistent between populations of African and European ancestry. Thus, investigations into whether CYP19A1 intron SNPs contribute to variations in cancer incidence, outcomes and pharmacological response seen in populations of different ancestry may prove beneficial.

  17. Estimation of allele frequency and association mapping using next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of allele frequency is of fundamental importance in population genetic analyses and in association mapping. In most studies using next-generation sequencing, a cost effective approach is to use medium or low-coverage data (e.g., frequency estimation...

  18. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. The frequency of allelic lethals and complementation maps in natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a previous study on the genetic loads affecting the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster in four natural populations, 171 lethal chromosomes were recovered and maintained as a balanced stocks in the condition Cy L / 1 (l=lethal; of those lethais 24 correspond to population A, 50 to populations B and C and 47 to population D. later on an intra-population allelism test for the four populations was performed for each one. A total of 3807 inter lethal crosses were done yielding a total of i 10 allelic combinations, from them the respective percentage of allelism for each population was calculated and they are as follow: 3.98 % for population A, 1.80 % for population B, 3.67 % for population C and 2.96 % for population D. the observed values for the frequency of allelism in these populations are not significantly different from those reported by other authors in similar studies in natural and/or experimental populations. Beside these values the frequency for singles, doubles, triplets and even quadruplets present in each population were determined, they shown the presence of various complementation maps due to the clustering of few different lethals: also a large complementation map formed by a large cluster involving the presence of 26 different lethals found in population D all of them combined constituting a single unit was found.

  20. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothee; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA(+)) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA(-)) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We

  1. Linkage disequilibrium between an allele at the dopamine D4 receptor locus and Tourette syndrome, by the transmission-disequilibrium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grice, D.E.; Gelernter, J. [Veterans Administration Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Leckman, J.F.; Pauls, D.L. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic multiple tics. We used the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) method to test for linkage disequilibrium between a specific allele (the seven-repeat allele (DRD4*7R) of the exon 3 VNTR polymorphic site) at the D4 dopamine receptor locus (DRD4) and expression of chronic multiple tics and TS. This particular allele had been shown in functional studies to have different binding properties compared with the other common alleles in this DRD4 polymorphic system. We studied 64 family trios (consisting of an affected person and two parents, at least one heterozygous for DRD4*7R), including 12 nuclear family trios and 52 trios from four large TS kindreds. The DRD4*7R allele was transmitted significantly more frequently than expected ({chi}{sup 2}{sub TDT} ranging from 8.47 [P < .004] to 10.80 [P = .001], depending on breadth of disease definition and inclusion or exclusion of inferred genotypes). Confirmation of this finding will depend on either replication in other samples or the identification of a transmitted functional mutation within this sample. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Thorsten; Wissenbach, Ulrich; Grobholz, Rainer; Flockerzi, Veit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is a Ca2+ selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV...

  3. PKD1 Mono-Allelic Knockout Is Sufficient to Trigger Renal Cystogenesis in a Mini-Pig Model

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jin; Li, Qiuyan; Fang, Suyun; Guo, Ying; Liu, Tongxin; Ye, Jianhua; Yu, Zhengquan; Zhang, Ran; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Bai, Xueyuan; Chen, Xiangmei; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    PKD1 and PKD2 mutations could lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which afflicts millions of people worldwide. Due to the marked differences in the lifespan, size, anatomy, and physiology from humans, rodent ADPKD models cannot fully mimic the disease. To obtain a large animal model that recapitulates the disease, we constructed a mini-pig model by mono-allelic knockout (KO) of PKD1 using zinc finger nuclease. The mono-allelic KO pigs had lower PKD1 expression than t...

  4. Diminished levels of allelic losses by homologous recombination in radiation-hypersensitive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, K.; Abe, M.; Hoki, Y.; Kubo, E.; Muto, M.; Araki, R.; Sato, K.

    2003-01-01

    Mitotic recombination (MR) due to somatic crossing-over is a predominant mechanism for allelic losses in mammalian cells either spontaneous or radiation-induced. A selectable mutation assay accompanying real-time detection PCR was developed to analyze the second step in loss-of-function mutations employing a human lympho-blastoid cell line derived from an obligate heterozygote of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency with a nonsense mutation at exon 3 of the gene. 68 % of spontaneously arising 2,6-diaminopurine resistance (DAP r ) mutant clones were associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH), while 92 % of 2 Gy gamma-ray induced mutant clones were so associated. Investigation of gene dosage revealed that about one half of the spontaneously arising mutant clones and two-thirds of those induced by gamma-rays showed reduction to homozygosity of the constitutionally inactivated APRT allele. In an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cell subline in which a new inactivation mutation had been introduced into one APRT allele by ICR-191, MR rarely occurred and exclusively deletions predominated in both spontaneous and X-ray induced DAP r mutants with LOH. A similar assay system was also developed with C3H mouse FM3A mammary tumor cells, SR-1, carrying a C .T transition at exon 5 of an APRT allele. In an XRCC7 (DNA-PKcs) deficient subline of SR-1, SX9 , spontaneous mutation frequencies for the Aprt locus (8AA r ) was 10 -3 , which was about 10 times higher than that in parental SR-1 cells. Mutation frequencies induced by X-rays comparably increased in a dose-dependent manner for the Aprt locus in both cell lines. Against our expectation, the lack of an NHEJ pathway of DNA double strand break repair resulted in a lower proportion (11.1 %) of MR with deletions (77.8 %) as the molecular cause for 8AA r mutations following X-irradiation, while virtually all of X-ray induced 8AA r mutant clones were MR in the control SR-1 cells. Factors

  5. Allelic Imbalance Is a Prevalent and Tissue-Specific Feature of the Mouse Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Stefan F.; Colognori, David; Beliveau, Brian J.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Payer, Bernhard; Yildirim, Eda; Wu, Chao-ting; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, several classes of monoallelic genes have been identified, including those subject to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and random monoallelic expression (RMAE). However, the extent to which these epigenetic phenomena are influenced by underlying genetic variation is unknown. Here we perform a systematic classification of allelic imbalance in mouse hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses of divergent strains. We observe that deviation from balanced biallelic expression is common, occurring in ∼20% of the mouse transcriptome in a given tissue. Allelic imbalance attributed to genotypic variation is by far the most prevalent class and typically is tissue-specific. However, some genotype-based imbalance is maintained across tissues and is associated with greater genetic variation, especially in 5′ and 3′ termini of transcripts. We further identify novel random monoallelic and imprinted genes and find that genotype can modify penetrance of parental origin even in the setting of large imprinted regions. Examination of nascent transcripts in single cells from inbred parental strains reveals that genes showing genotype-based imbalance in hybrids can also exhibit monoallelic expression in isogenic backgrounds. This surprising observation may suggest a competition between alleles and/or reflect the combined impact of cis- and trans-acting variation on expression of a given gene. Our findings provide novel insights into gene regulation and may be relevant to human genetic variation and disease. PMID:25858912

  6. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  7. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Allelic structure and distribution of 103 STR loci in a Southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    compared with a standard t test at 5% level of significance. The allele frequency .... 72 50. 70 28. 0.150. 0.223. 0.100. 0.142. 0.147. 0.360. 0.168. 13. D13S171. D13S170 ..... structure of LD within this region in BEH population, more markers ...

  9. Candidate Cancer Allele cDNA Collection | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTD2 researchers at the Broad Institute/DFCI have developed a collection of plasmids including mutant alleles found in sequencing studies of cancer. It includes somatic variants found in lung adenocarcinoma and across other cancer types. The clones enable researchers to characterize the function of the cancer variants in a high throughput experiments. These plasmids are collectively called the “Broad Target Accelerator Plasmid Collections”.

  10. Functionally Complete Excision of Conditional Alleles in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus by Vgat-ires-Cre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David R; van der Vinne, Vincent; Giannaris, E Lela; Vajtay, Thomas J; Holloway, Kristopher L; Anaclet, Christelle

    2018-04-01

    Mice with targeted gene disruption have provided important information about the molecular mechanisms of circadian clock function. A full understanding of the roles of circadian-relevant genes requires manipulation of their expression in a tissue-specific manner, ideally including manipulation with high efficiency within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). To date, conditional manipulation of genes within the SCN has been difficult. In a previously developed mouse line, Cre recombinase was inserted into the vesicular GABA transporter (Vgat) locus. Since virtually all SCN neurons are GABAergic, this Vgat-Cre line seemed likely to have high efficiency at disrupting conditional alleles in SCN. To test this premise, the efficacy of Vgat-Cre in excising conditional (fl, for flanked by LoxP) alleles in the SCN was examined. Vgat-Cre-mediated excision of conditional alleles of Clock or Bmal1 led to loss of immunostaining for products of the targeted genes in the SCN. Vgat-Cre + ; Clock fl/fl ; Npas2 m/m mice and Vgat-Cre + ; Bmal1 fl/fl mice became arrhythmic immediately upon exposure to constant darkness, as expected based on the phenotype of mice in which these genes are disrupted throughout the body. The phenotype of mice with other combinations of Vgat-Cre + , conditional Clock, and mutant Npas2 alleles also resembled the corresponding whole-body knockout mice. These data indicate that the Vgat-Cre line is useful for Cre-mediated recombination within the SCN, making it useful for Cre-enabled technologies including gene disruption, gene replacement, and opto- and chemogenetic manipulation of the SCN circadian clock.

  11. Allele-Specific Alternative mRNA processing (ASARP) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A software pipeline for prediction of allele-specific alternative RNA processing events using single RNA-seq data. The current version focuses on prediction of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation modulated by genetic variants.

  12. Characterization of a Weak Allele of Zebrafish cloche Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Huang, Zhibin; Chen, Xiaohui; He, Fei; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Linfeng; Xu, Xiangmin; Liao, Wangjun; Ruan, Hua; Luo, Shenqiu; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complicated and dynamic process about which the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an excellent vertebrate system for studying hematopoiesis and developmental mechanisms. In the previous study, we isolated and identified a cloche 172 (clo 172) mutant, a novel allele compared to the original cloche (clo) mutant, through using complementation test and initial mapping. Here, according to whole mount in-situ hybridization, we report that the endothelial cells in clo 172 mutant embryos, although initially developed, failed to form the functional vascular system eventually. In addition, further characterization indicates that the clo 172 mutant exhibited weaker defects instead of completely lost in primitive erythroid cells and definitive hematopoietic cells compared with the clo s5 mutant. In contrast, primitive myeloid cells were totally lost in clo 172 mutant. Furthermore, these reappeared definitive myeloid cells were demonstrated to initiate from the remaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clo 172 mutant, confirmed by the dramatic decrease of lyc in clo 172 runx1w84x double mutant. Collectively, the clo 172 mutant is a weak allele compared to the clo s5 mutant, therefore providing a model for studying the early development of hematopoietic and vascular system, as well as an opportunity to further understand the function of the cloche gene. PMID:22132109

  13. Readressing the role of Toll-like receptor-4 alleles in inflammatory bowel disease: colitis, smoking, and seroreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolakis, Anastassios C; Kapsoritakis, Andreas N; Kapsoritaki, Anastasia; Tiaka, Elisavet K; Oikonomou, Konstantinos A; Lotis, Vassilis; Vamvakopoulou, Dimitra; Davidi, Ioanna; Vamvakopoulos, Nikolaos; Potamianos, Spyros P

    2013-02-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms, and especially TLR-4 Asp299Gly and TLR-4 Thr399Ile, have been linked with Crohn's disease (CD) and to a lesser extent with ulcerative colitis (UC), CD behavior, and compromised seroreactivity to microbial antigens. Available data, however, are conflicting. To address these issues, the distribution of TLR-4 polymorphic alleles was assessed in patients with UC, CD, and healthy controls (HC), considering patient and disease characteristics as well as related serological markers. TLR-4 Asp299Gly and TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphisms were determined in 187 UC and 163 CD patients and 274 randomly selected HC. C reactive protein, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies, anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies, anti-laminariobioside carbohydrate antibodies IgG, and anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibodies (ACCA) IgA levels were also assessed. UC and especially pancolitis patients carried the mutant alleles more frequently compared to CD patients and HC or UC patients with different disease extents (P = 0.002 and P ACCA IgA were lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients carrying the mutant compared to those with wild-type alleles (0.075 ACCA IgA levels. Smoking reduces the extent of UC, even in the presence of mutant alleles.

  14. HLA-DRB1 allele association with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility and severity in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Jamil; Monem, Fawza

    2013-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex multifactorial chronic disease. The importance of human leukocyte antigen as a major genetic risk factor for RA was studied worldwide. Although it is widely distributed in different Syrian areas, studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles' role are absent. The aim of our study was to determine the association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with the susceptibility and severity of RA in Syria. Eighty-six RA patients and 200 healthy controls from Syria were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). Anti-CCP antibodies were measured by ELISA. Rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and disease activity score 28 (DAS-28) values were obtained from patients' medical records. DAS-28 was used to assess the clinical severity of the patients. The HLA-DRB1*01, *04, and *10 frequencies showed a strong association with the disease susceptibility (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.11-4.75, P = 0.022; OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 2.0 -4.8, P < 0.0001; OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.51, P = 0.029 respectively), while the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*11, and *13 were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, P = 0.004; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.15-0.69, P = 0.002, respectively). The other HLA-DRB1 alleles showed no significant difference. The frequency of anti-CCP antibodies was higher in shared epitope (SE) positive patients compared with SE-negative patients (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 2-15.1, P = 0.00054). DAS-28 of RA patients didn't show significant difference between the SE negative and the SE positive groups. Our results indicate that HLA-DRB1*01, *04, and *10 alleles are related with RA, while HLA-DRB1*11 and *13 protect against RA in the Syrian population.

  15. Widespread signatures of positive selection in common risk alleles associated to autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Polimanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is the outcome of innumerable evolutionary processes; the systems genetics of psychiatric disorders could bear their signatures. On this basis, we analyzed five psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia (SCZ, using GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Machine learning-derived scores were used to investigate two natural-selection scenarios: complete selection (loci where a selected allele reached fixation and incomplete selection (loci where a selected allele has not yet reached fixation. ASD GWAS results positively correlated with incomplete-selection (p = 3.53*10-4. Variants with ASD GWAS p<0.1 were shown to have a 19%-increased probability to be in the top-5% for incomplete-selection score (OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.11-1.8, p = 9.56*10-7. Investigating the effect directions of minor alleles, we observed an enrichment for positive associations in SNPs with ASD GWAS p<0.1 and top-5% incomplete-selection score (permutation p<10-4. Considering the set of these ASD-positive-associated variants, we observed gene-expression enrichments for brain and pituitary tissues (p = 2.3*10-5 and p = 3*10-5, respectively and 53 gene ontology (GO enrichments, such as nervous system development (GO:0007399, p = 7.57*10-12, synapse organization (GO:0050808, p = 8.29*10-7, and axon guidance (GO:0007411, p = 1.81*10-7. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that ASD positively correlates with childhood intelligence, college completion, and years of schooling. Accordingly, we hypothesize that certain ASD risk alleles were under positive selection during human evolution due to their involvement in neurogenesis and cognitive ability.

  16. The dominant allele Aft induces a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Castagna, Antonella; Santin, Marco; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Mazzucato, Andrea; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-08-01

    The introgression of the A ft allele into domesticated tomato induced a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation, while the hp - 1 allele negatively influenced the response of flavonoid biosynthesis to UV-B. Introgression of the dominant allele Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) from Solanum chilense induces anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. UV-B radiation can influence plant secondary metabolism regulating the expression of several genes, among which those involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated whether post-harvest UV-B treatment could up-regulate flavonoid production in tomato fruits and whether the Aft allele could affect flavonoid biosynthesis under UV-B radiation. Mature green fruits of an anthocyanin-rich tomato mutant line (SA206) and of its wild-type reference, cv. Roma, were daily subjected to post-harvest UV-B treatment until full ripening. Up-regulation of CHS and CHI transcription by UV-B treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in the peel of cv. Roma. Conversely, UV-B decreased the total flavonoid content and CHS transcript levels in the SA206 peel. SA206 being a double mutant containing also hp-1 allele, we investigated also the behavior of hp-1 fruit. The decreased peel flavonoid accumulation and gene transcription in response to UV-B suggest that hp-1 allele is involved in the marked down-regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis observed in SA206 fruit. Interestingly, in SA206, UV-B radiation promoted the synthesis of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin by increasing F3'5'H and DFR transcription, but it decreased rutin production, suggesting a switch from flavonols to anthocyanins. Finally, although UV-B radiation does not reach the inner fruit tissues, it down-regulated flavonoid biosynthesis in the flesh of both genotypes. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that the presence of the functional Aft allele, under UV-B radiation, redirects

  17. HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 allele diversity and its extended haplotypes in Madeira Island (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, H; Lemos, A; Couto, A R; Parreira, B; Soares, M; Dutra, I; Bruges-Armas, J; Brehm, A

    2017-02-01

    This study shows, for the first time, high-resolution allele frequencies of HLA-DQA1 loci in Madeira Island (Portugal) and allows us to better understand and refine present knowledge on DQB1 variation, with the identification of several alleles not previously reported in this population. Estimates on haplotype profile, involving HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1, are also reported. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic drop-out...... is occurring. With this discussion, we hope to improve the drop-out model, so that it can be used for practical forensic genetics and stimulate further discussions. We discuss how to estimate drop-out probabilities when using a varying number of PCR cycles and other experimental conditions....

  19. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-10-31

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  20. Development of allele-specific multiplex PCR to determine the length of poly-T in intron 8 of CFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene mutation analysis has been implemented for Cystic Fibrosis (CF carrier screening, and molecular diagnosis of CF and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Although poly-T allele analysis in intron 8 of CFTR is required when a patient is positive for R117H, it is not recommended for routine carrier screening. Therefore, commercial kits for CFTR mutation analysis were designed either to mask the poly-T allele results, unless a patient is R117H positive, or to have the poly-T analysis as a standalone reflex test using the same commercial platform. There are other standalone assays developed to detect poly-T alleles, such as heteroduplex analysis, High Resolution Melting (HRM curve analysis, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR and Sanger sequencing. In this report, we developed a simple and easy-to-implement multiplex AS-PCR assay using unlabeled standard length primers, which can be used as a reflex or standalone test for CFTR poly-T track analysis. Out of 115 human gDNA samples tested, results from our new AS-PCR matched to the previous known poly-T results or results from Sanger sequencing.

  1. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Lawrence, Phil; Bentley, Graham; Maltby, Kay; Skeggs, Andrew; Miller, Sam R; McHugh, Simon; Bullmore, Edward T; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.

  2. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Dodds

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.

  3. The TGFBR1*6A allele is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, Adela; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Carrato, Alfredo; Soto, José-Luís; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Montenegro, Paola; Ochoa, Enrique; Lázaro, Rafael; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Guarinos, Carla; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β receptor type I is a mediator of growth inhibitory signals. TGFBR1*6A (rs11466445) is a common polymorphic variant of the TGF-β receptor I gene and has been associated with tumour susceptibility. Nevertheless, the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TGFBR1*6A and colorectal cancer, age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage in a Spanish population. The case-control study involved 800 Spanish subjects: 400 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 400 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the TGFBR1*6A polymorphism were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. Analysis of somatic mutations at the GCG repeat of TGFBR1 exon 1 and germline allele-specific expression were also conducted to obtain further information on the contribution of the TGFBR1*6A allele to CRC susceptibility. There was no statistically significant association between the TGFBR1*6A allele and CRC (p > 0.05). The OR was 1.147 (95% CI: 0.799–1.647) for carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele and 0.878 (95% CI: 0.306–2.520) for homozygous TGFBR1*6A individuals compared with the reference. The frequency of the polymorphism was not affected by age, sex or tumour stage. The TGFBR1*6A allele was more prevalent among colon tumour patients than among rectal tumour patients. Tumour somatic mutations were found in only two of 69 cases (2.9%). Both cases involved a GCG deletion that changed genotype 9A/9A in normal DNA to genotype 9A/8A. Interestingly, these two tumours were positive for microsatellite instability, suggesting that these mutations originated because of a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. Allele-specific expression of the 9A allele was detected in seven of the 14 heterozygous 9A/6A tumour cases. This could have been caused by linkage disequilibrium of the TGFBR1*6A allele with

  4. Highly efficient PCR assay to discriminate allelic DNA methylation status using whole genome amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously developed a simple method termed HpaII-McrBC PCR (HM-PCR to discriminate allelic methylation status of the genomic sites of interest, and successfully applied it to a comprehensive analysis of CpG islands (CGIs on human chromosome 21q. However, HM-PCR requires 200 ng of genomic DNA to examine one target site, thereby precluding its application to such samples that are limited in quantity. Findings We developed HpaII-McrBC whole-genome-amplification PCR (HM-WGA-PCR that uses whole-genome-amplified DNA as the template. HM-WGA-PCR uses only 1/100th the genomic template material required for HM-PCR. Indeed, we successfully analyzed 147 CGIs by HM-WGA-PCR using only ~300 ng of DNA, whereas previous HM-PCR study had required ~30 μg. Furthermore, we confirmed that allelic methylation status revealed by HM-WGA-PCR is identical to that by HM-PCR in every case of the 147 CGIs tested, proving high consistency between the two methods. Conclusions HM-WGA-PCR would serve as a reliable alternative to HM-PCR in the analysis of allelic methylation status when the quantity of DNA available is limited.

  5. HLA class I-mediated control of HIV-1 in the Japanese population, in which the protective HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 alleles are absent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Takuya; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Nelson, George; Sakai, Keiko; Carrington, Mary; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effect of HLA class I alleles on clinical parameters for HIV-1 disease progression in the Japanese population, where two strongly protective alleles, HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27, are virtually nonexistent. HLA-B alleles showed a dominant role, primarily through HLA-B*67:01 and the HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotype. Neither a rare-allele nor a heterozygote advantage was found, suggesting that the effect of HLA alleles in the Japanese population is either different from those observed in Africans and Caucasians or undetectable due to limited power.

  6. Association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to mixed connective tissue disease in Polish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Gorycka, A; Stypińska, B; Olesińska, M; Felis-Giemza, A; Mańczak, M; Czuszynska, Z; Zdrojewski, Z; Wojciechowicz, J; Jurkowska, M

    2016-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease, originally defined as a connective tissue inflammatory syndrome with overlapping features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), characterized by the presence of antibodies against components of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1snRNP). The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of (high-resolution-typed) DRB1 alleles in a cohort of Polish patients with MCTD (n = 103). Identification of the variants potentially associated with risk and protection was carried out by comparison with the DKMS Polish Bone Marrow Donor Registry (41306 alleles). DRB1*15:01 (odds ratio (OR): 6.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-8.06), DRB1*04 (OR: 3.69; 95% CI 2.69-5.01) and *09:01 (OR: 8.12; 95% CI 2.15-21.75) were identified as risk alleles for MCTD, while HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele was found to be protective (OR: 0.50; 95% CI 0.28-0.83). The carrier frequency of the DRB1*01 was higher in MCTD patients compared with controls, although the differences were not statistically significant. Our results confirm the modulating influence of HLA-DRB1 genotypes on development of connective tissue diseases such as MCTD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Infrequent detection of germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 in lymphoblasts and tissues of colon cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Guda, Kishore

    2009-06-15

    Recently, germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the gene encoding for transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TGFBR1) has been proposed to be a major risk factor for cancer predisposition in the colon. Germline ASE results in a lowered expression of one of the TGFBR1 alleles (>1.5-fold), and was shown to occur in approximately 20% of informative familial and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the present study, using the highly quantitative pyrosequencing technique, we estimated the frequency of ASE in TGFBR1 in a cohort of affected individuals from familial clusters of advanced colon neoplasias (cancers and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia), and also from a cohort of individuals with sporadic CRCs. Cases were considered positive for the presence of ASE if demonstrating an allelic expression ratio <0.67 or >1.5. Using RNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines, we find that of 46 informative Caucasian advanced colon neoplasia cases with a family history, only 2 individuals display a modest ASE, with allelic ratios of 1.65 and 1.73, respectively. Given that ASE of TGFBR1, if present, would likely be more pronounced in the colon compared with other tissues, we additionally determined the allele ratios of TGFBR1 in the RNA derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of sporadic CRC cases. We, however, found no evidence of ASE in any of 44 informative sporadic cases analyzed. Taken together, we find that germline ASE of TGFBR1, as assayed in lymphoblastoid and colon epithelial cells of colon cancer patients, is a relatively rare event.

  8. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  9. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Fung

    Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  10. TypeLoader: A fast and efficient automated workflow for the annotation and submission of novel full-length HLA alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendranath, V; Albrecht, V; Hayhurst, J D; Schöne, B; Robinson, J; Marsh, S G E; Schmidt, A H; Lange, V

    2017-07-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the discovery of novel allelic variants of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Commonly, only the exons encoding the peptide binding domains of novel HLA alleles are submitted. As a result, the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database lacks sequence information outside those regions for the majority of known alleles. This has implications for the application of the new sequencing technologies, which deliver sequence data often covering the complete gene. As these technologies simplify the characterization of the complete gene regions, it is desirable for novel alleles to be submitted as full-length sequences to the database. However, the manual annotation of full-length alleles and the generation of specific formats required by the sequence repositories is prone to error and time consuming. We have developed TypeLoader to address both these facets. With only the full-length sequence as a starting point, Typeloader performs automatic sequence annotation and subsequently handles all steps involved in preparing the specific formats for submission with very little manual intervention. TypeLoader is routinely used at the DKMS Life Science Lab and has aided in the successful submission of more than 900 novel HLA alleles as full-length sequences to the European Nucleotide Archive repository and the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database with a 95% reduction in the time spent on annotation and submission when compared with handling these processes manually. TypeLoader is implemented as a web application and can be easily installed and used on a standalone Linux desktop system or within a Linux client/server architecture. TypeLoader is downloadable from http://www.github.com/DKMS-LSL/typeloader. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption....... These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture....

  12. The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis. The frequency of HLA-alleles class 1 and 2 is lower in Southern Brazil than in the European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Lineu Cesar; Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Arndt, Raquel Cristina; Kay, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi; Scola, Rosana Herminia

    2016-08-01

    To study the HLA of class 1and 2 in a multiple sclerosis (MS) population to verify the susceptibility for the disease in the Southern Brazil. We analyzed patients with MS and controls, by direct sequencing of the genes related to HLA DRB1, DQB1, DPB1, A, B and C alleles with high resolution techniques. We found a lower frequency of all HLA alleles class 1 and 2 in MS and controls comparing to the European population. Several alleles had statistical correlation, but after Bonferroni correction, the only allele with significance was the HLA-DQB1*02:03, which has a positive association with MS. Our data have different frequency of HLA-alleles than the previous published papers in the Southeast Brazil and European population, possible due to several ethnic backgrounds.

  13. Allelic diversity of the MHC class II DRB genes in brown bears (Ursus arctos) and a comparison of DRB sequences within the family Ursidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, N; Mano, T; Kosintsev, P; Vorobiev, A; Masuda, R

    2010-11-01

    The allelic diversity of the DRB locus in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes was analyzed in the brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Hokkaido Island of Japan, Siberia, and Kodiak of Alaska. Nineteen alleles of the DRB exon 2 were identified from a total of 38 individuals of U. arctos and were highly polymorphic. Comparisons of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions in the antigen-binding sites of deduced amino acid sequences indicated evidence for balancing selection on the bear DRB locus. The phylogenetic analysis of the DRB alleles among three genera (Ursus, Tremarctos, and Ailuropoda) in the family Ursidae revealed that DRB allelic lineages were not separated according to species. This strongly shows trans-species persistence of DRB alleles within the Ursidae. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Analysis of S-RNase alleles of almond (Prunus dulcis): characterization of new sequences, resolution of synonyms and evidence of intragenic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Encarnación; Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2006-11-01

    Cross-compatibility relationships in almond are controlled by a gametophytically expressed incompatibility system partly mediated by stylar RNases, of which 29 have been reported. To resolve possible synonyms and to provide data for phylogenetic analysis, 21 almond S-RNase alleles were cloned and sequenced from SP (signal peptide region) or C1 (first conserved region) to C5, except for the S29 allele, which could be cloned only from SP to C1. Nineteen sequences (S4, S6, S11-S22, S25-S29)) were potentially new whereas S10 and S24 had previously been published but with different labels. The sequences for S16 and S17 were identical to that for S1, published previously; likewise, S15 was identical to S5. In addition, S4 and S20 were identical, as were S13 and S19. A revised version of the standard table of almond incompatibility genotypes is presented. Several alleles had AT or GA tandem repeats in their introns. Sequences of the 23 distinct newly cloned or already published alleles were aligned. Sliding windows analysis of Ka/Ks identified regions where positive selection may operate; in contrast to the Maloideae, most of the region from the beginning of C3 to the beginning of RC4 appeared not to be under positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four pairs of alleles had "bootstrap" support > 80%: S5/S10, S4/S8, S11/S24, and S3/S6. Various motifs up to 19 residues long occurred in at least two alleles, and their distributions were consistent with intragenic recombination, as were separate phylogenetic analyses of the 5' and 3' sections. Sequence comparison of phylogenetically related alleles indicated the significance of the region between RC4 and C5 in defining specificity.

  15. Characterization of a Novel MMS-Sensitive Allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm4+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, Nimna S.; Forsburg, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the conserved helicase motor of the eukaryotic replication fork. Mutations in the Mcm4 subunit are associated with replication stress and double strand breaks in multiple systems. In this work, we characterize a new temperature-sensitive allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm4+. Uniquely among known mcm4 alleles, this mutation causes sensitivity to the alkylation damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Even in the absence of treatment or temperature shift, mcm4-c106 cells show increased repair foci of RPA and Rad52, and require the damage checkpoint for viability, indicating genome stress. The mcm4-c106 mutant is synthetically lethal with mutations disrupting fork protection complex (FPC) proteins Swi1 and Swi3. Surprisingly, we found that the deletion of rif1+ suppressed the MMS-sensitive phenotype without affecting temperature sensitivity. Together, these data suggest that mcm4-c106 destabilizes replisome structure. PMID:27473316

  16. Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Alleles at 4q25 Predict Recurrence after Catheter-based Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M. Benjamin; Muhammad, Raafia; Parvez, Babar; White, Brenda W.; Streur, Megan; Song, Yanna; Stubblefield, Tanya; Kucera, Gayle; Blair, Marcia; Rytlewski, Jason; Parvathaneni, Sunthosh; Nagarakanti, Rangadham; Saavedra, Pablo; Ellis, Christopher; Whalen, S. Patrick; Roden, Dan M; Darbar, Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Background Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 4q25 (rs2200733, rs10033464) are associated with both lone and typical AF. Risk alleles at 4q25 have recently been shown to predict recurrence of AF after ablation in a population of predominately lone AF, but lone AF represents only 5–30% of AF cases. Objective To test the hypothesis that 4q25 AF risk alleles can predict response to AF ablation in the majority of AF cases. Methods Patients enrolled in the Vanderbilt AF Registry underwent 378 catheter-based AF ablations (median age 60 years, 71% male, 89% typical AF) between 2004 and 2011. The primary endpoint was time to recurrence of any non-sinus atrial tachyarrhythmia (atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, or AF; [AT/AF]). Results Two-hundred AT/AF recurrences (53%) were observed. In multivariable analysis, the rs2200733 risk allele predicted a 24% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio 0.76 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6–0.95, P=0.016) compared with wild-type. The heterozygous haplotype demonstrated a 21% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62–0.99) and the homozygous risk allele carriers a 39% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.0) (P=0.037). Conclusion Risk alleles at the 4q25 loci predict impaired clinical response to AF ablation in a population of predominately typical AF patients. Our findings suggest the rs2200733 polymorphism may hold promise as an as an objectively measured patient characteristic that can used as a clinical tool for selection of patients for AF ablation. PMID:23178686

  17. Identification of Novel Alleles Conferring Superior Production of Rose Flavor Phenylethyl Acetate Using Polygenic Analysis in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Trindade de Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavor compound metabolism is one of the last areas in metabolism where multiple genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes are still unknown. A major challenge is the involvement of side activities of enzymes having their main function in other areas of metabolism. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes affecting production of phenylethyl acetate (2-PEAc. This is a desirable flavor compound of major importance in alcoholic beverages imparting rose- and honey-like aromas, with production of high 2-PEAc levels considered a superior trait. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs responsible for high 2-PEAc production were identified, with two loci each showing linkage to the genomes of the BTC.1D and ER18 parents. The first two loci were investigated further. The causative genes were identified by reciprocal allele swapping into both parents using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9. The superior allele of the first major causative gene, FAS2, was dominant and contained two unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs responsible for high 2-PEAc production that were not present in other sequenced yeast strains. FAS2 encodes the alpha subunit of the fatty acid synthetase complex. Surprisingly, the second causative gene was a mutant allele of TOR1, a gene involved in nitrogen regulation. Exchange of both superior alleles in the ER18 parent strain increased 2-PEAc production 70%, nearly to the same level as in the best superior segregant. Our results show that polygenic analysis combined with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated allele exchange is a powerful tool for identification of genes encoding missing metabolic enzymes and for development of industrial yeast strains generating novel flavor profiles in alcoholic beverages.

  18. Correlation of geographic distributions of haptoglobin alleles with prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) - a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamm, Vladimir V; Geist, Arielle M; Harauz, George

    2017-02-01

    We have proposed that the myelin damage observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be partly mediated through the long-term release and degradation of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and the products of its oxidative degradation [Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 71, 1789-1798, 2014]. The protein haptoglobin (Hpt) binds extracellular Hb as a first line of defense, and can serve as a vascular antioxidant. Humans have two different Hpt alleles: Hpt1 and Hpt2, giving either homozygous Hpt1-1 or Hpt2-2 phenotypes, or a heterozygous Hpt1-2 phenotype. We questioned whether those geographic regions with higher frequency of the Hpt2 allele (conversely, lower frequency of Hpt1 allele) would correlate with an increased incidence of MS, because different Hpt phenotypes will have variable anti-oxidative potentials in protecting myelin from damage inflicted by extracellular Hb and its degradation products. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a systematic analysis of the literature on reported geographic distributions of Hpt alleles to compare them with data reported in the World Health Organization Atlas of worldwide MS prevalence. We found the frequency of the Hpt1 allele to be low in European and North American countries with a high prevalence of MS, consistent with our hypothesis. However, this correlation was not observed in China and India, countries with the lowest Hpt1 frequencies, yet low reported prevalence of MS. Nevertheless, this work shows the need for continued refinement of geographic patterns of MS prevalence, including data on ethnic or racial origin, and for new clinical studies to probe the observed correlation and evaluate Hpt phenotype as a predictor of disease variability and progression, severity, and/or comorbidity with cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Parasites and parallel divergence of the number of individual MHC alleles between sympatric three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus morphs in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsopoulou, M E; Pálsson, S; Ólafsdóttir, G Á

    2012-10-01

    Two pairs of sympatric three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus morphs and two single morph populations inhabiting mud and lava or rocky benthic habitats in four Icelandic lakes were screened for parasites and genotyped for MHC class IIB diversity. Parasitic infection differed consistently between G. aculeatus from different benthic habitats. Gasterosteus aculeatus from the lava or rocky habitats were more heavily infected in all lakes. A parallel pattern was also found in individual MHC allelic variation with lava G. aculeatus morphs exhibiting lower levels of variation than the mud morphs. Evidence for selective divergence in MHC allele number is ambiguous but supported by two findings in addition to the parallel pattern observed. MHC allele diversity was not consistent with diversity reported at neutral markers (microsatellites) and in Þingvallavatn the most common number of alleles in each morph was associated with lower infection levels. In the Þingvallavatn lava morph, lower infection levels by the two most common parasites, Schistocephalus solidus and Diplostomum baeri, were associated with different MHC allele numbers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Lack of association between TaqI A1 Allele of dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcohol-use disorders in Atayal natives of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-Hsiang Chen [Cheng Hsin Rehabilitation and Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Shih-Hsiang Chien; Hai-Gwo Hwu [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-20

    Association studies between the A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene TaqI A polymorphism and alcoholism remain controversial. A recent study from Japan demonstrated that the A1 allele is associated with severe alcoholism in the Japanese population. We were interested in knowing if this association also exists in the Atayals of Taiwan, who were found to have a higher prevalence of alcohol-use disorders than the Han Chinese in Taiwan. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in alcohol-abusing, alcohol-dependent, and nonalcoholic control Atayal natives in Taiwan. A1 allele frequencies in alcohol-dependent, alcohol-abusing, and normal control Atayals were 0.39, 0.42, and 0.39, respectively. No difference in A1 allele frequency was found among these three groups. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the A1 allele of the TaqI A polymorphism of the DRD2 gene increases susceptibility to alcohol-use disorders in the Atayals of Taiwan. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Generation of New Hairless Alleles by Genomic Engineering at the Hairless Locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Praxenthaler

    Full Text Available Hairless (H is the major antagonist within the Notch signalling pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. By binding to Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H] and two co-repressors, H induces silencing of Notch target genes in the absence of Notch signals. We have applied genomic engineering to create several new H alleles. To this end the endogenous H locus was replaced with an attP site by homologous recombination, serving as a landing platform for subsequent site directed integration of different H constructs. This way we generated a complete H knock out allele HattP, reintroduced a wild type H genomic and a cDNA-construct (Hgwt, Hcwt as well as two constructs encoding H proteins defective of Su(H binding (HLD, HiD. Phenotypes regarding viability, bristle and wing development were recorded, and the expression of Notch target genes wingless and cut was analysed in mutant wing discs or in mutant cell clones. Moreover, genetic interactions with Notch (N5419 and Delta (DlB2 mutants were addressed. Overall, phenotypes were largely as expected: both HLD and HiD were similar to the HattP null allele, indicating that most of H activity requires the binding of Su(H. Both rescue constructs Hgwt and Hcwt were homozygous viable without phenotype. Unexpectedly, the hemizygous condition uncovered that they were not identical to the wild type allele: notably Hcwt showed a markedly reduced activity, suggesting the presence of as yet unidentified regulatory or stabilizing elements in untranslated regions of the H gene. Interestingly, Hgwt homozygous cells expressed higher levels of H protein, perhaps unravelling gene-by-environment interactions.

  2. QTL detection and elite alleles mining for stigma traits in Oryza sativa by association mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Dang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stigma traits are very important for hybrid seed production in Oryza sativa, which is a self-pollinated crop; however, the genetic mechanism controlling the traits is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic data of 227 accessions across two years and assessed their genotypic variation with 249 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. By combining phenotypic and genotypic data, a genome-wide association (GWA map was generated. Large phenotypic variations in stigma length (STL, stigma brush-shaped part length (SBPL and stigma non-brush-shaped part length (SNBPL were found. Significant positive correlations were identified among stigma traits. In total, 2,072 alleles were detected among 227 accessions, with an average of 8.3 alleles per SSR locus. GWA mapping detected 6 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for the STL, 2 QTLs for the SBPL and 7 QTLs for the SNBPL. Eleven, 5, and 12 elite alleles were found for the STL, SBPL and SNBPL, respectively. Optimal cross designs were predicted for improving the target traits. The detected genetic variation in stigma traits and QTLs provides helpful information for cloning candidate STL genes and breeding rice cultivars with longer STLs in the future.

  3. Increased risk for CRC in diabetic patients with the nonrisk allele of SNPs at 8q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Shinya; Mimori, Koshi; Yamamoto, Ken; Inoue, Hiroshi; Imoto, Seiya; Kawano, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Sato, Tetsuya; Toh, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Hisae; Maeda, Toyoki; Ishii, Hideshi; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Watanabe, Masahiko; Tanaka, Jun-ichi; Kudo, Shin-ei; Sugihara, Ken-ichi; Hase, Kazuo; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Kusunoki, Masato; Yamada, Kazutaka; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Barnard, Graham F; Miyano, Satoru; Mori, Masaki

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) oncogenesis was considered to be determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Specific interacting factors that influence CRC morbidity have yet to be fully investigated. A multi-institutional collaborative study with 1511 CRC patients and 2098 control subjects was used to compare the odds ratios for the occurrence of polymorphisms at 11 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). TaqMan PCR and questionnaires were used to evaluate the effects of environmental exposures. Variants of rs6983267 on 8q24 were the most significant markers of risk for CRC (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27, P = 0.0015). Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM), a higher body mass index at age 20, and meat consumption were environmental risk factors, whereas a tuna-rich diet and vitamin intake were protective factors. The cohort of rs6983267 SNP major (T) allele at 8q24 and DM had a 1.66-fold higher risk ratio than the cohort of major allele patients without DM. We confirmed that interactions between the genetic background and environmental factors are associated with increased risk for CRC. There is a robust risk of the minor G allele at the 8q24 rs6983267 SNP; however, a major T allele SNP could more clearly reveal a correlation with CRC specifically when DM is present.

  4. The Microcephalin Ancestral Allele in a Neanderthal Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Milani, Lucio; Corti, Giorgio; Balsamo, Carlotta; Vai, Stefania; Catalano, Giulio; Pilli, Elena; Longo, Laura; Condemi, Silvana; Giunti, Paolo; Hänni, Catherine; De Bellis, Gianluca; Orlando, Ludovic; Barbujani, Guido; Caramelli, David

    2010-01-01

    Background The high frequency (around 0.70 worlwide) and the relatively young age (between 14,000 and 62,000 years) of a derived group of haplotypes, haplogroup D, at the microcephalin (MCPH1) locus led to the proposal that haplogroup D originated in a human lineage that separated from modern humans >1 million years ago, evolved under strong positive selection, and passed into the human gene pool by an episode of admixture circa 37,000 years ago. The geographic distribution of haplogroup D, with marked differences between Africa and Eurasia, suggested that the archaic human form admixing with anatomically modern humans might have been Neanderthal. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first PCR amplification and high- throughput sequencing of nuclear DNA at the microcephalin (MCPH1) locus from Neanderthal individual from Mezzena Rockshelter (Monti Lessini, Italy). We show that a well-preserved Neanderthal fossil dated at approximately 50,000 years B.P., was homozygous for the ancestral, non-D, allele. The high yield of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences of the studied specimen, the pattern of nucleotide misincorporation among sequences consistent with post-mortem DNA damage and an accurate control of the MCPH1 alleles in all personnel that manipulated the sample, make it extremely unlikely that this result might reflect modern DNA contamination. Conclusions/Significance The MCPH1 genotype of the Monti Lessini (MLS) Neanderthal does not prove that there was no interbreeding between anatomically archaic and modern humans in Europe, but certainly shows that speculations on a possible Neanderthal origin of what is now the most common MCPH1 haplogroup are not supported by empirical evidence from ancient DNA. PMID:20498832

  5. The microcephalin ancestral allele in a Neanderthal individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high frequency (around 0.70 worldwide and the relatively young age (between 14,000 and 62,000 years of a derived group of haplotypes, haplogroup D, at the microcephalin (MCPH1 locus led to the proposal that haplogroup D originated in a human lineage that separated from modern humans >1 million years ago, evolved under strong positive selection, and passed into the human gene pool by an episode of admixture circa 37,000 years ago. The geographic distribution of haplogroup D, with marked differences between Africa and Eurasia, suggested that the archaic human form admixing with anatomically modern humans might have been Neanderthal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the first PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing of nuclear DNA at the microcephalin (MCPH1 locus from Neanderthal individual from Mezzena Rockshelter (Monti Lessini, Italy. We show that a well-preserved Neanderthal fossil dated at approximately 50,000 years B.P., was homozygous for the ancestral, non-D, allele. The high yield of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences of the studied specimen, the pattern of nucleotide misincorporation among sequences consistent with post-mortem DNA damage and an accurate control of the MCPH1 alleles in all personnel that manipulated the sample, make it extremely unlikely that this result might reflect modern DNA contamination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The MCPH1 genotype of the Monti Lessini (MLS Neanderthal does not prove that there was no interbreeding between anatomically archaic and modern humans in Europe, but certainly shows that speculations on a possible Neanderthal origin of what is now the most common MCPH1 haplogroup are not supported by empirical evidence from ancient DNA.

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Alleles (DQB1 and DRB1 as Predictors for Response to Interferon Therapy in HCV Genotype 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Shaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens class II play an important role in immune response against HCV. We investigated whether HLA class II alleles influence susceptibility to HCV infection and response to interferon therapy. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci were genotyped using PCR-SSO Luminex technology. According to our regimen, 41 (66% of patients achieved sustained virological response to combined treatment of IFN and ribavirin. Frequencies of DQB1*0313 allele and DRB1*04-DRB1*11, DQB1*0204-DQB1*0313, DQB1*0309-DQB1*0313, and DQB1*0313-DQB1*0319 haplotypes were significantly more frequent in nonresponders than in responders. In contrast, DQB1*02, DQB1*06, DRB1*13, and DRB1*15 alleles were significantly more frequent in responders than in nonresponders. Similarly, DRB1*1301, DRB1*1361, and DRB1*1369 alleles and DRB1*1301-DRB1*1328, DRB1*1301-DRB1*1361, DRB1*1301-DRB1*1369, DRB1*1328-DRB1*1361, and DRB1*1328-DRB1*1369 haplotypes were significantly found only in responders. Some alleles and linkages showed significantly different distributions between patient and healthy groups. These alleles may be used as predictors for response to treatment or to susceptibility to HCV infection in the Egyptian population.

  7. Allele mining across DREB1A and DREB1B in diverse rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low temperature stress is one of the major limiting factors affecting rice productivity in higher altitudes. DREB1A and ..... to isolate useful alleles from related genotypes. A total of ... work also suggests that DREB induction and cold response.

  8. Polymorphism of κ-Casein in Italian Goat Breeds: A New ACRS-PCR Designed DNA Test for Discrimination of A and B Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Cubric-Curik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a DNA test for rapid characterisation of goat κ-casein (κ-CN A and B variants and to study this polymorphism in Italian goat breeds. Genetic polymorphism of κ-CN gene was, in addition to isoelectric focusing, analysed according to a new technique designated as amplification created restriction site. Two alleles that differ in one nucleotide mutation (G Ø A in exon 4 were characterised. The 167-bp PCR product surrounding the nucleotide mutation was amplified from genomic DNA and the PCR product was digested with MaeIII. After digestion the A allele gives three fragments of 77, 65 and 25 bp in comparison with the B allele which gives two fragments of 90 and 77 bp. The analysis of allele frequency distribution at κ-CN locus, based on 401 individual samples, revealed significant differences among three goat breeds from the north of Italy (Nera di Verzasca, Frontalasca and Alpine with frequency of κ-CN B allele around 0.3, versus two goat breeds from the south of Italy (Maltese and Sarda with frequency of κ-CN B allele around 0.5. While two goat breeds (Maltese and Nera di Verzasca did not show significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, a highly significant excess of heterozygote genotype (AB was observed in Alpine, Frontalasca and Sarda goats. Here the developed DNA method and observed relatively high frequency of κ-CN B allele give a prerequisite for the assessment of research related to the simultaneous estimation of the effects of composite αs1/κ-CN genotypes on milk production and cheese-making properties.

  9. The Analysis of A Frequent TMPRSS3 Allele Containing P.V116M and P.V291L in A Cis Configuration among Deaf Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Reum Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed targeted re-sequencing to identify the genetic etiology of early-onset postlingual deafness and encountered a frequent TMPRSS3 allele harboring two variants in a cis configuration. We aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of the allele. Among 88 cochlear implantees with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss, subjects with GJB2 and SLC26A4 mutations were excluded. Thirty-one probands manifesting early-onset postlingual deafness were sorted. Through targeted re-sequencing, we detected two families with a TMPRSS3 mutant allele containing p.V116M and p.V291L in a cis configuration, p.[p.V116M; p.V291L]. A minor allele frequency was calculated and proteolytic activity was measured. A p.[p.V116M; p.V291L] allele demonstrated a significantly higher frequency compared to normal controls and merited attention due to its high frequency (4.84%, 3/62. The first family showed a novel deleterious splice site variant—c.783-1G>A—in a trans allele, while the other showed homozygosity. The progression to deafness was noted within the first decade, suggesting DFNB10. The proteolytic activity was significantly reduced, confirming the severe pathogenicity. This frequent mutant allele significantly contributes to early-onset postlingual deafness in Koreans. For clinical implication and proper auditory rehabilitation, it is important to pay attention to this allele with a severe pathogenic potential.

  10. Distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageen Hussain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is one of the classic examples of autoimmune diseases among human beings and is a rare disease in Pakistani population. Clinically it is a quite diverse and complicated autoimmune disease in a sense that it involves multiple organs of the body and mimics with other diseases as well. This study focused on the distribution of HLA alleles in SLE patients with ACE I/D Polymorphism. A total of 122 individuals were enrolled in this study, 61 were the SLE patients who fulfilled revised ACR criteria and 61 were the healthy controls. Mean age of SLE patients at diagnosis was 30.35 ± 1.687 years (12-68 years. ACE gene I/D polymorphism was performed by nested PCR and DNA based HLA typing technique was used. ACE gene I/D polymorphism of Intron16 was studied and found to be involved in the activity of SLE. There is high frequency of HLA-A*01, HLA-B*40, HLA-DRB1*01 alleles in SLE patients with ACE DD genotype. The distribution of HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles was analyzed in SLE patients with various disease phenotypes. HLA-A*01 and HLA-B*40 was the most common allele found in SLE patients with the involvement of skin. HLA-A*01, -A*03, HLA-B*13 and -B*46 were common in SLE patients with arthritis while HLA-A*26 and -A*69 were commonly found in Lupus nephritis cases. SLE patients involving both skin and kidney had an allele HLA-DRB1*01 common in them.

  11. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Alleles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shahidul; Applebee, Marie; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determining dough properties and breadmaking quality. However, resolution of the currently used methodologies for analyzing LMW-GS is rather low which prevents an efficient use of genetic variations associated with these alleles in wheat breeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate and develop a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate LMW-GS alleles using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A set of standard single LMW-GS allele lines as well as a suite of well documented wheat cultivars were collected from France, CIMMYT, and Canada. Method development and optimization were focused on protein extraction procedures and MALDI-TOF instrument settings to generate reproducible diagnostic spectrum peak profiles for each of the known wheat LMW-GS allele. Results revealed a total of 48 unique allele combinations among the studied genotypes. Characteristic MALDI-TOF peak patterns were obtained for 17 common LMW-GS alleles, including 5 (b, a or c, d, e, f), 7 (a, b, c, d or i, f, g, h) and 5 (a, b, c, d, f) patterns or alleles for the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. In addition, some reproducible MALDI-TOF peak patterns were also obtained that did not match with any known alleles. The results demonstrated a high resolution and throughput nature of MALDI-TOF technology in analyzing LMW-GS alleles, which is suitable for application in wheat breeding programs in processing a large number of wheat lines with high accuracy in limited time. It also suggested that the variation of LMW-GS alleles is more abundant than what has been defined by the current nomenclature system that is mainly based on SDS-PAGE system. The MALDI-TOF technology is useful to differentiate these variations. An international joint effort may be needed to assign allele symbols to these newly identified alleles and determine their effects on end

  12. A Simple, High-Throughput Assay for Fragile X Expanded Alleles Using Triple Repeat Primed PCR and Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Elaine; Laver, Thomas; Yu, Ping; Jama, Mohamed; Young, Keith; Zoccoli, Michael; Marlowe, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Population screening has been proposed for Fragile X syndrome to identify premutation carrier females and affected newborns. We developed a PCR-based assay capable of quickly detecting the presence or absence of an expanded FMR1 allele with high sensitivity and specificity. This assay combines a triplet repeat primed PCR with high-throughput automated capillary electrophoresis. We evaluated assay performance using archived samples sent for Fragile X diagnostic testing representing a range of Fragile X CGG-repeat expansions. Two hundred five previously genotyped samples were tested with the new assay. Data were analyzed for the presence of a trinucleotide “ladder” extending beyond 55 repeats, which was set as a cut-off to identify expanded FMR1 alleles. We identified expanded FMR1 alleles in 132 samples (59 premutation, 71 full mutation, 2 mosaics) and normal FMR1 alleles in 73 samples. We found 100% concordance with previous results from PCR and Southern blot analyses. In addition, we show feasibility of using this assay with DNA extracted from dried-blood spots. Using a single PCR combined with high-throughput fragment analysis on the automated capillary electrophoresis instrument, we developed a rapid and reproducible PCR-based laboratory assay that meets many of the requirements for a first-tier test for population screening. PMID:20431035

  13. Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L...

  14. Association between the DRD2 A1 allele and response to methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Daniel T; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-06-05

    The TaqI A polymorphism (A(1)) of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2), although not a specific predictor of opioid dependence, has been strongly associated with high levels of prior heroin use and poor treatment outcomes among methadone maintenance patients. The aims of this study were to confirm these findings via a retrospective analysis of A(1) allele frequency in methadone (n = 46) and buprenorphine (n = 25) patients, and non-opioid-dependent controls (n = 95). Subjects were genotyped at the DRD2 TaqI A locus using PCR amplification followed by TaqI restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. For methadone and buprenorphine subjects, heroin use (prior to treatment), treatment outcomes, and withdrawal occurrence were determined from comprehensive case notes. No significant differences in A(1) allele frequency (%) were observed between: methadone (19.6%), buprenorphine (18.0%), and control (17.9%) groups (P > 0.7); successful and poor treatment outcome groups, methadone: 20.0% and 19.2%, respectively (P = 1.0); buprenorphine: 18.4% and 20.0%, respectively (P = 1.0). Also, there were no significant relationships between TaqI A genotype and prior heroin use (P = 0.47). However, among the successful methadone subjects, significantly fewer A(1) allele carriers experienced withdrawal than non-A(1) carriers (P = 0.04). In conclusion, the DRD2 genotype effects did not affect opioid maintenance treatment outcomes. This suggests the need for a further prospective investigation into the role of the DRD2 A(1) allele in heroin use and response to maintenance pharmacotherapies for opioid dependence.

  15. Typing for HLA-DPB1*03 and HLA-DPB1*06 using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Detection of "new" DPB1*06 variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1989-01-01

    DP gene typing using in vitro DNA amplification combined with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes has recently been reported. The resulting DNA amplification was specific for the HLA-DPB locus. Typing for the individual DPB alleles was exclusively dependent on the hybridizations of the probe...

  16. Positive selection of deleterious alleles through interaction with a sex-ratio suppressor gene in African Buffalo: a plausible new mechanism for a high frequency anomaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim van Hooft

    Full Text Available Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, through positive selection of these alleles that is ultimately driven by a sex-ratio suppressor. We have previously shown that one in four Kruger buffalo has a Y-chromosome profile that, despite being associated with low body condition, appears to impart a relative reproductive advantage, and which is stably maintained through a sex-ratio suppressor. Apparently, this sex-ratio suppressor prevents fertility reduction that generally accompanies sex-ratio distortion. We hypothesize that this body-condition-associated reproductive advantage increases the fitness of alleles that negatively affect male body condition, causing genome-wide positive selection of these alleles. To investigate this we genotyped 459 buffalo using 17 autosomal microsatellites. By correlating heterozygosity with body condition (heterozygosity-fitness correlations, we found that most microsatellites were associated with one of two gene types: one with elevated frequencies of deleterious alleles that have a negative effect on body condition, irrespective of sex; the other with elevated frequencies of sexually antagonistic alleles that are negative for male body condition but positive for female body condition. Positive selection and a direct association with a Y-chromosomal sex-ratio suppressor are indicated, respectively, by allele clines and by relatively high numbers of homozygous deleterious alleles among sex-ratio suppressor carriers. This study, which employs novel statistical techniques to analyse heterozygosity-fitness correlations, is the first to demonstrate the abundance of sexually-antagonistic genes in a natural mammal population. It also has

  17. Frequency of Cry1F resistance alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Andow, David A; Horikoshi, Renato J; Bernardi, Daniel; Ribeiro, Rebeca da S; Nascimento, Antonio Rb do; Santos, Antonio C Dos; Omoto, Celso

    2016-12-01

    The frequency of resistance alleles is a major factor influencing the rate of resistance evolution. Here, we adapted the F 2 screen procedure for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) with a discriminating concentration assay, and extended associated statistical methods to estimate the frequency of resistance to Cry1F protein in S. frugiperda in Brazil when resistance was not rare. We show that F 2 screen is efficient even when the resistance frequency is 0.250. It was possible to screen 517 isoparental lines from 12 populations sampled in five states of Brazil during the first half of 2012. Western Bahia had the highest allele frequency of Cry1F resistance, 0.192, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) between 0.163 and 0.220. All other states had a similar and lower frequency varying from 0.042 in Paraná to 0.080 in Mato Grosso do Sul. The high frequency in western Bahia may be related to year-round availability of maize, the high population density of S. frugiperda, the lack of refuges and the high adoption rate of Cry1F maize. Cry1F resistance alleles were not rare and occurred at frequencies that have already compromised the useful life of TC1507 maize in western Bahia. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase gene G298 allele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagib El-Kilany, Galal E.; Nayel, Ehab; Hazzaa, Sahar

    2004-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) has an important effect on blood pressure, arterial wall, and the basal release of endothelial NO in hypertension (HPN) may be reduced. Until now, there is no solid data revealing the potential role of the polymorphism of the nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS) in patients with HPN and microvascular angina. Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the gene of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as the polymorphism of this gene may be a putative candidate for HPN and initiate the process of atherosclerosis. Methods: Sixty participants were recruited for this study; 50 were hypertensive patients complaining of chest pain [30 of them have electrocardiogram (EKG) changes of ischemia], 20 had isolated HPN, and 10 healthy volunteers served as control. All patients underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary angiography. Genotyping of eNOS for all patients and controls was performed. The linkages between HPN, microvascular angina and eNOS gene polymorphism were investigated. Results: MPI and coronary angiography revealed that 15 patients had chest pain with true ischemia and reversible myocardial perfusion defects (multiple and mild) but normal epicardial coronary arteries (microvascular angina), while 15 patients had significant coronary artery disease (CAD), and 20 hypertensive patients showed normal perfusion scan and coronary angiography. The prevalence of the NOS G 298 allele was higher in the hypertensive group with microvascular angina (documented by MPI) than it was among the control participants (P<.005). The eNOS allele was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control participants, but there was no significant difference in homozygote mutants among hypertensive participants, x-syndrome and patients with CAD. Conclusion: eNOS gene polymorphism is proved to be an important etiology in microvascular angina (x-syndrome) among hypertensive patients. In addition, the eNOS mutant

  19. Mutation rate heterogeneity and the generation of allele diversity at the human minisatellite MS205 (D16S309).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C A; Jeffreys, A J; Armour, J A

    1996-11-01

    Many tandemly repeated minisatellite loci display extreme levels of length variation as a consequence of high rates of spontaneous germline mutation altering repeat copy number. Direct screening for new allele lengths by small-pool PCR has shown that instability at the human minisatellite locus MS205 (D16S309) is largely germline specific and usually results in the gain or loss of just a few repeat units. Structural analysis of the order of variant repeats has shown that these events occur preferentially at one end of the tandem array and can result in complex rearrangements including the inter-allelic transfer of repeat units. In contrast, putative mutants recovered from somatic DNA occur at a substantially lower rate and are simple and non-polar in nature. Germline mutation rates vary considerably between alleles, consistent with regulation occurring in cis. Although examination of DNA sequence polymorphisms immediately flanking the minisatellite reveals no definitive associations with germline mutation rate variation, differences in rate may be paralleled by changes in mutation spectrum. These findings help to explain the diversity of MS205 allele structures in modern humans and suggest a common mutation pathway with some other minisatellites.

  20. The Impact of Collisions on the Ability to Detect Rare Mutant Alleles Using Barcode-Type Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna VanLiere Canzoniero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Barcoding techniques are used to reduce error from next-generation sequencing, with applications ranging from understanding tumor subclone populations to detecting circulating tumor DNA. Collisions occur when more than one sample molecule is tagged by the same unique identifier (UID and can result in failure to detect very-low-frequency mutations and error in estimating mutation frequency. Here, we created computer models of barcoding technique, with and without amplification bias introduced by the UID, and analyzed the effect of collisions for a range of mutant allele frequencies (1e−6 to 0.2, number of sample molecules (10 000 to 1e7, and number of UIDs (4 10 -4 14 . Inability to detect rare mutant alleles occurred in 0% to 100% of simulations, depending on collisions and number of mutant molecules. Collisions also introduced error in estimating mutant allele frequency resulting in underestimation of minor allele frequency. Incorporating an understanding of the effect of collisions into experimental design can allow for optimization of the number of sample molecules and number of UIDs to minimize the negative impact on rare mutant detection and mutant frequency estimation.

  1. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  2. The allele frequency of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Ju; Shu, Wei-Pang; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2011-10-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 3p25-26 is implicated in VHL disease. Two informative single nucleotide polymorphisms are at positions 19 and 1149 on the nucleotide sequence from Gene Bank NM_000551. In this study we examined the allele frequencies at these two loci in the Taiwanese population and compared the results to those from European ethnic populations. The allele frequency was examined in 616 healthy individuals including 301 university students and 315 neonates. Both A/G polymorphisms were investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis created by restriction enzymes, BsaJ I and Acc I. Among these subjects, the allele frequencies at 19 SNP and 1149 SNP for variant G were 0.130 and 0.133, respectively. And these results were significant differences from those of the Caucasian populations. In addition, 90% of the tested subjects had identical genotypes at these two loci suggesting the existence of nonrandom association of alleles. We found that the G allele frequency at these two loci in the Taiwanese population is much lower than that in people from Western countries. This phenomenon may be attributed to ethnic effects. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Association of the insertion allele of the common ACE gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus among Kuwaiti cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serri, Ahmad; Ismael, Fatma G; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A; Al-Rashdan, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    The D allele of the common angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism (rs4646994) predisposes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, results on which allele predisposes to disease susceptibility remain controversial in Asian populations. This study was performed to evaluate the association of the common ACE I/D gene polymorphism with both T2DM and CVD susceptibility in an Arab population. We genotyped the ACE I/D polymorphisms by direct allele-specific PCR in 183 healthy controls and 400 CVD patients with diabetes (n=204) and without (n=196). Statistical analysis comparing between the different groups were conducted using R statistic package "SNPassoc". Two genetic models were used: the additive and co-dominant models. The I allele was found to be associated with T2DM (OR=1.84, p=0.00009) after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. However, there was no association with CVD susceptibility (p>0.05). The ACE I allele is found to be associated with T2DM; however, no association was observed with CVD. The inconsistency between studies is suggested to be attributed to genetic diversity due to the existence of sub-populations found in Asian populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Dynamic ligand modulation of EPO receptor pools, and dysregulation by polycythemia-associated EPOR alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO and its cell surface receptor (EPOR are essential for erythropoiesis; can modulate non-erythroid target tissues; and have been reported to affect the progression of certain cancers. Basic studies of EPOR expression and trafficking, however, have been hindered by low-level EPOR occurrence, and the limited specificity of anti-EPOR antibodies. Consequently, these aspects of EPOR biology are not well defined, nor are actions of polycythemia- associated mutated EPOR alleles. Using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies to intracellular, PY- activated and extracellular EPOR domains, the following properties of the endogenous hEPOR in erythroid progenitors first are unambiguously defined. 1 High- Mr EPOR forms become obviously expressed only when EPO is limited. 2 EPOR-68K plus -70K species sequentially accumulate, and EPOR-70K comprises an apparent cell surface EPOR population. 3 Brefeldin A, N-glycanase and associated analyses point to EPOR-68K as a core-glycosylated intracellular EPOR pool (of modest size. 4 In contrast to recent reports, EPOR inward trafficking is shown (in UT7epo cells, and primary proerythroblasts to be sharply ligand-dependent. Beyond this, when C-terminal truncated hEPOR-T mutant alleles as harbored by polycythemia patients are co-expressed with the wild-type EPOR in EPO-dependent erythroid progenitors, several specific events become altered. First, EPOR-T alleles are persistently activated upon EPO- challenge, yet are also subject to apparent turn-over (to low-Mr EPOR products. Furthermore, during exponential cell growth EPOR-T species become both over-represented, and hyper-activated. Interestingly, EPOR-T expression also results in an EPO dose-dependent loss of endogenous wild-type EPOR's (and, therefore, a squelching of EPOR C-terminal- mediated negative feedback effects. New knowledge concerning regulated EPOR expression and trafficking therefore is provided, together with new insight into mechanisms via

  5. Dynamic Ligand Modulation of EPO Receptor Pools, and Dysregulation by Polycythemia-Associated EPOR Alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Seema; Verma, Rakesh; Pradeep, Anamika; Leu, Karen; Mortensen, R. Bruce; Young, Peter R.; Oyasu, Miho; Schatz, Peter J.; Green, Jennifer M.; Wojchowski, Don M.

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPOR) are essential for erythropoiesis; can modulate non-erythroid target tissues; and have been reported to affect the progression of certain cancers. Basic studies of EPOR expression and trafficking, however, have been hindered by low-level EPOR occurrence, and the limited specificity of anti-EPOR antibodies. Consequently, these aspects of EPOR biology are not well defined, nor are actions of polycythemia- associated mutated EPOR alleles. Using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies to intracellular, PY- activated and extracellular EPOR domains, the following properties of the endogenous hEPOR in erythroid progenitors first are unambiguously defined. 1) High- Mr EPOR forms become obviously expressed only when EPO is limited. 2) EPOR-68K plus -70K species sequentially accumulate, and EPOR-70K comprises an apparent cell surface EPOR population. 3) Brefeldin A, N-glycanase and associated analyses point to EPOR-68K as a core-glycosylated intracellular EPOR pool (of modest size). 4) In contrast to recent reports, EPOR inward trafficking is shown (in UT7epo cells, and primary proerythroblasts) to be sharply ligand-dependent. Beyond this, when C-terminal truncated hEPOR-T mutant alleles as harbored by polycythemia patients are co-expressed with the wild-type EPOR in EPO-dependent erythroid progenitors, several specific events become altered. First, EPOR-T alleles are persistently activated upon EPO- challenge, yet are also subject to apparent turn-over (to low-Mr EPOR products). Furthermore, during exponential cell growth EPOR-T species become both over-represented, and hyper-activated. Interestingly, EPOR-T expression also results in an EPO dose-dependent loss of endogenous wild-type EPOR's (and, therefore, a squelching of EPOR C-terminal- mediated negative feedback effects). New knowledge concerning regulated EPOR expression and trafficking therefore is provided, together with new insight into mechanisms via which

  6. Mouse survival motor neuron alleles that mimic SMN2 splicing and are inducible rescue embryonic lethality early in development but not late.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Hammond

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is caused by low survival motor neuron (SMN levels and patients represent a clinical spectrum due primarily to varying copies of the survival motor neuron-2 (SMN2 gene. Patient and animals studies show that disease severity is abrogated as SMN levels increase. Since therapies currently being pursued target the induction of SMN, it will be important to understand the dosage, timing and cellular requirements of SMN for disease etiology and potential therapeutic intervention. This requires new mouse models that can induce SMN temporally and/or spatially. Here we describe the generation of two hypomorphic Smn alleles, Smn(C-T-Neo and Smn(2B-Neo. These alleles mimic SMN2 exon 7 splicing, titre Smn levels and are inducible. They were specifically designed so that up to three independent lines of mice could be generated, herein we describe two. In a homozygous state each allele results in embryonic lethality. Analysis of these mutants indicates that greater than 5% of Smn protein is required for normal development. The severe hypomorphic nature of these alleles is caused by inclusion of a loxP-flanked neomycin gene selection cassette in Smn intron 7, which can be removed with Cre recombinase. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate these as inducible Smn alleles. When combined with an inducible Cre mouse, embryonic lethality caused by low Smn levels can be rescued early in gestation but not late. This provides direct genetic evidence that a therapeutic window for SMN inductive therapies may exist. Importantly, these lines fill a void for inducible Smn alleles. They also provide a base from which to generate a large repertoire of SMA models of varying disease severities when combined with other Smn alleles or SMN2-containing mice.

  7. Evidence of an association between the Arg72 allele of the peptide YY and increased risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe S; Larsen, Lesli H; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that variants in the gene encoding the prepropeptide YY (PYY) associate with type 2 diabetes and/or obesity. Mutation analyses of DNA from 84 patients with obesity and familial type 2 diabetes identified two polymorphisms, IVS3 + 68C>T and Arg72Thr, and one rare variant......, +151C>A of PYY. The common allele of the Arg72Thr variant associated with type 2 diabetes with an allele frequency of the Arg allele of 0.667 (95% CI 0.658-0.677) among 4,639 glucose-tolerant subjects and 0.692 (0.674-0.710) among 1,326 patients with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.005, odds ratio 1.19 [95% CI...... tolerance test (OGTT) (P = 0.03), an increased area under the curve for the post-OGTT plasma glucose level (P = 0.03), and a lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the common Arg allele of the PYY Arg72Thr variant modestly associates with type 2 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes...

  8. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Björn; Mold, Jeff E; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-11-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and freshly isolated human CD8 + T cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells' transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells' transcriptional activity. Notably, clonal aRME was detected, but it was surprisingly scarce (aRME occurs transiently within individual cells, and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells.

  9. Haplotype block structure study of the CFTR gene. Most variants are associated with the M470 allele in several European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, Fiorenza; Ciminelli, Bianca Maria; Bombieri, Cristina; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Koudova, Monika; Giorgi, Silvia; Belpinati, Francesca; Begnini, Angela; Cerny, Milos; Des Georges, Marie; Claustres, Mireille; Ferec, Claude; Macek, Milan; Modiano, Guido; Pignatti, Pier Franco

    2006-01-01

    An average of about 1700 CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) alleles from normal individuals from different European populations were extensively screened for DNA sequence variation. A total of 80 variants were observed: 61 coding SNSs (results already published), 13 noncoding SNSs, three STRs, two short deletions, and one nucleotide insertion. Eight DNA variants were classified as non-CF causing due to their high frequency of occurrence. Through this survey the CFTR has become the most exhaustively studied gene for its coding sequence variability and, though to a lesser extent, for its noncoding sequence variability as well. Interestingly, most variation was associated with the M470 allele, while the V470 allele showed an 'extended haplotype homozygosity' (EHH). These findings make us suggest a role for selection acting either on the M470V itself or through an hitchhiking mechanism involving a second site. The possible ancient origin of the V allele in an 'out of Africa' time frame is discussed.

  10. Frequency of the GPR7 Tyr135Phe allelic variant in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosini, C; Maffei, M; Ceccarini, G; Marchi, M; Marsili, A; Galli, G; Scartabelli, G; Tamberi, A; Latrofa, F; Fierabracci, P; Vitti, P; Pinchera, A; Santini, F

    2013-10-01

    GPR7, the endogenous coupled receptor for neuropeptide B and neuropeptide W, is expressed in several regions of the central nervous system, which are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. GPR7 affects the regulation of energy balance through a mechanism independent of leptin and melanocortin pathways. Aim of this study was to investigate whether GPR7 gene mutations can be detected in human subjects and, in that event, if they are differently distributed among lean and obese subjects. The coding region of GPR7 were sequenced in 150 obese patients and 100 normal-weight unrelated controls. Functional studies of the allelic variants were performed. One genetic GPR7 variant was found (Tyr135Phe - rs33977775) in obese subjects (13.3%) and lean control (25%). Functional studies did not reveal significant differences between the wild type and the Tyr135Phe allelic variants in their NPW-mediated capacity to inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP production. Screening of GPR7 gene mutations among lean and obese subjects revealed a Tyr135Phe allelic variant that was fairly common in the study population. As indicated by in vitro and in silico studies, this variant is unlikely to cause a functional derangement of the receptor.

  11. Inferring modes of colonization for pest species using heterozygosity comparisons and a shared-allele test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sved, J A; Yu, H; Dominiak, B; Gilchrist, A S

    2003-02-01

    Long-range dispersal of a species may involve either a single long-distance movement from a core population or spreading via unobserved intermediate populations. Where the new populations originate as small propagules, genetic drift may be extreme and gene frequency or assignment methods may not prove useful in determining the relation between the core population and outbreak samples. We describe computationally simple resampling methods for use in this situation to distinguish between the different modes of dispersal. First, estimates of heterozygosity can be used to test for direct sampling from the core population and to estimate the effective size of intermediate populations. Second, a test of sharing of alleles, particularly rare alleles, can show whether outbreaks are related to each other rather than arriving as independent samples from the core population. The shared-allele statistic also serves as a genetic distance measure that is appropriate for small samples. These methods were applied to data on a fruit fly pest species, Bactrocera tryoni, which is quarantined from some horticultural areas in Australia. We concluded that the outbreaks in the quarantine zone came from a heterogeneous set of genetically differentiated populations, possibly ones that overwinter in the vicinity of the quarantine zone.

  12. Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2008-12-02

    Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM(+)SaF(+), whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM(-)SaF(-) that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM(-). This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF(+) with SaM(-), a truncated protein, but not with SaM(+) because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM(+) is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding.

  13. Ecological interactions and the fitness effect of water-use efficiency: Competition and drought alter the impact of natural MPK12 alleles in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Des Marais, David L; Juenger, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    The presence of substantial genetic variation for water-use efficiency (WUE) suggests that natural selection plays a role in maintaining alleles that affect WUE. Soil water deficit can reduce plant survival, and is likely to impose selection to increase WUE, whereas competition for resources may select for decreased WUE to ensure water acquisition. We tested the fitness consequences of natural allelic variation in a single gene (MPK12) that influences WUE in Arabidopsis, using transgenic lines contrasting in MPK12 alleles, under four treatments; drought/competition, drought/no competition, well-watered/competition, well-watered/no competition. Results revealed an allele × environment interaction: Low WUE plants performed better in competition, resulting from increased resource consumption. Contrastingly, high WUE individuals performed better in no competition, irrespective of water availability, presumably from enhanced water conservation and nitrogen acquisition. Our findings suggest that selection can influence MPK12 evolution, and represents the first assessment of plant fitness resulting from natural allelic variation at a single locus affecting WUE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Next-generation sequencing technology a new tool for killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor allele typing in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniangou, B; Retière, C; Gagne, K

    2018-02-01

    Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes are a family of genes located together within the leukocyte receptor cluster on human chromosome 19q13.4. To date, 17 KIR genes have been identified including nine inhibitory genes (2DL1/L2/L3/L4/L5A/L5B, 3DL1/L2/L3), six activating genes (2DS1/S2/S3/S4/S5, 3DS1) and two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) classified into group A (KIR A) and group B (KIR B) haplotypes. The number and the nature of KIR genes vary between the individuals. In addition, these KIR genes are known to be polymorphic at allelic level (907 alleles described in July 2017). KIR genes encode for receptors which are predominantly expressed by Natural Killer (NK) cells. KIR receptors recognize HLA class I molecules and are able to kill residual recipient leukemia cells, and thus reduce the likelihood of relapse. KIR alleles of Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) donor would require to be known (Alicata et al. Eur J Immunol 2016) because the KIR allele polymorphism may affect both the KIR + NK cell phenotype and function (Gagne et al. Eur J Immunol 2013; Bari R, et al. Sci Rep 2016) as well as HSCT outcome (Boudreau et al. JCO 2017). The introduction of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has overcome current conventional DNA sequencing method limitations, known to be time consuming. Recently, a novel NGS KIR allele typing approach of all KIR genes was developed by our team in Nantes from 30 reference DNAs (Maniangou et al. Front in Immunol 2017). This NGS KIR allele typing approach is simple, fast, reliable, specific and showed a concordance rate of 95% for centromeric and telomeric KIR genes in comparison with high-resolution KIR typing obtained to those published data using exome capture (Norman PJ et al. Am J Hum Genet 2016). This NGS KIR allele typing approach may also be used in reproduction and to better study KIR + NK cell implication in the control of viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The BTNL2 A allele variant is frequent in Danish patients with sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2011-01-01

    The butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) gene is located on chromosome 6p21.3 close to the HLA-class II genes. An association has been reported between sarcoidosis and a single nucleotide polymorphism in BTNL2, rs2076530, also termed the A allele....

  16. An allele of the crm gene blocks cyanobacterial circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Joseph S; Bordowitz, Juliana R; Bree, Anna C; Golden, Susan S

    2013-08-20

    The SasA-RpaA two-component system constitutes a key output pathway of the cyanobacterial Kai circadian oscillator. To date, rhythm of phycobilisome associated (rpaA) is the only gene other than kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, which encode the oscillator itself, whose mutation causes completely arrhythmic gene expression. Here we report a unique transposon insertion allele in a small ORF located immediately upstream of rpaA in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 termed crm (for circadian rhythmicity modulator), which results in arrhythmic promoter activity but does not affect steady-state levels of RpaA. The crm ORF complements the defect when expressed in trans, but only if it can be translated, suggesting that crm encodes a small protein. The crm1 insertion allele phenotypes are distinct from those of an rpaA null; crm1 mutants are able to grow in a light:dark cycle and have no detectable oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, whereas low-amplitude KaiC phosphorylation rhythms persist in the absence of RpaA. Levels of phosphorylated RpaA in vivo measured over time are significantly altered compared with WT in the crm1 mutant as well as in the absence of KaiC. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Crm polypeptide modulates a circadian-specific activity of RpaA.

  17. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  18. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  19. How well do you know your mutation? Complex effects of genetic background on expressivity, complementation, and ordering of allelic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Chandler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For a given gene, different mutations influence organismal phenotypes to varying degrees. However, the expressivity of these variants not only depends on the DNA lesion associated with the mutation, but also on factors including the genetic background and rearing environment. The degree to which these factors influence related alleles, genes, or pathways similarly, and whether similar developmental mechanisms underlie variation in the expressivity of a single allele across conditions and among alleles is poorly understood. Besides their fundamental biological significance, these questions have important implications for the interpretation of functional genetic analyses, for example, if these factors alter the ordering of allelic series or patterns of complementation. We examined the impact of genetic background and rearing environment for a series of mutations spanning the range of phenotypic effects for both the scalloped and vestigial genes, which influence wing development in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetic background and rearing environment influenced the phenotypic outcome of mutations, including intra-genic interactions, particularly for mutations of moderate expressivity. We examined whether cellular correlates (such as cell proliferation during development of these phenotypic effects matched the observed phenotypic outcome. While cell proliferation decreased with mutations of increasingly severe effects, surprisingly it did not co-vary strongly with the degree of background dependence. We discuss these findings and propose a phenomenological model to aid in understanding the biology of genes, and how this influences our interpretation of allelic effects in genetic analysis.

  20. BRAF Gene Copy Number and Mutant Allele Frequency Correlate with Time to Progression in Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with MAPK Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Camilla; Zamuner, Carolina; Elefanti, Lisa; Zanin, Tiziana; Bianco, Paola Del; Sommariva, Antonio; Fabozzi, Alessio; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Mocellin, Simone; Montesco, Maria Cristina; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; De Nicolo, Arcangela; Menin, Chiara

    2018-06-01

    Metastatic melanoma is characterized by complex genomic alterations, including a high rate of mutations in driver genes and widespread deletions and amplifications encompassing various chromosome regions. Among them, chromosome 7 is frequently gained in BRAF -mutant melanoma, inducing a mutant allele-specific imbalance. Although BRAF amplification is a known mechanism of acquired resistance to therapy with MAPK inhibitors, it is still unclear if BRAF copy-number variation and BRAF mutant allele imbalance at baseline can be associated with response to treatment. In this study, we used a multimodal approach to assess BRAF copy number and mutant allele frequency in pretreatment melanoma samples from 46 patients who received MAPK inhibitor-based therapy, and we analyzed the association with progression-free survival. We found that 65% patients displayed BRAF gains, often supported by chromosome 7 polysomy. In addition, we observed that 64% patients had a balanced BRAF -mutant/wild-type allele ratio, whereas 14% and 23% patients had low and high BRAF mutant allele frequency, respectively. Notably, a significantly higher risk of progression was observed in patients with a diploid BRAF status versus those with BRAF gains [HR, 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-6.35; P = 0.01] and in patients with low percentage versus those with a balanced BRAF mutant allele percentage (HR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.33-15.53; P = 0.016). Our data suggest that quantitative analysis of the BRAF gene could be useful to select the melanoma patients who are most likely to benefit from therapy with MAPK inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(6); 1332-40. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. TrueAllele casework on Virginia DNA mixture evidence: computer and manual interpretation in 72 reported criminal cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Mixtures are a commonly encountered form of biological evidence that contain DNA from two or more contributors. Laboratory analysis of mixtures produces data signals that usually cannot be separated into distinct contributor genotypes. Computer modeling can resolve the genotypes up to probability, reflecting the uncertainty inherent in the data. Human analysts address the problem by simplifying the quantitative data in a threshold process that discards considerable identification information. Elevated stochastic threshold levels potentially discard more information. This study examines three different mixture interpretation methods. In 72 criminal cases, 111 genotype comparisons were made between 92 mixture items and relevant reference samples. TrueAllele computer modeling was done on all the evidence samples, and documented in DNA match reports that were provided as evidence for each case. Threshold-based Combined Probability of Inclusion (CPI and stochastically modified CPI (mCPI analyses were performed as well. TrueAllele's identification information in 101 positive matches was used to assess the reliability of its modeling approach. Comparison was made with 81 CPI and 53 mCPI DNA match statistics that were manually derived from the same data. There were statistically significant differences between the DNA interpretation methods. TrueAllele gave an average match statistic of 113 billion, CPI averaged 6.68 million, and mCPI averaged 140. The computer was highly specific, with a false positive rate under 0.005%. The modeling approach was precise, having a factor of two within-group standard deviation. TrueAllele accuracy was indicated by having uniformly distributed match statistics over the data set. The computer could make genotype comparisons that were impossible or impractical using manual methods. TrueAllele computer interpretation of DNA mixture evidence is sensitive, specific, precise, accurate and more informative than manual

  2. Premutation huntingtin allele adopts a non-B conformation and contains a hot spot for DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarem, Daniel A.; Delaney, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► First structural and thermodynamic analysis of premutation allele of HD. ► Premutation allele of HD adopts a stem-loop non-B conformation. ► Healthy and premutation length stem-loops are hyper-susceptible to oxidative damage. ► Stability of stem-loop structures increases linearly with repeat length. ► Thermodynamic stability, not the ability to adopt non-B conformation, distinguishes DNA prone to expansion from stable DNA. -- Abstract: The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequence has been linked to several neurological disorders, for example, Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD, healthy individuals have 5–35 CAG repeats. Those with 36–39 repeats have the premutation allele, which is known to be prone to expansion. In the disease state, greater than 40 repeats are present. Interestingly, the formation of non-B DNA conformations by the TNR sequence is proposed to contribute to the expansion. Here we provide the first structural and thermodynamic analysis of a premutation length TNR sequence. Using chemical probes of nucleobase accessibility, we found that similar to (CAG) 10 , the premutation length sequence (CAG) 36 forms a stem-loop hairpin and contains a hot spot for DNA damage. Additionally, calorimetric analysis of a series of (CAG) n sequences, that includes repeat tracts in both the healthy and premutation ranges, reveal that thermodynamic stability increases linearly with the number of repeats. Based on these data, we propose that while non-B conformations can be formed by TNR tracts found in both the healthy and premutation allele, only sequences containing at least 36 repeats have sufficient thermodynamic stability to contribute to expansion.

  3. The COMT Val158 allele is associated with impaired delayed-match-to-sample performance in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored the association between three measures of working memory ability and genetic variation in a range of catecholamine genes in a sample of children with ADHD. Methods One hundred and eighteen children with ADHD performed three working memory measures taken from the CANTAB battery (Spatial Span, Delayed-match-to-sample, and Spatial Working Memory. Associations between performance on working memory measures and allelic variation in catecholamine genes (including those for the noradrenaline transporter [NET1], the dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes [DRD4; DRD2], the gene encoding dopamine beta hydroxylase [DBH] and catechol-O-methyl transferase [COMT] were investigated using regression models that controlled for age, IQ, gender and medication status on the day of test. Results Significant associations were found between performance on the delayed-match-to-sample task and COMT genotype. More specifically, val/val homozygotes produced significantly more errors than did children who carried a least one met allele. There were no further associations between allelic variants and performance across the other working memory tasks. Conclusions The working memory measures employed in the present study differed in the degree to which accurate task performance depended upon either the dynamic updating and/or manipulation of items in working memory, as in the spatial span and spatial working memory tasks, or upon the stable maintenance of representations, as in the delay-match–to-sample task. The results are interpreted as evidence of a relationship between tonic dopamine levels associated with the met COMT allele and the maintenance of stable working memory representations required to perform the delayed-match-to-sample-task.

  4. Allelic Tests and Sequence Analysis of Three Genes for Resistance to Xanthomonas perforans Race T3 in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Baimei; CAO Haipeng; DUAN Junjie; YANG Wencai

    2015-01-01

    Three crosses,Hawaii7981×PI128216,Hawaii7981×LA1589,and PI128216×LA1589,were made to develop F2 populations for testing allelism among three genes Xv3,Rx4,and RxLA1589 conferring resistance to bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans race T3 in tomato. Each population consisted of 535–1 655 individuals. An infiltration method was used to inoculate the leaves of the parental and F2 plants as well as the susceptible control OH88119 for detecting hypersensitive resistance(HR). The results showed that all the tomato plants except OH88119 had HR to race T3,indicating that Xv3,Rx4,and RxLA1589 were allelic genes. Genomic DNA fragments of the Rx4 alleles from Hawaii7981,PI128216,and LA1589 were amplified using gene-specific primers and sequenced. No sequence variation was observed in the coding region of Rx4 in the three resistant lines. Based on the published map positions of these loci as well as the allelic tests and sequence data obtained in this study,we speculated that Xv3,Rx4,and RxLA1589 were the same gene. The results will provide useful information for understanding the mechanism of resistance to race T3 and developing resistant tomato varieties.

  5. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  6. Comparative population analysis of metallothionein promoter alleles suggests stress-induced microevolution in the field.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.K.S.; Del Rio Lopez, R.; Mariën, A.G.H.; Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Montagne-Wajer, K; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a model system for microevolution of transcriptional regulation: metallothionein expression in springtails. A previous survey of the metallothionein promoter in Orchesella cincta (Collembola) revealed nine alleles with differential basal activities and responses to cadmium and

  7. Comparative population analysis of metallothionein promoter alleles suggests stress-induced microevolution in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Thierry K S; Lopéz, Ricardo del Rio; Mariën, Janine; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Montagne-Wajer, K; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a model system for microevolution of transcriptional regulation: metallothionein expression in springtails. A previous survey of the metallothionein promoter in Orchesella cincta (Collembola) revealed nine alleles with differential basal activities and responses to cadmium and

  8. Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M; Beermann, Ursula; Saslow, Laura R; Shiota, Michelle N; Saturn, Sarina R; Lwi, Sandy J; Casey, James J; Nguyen, Nguyen K; Whalen, Patrick K; Keltner, Dacher; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (that typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Allele-sharing models: LOD scores and accurate linkage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Cox, N J

    1997-11-01

    Starting with a test statistic for linkage analysis based on allele sharing, we propose an associated one-parameter model. Under general missing-data patterns, this model allows exact calculation of likelihood ratios and LOD scores and has been implemented by a simple modification of existing software. Most important, accurate linkage tests can be performed. Using an example, we show that some previously suggested approaches to handling less than perfectly informative data can be unacceptably conservative. Situations in which this model may not perform well are discussed, and an alternative model that requires additional computations is suggested.

  10. Development of a High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) Approach Based on the Accessory Genome of Escherichia coli to Characterize Shiga-Toxin Producing E. coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelacci, Valeria; Orsini, Massimiliano; Knijn, Arnold; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains possess a large accessory genome composed of virulence genes existing in multiple allelic variants, which sometimes segregate with specific STEC subpopulations. We analyzed the allelic variability of 91 virulence genes of STEC by Real Time PCR followed by melting curves analysis in 713 E. coli strains including 358 STEC. The 91 genes investigated were located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), OI-57, and OI-122 pathogenicity islands and displayed a total of 476 alleles in the study population. The combinations of the 91 alleles of each strain were termed allelic signatures and used to perform cluster analyses. We termed such an approach High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) and used it to investigate the phylogeny of STEC of multiple serogroups. The dendrograms obtained identified groups of STEC segregating approximately with the serogroups and allowed the identification of subpopulations within the single groups. The study of the allelic signatures provided further evidence of the coevolution of the LEE and OI-122, reflecting the occurrence of their acquisition through a single event. The HReVAP analysis represents a sensitive tool for studying the evolution of LEE-positive STEC. PMID:26941726

  11. Performance of Molecular Inversion Probes (MIP) in Allele CopyNumber Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuker; Moorhead, Martin; Karlin-Neumann, George; Wang,Nicolas J.; Ireland, James; Lin, Steven; Chen, Chunnuan; Heiser, LauraM.; Chin, Koei; Esserman, Laura; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.; Faham,Malek

    2007-05-14

    We have developed a new protocol for using MolecularInversion Probes (MIP) to accurately and specifically measure allele copynumber (ACN). The new protocol provides for significant improvementsincluding the reduction of input DNA (from 2?g) by more than 25 fold (to75ng total genomic DNA), higher overall precision resulting in one orderof magnitude lower false positive rate, and greater dynamic range withaccurate absolute copy number up to 60 copies.

  12. On the testing of Hardy-Weinberg proportions and equality of allele frequencies in males and females at biallelic genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffelman, Jan; Weir, Bruce S

    2018-02-01

    Standard statistical tests for equality of allele frequencies in males and females and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are tightly linked by their assumptions. Tests for equality of allele frequencies assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the usual chi-square or exact test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assume equality of allele frequencies in the sexes. In this paper, we propose ways to break this interdependence in assumptions of the two tests by proposing an omnibus exact test that can test both hypotheses jointly, as well as a likelihood ratio approach that permits these phenomena to be tested both jointly and separately. The tests are illustrated with data from the 1000 Genomes project. © 2017 The Authors Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles contributes substantially to trait variation and heterosis in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious alleles have long been proposed to play an important role in patterning phenotypic variation and are central to commonly held ideas explaining the hybrid vigor observed in the offspring of a cross between two inbred parents. We test these ideas using evolutionary measures of sequence conservation to ask whether incorporating information about putatively deleterious alleles can inform genomic selection (GS models and improve phenotypic prediction. We measured a number of agronomic traits in both the inbred parents and hybrids of an elite maize partial diallel population and re-sequenced the parents of the population. Inbred elite maize lines vary for more than 350,000 putatively deleterious sites, but show a lower burden of such sites than a comparable set of traditional landraces. Our modeling reveals widespread evidence for incomplete dominance at these loci, and supports theoretical models that more damaging variants are usually more recessive. We identify haplotype blocks using an identity-by-decent (IBD analysis and perform genomic prediction analyses in which we weigh blocks on the basis of complementation for segregating putatively deleterious variants. Cross-validation results show that incorporating sequence conservation in genomic selection improves prediction accuracy for grain yield and other fitness-related traits as well as heterosis for those traits. Our results provide empirical support for an important role for incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles in explaining heterosis and demonstrate the utility of incorporating functional annotation in phenotypic prediction and plant breeding.

  14. Incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles contributes substantially to trait variation and heterosis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinliang; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Baumgarten, Andy; Buckler, Edward S; Guill, Katherine E; McMullen, Michael D; Mumm, Rita H; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Deleterious alleles have long been proposed to play an important role in patterning phenotypic variation and are central to commonly held ideas explaining the hybrid vigor observed in the offspring of a cross between two inbred parents. We test these ideas using evolutionary measures of sequence conservation to ask whether incorporating information about putatively deleterious alleles can inform genomic selection (GS) models and improve phenotypic prediction. We measured a number of agronomic traits in both the inbred parents and hybrids of an elite maize partial diallel population and re-sequenced the parents of the population. Inbred elite maize lines vary for more than 350,000 putatively deleterious sites, but show a lower burden of such sites than a comparable set of traditional landraces. Our modeling reveals widespread evidence for incomplete dominance at these loci, and supports theoretical models that more damaging variants are usually more recessive. We identify haplotype blocks using an identity-by-decent (IBD) analysis and perform genomic prediction analyses in which we weigh blocks on the basis of complementation for segregating putatively deleterious variants. Cross-validation results show that incorporating sequence conservation in genomic selection improves prediction accuracy for grain yield and other fitness-related traits as well as heterosis for those traits. Our results provide empirical support for an important role for incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles in explaining heterosis and demonstrate the utility of incorporating functional annotation in phenotypic prediction and plant breeding.

  15. Characterization of the peptide binding specificity of the HLA class I alleles B*38:01 and B*39:06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Moore, Carrie; Lindvall, Mikaela; Wriston, Amanda; Hunt, Donald F; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; DiLorenzo, Teresa P; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    B*38:01 and B*39:06 are present with phenotypic frequencies 39:06 is the B allele most associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility and 38:01 is most protective. A previous study derived putative main anchor motifs for both alleles based on peptide elution data. The present study has utilized panels of single amino acid substitution peptide libraries to derive detailed quantitative motifs accounting for both primary and secondary influences on peptide binding. From these analyses, both alleles were confirmed to utilize the canonical position 2/C-terminus main anchor spacing. B*38:01 preferentially bound peptides with the positively charged or polar residues H, R, and Q in position 2 and the large hydrophobic residues I, F, L, W, and M at the C-terminus. B*39:06 had a similar preference for R in position 2, but also well-tolerated M, Q, and K. A more dramatic contrast between the two alleles was noted at the C-terminus, where the specificity of B*39:06 was clearly for small residues, with A as most preferred, followed by G, V, S, T, and I. Detailed position-by-position and residue-by-residue coefficient values were generated from the panels to provide detailed quantitative B*38:01 and B*39:06 motifs. It is hoped that these detailed motifs will facilitate the identification of T cell epitopes recognized in the context of two class I alleles associated with dramatically different dispositions towards type 1 diabetes, offering potential avenues for the investigation of the role of CD8 T cells in this disease.

  16. Association between allelic variants of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene and autoimmune diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Carbonell, Cristina; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier

    2018-05-01

    The human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) is considered to play a role in the differences and sensitivities of the glucocorticoid response in individuals with autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to examine by means of a systematic review previous findings regarding allelic variants of NR3C1 in relation to the risk of developing systemic autoimmune diseases. Studies that analysed the genotype distribution of NR3C1 allelic variants among patients with systemic autoimmune diseases were retrieved. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random effects model. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. In addition, sub-analysis by ethnicity, sensitivity analysis and tests for heterogeneity of the results were performed. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. We found no evidence that the analysed NR3C1 polymorphisms, rs6198, rs56149945, and rs6189/rs6190, modulate the risk of developing a systemic autoimmune disease. Nonetheless, a protective role for the minor allele of rs41423247 was found among Caucasians (OR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.92; P=0.004). A subgroup analysis according to underlying diseases revealed no significant association either for Behçet's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, while correlations between NR3C1 polymorphisms and disease activity or response to glucocorticoids could not be evaluated due to insufficient data. There is no clear evidence that the analysed NR3C1 allelic variants confer a risk for developing systemic autoimmune diseases although the minor G allele of rs41423247 may be protective among Caucasians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F W; Chen, W; O'Hanlon, T P; Cooper, R G; Vencovsky, J; Rider, L G; Danko, K; Wedderburn, L R; Lundberg, I E; Pachman, L M; Reed, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Padyukov, L; Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Radstake, T R; Isenberg, D A; Chinoy, H; Ollier, W E R; Scheet, P; Peng, B; Lee, A; Byun, J; Lamb, J A; Gregersen, P K; Amos, C I

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune muscle diseases (myositis) comprise a group of complex phenotypes influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify genetic risk factors in patients of European ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the major myositis phenotypes in a total of 1710 cases, which included 705 adult dermatomyositis, 473 juvenile dermatomyositis, 532 polymyositis and 202 adult dermatomyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis or polymyositis patients with anti-histidyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-Jo-1) autoantibodies, and compared them with 4724 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms showing strong associations (Pmyositis phenotypes together, as well as for the four clinical and autoantibody phenotypes studied separately. Imputation and regression analyses found that alleles comprising the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH8.1) defined essentially all the genetic risk in the phenotypes studied. Although the HLA DRB1*03:01 allele showed slightly stronger associations with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, and HLA B*08:01 with polymyositis and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody-positive myositis, multiple alleles of AH8.1 were required for the full risk effects. Our findings establish that alleles of the AH8.1 comprise the primary genetic risk factors associated with the major myositis phenotypes in geographically diverse Caucasian populations.

  18. Ultraviolet-induced reversion of cyc1 alleles in radiation-sensitive strains of yeast. III. rev 3 mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.W.; Crhistensen, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The role of rev3 gene function in uv-induced mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been examined by determining the reversion of 12 well-defined cyc1 mutations in diploid strains homozygous for the rev3-1 or rev3-3 allale. The 12 cyc1 alleles include one ochre, one amber, four initiation, two proline missense, and four frameshift mutations. We find that the rev3 mutations reduce the frequency of UV-induced reversion of all of the cyc1 alleles, though different classes of alleles respond to a different extent. These results imply that the rev3 gene function is required for the production of a wide variety of mutational events, though probably not all, and show that each of the three rev loci have different mutational phenotypes. Such diverse phenotypes are not predicted by the unitary model for bacterial mutagenes, suggesting that this is at best an incomplete description of eukaryotic mutagenesis

  19. AlleleCoder: a PERL script for coding codominant polymorphism data for PCA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A useful biological interpretation of diploid heterozygotes is in terms of the dose of the common allele (0, 1 or 2 copies). We have developed a PERL script that converts FASTA files into coded spreadsheets suitable for Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In combination with R and R Commander, two- ...

  20. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdularahman B O; Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-Harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101 , A101/A102 , A101/B101 , B101/B101 , and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02 , cis-AB01/O01 , and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients.

  1. HLA-DQBl*0402 alleles polymorphisms detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hartono, Adnan, Zainal Arifin

    2017-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 gene polymorphisms may associated with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients. The HLA-DQB1*0402 in HIV-1-positive patients could be considered risk factors for developing neurological opportunistic infections, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis. However, the HLA-DQB1*0402 gene polymorphisms status in the Javanese HIV patients is unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of HLA-DQB*0402 alleles polymorphisms in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status. Since 2009 our research group performing a molecular epidemiology of blood borne viruses in Central Java Indonesia, by collecting the epidemiological and clinical data from the high risk communities. All blood samples were screened for blood borne pathogens by serological and molecular assays including for HIV and Toxoplasma gondii. The genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood samples. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique. The genotypes were defined according to generated fragment patterns in the agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. All of the samples were tested at least in duplicate. HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected in 20.8% (16/77) patients and not detected in all HIV positive samples with negative anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status (n= 200). The HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles polymorphisms were detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. The polymorphisms found may have association with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients.

  2. Next-generation sequencing can reveal in vitro-generated PCR crossover products: some artifactual sequences correspond to HLA alleles in the IMGT/HLA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, C L; Rastrou, M; Williams, T C; Goodridge, D; Lazaro, A M; Tilanus, M; Erlich, H A

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping assay that we developed using 454 sequencing and Conexio software uses generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for DRB exon 2. Occasionally, we observed low abundance DRB amplicon sequences that resulted from in vitro PCR 'crossing over' between DRB1 and DRB3/4/5. These hybrid sequences, revealed by the clonal sequencing property of the 454 system, were generally observed at a read depth of 5%-10% of the true alleles. They usually contained at least one mismatch with the IMGT/HLA database, and consequently, were easily recognizable and did not cause a problem for HLA genotyping. Sometimes, however, these artifactual sequences matched a rare allele and the automatic genotype assignment was incorrect. These observations raised two issues: (1) could PCR conditions be modified to reduce such artifacts? and (2) could some of the rare alleles listed in the IMGT/HLA database be artifacts rather than true alleles? Because PCR crossing over occurs during late cycles of PCR, we compared DRB genotypes resulting from 28 and (our standard) 35 cycles of PCR. For all 21 cell line DNAs amplified for 35 cycles, crossover products were detected. In 33% of the cases, these hybrid sequences corresponded to named alleles. With amplification for only 28 cycles, these artifactual sequences were not detectable. To investigate whether some rare alleles in the IMGT/HLA database might be due to PCR artifacts, we analyzed four samples obtained from the investigators who submitted the sequences. In three cases, the sequences were generated from true alleles. In one case, our 454 sequencing revealed an error in the previously submitted sequence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transmission of epi-alleles with MET1-dependent dense methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Watson

    Full Text Available DNA methylation in plants targets cytosines in three sequence contexts, CG, CHG and CHH (H representing A, C or T. Each of these patterns has traditionally been associated with distinct DNA methylation pathways with CHH methylation being controlled by the RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM pathway employing small RNAs as a guide for the de novo DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM2, and maintenance DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 being responsible for faithful propagation of CG methylation. Here we report an unusual 'dense methylation' pattern under the control of MET1, with methylation in all three sequence contexts. We identified epi-alleles of dense methylation at a non coding RNA locus (At4g15242 in Arabidopsis ecotypes, with distinct dense methylation and expression characteristics, which are stably maintained and transmitted in genetic crosses and which can be heritably altered by depletion of MET1. This suggests that, in addition to its classical CG maintenance function, at certain loci MET1 plays a role in creating transcriptional diversity based on the generation of independent epi-alleles. Database inspection identified several other loci with MET1-dependent dense methylation patterns. Arabidopsis ecotypes contain distinct epi-alleles of these loci with expression patterns that inversely correlate with methylation density, predominantly within the transcribed region. In Arabidopsis, dense methylation appears to be an exception as it is only found at a small number of loci. Its presence does, however, highlight the potential for MET1 as a contributor to epigenetic diversity, and it will be interesting to investigate the representation of dense methylation in other plant species.

  4. Identification of internal variation in the pseudoautosomal VNTR DXYS17, with nonrandom distribution of the alleles on the X and the Y chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decorte, R.; Wu, R.; Marynen, P.; Cassiman, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    The PCR technique was used to analyze the DXYS17 locus in the pseudoautosomal region of the X and the Y chromosomes. Analysis on an automated DNA sequencer allowed for sensitive and highly accurate typing of 16 different alleles with a size between 480 and 1,100 bp. Two DXYS17 alleles migrated with the same size on agarose or denaturing polyacrylamide gels but with different mobilities on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. Sequence analysis showed that, while an identical number of repeats were present in both alleles, differences in the composition of the units were observed. The origin of these differences was found in the 28- and 33-bp units, which only had a specific repeat pattern at the 5' and 3' ends of the region. The genotype distribution for DXYS17 in a Caucasian population did not deviate from the values expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. However, the frequency of one allele and one genotype was significantly different between males and females. Segregation analysis showed that this difference was the result of a nonrandom distribution of certain alleles on the sex chromosomes in males. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Association of HY-restricting HLA class II alleles with pregnancy outcome in patients with recurrent miscarriage subsequent to a firstborn boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Steffensen, Rudi; Varming, Kim

    2009-01-01

    and in 203 of their children born prior to the miscarriages. The subsequent live birth in women with boys prior to the miscarriages compared with girls is lower in women with HY-restricting HLA class II alleles [odds ratio (OR): 0.17 (0.1-0.4), P = 0.0001]. One HY-restricting HLA class II allele in women...... with firstborn boys significantly reduces the chances of a live birth [OR: 0.46 (0.2-0.9), P = 0.02]. Two HY-restricting HLA class II alleles further reduced this chance [OR: 0.21 (0.1-0.7), P = 0.02]. HY-restricting HLA class II did not reduce the chances of a live birth in SRM women with firstborn girls. HY-restricting...... birth. This study explores the putative impact of known HY-presenting HLA alleles on future pregnancy outcome in women with at least three consecutive miscarriages following a birth [secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM)]. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, DRB3-5 and DQB1 genotyping was performed in 358 SRM patients...

  6. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina

    2014-01-01

    cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND.......6 × 10(-6)) in the FHS cohorts. Major human diseases including CVD, ND, and cancer, whose risks can be sensitive to the e4 allele, do not mediate the association of this allele with lifespan in large FHS samples. Non-skin cancer non-additively increases mortality of the FHS women with moderate lifespans...... by 150% (p = 5.3 × 10(-8)) compared to the non-carriers. This risk explains the 4.2 year shorter life expectancy of the e4 carriers compared to the non-carriers in this sample. The analyses suggest the existence of age- and gender-sensitive systemic mechanisms linking the e4 allele to lifespan which can...

  7. Identification of a new defective SERPINA1 allele (PI*Zla palma) encoding an alpha-1-antitrypsin with altered glycosylation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, José M; Ramos-Díaz, Ruth; Pérez, José A

    2017-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic condition that arises from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and predisposes to develop pulmonary emphysema and, less frequently, liver disease. Occasionally, new defective SERPINA1 alleles are detected as an outcome of targeted-screening programs or case-findings. This study began with a female patient showing bronchial hyperreactivity. Serum level and phenotype for AAT was analysed by immunonephelometry and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. The SERPINA1 gene of the proband was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Analysis of AAT deficiency was extended to the proband's family. An abnormal AAT variant that migrated to a more cathodal position than PiZ AAT was detected in the proband's serum. Genetic analysis demonstrated that proband is heterozygous for a new defective SERPINA1 allele (PI*Z la palma ) characterized by the c.321C > A (p.Asn83Lys) mutation in the M1Val213 background. This mutation abolishes the N-glycosylation site in position 83 of the mature AAT. Eight relatives of the proband are carriers of the PI*Z la palma allele and four of them have shown symptoms of bronchial asthma or bronchial hyperreactivity. The mean α1AT level in the serum of PI*MZ la palma individuals was 87.1 mg/dl. The reduction in circulating AAT levels associated to the PI*Z la palma allele was similar to that of PI*Z allele, representing a risk of impairment in lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short alleles revealed by PCR demonstrate no heterozygote deficiency at minisatellite loci D1S7, D7S21, and D12S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, S.; Castro, A.; Fernandez-Fernandez, I.; Pancorbo, M.M. de [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Vizcaya (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    Short VNTR alleles that go undetected after conventional Southern blot hybridization may constitute an alternative explanation for the heterozygosity deficiency observed at some minisatellite loci. To examine this hypothesis, we have employed a screening procedure based on PCR amplification of those individuals classified as homozygotes in our databases for the loci D1S7, D7S21, and D12S11. The results obtained indicate that the frequency of these short alleles is related to the heterozygosity deficiency observed. For the most polymorphic locus, D1S7, {approximately}60% of those individuals previously classified as homozygotes were in fact heterozygotes for a short allele. After the inclusion of these new alleles, the agreement between observed and expected heterozygosity, along with other statistical tests employed, provide additional evidence for lack of population substructuring. Comparisons of allele frequency distributions reveal greater differences between racial groups than between closely related populations. 45 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival: evidence from the Long Life Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina; Arbeeva, Liubov; Wu, Deqing; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Christensen, Kaare; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2016-11-01

    The apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a classic example of a gene exhibiting pleiotropism. We examine potential pleiotropic associations of the apoE2 allele in three biodemographic cohorts of long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses from the Long Life Family Study, and intermediate mechanisms, which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis detected favorable associations of the ε2 allele with lower LDL-C levels, lower risks of HD, and better survival. The ε2 allele was associated with LDL-C in each gender and biodemographic cohort, including long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses, resulting in highly significant association in the entire sample (β = -7.1, p = 6.6 × 10 -44 ). This allele was significantly associated with HD in long-living individuals and offspring (relative risk [RR] = 0.60, p = 3.1 × 10 -6 ) but this association was not mediated by LDL-C. The protective effect on survival was specific for long-living women but it was not explained by LDL-C and HD in the adjusted model (RR = 0.70, p = 2.1 × 10 -2 ). These results show that ε2 allele may favorably influence LDL-C, HD, and survival through three mechanisms. Two of them (HD- and survival-related) are pronounced in the long-living parents and their offspring; the survival-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care and personalized medicine.

  10. TaGW2-6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Li, Liqun; Lv, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Li; Li, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Functional allelic variants of TaGW2 - 6A produce large grains, possibly via changes in endosperm cells and dry matter by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In wheat, TaGW2-6A coding region allelic variants are closely related to the grain width and weight, but how this region affects grain development has not been fully elucidated; thus, we explored its influence on grain development based mainly on histological and grain filling analyses. We found that the insertion type (NIL31) TaGW2-6A allelic variants exhibited increases in cell numbers and cell size, thereby resulting in a larger (wider) grain size with an accelerated grain milk filling rate, and increases in grain width and weight. We also found that cytokinin (CK) synthesis genes and key starch biosynthesis enzyme AGPase genes were significantly upregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, while CK degradation genes and starch biosynthesis-negative regulators were downregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, which was consistent with the changes in cells and grain filling. Thus, we speculate that TaGW2-6A allelic variants are linked with CK signaling, but they also influence the accumulation of starch by regulating the expression of related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to control the grain size and grain weight.

  11. Higher FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 allele burdens are associated with PTSD and interact with trauma exposure: implications for neuropsychiatric research and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino1,2, Porat M Erlich1,3, Stuart N Hoffman4, Xiaopeng Zhang51Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAObjective: The study aim was to assess the cumulative burden of polymorphisms located within four genetic loci previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among outpatients at risk for PTSD.Methods: Diagnostic interviews were completed and DNA samples collected among 412 pain patients to determine if FKBP5 (rs9470080, COMT (rs4680, CHRNA5 (rs16969968, and CRHR1 (rs110402 single nucleotide polymorphisms were cumulatively associated with increased risk for PTSD.Results: In bivariate analyses, it was found that a count of specific PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (allele range = 0–6, mean count = 2.92, standard deviation = 1.36 was associated with lifetime (t [409] = 3.430, P = 0.001 and early onset PTSD (t [409] = 4.239, P = 0.000028. In logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors, personality traits, and trauma exposures, this risk allele count remained associated with both lifetime (odds ratio = 1.49, P = 0.00158 and early onset PTSD (odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.000093. Interaction effects were also detected, whereby individuals with higher risk allele counts and higher trauma exposures had an increased risk of lifetime PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.026 and early onset PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.016 in these logistic regressions. Those with no or few risk alleles appeared resilient to PTSD, regardless of exposure history.Conclusion: A cumulative risk allele count involving four single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genes are associated with PTSD. Level of trauma exposure

  12. On coding genotypes for genetic markers with multiple alleles in genetic association study of quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetic association study of quantitative traits using F∞ models, how to code the marker genotypes and interpret the model parameters appropriately is important for constructing hypothesis tests and making statistical inferences. Currently, the coding of marker genotypes in building F∞ models has mainly focused on the biallelic case. A thorough work on the coding of marker genotypes and interpretation of model parameters for F∞ models is needed especially for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Results In this study, we will formulate F∞ genetic models under various regression model frameworks and introduce three genotype coding schemes for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Starting from an allele-based modeling strategy, we first describe a regression framework to model the expected genotypic values at given markers. Then, as extension from the biallelic case, we introduce three coding schemes for constructing fully parameterized one-locus F∞ models and discuss the relationships between the model parameters and the expected genotypic values. Next, under a simplified modeling framework for the expected genotypic values, we consider several reduced one-locus F∞ models from the three coding schemes on the estimability and interpretation of their model parameters. Finally, we explore some extensions of the one-locus F∞ models to two loci. Several fully parameterized as well as reduced two-locus F∞ models are addressed. Conclusions The genotype coding schemes provide different ways to construct F∞ models for association testing of multi-allele genetic markers with quantitative traits. Which coding scheme should be applied depends on how convenient it can provide the statistical inferences on the parameters of our research interests. Based on these F∞ models, the standard regression model fitting tools can be used to estimate and test for various genetic effects through statistical contrasts with the

  13. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  14. Study on the association of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... analysis (HA) in a non-denaturing gel, successfully detected the resistant genotype to ... PHS, polish heath sheep; PLS polish lowland sheep; SCC, ... of the MHC genes and their possible role in disease ... alleles with clinical mastitis in Sarabi and Iranian Holstein cattle, ..... Nomenclature for factors of the.

  15. Genome-Wide analysis of allelic imbalance in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue using the Affymetrix 50K Mapping array identifies genomic patterns associated with metastasis and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Borre, Michael; Sørensen, Karina

    2007-01-01

    , patterns of allelic imbalance were discovered in PCa, consisting allelic loss as an early event in tumour development, and distinct patterns of allelic amplification related to tumour progression and poor differentiation.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 January 2007; doi:10.1038/sj...

  16. Comparative analysis of conditional reporter alleles in the developing embryo and embryonic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellisor, Debra; Koveal, Dorothy; Hagan, Nellwyn; Brown, Ashly; Zervas, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A long-standing problem in development is understanding how progenitor cells transiently expressing genes contribute to complex anatomical and functional structures. In the developing nervous system an additional level of complexity arises when considering how cells of distinct lineages relate to newly established neural circuits. To address these problems, we used both cumulative marking with Cre/loxP and Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM), which permanently and heritably marks small populations of progenitors and their descendants with fine temporal control using CreER/loxP. A key component used in both approaches is a conditional phenotyping allele that has the potential to be expressed in all cell types, but is quiescent because of a loxP flanked Stop sequence, which precedes a reporter allele. Upon recombination, the resulting phenotyping allele is 'turned on' and then constitutively expressed. Thus, the reporter functions as a high fidelity genetic lineage tracer in vivo. Currently there is an array of reporter alleles that can be used in marking strategies, but their recombination efficiency and applicability to a wide array of tissues has not been thoroughly described. To assess the recombination/marking potential of the reporters, we utilized CreER(T) under the control of a Wnt1 transgene (Wnt1-CreER(T)) as well as a cumulative, non-inducible En1(Cre) knock-in line in combination with three different reporters: R26R (LacZ reporter), Z/EG (EGFP reporter), and Tau-Lox-STOP-Lox-mGFP-IRES-NLS-LacZ (membrane-targeted GFP/nuclear LacZ reporter). We marked the Wnt1 lineage using each of the three reporters at embryonic day (E) 8.5 followed by analysis at E10.0, E12.5, and in the adult. We also compared cumulative marking of cells with a history of En1 expression at the same stages. We evaluated the reporters by whole-mount and section analysis and ascertained the s