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Sample records for allele-specific virulence attenuation

  1. Allele-dependent differences in quorum-sensing dynamics result in variant expression of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Geisinger, Edward; Chen, John; Novick, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    Agr is an autoinducing, quorum-sensing system that functions in many Gram-positive species and is best characterized in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, in which it is a global regulator of virulence gene expression. Allelic variations in the agr genes have resulted in the emergence of four quorum-sensing specificity groups in S. aureus, which correlate with different strain pathotypes. The basis for these predilections is unclear but is hypothesized to involve the phenomenon of quorum-sensing interference between strains of different agr groups, which may drive S. aureus strain isolation and divergence. Whether properties intrinsic to each agr allele directly influence virulence phenotypes within S. aureus is unknown. In this study, we examined group-specific differences in agr autoinduction and virulence gene regulation by utilizing congenic strains, each harboring a unique S. aureus agr allele, enabling a dissection of agr locus-dependent versus genotype-dependent effects on quorum-sensing dynamics and virulence factor production. Employing a reporter fusion to the principal agr promoter, P3, we observed allele-dependent differences in the timing and magnitude of agr activation. These differences were mediated by polymorphisms within the agrBDCA genes and translated to significant variations in the expression of a key transcriptional regulator, Rot, and of several important exoproteins and surface factors involved in pathogenesis. This work uncovers the contribution of divergent quorum-sensing alleles to variant expression of virulence determinants within a bacterial species.

  2. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

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    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.

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    Arzt, Jonathan; Pacheco, Juan M; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2017-05-02

    of the mutant is more responsible for attenuation than differences in host immunological factors. These results complement previous studies by providing data of high-granularity describing tissue-specific tropism of FMDV and by demonstrating microscopic localization of virulent and attenuated clones of the same field-strain FMDV.

  4. Phages can constrain protist predation-driven attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence in multienemy communities

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    Friman, Ville-Petri; Buckling, Angus

    2014-01-01

    The coincidental theory of virulence predicts that bacterial pathogenicity could be a by-product of selection by natural enemies in environmental reservoirs. However, current results are ambiguous and the simultaneous impact of multiple ubiquitous enemies, protists and phages on virulence evolution has not been investigated previously. Here we tested experimentally how Tetrahymena thermophila protist predation and PNM phage parasitism (bacteria-specific virus) alone and together affect the evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence, measured in wax moth larvae. Protist predation selected for small colony types, both in the absence and presence of phage, which showed decreased edibility to protists, reduced growth in the absence of enemies and attenuated virulence. Although phage selection alone did not affect the bacterial phenotype, it weakened protist-driven antipredatory defence (biofilm formation), its associated pleiotropic growth cost and the correlated reduction in virulence. These results suggest that protist selection can be a strong coincidental driver of attenuated bacterial virulence, and that phages can constrain this effect owing to effects on population dynamics and conflicting selection pressures. Attempting to define causal links such as these might help us to predict the cold and hot spots of coincidental virulence evolution on the basis of microbial community composition of environmental reservoirs. PMID:24671085

  5. Development of a High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) Approach Based on the Accessory Genome of Escherichia coli to Characterize Shiga-Toxin Producing E. coli (STEC)

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    Michelacci, Valeria; Orsini, Massimiliano; Knijn, Arnold; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains possess a large accessory genome composed of virulence genes existing in multiple allelic variants, which sometimes segregate with specific STEC subpopulations. We analyzed the allelic variability of 91 virulence genes of STEC by Real Time PCR followed by melting curves analysis in 713 E. coli strains including 358 STEC. The 91 genes investigated were located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), OI-57, and OI-122 pathogenicity islands and displayed a total of 476 alleles in the study population. The combinations of the 91 alleles of each strain were termed allelic signatures and used to perform cluster analyses. We termed such an approach High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) and used it to investigate the phylogeny of STEC of multiple serogroups. The dendrograms obtained identified groups of STEC segregating approximately with the serogroups and allowed the identification of subpopulations within the single groups. The study of the allelic signatures provided further evidence of the coevolution of the LEE and OI-122, reflecting the occurrence of their acquisition through a single event. The HReVAP analysis represents a sensitive tool for studying the evolution of LEE-positive STEC. PMID:26941726

  6. Subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin attenuates virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Koszczol, Carmen; Bernardo, Katussevani; Krönke, Martin; Krut, Oleg

    2006-09-01

    The semi-synthetic streptogramin quinupristin/dalfopristin antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We investigated whether, like other bactericidal antibiotics used at subinhibitory concentrations, quinupristin/dalfopristin enhances release of toxins by Gram-positive cocci. The activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin on exotoxin release by S. aureus was investigated by 2D SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and by western blotting. We show that quinupristin/dalfopristin at subinhibitory concentrations reduces the release of S. aureus factors that induce tumour necrosis factor secretion in macrophages. Furthermore, quinupristin/dalfopristin but not linezolid attenuated S. aureus-mediated killing of infected host cells. When added to S. aureus cultures at different stages of bacterial growth, quinupristin/dalfopristin reduced in a dose-dependent manner the release of specific virulence factors (e.g. autolysin, protein A, alpha- and beta-haemolysins, lipases). In contrast, other presumably non-toxic exoproteins remained unchanged. The results of the present study suggest that subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin inhibits virulence factor release by S. aureus, which might be especially helpful for the treatment of S. aureus infections, where both bactericidal as well as anti-toxin activity may be advantageous.

  7. Evolutionary characteristics of morbilliviruses during serial passages in vitro: Gradual attenuation of virus virulence.

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    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Zou, Yanli; Liu, Shan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-08-01

    The genus Morbillivirus is classified into the family Paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (MV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). The MV, RPV, PPRV and CDV have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. It has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was progressively attenuated with their consecutive passages in vitro. However, only a few reports were involved in explanation of an attenuation-related mechanism on them until many years after the establishment of a quasispecies theory. RNA virus quasispecies arise from rapid evolution of viruses with high mutation rate during genomic replication, and play an important role in gradual loss of viral virulence by serial passages. Here, we overviewed the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains against morbilliviruses by consecutive passages in vitro, and further discussed a related mechanism concerning the relationship between virulence attenuation and viral evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A monoallelic deletion of the TcCRT gene increases the attenuation of a cultured Trypanosoma cruzi strain, protecting against an in vivo virulent challenge.

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    Fernando J Sánchez-Valdéz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT is a virulence factor that binds complement C1, thus inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway and generating pro-phagocytic signals that increase parasite infectivity. In a previous work, we characterized a clonal cell line lacking one TcCRT allele (TcCRT+/- and another overexpressing it (TcCRT+, both derived from the attenuated TCC T. cruzi strain. The TcCRT+/- mutant was highly susceptible to killing by the complement machinery and presented a remarkable reduced propagation and differentiation rate both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we have extended these studies to assess, in a mouse model of disease, the virulence, immunogenicity and safety of the mutant as an experimental vaccine. Balb/c mice were inoculated with TcCRT+/- parasites and followed-up during a 6-month period. Mutant parasites were not detected by sensitive techniques, even after mice immune suppression. Total anti-T. cruzi IgG levels were undetectable in TcCRT+/- inoculated mice and the genetic alteration was stable after long-term infection and it did not revert back to wild type form. Most importantly, immunization with TcCRT+/- parasites induces a highly protective response after challenge with a virulent T. cruzi strain, as evidenced by lower parasite density, mortality, spleen index and tissue inflammatory response. TcCRT+/- clones are restricted in two important properties conferred by TcCRT and indirectly by C1q: their ability to evade the host immune response and their virulence. Therefore, deletion of one copy of the TcCRT gene in the attenuated TCC strain generated a safe and irreversibly gene-deleted live attenuated parasite with high immunoprotective properties. Our results also contribute to endorse the important role of TcCRT as a T. cruzi virulence factor.

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis Uses Specific Domain Rearrangements and Allelic Exchange to Generate Diversity in Surface Virulence Factors.

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    Dashper, Stuart G; Mitchell, Helen L; Seers, Christine A; Gladman, Simon L; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M; Chandry, P Scott; Cross, Keith J; Cleal, Steven M; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen of chronic periodontitis. The virulence of P. gingivalis is reported to be strain related and there are currently a number of strain typing schemes based on variation in capsular polysaccharide, the major and minor fimbriae and adhesin domains of Lys-gingipain (Kgp), amongst other surface proteins. P. gingivalis can exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of P. gingivalis strains sourced from international locations over a 25-year period and to determine if variability in surface virulence factors has a phylogenetic basis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 13 strains and comparison made to 10 previously sequenced strains. A single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a shallow tri-lobed phylogeny. There was a high level of reticulation in the phylogenetic network, demonstrating extensive horizontal gene transfer between the strains. Two highly conserved variants of the catalytic domain of the major virulence factor the Kgp proteinase (Kgp cat I and Kgp cat II) were found. There were three variants of the fourth Kgp C-terminal cleaved adhesin domain. Specific variants of the cell surface proteins FimA, FimCDE, MfaI, RagAB, Tpr, and PrtT were also identified. The occurrence of all these variants in the P. gingivalis strains formed a mosaic that was not related to the SNP-based phylogeny. In conclusion P. gingivalis uses domain rearrangements and genetic exchange to generate diversity in specific surface virulence factors.

  10. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

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    Carol A Soderlund

    Full Text Available Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor, where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense, and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available

  11. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

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    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  12. Studies on the virulence and attenuation of Trypanosoma cruzi using immunodeficient animals

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    Basombrío Miguel Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion and pathology by Trypanosoma cruzi result from an interaction between parasite virulence and host immunity. Successive in vivo generations of the parasite select populations with increasing ability to invade the host. Conversely, prolonged in vitro selection of the parasite produces attenuated sublines with low infectivity for mammals. One such subline (TCC clone has been extensively used in our laboratory as experimental vaccine and tested in comparative experiments with its virulent ancestor (TUL. The experiments here reviewed aimed at the use of immunodeficient mice for testing the infectivity of TCC parasites. It has not been possible to obtain virulent, revertant sublines by prolonged passaged in such mice.

  13. Delimiting Allelic Imbalance of TYMS by Allele-Specific Analysis.

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    Balboa-Beltrán, Emilia; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel; Barros, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Allelic imbalance of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is attributed to polymorphisms in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR). These polymorphisms have been related to the risk of suffering different cancers, for example leukemia, breast or gastric cancer, and response to different drugs, among which are methotrexate glutamates, stavudine, and specifically 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as TYMS is its direct target. A vast literature has been published in relation to 5-FU, even suggesting the sole use of these polymorphisms to effectively manage 5-FU dosage. Estimates of the extent to which these polymorphisms influence in TYMS expression have in the past been based on functional analysis by luciferase assays and quantification of TYMS mRNA, but both these studies, as the association studies with cancer risk or with toxicity or response to 5-FU, are very contradictory. Regarding functional assays, the artificial genetic environment created in luciferase assay and the problems derived from quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs), for example the use of a reference gene, may have distorted the results. To avoid these sources of interference, we have analyzed the allelic imbalance of TYMS by allelic-specific analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients.Allelic imbalance in PBMCs, taken from 40 patients with suspected myeloproliferative haematological diseases, was determined by fluorescent fragment analysis (for the 3'-UTR polymorphism), Sanger sequencing and allelic-specific qPCR in multiplex (for the 5'-UTR polymorphisms).For neither the 3'- nor the 5'-UTR polymorphisms did the observed allelic imbalance exceed 1.5 fold. None of the TYMS polymorphisms is statistically associated with allelic imbalance.The results acquired allow us to deny the previously established assertion of an influence of 2 to 4 fold of the rs45445694 and rs2853542 polymorphisms in the expression of TYMS and narrow its allelic imbalance to 1.5 fold, in our population

  14. Cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) is not important in the virulence of Rhodococcus equi.

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    Pei, Yanlong; Dupont, Chris; Sydor, Tobias; Haas, Albert; Prescott, John F

    2006-12-20

    To analyze further the role in virulence of the prominent cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) of Rhodococcus equi, an allelic exchange choE mutant from strain 103+ was constructed and assessed for virulence in macrophages, in mice, and in foals. There was no difference between the mutant and parent strain in cytotoxic activity for macrophages or in intra-macrophage multiplication. No evidence of attenuation was obtained in macrophages and in mice, but there was slight attenuation apparent in four intra-bronchially infected foals compared to infection of four foals with the virulent parent strain, based on a delayed rise in temperature of the choE-mutant infected foals. However, bacterial colony counts in the lung 2 weeks after infection were not significantly different, although there was a slight but non-significant (P=0.12) difference in lung:body weight ratio of the choE mutant versus virulent parent infected foals (mean 2.67+/-0.25% compared to 4.58+/-0.96%). We conclude that the cholesterol oxidase is not important for the virulence of R. equi.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of Brucella abortus vaccine strain 104M reveals a set of candidate genes associated with its virulence attenuation.

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    Yu, Dong; Hui, Yiming; Zai, Xiaodong; Xu, Junjie; Liang, Long; Wang, Bingxiang; Yue, Junjie; Li, Shanhu

    2015-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain 104M, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in humans against brucellosis for 6 decades in China. Despite many studies, the molecular mechanisms that cause the attenuation are still unclear. Here, we determined the whole-genome sequence of 104M and conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis against the whole genome sequences of the virulent strain, A13334, and other reference strains. This analysis revealed a highly similar genome structure between 104M and A13334. The further comparative genomic analysis between 104M and A13334 revealed a set of genes missing in 104M. Some of these genes were identified to be directly or indirectly associated with virulence. Similarly, a set of mutations in the virulence-related genes was also identified, which may be related to virulence alteration. This study provides a set of candidate genes associated with virulence attenuation in B.abortus vaccine strain 104M.

  16. Factors Influencing Virulence and Plaque Properties of Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Populations

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    Hearn, Henry J.; Seliokas, Zenonas V.; Andersen, Arthur A.

    1969-01-01

    A minority of stable large-plaque virus increased proportionally in stored unstable attenuated (9t) Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus populations. L-cell-grown progeny (9t2) of stored 9t showed large amounts of large-plaque virus and increased virulence. Small-plaque virus inhibited large-plaque virus but not the reverse. Serial passage of small-plaque virus from 9t2 yielded a strain (20t) that was more attenuated than 9t. PMID:5823235

  17. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation in Vibrio anguillarum results in virulence attenuation and immunoprotection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

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    Mou, Xiangyu; Spinard, Edward J; Hillman, Shelby L; Nelson, David R

    2017-11-14

    Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V. anguillarum. Seven central metabolism mutants were created and characterized with regard to growth in minimal and complex media, expression of virulence genes, and virulence in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Only the isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd) mutant was attenuated in virulence against rainbow trout challenged by either intraperitoneal injection or immersion. Further, the icd mutant was shown to be immunoprotective against wild type V. anguillarum infection. There was no significant decrease in the expression of the three hemolysin genes detected by qRT-PCR. Additionally, only the icd mutant exhibited a significantly decreased growth yield in complex media. Growth yield was directly related to the abundance of glutamate. A strain with a restored wild type icd gene was created and shown to restore growth to a wild type cell density in complex media and pathogenicity in rainbow trout. The data strongly suggest that a decreased growth yield, resulting from the inability to synthesize α-ketoglutarate, caused the attenuation despite normal levels of expression of virulence genes. Therefore, the ability of an extracellular pathogen to cause disease is dependent upon the availability of host-supplied nutrients for growth. Additionally, a live vaccine strain could be created from an icd deletion strain.

  18. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

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    Jennifer E Kerr

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions.

  19. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

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    Kerr, Jennifer E; Abramian, Jared R; Dao, Doan-Hieu V; Rigney, Todd W; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions.

  20. Absence of Protoheme IX Farnesyltransferase CtaB Causes Virulence Attenuation but Enhances Pigment Production and Persister Survival in MRSA.

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    Xu, Tao; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jiazhen; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein CtaB in S. aureus is a protoheme IX farnesyltransferase involved in the synthesis of the heme containing terminal oxidases of bacterial respiratory chain. In this study, to assess the role of CtaB in S. aureus virulence, pigment production, and persister formation, we constructed a ctaB mutant in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA500. We found that deletion of ctaB attenuated growth and virulence in mice but enhanced pigment production and formation of quinolone tolerant persister cells in stationary phase. RNA-seq analysis showed that deletion of ctaB caused decreased transcription of several virulence genes including RNAIII which is consistent with its virulence attenuation. In addition, transcription of 20 ribosomal genes and 24 genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis was significantly down-regulated in the ctaB knockout mutant compared with the parent strain. These findings suggest the importance of heme biosynthesis in virulence and persister formation of S. aureus .

  1. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

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    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  2. ALEA: a toolbox for allele-specific epigenomics analysis.

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    Younesy, Hamid; Möller, Torsten; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Cheng, Jeffrey B; Costello, Joseph F; Lorincz, Matthew C; Karimi, Mohammad M; Jones, Steven J M

    2014-04-15

    The assessment of expression and epigenomic status using sequencing based methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify and correlate allelic differences with epigenomic status. We present ALEA, a computational toolbox for allele-specific epigenomics analysis, which incorporates allelic variation data within existing resources, allowing for the identification of significant associations between epigenetic modifications and specific allelic variants in human and mouse cells. ALEA provides a customizable pipeline of command line tools for allele-specific analysis of next-generation sequencing data (ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, etc.) that takes the raw sequencing data and produces separate allelic tracks ready to be viewed on genome browsers. The pipeline has been validated using human and hybrid mouse ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data. The package, test data and usage instructions are available online at http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/alea CONTACT: : mkarimi1@interchange.ubc.ca or sjones@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Brucella abortus mutants lacking ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins are highly attenuated in virulence and confer protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in BALB/c mice.

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    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus RB51 is an attenuated vaccine strain that has been most frequently used for bovine brucellosis. Although it is known to provide good protection in cattle, it still has some drawbacks including resistance to rifampicin, residual virulence and pathogenicity in humans. Thus, there has been a continuous interest on new safe and effective bovine vaccine candidates. In the present study, we have constructed unmarked mutants by deleting singly cydD and cydC genes, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, from the chromosome of the virulent Brucella abortus isolate from Korean cow (referred to as IVK15). Both IVK15ΔcydD and ΔcydC mutants showed increased sensitivity to metal ions, hydrogen peroxide and acidic pH, which are mimic to intracellular environment during host infection. Additionally, the mutants exhibited a significant growth defect in RAW264.7 cells and greatly attenuated in mice. Vaccination of mice with either IVK15ΔcydC or IVK15ΔcydD mutant could elicit an anti-Brucella specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass responses as well as enhance the secretion of interferon-gamma, and provided better protection against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308 than with the commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. Collectively, these results suggest that both IVK15ΔcydC and IVK15ΔcydD mutants could be an attenuated vaccine candidate against B. abortus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

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    Chaoyong, Zhu [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Odeberg, Jacob [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hamsten, Anders [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Per [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  5. Identification of Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine-strain genetic markers: Towards understanding the molecular mechanism behind virulence attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohammad Nouh; Ashhab, Yaqoub

    2016-09-22

    Brucella melitensis Rev.1 is an avirulent strain that is widely used as a live vaccine to control brucellosis in small ruminants. Although an assembled draft version of Rev.1 genome has been available since 2009, this genome has not been investigated to characterize this important vaccine. In the present work, we used the draft genome of Rev.1 to perform a thorough genomic comparison and sequence analysis to identify and characterize the panel of its unique genetic markers. The draft genome of Rev.1 was compared with genome sequences of 36 different Brucella melitensis strains from the Brucella project of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The comparative analyses revealed 32 genetic alterations (30 SNPs, 1 single-bp insertion and 1 single-bp deletion) that are exclusively present in the Rev.1 genome. In silico analyses showed that 9 out of the 17 non-synonymous mutations are deleterious. Three ABC transporters are among the disrupted genes that can be linked to virulence attenuation. Out of the 32 mutations, 11 Rev.1 specific markers were selected to test their potential to discriminate Rev.1 using a bi-directional allele-specific PCR assay. Six markers were able to distinguish between Rev.1 and a set of control strains. We succeeded in identifying a panel of 32 genome-specific markers of the B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine strain. Extensive in silico analysis showed that a considerable number of these mutations could severely affect the function of the associated genes. In addition, some of the discovered markers were able to discriminate Rev.1 strain from a group of control strains using practical PCR tests that can be applied in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Carrying Virulence-Attenuating Mutations in Internalin A Are Commonly Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Food Processing Plant and Retail Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Stelten, A; Roberts, A R; Manuel, C S; Nightingale, K K

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that may cause an invasive disease known as listeriosis in susceptible individuals. Internalin A (InlA; encoded by inlA) is a virulence factor that facilitates crossing of host cell barriers by L. monocytogenes . At least 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inlA that result in a premature stop codon (PMSC) have been described worldwide. SNPs leading to a PMSC in inlA have been shown to be causally associated with attenuated virulence. L. monocytogenes pathogens carrying virulence-attenuating (VA) mutations in inlA have been commonly isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods but rarely have been associated with human disease. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of VA SNPs in inlA among L. monocytogenes from environments associated with RTE food production and handling. More than 700 L. monocytogenes isolates from RTE food processing plant (n = 409) and retail (n = 319) environments were screened for the presence of VA SNPs in inlA. Overall, 26.4% of isolates from RTE food processing plant and 32.6% of isolates from retail environments carried a VA mutation in inlA. Food contact surfaces sampled at retail establishments were significantly (P < 0.0001) more likely to be contaminated by a L. monocytogenes isolate carrying a VA mutation in inlA (56% of 55 isolates) compared with nonfood contact surfaces (28% of 264 isolates). Overall, a significant proportion of L. monocytogenes isolated from RTE food production and handling environments have reduced virulence. These data will be useful in the revision of current and the development of future risk assessments that incorporate strain-specific virulence parameters.

  7. The progressive adaptation of a georgian isolate of African swine fever virus to vero cells leads to a gradual attenuation of virulence in swine corresponding to major modifications of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Peter W; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Reese, Bo; Sanford, Brenton; Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and often lethal disease of feral and domestic swine. Experimental vaccines derived from naturally occurring, genetically modified, or cell culture-adapted ASFV have been evaluated, but no commercial vaccine is available to control African swine fever (ASF). We report here the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of viruses obtained at different passages during the process of adaptation of a virulent ASFV field isolate from the Republic of Georgia (ASFV-G) to grow in cultured cell lines. ASFV-G was successively passaged 110 times in Vero cells. Viruses obtained at passages 30, 60, 80, and 110 were evaluated in vitro for the ability to replicate in Vero cells and primary swine macrophages cultures and in vivo for assessing virulence in swine. Replication of ASFV-G in Vero cells increased with successive passages, corresponding to a decreased replication in primary swine macrophages cultures. In vivo, progressive loss of virus virulence was observed with increased passages in Vero cells, and complete attenuation of ASFV-G was observed at passage 110. Infection of swine with the fully attenuated virus did not confer protection against challenge with virulent parental ASFV-G. Full-length sequence analysis of each of these viruses revealed significant deletions that gradually accumulated in specific areas at the right and left variable ends of the genome. Mutations that result in amino acid substitutions and frameshift mutations were also observed, though in a rather limited number of genes. The potential importance of these genetic changes in virus adaptation/attenuation is discussed. The main problem in controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Attempts to produce vaccines by adaptation of ASFV to cultured cell lines have been made. These attempts led to the production of attenuated viruses that conferred only homologous protection. Specifics regarding adaptation of these isolates to cell cultures have been

  8. The effect of mutation on Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid gene expression and mouse virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Prescott, John F

    2004-11-15

    An 81 kb virulence plasmid containing a pathogenicity island (PI) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals but its specific function in virulence and regulation of plasmid-encoded virulence genes is unclear. Using a LacZ selection marker developed for R. equi in this study, in combination with an apramycin resistance gene, an efficient two-stage homologous recombination targeted gene mutation procedure was used to mutate three virulence plasmid genes, a LysR regulatory gene homologue (ORF4), a ResD-like two-component response regulator homologue (ORF8), and a gene (ORF10) of unknown function that is highly expressed by R. equi inside macrophages, as well as the chromosomal gene operon, phoPR. Virulence testing by liver clearance after intravenous injection in mice showed that the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants were fully attenuated, that the phoPR mutant was hypervirulent, and that virulence of the ORF10 mutant remained unchanged. A virulence plasmid DNA microarray was used to compare the plasmid gene expression profile of each of the four gene-targeted mutants against the parental R. equi strain. Changes were limited to PI genes and gene induction was observed for all mutants, suggesting that expression of virulence plasmid genes is dominated by a negative regulatory network. The finding of attenuation of ORF4 and ORF8 mutants despite enhanced transcription of vapA suggests that factors other than VapA are important for full expression of virulence. ORF1, a putative Lsr antigen gene, was strongly and similarly induced in all mutants, implying a common regulatory pathway affecting this gene for all four mutated genes. ORF8 is apparently the centre of this common pathway. Two distinct highly correlated gene induction patterns were observed, that of the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants, and that of the ORF10 and phoPR mutants. The gene induction pattern distinguishing these two groups paralleled their virulence in mice.

  9. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  10. Allele specific expression in worker reproduction genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

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    Harindra E. Amarasinghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.

  11. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

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    Jie Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh. How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  12. Allelic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 entails variant-specific red cell surface epitopes.

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    Inès Vigan-Womas

    Full Text Available The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α(1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α(1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquisition of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as

  13. Pathogenomic inference of virulence-associated genes in Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jason S; Fouts, Derrick E; Haft, Daniel H; Cannella, Anthony P; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Brinkac, Lauren; Harkins, Derek; Durkin, Scott; Sanka, Ravi; Sutton, Granger; Moreno, Angelo; Vinetz, Joseph M; Matthias, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally important, neglected zoonotic infection caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Since genetic transformation remains technically limited for pathogenic Leptospira, a systems biology pathogenomic approach was used to infer leptospiral virulence genes by whole genome comparison of culture-attenuated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai with its virulent, isogenic parent. Among the 11 pathogen-specific protein-coding genes in which non-synonymous mutations were found, a putative soluble adenylate cyclase with host cell cAMP-elevating activity, and two members of a previously unstudied ∼15 member paralogous gene family of unknown function were identified. This gene family was also uniquely found in the alpha-proteobacteria Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella australis that are geographically restricted to the Andes and Australia, respectively. How the pathogenic Leptospira and these two Bartonella species came to share this expanded gene family remains an evolutionary mystery. In vivo expression analyses demonstrated up-regulation of 10/11 Leptospira genes identified in the attenuation screen, and profound in vivo, tissue-specific up-regulation by members of the paralogous gene family, suggesting a direct role in virulence and host-pathogen interactions. The pathogenomic experimental design here is generalizable as a functional systems biology approach to studying bacterial pathogenesis and virulence and should encourage similar experimental studies of other pathogens.

  14. Unravelling the differences: comparative proteomic analysis of a clonal virulent and an attenuated Histomonas meleagridis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoyios, Andreas; Patzl, Martina; Schlosser, Sarah; Hess, Michael; Bilic, Ivana

    2018-02-01

    The current study focused on Histomonas meleagridis, a unicellular protozoan, responsible for histomonosis in poultry. Recently, the occurrence of the disease increased due to the ban of effective chemotherapeutic drugs. Basic questions regarding the molecular biology, virulence mechanisms or even life cycle of the flagellate are still puzzling. In order to address some of these issues, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of a virulent and an attenuated H. meleagridis strain traced back to a single cell and propagated in vitro as monoxenic mono-eukaryotic cultures. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) for proteome visualization with computational 2-DE gel image and statistical analysis, upregulated proteins in either of the two H. meleagridis strains were detected. Statistical analysis fulfilling two criteria (≥threefold upregulation and P singled out 32 spots as specific for the flagellate. These spots were shown to correspond to 24 different proteins that reflect the increased metabolism, in vitro adaptation of the parasite, and amoeboid morphology. In addition to H. meleagridis proteins, the analysis identified differential expression of Escherichia coli DH5α proteins that could have been influenced by the co-cultivated H. meleagridis strain, indicating a reciprocal interaction of these two organisms during monoxenic cultivation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutations within ICP4 acquired during in vitro attenuation do not alter virulence of recombinant Marek's disease viruses in vivo

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    Evin Hildebrandt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek's disease (MD is a T-cell lymphoma of chickens caused by the oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV. MD is primarily controlled by live-attenuated vaccines generated by repeated in vitro serial passage. Previous efforts to characterize attenuated MDVs identified numerous mutations, particularly a convergence of high-frequency mutations around amino acids 60–63 within ICP4 (RS1, therefore, ICP4 was considered a candidate gene deserving further characterization. Recombinant MDVs were generated containing a single Q63H mutation or double Q63H + S1630P mutations. Despite the repetitive nature of mutations within ICP4, neither recombinant virus decreased virulence, although one mutant reduced in vivo replication and failed to transmit horizontally. Our results indicate that these mutations are insufficient to reduce disease incidence in infected birds, and suggest that variants in ICP4 do not directly alter virulence, but rather may enhance MDV replication rates in vitro, offering an explanation for the widespread occurrence of ICP4 mutations in a variety of attenuated herpesviruses.

  16. Quantitative threefold allele-specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR) for highly sensitive JAK2 V617F mutant allele detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapparoli, Giada V; Jorissen, Robert N; Hewitt, Chelsee A; McBean, Michelle; Westerman, David A; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation is the most frequent somatic change in myeloproliferative neoplasms, making it an important tumour-specific marker for diagnostic purposes and for the detection of minimal residual disease. Sensitive quantitative assays are required for both applications, particularly for the monitoring of minimal residual disease, which requires not only high sensitivity but also very high specificity. We developed a highly sensitive probe-free quantitative mutant-allele detection method, Quantitative Threefold Allele-Specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR), that is performed in a closed-tube system, thus eliminating the manipulation of PCR products. QuantTAS-PCR uses a threefold approach to ensure allele-specific amplification of the mutant sequence: (i) a mutant allele-specific primer, (ii) a 3′dideoxy blocker to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template and (iii) a PCR specificity enhancer, also to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. Mutant alleles were quantified relative to exon 9 of JAK2. We showed that the addition of the 3′dideoxy blocker suppressed but did not eliminate false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. However, the addition of the PCR specificity enhancer near eliminated false-positive amplification from the wild-type allele. Further discrimination between true and false positives was enabled by using the quantification cycle (Cq) value of a single mutant template as a cut-off point, thus enabling robust distinction between true and false positives. As 10,000 JAK2 templates were used per replicate, the assay had a sensitivity of 1/10 -4 per replicate. Greater sensitivity could be reached by increasing the number of replicates analysed. Variation in replicates when low mutant-allele templates were present necessitated the use of a statistics-based approach to estimate the load of mutant JAK2 copies. QuanTAS-PCR showed comparable quantitative results when validated against a

  17. Comparative Genomics of Mycoplasma bovis Strains Reveals That Decreased Virulence with Increasing Passages Might Correlate with Potential Virulence-Related Factors

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    Muhammad A. Rasheed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. To understand its virulence mechanisms, we sequenced three attenuated M. bovis strains, P115, P150, and P180, which were passaged in vitro 115, 150, and 180 times, respectively, and exhibited progressively decreasing virulence. Comparative genomics was performed among the wild-type M. bovis HB0801 (P1 strain and the P115, P150, and P180 strains, and one 14.2-kb deleted region covering 14 genes was detected in the passaged strains. Additionally, 46 non-sense single-nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were detected, which confirmed that more passages result in more mutations. A subsequent collective bioinformatics analysis of paralogs, metabolic pathways, protein-protein interactions, secretory proteins, functionally conserved domains, and virulence-related factors identified 11 genes that likely contributed to the increased attenuation in the passaged strains. These genes encode ascorbate-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIB and IIA components, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, glycerol, and multiple sugar ATP-binding cassette transporters, ATP binding proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, transketolase, and a variable surface protein. Fifteen genes were shown to be enriched in 15 metabolic pathways, and they included the aforementioned genes encoding pyruvate kinase, transketolase, enolase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production in M. bovis strains representing seven passages from P1 to P180 decreased progressively with increasing numbers of passages and increased attenuation. However, eight mutants specific to eight individual genes within the 14.2-kb deleted region did not exhibit altered H2O2 production. These results enrich the M. bovis genomics database, and they increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying M. bovis virulence.

  18. Live Attenuated Tularemia Vaccines for Protection Against Respiratory Challenge With Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingmei; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a Tier I bioterrorism agent. In the 1900s, several vaccines were developed against tularemia including the killed “Foshay” vaccine, subunit vaccines comprising F. tularensis protein(s) or lipoproteins(s) in an adjuvant formulation, and the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS); none were licensed in the U.S.A. or European Union. The LVS vaccine retains toxicity in humans and animals—especially mice—but has demonstrated efficacy in humans, and thus serves as the current gold standard for vaccine efficacy studies. The U.S.A. 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attack spawned renewed interest in vaccines against potential biowarfare agents including F. tularensis. Since live attenuated—but not killed or subunit—vaccines have shown promising efficacy and since vaccine efficacy against respiratory challenge with less virulent subspecies holarctica or F. novicida, or against non-respiratory challenge with virulent subsp. tularensis (Type A) does not reliably predict vaccine efficacy against respiratory challenge with virulent subsp. tularensis, the route of transmission and species of greatest concern in a bioterrorist attack, in this review, we focus on live attenuated tularemia vaccine candidates tested against respiratory challenge with virulent Type A strains, including homologous vaccines derived from mutants of subsp. holarctica, F. novicida, and subsp. tularensis, and heterologous vaccines developed using viral or bacterial vectors to express F. tularensis immunoprotective antigens. We compare the virulence and efficacy of these vaccine candidates with that of LVS and discuss factors that can significantly impact the development and evaluation of live attenuated tularemia vaccines. Several vaccines meet what we would consider the minimum criteria for vaccines to go forward into clinical development—safety greater than LVS and efficacy at least as great as LVS, and of these, several meet the

  19. Pathogenomic inference of virulence-associated genes in Leptospira interrogans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Lehmann

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a globally important, neglected zoonotic infection caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Since genetic transformation remains technically limited for pathogenic Leptospira, a systems biology pathogenomic approach was used to infer leptospiral virulence genes by whole genome comparison of culture-attenuated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai with its virulent, isogenic parent. Among the 11 pathogen-specific protein-coding genes in which non-synonymous mutations were found, a putative soluble adenylate cyclase with host cell cAMP-elevating activity, and two members of a previously unstudied ∼15 member paralogous gene family of unknown function were identified. This gene family was also uniquely found in the alpha-proteobacteria Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella australis that are geographically restricted to the Andes and Australia, respectively. How the pathogenic Leptospira and these two Bartonella species came to share this expanded gene family remains an evolutionary mystery. In vivo expression analyses demonstrated up-regulation of 10/11 Leptospira genes identified in the attenuation screen, and profound in vivo, tissue-specific up-regulation by members of the paralogous gene family, suggesting a direct role in virulence and host-pathogen interactions. The pathogenomic experimental design here is generalizable as a functional systems biology approach to studying bacterial pathogenesis and virulence and should encourage similar experimental studies of other pathogens.

  20. QuASAR: quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris T; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Davis, Gordon O; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-04-15

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have discovered thousands of genetic variants that regulate gene expression, enabling a better understanding of the functional role of non-coding sequences. However, eQTL studies are costly, requiring large sample sizes and genome-wide genotyping of each sample. In contrast, analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) is becoming a popular approach to detect the effect of genetic variation on gene expression, even within a single individual. This is typically achieved by counting the number of RNA-seq reads matching each allele at heterozygous sites and testing the null hypothesis of a 1:1 allelic ratio. In principle, when genotype information is not readily available, it could be inferred from the RNA-seq reads directly. However, there are currently no existing methods that jointly infer genotypes and conduct ASE inference, while considering uncertainty in the genotype calls. We present QuASAR, quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads, a novel statistical learning method for jointly detecting heterozygous genotypes and inferring ASE. The proposed ASE inference step takes into consideration the uncertainty in the genotype calls, while including parameters that model base-call errors in sequencing and allelic over-dispersion. We validated our method with experimental data for which high-quality genotypes are available. Results for an additional dataset with multiple replicates at different sequencing depths demonstrate that QuASAR is a powerful tool for ASE analysis when genotypes are not available. http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR. fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu Supplementary Material is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

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    Scheffler Konrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array

  2. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  3. Phosphorylation of KasB regulates virulence and acid-fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Catherine Vilchèze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4-6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of

  4. Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2014-04-01

    The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis. © 2013.

  5. Enhancement of allele discrimination by introduction of nucleotide mismatches into siRNA in allele-specific gene silencing by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi is therapeutically useful for specifically inhibiting the expression of disease-associated alleles without suppressing the expression of corresponding wild-type alleles. To realize such allele-specific RNAi (ASP-RNAi, the design and assessment of small interfering RNA (siRNA duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi is vital; however, it is also difficult. In a previous study, we developed an assay system to assess ASP-RNAi with mutant and wild-type reporter alleles encoding the Photinus and Renilla luciferase genes. In line with experiments using the system, we realized that it is necessary and important to enhance allele discrimination between mutant and corresponding wild-type alleles. Here, we describe the improvement of ASP-RNAi against mutant alleles carrying single nucleotide variations by introducing base substitutions into siRNA sequences, where original variations are present in the central position. Artificially mismatched siRNAs or short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs against mutant alleles of the human Prion Protein (PRNP gene, which appear to be associated with susceptibility to prion diseases, were examined using this assessment system. The data indicates that introduction of a one-base mismatch into the siRNAs and shRNAs was able to enhance discrimination between the mutant and wild-type alleles. Interestingly, the introduced mismatches that conferred marked improvement in ASP-RNAi, appeared to be largely present in the guide siRNA elements, corresponding to the 'seed region' of microRNAs. Due to the essential role of the 'seed region' of microRNAs in their association with target RNAs, it is conceivable that disruption of the base-pairing interactions in the corresponding seed region, as well as the central position (involved in cleavage of target RNAs, of guide siRNA elements could influence allele discrimination. In addition, we also suggest that nucleotide mismatches at the 3'-ends of sense

  6. The metabolic regulator CodY links L. monocytogenes metabolism to virulence by directly activating the virulence regulatory gene, prfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Lior; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Belitsky, Boris R.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metabolic adaptations are critical to the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow within host cells and are normally preceded by sensing of host-specific metabolic signals, which in turn can influence the pathogen's virulence state. Previously, we reported that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes responds to low availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) within mammalian cells by up-regulating both BCAA biosynthesis and virulence genes. The induction of virulence genes required the BCAA-responsive transcription regulator, CodY, but the molecular mechanism governing this mode of regulation was unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that CodY directly binds the coding sequence of the L. monocytogenes master virulence activator gene, prfA, 15 nt downstream of its start codon, and that this binding results in up-regulation of prfA transcription specifically under low concentrations of BCAA. Mutating this site abolished CodY binding and reduced prfA transcription in macrophages, and attenuated bacterial virulence in mice. Notably, the mutated binding site did not alter prfA transcription or PrfA activity under other conditions that are known to activate PrfA, such as during growth in the presence of glucose-1-phosphate. This study highlights the tight crosstalk between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence' while revealing novel features of CodY-mediated regulation. PMID:25430920

  7. QuASAR-MPRA: accurate allele-specific analysis for massively parallel reporter assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Cynthia A; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Brown, Christopher; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2018-03-01

    The majority of the human genome is composed of non-coding regions containing regulatory elements such as enhancers, which are crucial for controlling gene expression. Many variants associated with complex traits are in these regions, and may disrupt gene regulatory sequences. Consequently, it is important to not only identify true enhancers but also to test if a variant within an enhancer affects gene regulation. Recently, allele-specific analysis in high-throughput reporter assays, such as massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs), have been used to functionally validate non-coding variants. However, we are still missing high-quality and robust data analysis tools for these datasets. We have further developed our method for allele-specific analysis QuASAR (quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads) to analyze allele-specific signals in barcoded read counts data from MPRA. Using this approach, we can take into account the uncertainty on the original plasmid proportions, over-dispersion, and sequencing errors. The provided allelic skew estimate and its standard error also simplifies meta-analysis of replicate experiments. Additionally, we show that a beta-binomial distribution better models the variability present in the allelic imbalance of these synthetic reporters and results in a test that is statistically well calibrated under the null. Applying this approach to the MPRA data, we found 602 SNPs with significant (false discovery rate 10%) allele-specific regulatory function in LCLs. We also show that we can combine MPRA with QuASAR estimates to validate existing experimental and computational annotations of regulatory variants. Our study shows that with appropriate data analysis tools, we can improve the power to detect allelic effects in high-throughput reporter assays. http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR/tree/master/mpra. fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu. Supplementary data are available online at Bioinformatics. © The Author (2017). Published by

  8. Natural Selection in Virulence Genes of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Mark K; Robison, Richard A; Adams, Byron J

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental tenet of evolution is that alleles that are under negative selection are often deleterious and confer no evolutionary advantage. Negatively selected alleles are removed from the gene pool and are eventually extinguished from the population. Conversely, alleles under positive selection do confer an evolutionary advantage and lead to an increase in the overall fitness of the organism. These alleles increase in frequency until they eventually become fixed in the population. Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic pathogen and a potential biothreat agent. The most virulent type of F. tularensis, Type A, is distributed across North America with Type A.I occurring mainly in the east and Type A.II appearing mainly in the west. F. tularensis is thought to be a genome in decay (losing genes) because of the relatively large number of pseudogenes present in its genome. We hypothesized that the observed frequency of gene loss/pseudogenes may be an artifact of evolution in response to a changing environment, and that genes involved in virulence should be under strong positive selection. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced and compared whole genomes of Type A.I and A.II isolates. We analyzed a subset of virulence and housekeeping genes from several F. tularensis subspecies genomes to ascertain the presence and extent of positive selection. Eleven previously identified virulence genes were screened for positive selection along with 10 housekeeping genes. Analyses of selection yielded one housekeeping gene and 7 virulence genes which showed significant evidence of positive selection at loci implicated in cell surface structures and membrane proteins, metabolism and biosynthesis, transcription, translation and cell separation, and substrate binding and transport. Our results suggest that while the loss of functional genes through disuse could be accelerated by negative selection, the genome decay in Francisella could also be the byproduct of adaptive evolution

  9. Virulence attributes and hyphal growth of C. neoformans are quantitative traits and the MATalpha allele enhances filamentation.

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    Xiaorong Lin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal human pathogen with a bipolar mating system. It undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to hyphal filamentous growth during mating and monokaryotic fruiting. The traditional sexual cycle that leads to the production of infectious basidiospores involves cells of both alpha and a mating type. Monokaryotic fruiting is a modified form of sexual reproduction that involves cells of the same mating type, most commonly alpha, which is the predominant mating type in both the environment and clinical isolates. However, some a isolates can also undergo monokaryotic fruiting. To determine whether mating type and other genetic loci contribute to the differences in fruiting observed between alpha and a cells, we applied quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping to an inbred population of F2 progeny. We discovered that variation in hyphal length produced during fruiting is a quantitative trait resulting from the combined effects of multiple genetic loci, including the mating type (MAT locus. Importantly, the alpha allele of the MAT locus enhanced hyphal growth compared with the a allele. Other virulence traits, including melanization and growth at 39 degrees C, also are quantitative traits that share a common QTL with hyphal growth. The Mac1 transcription factor, encoded in this common QTL, regulates copper homeostasis. MAC1 allelic differences contribute to phenotypic variation, and mac1Delta mutants exhibit defects in filamentation, melanin production, and high temperature growth. Further characterization of these QTL regions will reveal additional quantitative trait genes controlling biological processes central to fungal development and pathogenicity.

  10. Mixed infections reveal virulence differences between host-specific bee pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Ellen G; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2015-07-01

    Dynamics of host-pathogen interactions are complex, often influencing the ecology, evolution and behavior of both the host and pathogen. In the natural world, infections with multiple pathogens are common, yet due to their complexity, interactions can be difficult to predict and study. Mathematical models help facilitate our understanding of these evolutionary processes, but empirical data are needed to test model assumptions and predictions. We used two common theoretical models regarding mixed infections (superinfection and co-infection) to determine which model assumptions best described a group of fungal pathogens closely associated with bees. We tested three fungal species, Ascosphaera apis, Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera larvis, in two bee hosts (Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata). Bee survival was not significantly different in mixed infections vs. solo infections with the most virulent pathogen for either host, but fungal growth within the host was significantly altered by mixed infections. In the host A. mellifera, only the most virulent pathogen was present in the host post-infection (indicating superinfective properties). In M. rotundata, the most virulent pathogen co-existed with the lesser-virulent one (indicating co-infective properties). We demonstrated that the competitive outcomes of mixed infections were host-specific, indicating strong host specificity among these fungal bee pathogens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Wu, H.; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria. A major concern with this approach is the frequent development of resistance to antibiotics. The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has...... of natural furanone compounds can act as a potent antagonist of bacterial quorum sensing. We employed GeneChip((R)) microarray technology to identify furanone target genes and to map the quorum sensing regulon. The transcriptome analysis showed that the furanone drug specifically targeted quorum sensing...

  12. Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process. PMID:11500406

  13. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  14. Allele-specific characterization of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase variants associated with primary hyperoxaluria.

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    Melissa D Lage

    Full Text Available Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1 is a rare autosomal recessive kidney stone disease caused by deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, which is involved in glyoxylate detoxification. Over 75 different missense mutations in AGT have been found associated with PH1. While some of the mutations have been found to affect enzyme activity, stability, and/or localization, approximately half of these mutations are completely uncharacterized. In this study, we sought to systematically characterize AGT missense mutations associated with PH1. To facilitate analysis, we used two high-throughput yeast-based assays: one that assesses AGT specific activity, and one that assesses protein stability. Approximately 30% of PH1-associated missense mutations are found in conjunction with a minor allele polymorphic variant, which can interact to elicit complex effects on protein stability and trafficking. To better understand this allele interaction, we functionally characterized each of 34 mutants on both the major (wild-type and minor allele backgrounds, identifying mutations that synergize with the minor allele. We classify these mutants into four distinct categories depending on activity/stability results in the different alleles. Twelve mutants were found to display reduced activity in combination with the minor allele, compared with the major allele background. When mapped on the AGT dimer structure, these mutants reveal localized regions of the protein that appear particularly sensitive to interactions with the minor allele variant. While the majority of the deleterious effects on activity in the minor allele can be attributed to synergistic interaction affecting protein stability, we identify one mutation, E274D, that appears to specifically affect activity when in combination with the minor allele.

  15. Allelic inhibition of displacement activity: a simplified one tube allele-specific PCR for evaluation of ITPA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmozzi, E; Facchetti, F; Degasperi, E; Aghemo, A; Lampertico, P

    2013-02-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have identified two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene, that are associated strongly and independently with hemolytic anemia in patients exposed to pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combined therapy. Here has been developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay named allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) for evaluation of ITPA polymorphisms. AIDA system relies on three unlabeled primers only, two outer common primers and one inner primer with allele-specific 3' terminus mismatch. DNA samples from 192 patients with chronic HCV infection were used to validate the AIDA system and results were compared with the gold standard TaqMan(®) SNP genotyping assay. Concordant data were obtained for all samples, granting for high specificity of the method. In conclusion, AIDA is a practical one-tube method to reproducibly and to assess accurately rs7270101 and rs1127354 ITPA SNPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide......-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon....

  17. Genomic Changes in an Attenuated ZB Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia1 and Comparison with Its Virulent Parental Strain

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    Aiguo Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1 ZB strain remains unknown. To understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated ZB strains (ZB/CHA/58(att, ZBRF168, and ZBRF188 and their virulent parental strains (ZBCF22 and YNBS/58. The results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutation in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR and another one in the 3′-UTR. In addition, a total of 21 nucleotides silent mutations had been found after attenuation. These substitutions, alone or in combination, may be responsible for the attenuated phenotype of the ZB strain in cattle. This will contribute to elucidation of attenuating molecular basis of the FMDV ZB strain.

  18. The expression and evolution of virulence in multiple infections: the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Frida; Routtu, Jarkko

    2013-05-03

    Multiple infections of the same host by different strains of the same microparasite species are believed to play a crucial role during the evolution of parasite virulence. We investigated the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose in determining the competitive outcome of multiple infections in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. We found that infections by P. ramosa clones (single genotype) were less virulent and produced more spores than infections by P. ramosa isolates (possibly containing multiple genotypes). We also found that two similarly virulent isolates of P. ramosa differed considerably in their within-host competitiveness and their effects on host offspring production when faced with coinfecting P. ramosa isolates and clones. Although the relative virulence of a P. ramosa isolate/clone appears to be a good indicator of its competitiveness during multiple infections, the relative dose may alter the competitive outcome. Moreover, spore counts on day 20 post-infection indicate that the competitive outcome is largely decided early in the parasite's growth phase, possibly mediated by direct interference or apparent competition. Our results emphasize the importance of epidemiology as well as of various parasite traits in determining the outcome of within-host competition. Incorporating realistic epidemiological and ecological conditions when testing theoretical models of multiple infections, as well as using a wider range of host and parasite genotypes, will enable us to better understand the course of virulence evolution.

  19. Identification of Burkholderia cenocepacia strain H111 virulence factors using nonmammalian infection hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwager, Stephan; Agnoli, Kirsty; Köthe, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia H111, a strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient, has been shown to effectively kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We used the C. elegans model of infection to screen a mini-Tn5 mutant library of B. cenocepacia H111 for attenuated virulence....... Of the approximately 5,500 B. cenocepacia H111 random mini-Tn5 insertion mutants that were screened, 22 showed attenuated virulence in C. elegans. Except for the quorum-sensing regulator cepR, none of the mutated genes coded for the biosynthesis of classical virulence factors such as extracellular proteases...... or siderophores. Instead, the mutants contained insertions in metabolic and regulatory genes. Mutants attenuated in virulence in the C. elegans infection model were also tested in the Drosophila melanogaster pricking model, and those also attenuated in this model were further tested in Galleria mellonella. Six...

  20. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles H; Cervantes, Maria; Springer, Deborah J; Boekhout, Teun; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M; Torres-Martinez, Santiago R; Heitman, Joseph; Lee, Soo Chan

    2011-06-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a heterothallic fungus: (+) sex allele encodes SexP and (-) sex allele SexM, both of which are HMG domain protein sex determinants. M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus (Mcl) (-) mating type isolates produce larger asexual sporangiospores that are more virulent in the wax moth host compared to (+) isolates that produce smaller less virulent sporangiospores. The larger sporangiospores germinate inside and lyse macrophages, whereas the smaller sporangiospores do not. sexMΔ mutants are sterile and still produce larger virulent sporangiospores, suggesting that either the sex locus is not involved in virulence/spore size or the sexP allele plays an inhibitory role. Phylogenetic analysis supports that at least three extant subspecies populate the M. circinelloides complex in nature: Mcl, M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus, and M. circinelloides f. circinelloides (Mcc). Mcc was found to be more prevalent among clinical Mucor isolates, and more virulent than Mcl in a diabetic murine model in contrast to the wax moth host. The M. circinelloides sex locus encodes an HMG domain protein (SexP for plus and SexM for minus mating types) flanked by genes encoding triose phosphate transporter (TPT) and RNA helicase homologs. The borders of the sex locus between the three subspecies differ: the Mcg sex locus includes the promoters of both the TPT and the RNA helicase genes, whereas the Mcl and Mcc sex locus includes only the TPT gene promoter. Mating between subspecies was restricted compared to mating within subspecies. These findings demonstrate that spore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of M. circinelloides species and that plasticity of the sex locus and adaptations in pathogenicity have

  1. Functional dissection of Streptococcus pyogenes M5 protein: the hypervariable region is essential for virulence.

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    Johan Waldemarsson

    Full Text Available The surface-localized M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is a major virulence factor that inhibits phagocytosis, as determined ex vivo. Because little is known about the role of M protein in vivo we analyzed the contribution of different M protein regions to virulence, using the fibrinogen (Fg-binding M5 protein and a mouse model of acute invasive infection. This model was suitable, because M5 is required for mouse virulence and binds mouse and human Fg equally well, as shown here. Mixed infection experiments with wild type bacteria demonstrated that mutants lacking the N-terminal hypervariable region (HVR or the Fg-binding B-repeat region were strongly attenuated, while a mutant lacking the conserved C-repeats was only slightly attenuated. Because the HVR of M5 is not required for phagocytosis resistance, our data imply that this HVR plays a major but unknown role during acute infection. The B-repeat region is required for phagocytosis resistance and specifically binds Fg, suggesting that it promotes virulence by binding Fg. However, B-repeat mutants were attenuated even in Fg-deficient mice, implying that the B-repeats may have a second function, in addition to Fg-binding. These data demonstrate that two distinct M5 regions, including the HVR, are essential to virulence during the early stages of an infection. In particular, our data provide the first in vivo evidence that the HVR of an M protein plays a major role in virulence, focusing interest on the molecular role of this region.

  2. Persistence of attenuated HIV-1 rev alleles in an epidemiologically linked cohort of long-term survivors infected with nef-deleted virus

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    Wesselingh Steven L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC of long-term survivors consists of multiple individuals infected with nef-deleted, attenuated strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Although the cohort members have experienced differing clinical courses and now comprise slow progressors (SP as well as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP, longitudinal analysis of nef/long-terminal repeat (LTR sequences demonstrated convergent nef/LTR sequence evolution in SBBC SP and LTNP. Thus, the in vivo pathogenicity of attenuated HIV-1 strains harboured by SBBC members is dictated by factors other than nef/LTR. Therefore, to determine whether defects in other viral genes contribute to attenuation of these HIV-1 strains, we characterized dominant HIV-1 rev alleles that persisted in 4 SBBC subjects; C18, C64, C98 and D36. Results The ability of Rev derived from D36 and C64 to bind the Rev responsive element (RRE in RNA binding assays was reduced by approximately 90% compared to Rev derived from HIV-1NL4-3, C18 or C98. D36 Rev also had a 50–60% reduction in ability to express Rev-dependent reporter constructs in mammalian cells. In contrast, C64 Rev had only marginally decreased Rev function despite attenuated RRE binding. In D36 and C64, attenuated RRE binding was associated with rare amino acid changes at 3 highly conserved residues; Gln to Pro at position 74 immediately N-terminal to the Rev activation domain, and Val to Leu and Ser to Pro at positions 104 and 106 at the Rev C-terminus, respectively. In D36, reduced Rev function was mapped to an unusual 13 amino acid extension at the Rev C-terminus. Conclusion These findings provide new genetic and mechanistic insights important for Rev function, and suggest that Rev function, not Rev/RRE binding may be rate limiting for HIV-1 replication. In addition, attenuated rev alleles may contribute to viral attenuation and long-term survival of HIV-1 infection in a subset of SBBC members.

  3. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus, implications for psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide-range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to TNF-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to up-regulation by key pro-inflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele. PMID:22113476

  4. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus: implications for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2012-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to upregulation by key proinflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele.

  5. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  6. Main functions and taxonomic distribution of virulence genes in Brucella melitensis 16 M.

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    Aniel Jessica Leticia Brambila-Tapia

    Full Text Available Many virulence genes have been detected in attenuated mutants of Brucella melitensis 16 M; nevertheless, a complete report of these genes, including the main Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG represented as well as the taxonomical distribution among all complete bacterial and archaeal genomes, has not been analyzed. In this work a total of 160 virulence genes that have been reported in attenuated mutants in B. melitensis were included and analyzed. Additionally, we obtained 250 B. melitensis randomly selected genes as a reference group for the taxonomical comparisons. The COGs and the taxonomical distribution profile for 789 nonredundant bacterial and archaeal genomes were obtained and compared with the whole-genome COG distribution and with the 250 randomly selected genes, respectively. The main COGs associated with virulence genes corresponded to the following: intracellular trafficking, secretion and vesicular transport (U; cell motility (N; nucleotide transport and metabolism (F; transcription (K; and cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis (M. In addition, we found that virulence genes presented a higher proportion of orthologs in the Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla, with a significant decrease in Chlamydiae, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Firmicutes and Thermotogae. In conclusion, we found that genes related to specific functions are more relevant to B. melitensis virulence, with the COG U the most significant. Additionally, the taxonomical distribution of virulence genes highlights the importance of these genes in the related Proteobacteria, being less relevant in distant groups of organisms with the exception of Euryarchaeota.

  7. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and their role in peptic ulcer diseases in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, I E; Hussein, N R; Bolek, B K; Arikan, S; Salih, B A

    2010-01-01

    The role of virulence factors present in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains and the characterization of such factors being predictive of specific disease is still not clear. In this study, the cagA, vacA alleles and the recently characterized vacA i-region and dupA and their association with the severity of the disease was determined. Antral biopsies from 91patients with peptic ulcer (PU) (n = 41), gastritis (n = 48) and gastric cancer (GC) (n = 2) were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by the CLO-test and PCR. A 79/91 (86%) patients were positive for H. pylori by either PCR or by both PCR and CLO-test. PCR-based typing of H. pylori isolates was performed on DNA extracted directly from biopsy samples. The cagA+ strains were found more likely to be associated with vacA s1 than s2. The vacA i1 allele detected in 16/23 (70%) of samples had significant association with duodenal ulcers than those 16/37 (44%) of gastritis (P dupA and duodenal ulcer. This study provided more evidence that the vacA i1 allele is one of the virulence factors of H. pylori that had significant association with severe outcome.

  8. Exploring potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates of varying virulence through quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Daniele G; Chaves, Alison F A; Xander, Patricia; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Serrano, Solange M T; Tashima, Alexandre K; Batista, Wagner L

    2014-10-03

    Few virulence factors have been identified for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the protein composition of P. brasiliensis in the yeast phase using minimal and rich media to obtain a better understanding of its virulence and to gain new insights into pathogen adaptation strategies. This analysis was performed on two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles in B10.A mice. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified and quantified 316 proteins in minimal medium, 29 of which were overexpressed in virulent Pb18. In rich medium, 29 out of 295 proteins were overexpressed in the virulent fungus. Three proteins were found to be up-regulated in both media, suggesting the potential roles of these proteins in virulence regulation in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, genes up-regulated in virulent Pb18 showed an increase in its expression after the recovery of virulence of attenuated Pb18. Proteins up-regulated in both isolates were grouped according to their functional categories. Virulent Pb18 undergoes metabolic reorganization and increased expression of proteins involved in fermentative respiration. This approach allowed us to identify potential virulence regulators and provided a foundation for achieving a molecular understanding of how Paracoccidioides modulates the host-pathogen interaction to its advantage.

  9. The primary mechanism of attenuation of bacillus Calmette–Guérin is a loss of secreted lytic function required for invasion of lung interstitial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsungda; Hingley-Wilson, Suzanne M.; Chen, Bing; Chen, Mei; Dai, Annie Z.; Morin, Paul M.; Marks, Carolyn B.; Padiyar, Jeevan; Goulding, Celia; Gingery, Mari; Eisenberg, David; Russell, Robert G.; Derrick, Steven C.; Collins, Frank M.; Morris, Sheldon L.; King, C. Harold; Jacobs, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death worldwide, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy and a vaccine. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), the tuberculosis vaccine, is an attenuated mutant of Mycobacterium bovis that was isolated after serial subcultures, yet the functional basis for this attenuation has never been elucidated. A single region (RD1), which is absent in all BCG substrains, was deleted from virulent M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, and the resulting ΔRD1 mutants were significantly attenuated for virulence in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice. The M. tuberculosis ΔRD1 mutants were also shown to protect mice against aerosol challenge, in a similar manner to BCG. Interestingly, the ΔRD1 mutants failed to cause cytolysis of pneumocytes, a phenotype that had been previously used to distinguish virulent M. tuberculosis from BCG. A specific transposon mutation, which disrupts the Rv3874 Rv3875 (cfp-10 esat-6) operon of RD1, also caused loss of the cytolytic phenotype in both pneumocytes and macrophages. This mutation resulted in the attenuation of virulence in mice, as the result of reduced tissue invasiveness. Moreover, specific deletion of each transcriptional unit of RD1 revealed that three independent transcriptional units are required for virulence, two of which are involved in the secretion of ESAT-6 (6-kDa early secretory antigenic target). We conclude that the primary attenuating mechanism of bacillus Calmette–Guérin is the loss of cytolytic activity mediated by secreted ESAT-6, which results in reduced tissue invasiveness. PMID:14557547

  10. Simultaneous SNP identification and assessment of allele-specific bias from ChIP-seq data

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    Ni Yunyun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with many aspects of human development and disease, and many non-coding SNPs associated with disease risk are presumed to affect gene regulation. We have previously shown that SNPs within transcription factor binding sites can affect transcription factor binding in an allele-specific and heritable manner. However, such analysis has relied on prior whole-genome genotypes provided by large external projects such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. This requirement limits the study of allele-specific effects of SNPs in primary patient samples from diseases of interest, where complete genotypes are not readily available. Results In this study, we show that we are able to identify SNPs de novo and accurately from ChIP-seq data generated in the ENCODE Project. Our de novo identified SNPs from ChIP-seq data are highly concordant with published genotypes. Independent experimental verification of more than 100 sites estimates our false discovery rate at less than 5%. Analysis of transcription factor binding at de novo identified SNPs revealed widespread heritable allele-specific binding, confirming previous observations. SNPs identified from ChIP-seq datasets were significantly enriched for disease-associated variants, and we identified dozens of allele-specific binding events in non-coding regions that could distinguish between disease and normal haplotypes. Conclusions Our approach combines SNP discovery, genotyping and allele-specific analysis, but is selectively focused on functional regulatory elements occupied by transcription factors or epigenetic marks, and will therefore be valuable for identifying the functional regulatory consequences of non-coding SNPs in primary disease samples.

  11. Allele-specific physical interactions regulate the heterotic traits in hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

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    Babita Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis is an important phenomenon for the breeding in agricultural crops as it influences yield related traits such as biomass yield, seed number and weight, adaptive and reproductive traits. However, the level of heterosis greatly varies for different traits and different genotypes. The present study focuses on identification of physical interactions between alleles and their role in transcriptional regulation in heterotic plants. Here, we used two Arabidopsis ecotypes; Col-0 and C24 as parent for crosses. We performed crossing between these ecotypes and screened the F1 hybrids on the basis of different SSR markers. Further, we used Hi-C to capture intra- and inter-chromosomal physical interactions between alleles on genome-wide level. Then, we identified allele-specific chromatin interactions and constructed genome-wide allele-specific contact maps at different resolutions for the entire chromosome. We also performed RNA-seq of hybrids and their parents. RNA-seq analysis identified several differentially expressed genes and non-additively expressed genes in hybrids with respect to their parents. Further, to understand the biological significance of these chromatin interactions, we annotated these interactions and correlated with the transcriptome data. Thus, our study provides alleles-specific chromatin interactions in genome-wide fashion which play a crucial role in regulation of different genes that may be important for heterosis.

  12. Sex-specific allelic transmission bias suggests sexual conflict at MC1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, Valérie; Gaigher, Arnaud; Simon, Céline; Goudet, Jérôme; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Sexual conflict arises when selection in one sex causes the displacement of the other sex from its phenotypic optimum, leading to an inevitable tension within the genome - called intralocus sexual conflict. Although the autosomal melanocortin-1-receptor gene (MC1R) can generate colour variation in sexually dichromatic species, most previous studies have not considered the possibility that MC1R may be subject to sexual conflict. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), the allele MC1RWHITE is associated with whitish plumage coloration, typical of males, and the allele MC1RRUFOUS is associated with dark rufous coloration, typical of females, although each sex can express any phenotype. Because each colour variant is adapted to specific environmental conditions, the allele MC1RWHITE may be more strongly selected in males and the allele MC1RRUFOUS in females. We therefore investigated whether MC1R genotypes are in excess or deficit in male and female fledglings compared with the expected Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Our results show an overall deficit of 7.5% in the proportion of heterozygotes in males and of 12.9% in females. In males, interannual variation in assortative pairing with respect to MC1R explained the year-specific deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, whereas in females, the deficit was better explained by the interannual variation in the probability of inheriting the MC1RWHITE or MC1RRUFOUS allele. Additionally, we observed that sons inherit the MC1RRUFOUS allele from their fathers on average slightly less often than expected under the first Mendelian law. Transmission ratio distortion may be adaptive in this sexually dichromatic species if males and females are, respectively, selected to display white and rufous plumages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A small asparagine-rich protein required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, B; Mou, B; Canevascini, S; Bernatzky, R

    1999-11-09

    Although S-locus RNases (S-RNases) determine the specificity of pollen rejection in self-incompatible (SI) solanaceous plants, they alone are not sufficient to cause S-allele-specific pollen rejection. To identify non-S-RNase sequences that are required for pollen rejection, a Nicotiana alata cDNA library was screened by differential hybridization. One clone, designated HT, hybridized strongly to RNA from N. alata styles but not to RNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a species known to lack one or more factors necessary for S-allele-specific pollen rejection. Sequence analysis revealed a 101-residue ORF including a putative secretion signal and an asparagine-rich domain near the C terminus. RNA blot analysis showed that the HT-transcript accumulates in the stigma and style before anthesis. The timing of HT-expression lags slightly behind S(C10)-RNase in SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10) and is well correlated with the onset of S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the style. An antisense-HT construct was prepared to test for a role in pollen rejection. Transformed (N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10)) hybrids with reduced levels of HT-protein continued to express S(C10)-RNase but failed to reject S(C10)-pollen. Control hybrids expressing both S(C10)-RNase and HT-protein showed a normal S-allele-specific pollen rejection response. We conclude that HT-protein is directly implicated in pollen rejection.

  14. Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren

    2011-01-01

    Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute......>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were.......20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1...

  15. Comparison of the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D-204 strain to its virulent parental strain Asibi by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Ryman, Kate D; Barrett, Alan D T

    2014-02-01

    The first comparison of a live RNA viral vaccine strain to its wild-type parental strain by deep sequencing is presented using as a model the yellow fever virus (YFV) live vaccine strain 17D-204 and its wild-type parental strain, Asibi. The YFV 17D-204 vaccine genome was compared to that of the parental strain Asibi by massively parallel methods. Variability was compared on multiple scales of the viral genomes. A modeled exploration of small-frequency variants was performed to reconstruct plausible regions of mutational plasticity. Overt quasispecies diversity is a feature of the parental strain, whereas the live vaccine strain lacks diversity according to multiple independent measurements. A lack of attenuating mutations in the Asibi population relative to that of 17D-204 was observed, demonstrating that the vaccine strain was derived by discrete mutation of Asibi and not by selection of genomes in the wild-type population. Relative quasispecies structure is a plausible correlate of attenuation for live viral vaccines. Analyses such as these of attenuated viruses improve our understanding of the molecular basis of vaccine attenuation and provide critical information on the stability of live vaccines and the risk of reversion to virulence.

  16. Bacteriophage-resistant mutants in Yersinia pestis: identification of phage receptors and attenuation for mice.

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    Andrey A Filippov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriophages specific for Yersinia pestis are routinely used for plague diagnostics and could be an alternative to antibiotics in case of drug-resistant plague. A major concern of bacteriophage therapy is the emergence of phage-resistant mutants. The use of phage cocktails can overcome this problem but only if the phages exploit different receptors. Some phage-resistant mutants lose virulence and therefore should not complicate bacteriophage therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this work was to identify Y. pestis phage receptors using site-directed mutagenesis and trans-complementation and to determine potential attenuation of phage-resistant mutants for mice. Six receptors for eight phages were found in different parts of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS inner and outer core. The receptor for R phage was localized beyond the LPS core. Most spontaneous and defined phage-resistant mutants of Y. pestis were attenuated, showing increase in LD₅₀ and time to death. The loss of different LPS core biosynthesis enzymes resulted in the reduction of Y. pestis virulence and there was a correlation between the degree of core truncation and the impact on virulence. The yrbH and waaA mutants completely lost their virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified Y. pestis receptors for eight bacteriophages. Nine phages together use at least seven different Y. pestis receptors that makes some of them promising for formulation of plague therapeutic cocktails. Most phage-resistant Y. pestis mutants become attenuated and thus should not pose a serious problem for bacteriophage therapy of plague. LPS is a critical virulence factor of Y. pestis.

  17. Brucella abortusΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD double-mutants are highly attenuated and confer long-term protective immunity against virulent Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Kim, Kiju; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-01-04

    We constructed double deletion (ΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD) mutants from virulent Brucella abortus biovar 1 field isolate (BA15) by deleting the genes encoding an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter (cydC and cydD genes) and a phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase (purD). Both BA15ΔcydCΔcydD and BA15ΔcydCΔpurD double-mutants exhibited significant attenuation of virulence when assayed in murine macrophages or in BALB/c mice. Both double-mutants were readily cleared from spleens by 4 weeks post-inoculation even when inoculated at the dose of 10(8) CFU per mouse. Moreover, the inoculated mice showed no splenomegaly, which indicates that the mutants are highly attenuated. Importantly, the attenuation of in vitro and in vivo growth did not impair the ability of these mutants to confer long-term protective immunity in mice against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308. Vaccination of mice with either mutant induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and provided significantly better protection than commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. These results suggest that highly attenuated BA15ΔcydCΔcydD and BA15ΔcydCΔpurD mutants can be used effectively as potential live vaccine candidates against bovine brucellosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutation of the cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase gene in Burkholderia lata SK875 attenuates virulence and enhances biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hae-In; Kim, Yun-Jung; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Jung-Kee; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2017-10-01

    Burkholderia sp. is a gram-negative bacterium that commonly exists in the environment, and can cause diseases in plants, animals, and humans. Here, a transposon mutant library of a Burkholderia lata isolate from a pig with swine respiratory disease in Korea was screened for strains showing attenuated virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. One such mutant was obtained, and the Tn5 insertion junction was mapped to rpfR, a gene encoding a cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase that functions as a receptor. Mutation of rpfR caused a reduction in growth on CPG agar and swimming motility as well as a rough colony morphology on Congo red agar. TLC analysis showed reduced AHL secretion, which was in agreement with the results from plate-based and bioluminescence assays. The mutant strain produced significantly more biofilm detected by crystal violet staining than the parent strain. SEM of the mutant strain clearly showed that the overproduced biofilm contained a filamentous structure. These results suggest that the cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase RpfR plays an important role in quorum sensing modulation of the bacterial virulence and biofilm formation.

  19. Typing for HLA-DPB1*03 and HLA-DPB1*06 using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Detection of "new" DPB1*06 variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1989-01-01

    DP gene typing using in vitro DNA amplification combined with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes has recently been reported. The resulting DNA amplification was specific for the HLA-DPB locus. Typing for the individual DPB alleles was exclusively dependent on the hybridizations of the probe...

  20. Allele-specific gene expression in a wild nonhuman primate population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J.; Akinyi, M. Y.; Mutura, S.; Altmann, J.; Wray, G. A.; Alberts, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations hold enormous potential for evolutionary genetic studies, especially when phenotypic, genetic and environmental data are all available on the same individuals. However, untangling the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations remains a major challenge. Here, we describe results of an investigation of one class of phenotype, allele-specific gene expression (ASGE), in the well-studied natural population of baboons of the Amboseli basin, Kenya. ASGE measurements identify cases in which one allele of a gene is overexpressed relative to the alternative allele of the same gene, within individuals, thus providing a control for background genetic and environmental effects. Here, we characterize the incidence of ASGE in the Amboseli baboon population, focusing on the genetic and environmental contributions to ASGE in a set of eleven genes involved in immunity and defence. Within this set, we identify evidence for common ASGE in four genes. We also present examples of two relationships between cis-regulatory genetic variants and the ASGE phenotype. Finally, we identify one case in which this relationship is influenced by a novel gene-environment interaction. Specifically, the dominance rank of an individual’s mother during its early life (an aspect of that individual’s social environment) influences the expression of the gene CCL5 via an interaction with cis-regulatory genetic variation. These results illustrate how environmental and ecological data can be integrated into evolutionary genetic studies of functional variation in natural populations. They also highlight the potential importance of early life environmental variation in shaping the genetic architecture of complex traits in wild mammals. PMID:21226779

  1. Biological assay of attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeling, W L; Pejsak, Z; Paul, P S

    1984-11-01

    Attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of PPV in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. Both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain NADL-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. The strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (HA), median cell culture infective dose (CCID50), median fetal infective dose (FID50), and median fetal lethal dose (FLD50). The FID50 and FLD50 were determined by injecting virus directly into the amniotic fluid of fetuses in utero at 44 +/- 2 days of gestation and collecting the fetuses 15 +/- 1 days later. Both strains had an HA titer of 64, suggesting that there is a similar number of virions in stock preparations. However, other measurements differed markedly. The CCID50, FID50, and FLD50 were 10(5.5), 10(3.5), and 10(0.5), respectively, for strain NADL-2, and 10(4.5), 10(7.7), and 10(6.3), respectively, for strain NADL-8. Collectively, the values indicate that more than 10,000 times as much strain NADL-2 would need to reach the conceptus transplacentally to establish infection. These observations may help to explain the different consequences of oronasal exposure of pregnant swine to these strains of PPV.

  2. Allele-Specific Chromatin Recruitment and Therapeutic Vulnerabilities of ESR1 Activating Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeselsohn, Rinath; Bergholz, Johann S; Pun, Matthew; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Liu, Weihan; Nardone, Agostina; Xiao, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Qiu, Xintao; Buchwalter, Gilles; Feiglin, Ariel; Abell-Hart, Kayley; Fei, Teng; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Zhang, Tinghu; Gray, Nathanael; Melchers, Diane; Houtman, Rene; Liu, X Shirley; Cohen, Ofir; Wagle, Nikhil; Winer, Eric P; Zhao, Jean; Brown, Myles

    2018-02-12

    Estrogen receptor α (ER) ligand-binding domain (LBD) mutations are found in a substantial number of endocrine treatment-resistant metastatic ER-positive (ER + ) breast cancers. We investigated the chromatin recruitment, transcriptional network, and genetic vulnerabilities in breast cancer models harboring the clinically relevant ER mutations. These mutants exhibit both ligand-independent functions that mimic estradiol-bound wild-type ER as well as allele-specific neomorphic properties that promote a pro-metastatic phenotype. Analysis of the genome-wide ER binding sites identified mutant ER unique recruitment mediating the allele-specific transcriptional program. Genetic screens identified genes that are essential for the ligand-independent growth driven by the mutants. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of endocrine therapy resistance engendered by ER mutations and potential therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing Shows Selection on Leptospira Regulatory Proteins during in vitro Culture Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jason S.; Corey, Victoria C.; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Matthias, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 500,000 severe cases reported annually, and case fatality rates of 12–25%, due primarily to acute kidney and lung injuries. Despite its prevalence, the molecular mechanisms underlying leptospirosis pathogenesis remain poorly understood. To identify virulence-related genes in Leptospira interrogans, we delineated cumulative genome changes that occurred during serial in vitro passage of a highly virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Lai into a nearly avirulent isogenic derivative. Comparison of protein coding and computationally predicted noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes between these two polyclonal strains identified 15 nonsynonymous single nucleotide variant (nsSNV) alleles that increased in frequency and 19 that decreased, whereas no changes in allelic frequency were observed among the ncRNA genes. Some of the nsSNV alleles were in six genes shown previously to be transcriptionally upregulated during exposure to in vivo-like conditions. Five of these nsSNVs were in evolutionarily conserved positions in genes related to signal transduction and metabolism. Frequency changes of minor nsSNV alleles identified in this study likely contributed to the loss of virulence during serial in vitro culture. The identification of new virulence-associated genes should spur additional experimental inquiry into their potential role in Leptospira pathogenesis. PMID:26711524

  4. Natural mutations in a Staphylococcus aureus virulence regulator attenuate cytotoxicity but permit bacteremia and abscess formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Lindemann, Claudia; Young, Bernadette C.; Muller, Julius; Österreich, Babett; Ternette, Nicola; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Paprotka, Kerstin; Reinhardt, Richard; Allen, Elizabeth; Flaxman, Amy; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Rollier, Christine S.; van Diemen, Pauline; Blättner, Sebastian; Remmele, Christian W.; Selle, Martina; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Vogel, Jörg; Ohlsen, Knut; Crook, Derrick W.; Massey, Ruth; Wilson, Daniel J.; Rudel, Thomas; Wyllie, David H.; Fraunholz, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen, which causes severe blood and tissue infections that frequently emerge by autoinfection with asymptomatically carried nose and skin populations. However, recent studies report that bloodstream isolates differ systematically from those found in the nose and skin, exhibiting reduced toxicity toward leukocytes. In two patients, an attenuated toxicity bloodstream infection evolved from an asymptomatically carried high-toxicity nasal strain by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor repressor of surface proteins (rsp). Here, we report that rsp knockout mutants lead to global transcriptional and proteomic reprofiling, and they exhibit the greatest signal in a genome-wide screen for genes influencing S. aureus survival in human cells. This effect is likely to be mediated in part via SSR42, a long-noncoding RNA. We show that rsp controls SSR42 expression, is induced by hydrogen peroxide, and is required for normal cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Rsp inactivation in laboratory- and bacteremia-derived mutants attenuates toxin production, but up-regulates other immune subversion proteins and reduces lethality during experimental infection. Crucially, inactivation of rsp preserves bacterial dissemination, because it affects neither formation of deep abscesses in mice nor survival in human blood. Thus, we have identified a spontaneously evolving, attenuated-cytotoxicity, nonhemolytic S. aureus phenotype, controlled by a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator/noncoding RNA virulence regulatory system, capable of causing S. aureus bloodstream infections. Such a phenotype could promote deep infection with limited early clinical manifestations, raising concerns that bacterial evolution within the human body may contribute to severe infection. PMID:27185949

  5. Detection of intracellular canine distemper virus antigen in mink inoculated with an attenuated or a virulent strain of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1989-09-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, the distribution of viral antigen in various tissues and blood mononuclear leukocytes was studied in wild mink, either vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) or experimentally inoculated with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of CDV. Viral antigen was detected in cells of the lymphoid system 6 to 12 days after vaccination. From 2 to 3 days after inoculation with the virulent strain, CDV antigen was demonstrated in cells of the lymphoid system and, during the incubation period, the antigen had spread to the epithelia and brain at days 6 and 12, respectively. In clinical cases of acute fatal canine distemper, the viral antigen was detected in a wide variety of tissues, including the cells of the lymphoid system, epithelial cells of skin, mucous membranes, lung, kidney, and cells of the CNS. The diagnostic importance of CDV antigen detection is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  6. Functional PMS2 hybrid alleles containing a pseudogene-specific missense variant trace back to a single ancient intrachromosomal recombination event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Christina; Wernstedt, Annekatrin; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Messiaen, Ludwine; Schmidt, Konrad; Rahner, Nils; Heinimann, Karl; Fonatsch, Christa; Zschocke, Johannes; Wimmer, Katharina

    2010-05-01

    Sequence exchange between PMS2 and its pseudogene PMS2CL, embedded in an inverted duplication on chromosome 7p22, has been reported to be an ongoing process that leads to functional PMS2 hybrid alleles containing PMS2- and PMS2CL-specific sequence variants at the 5'-and the 3'-end, respectively. The frequency of PMS2 hybrid alleles, their biological significance, and the mechanisms underlying their formation are largely unknown. Here we show that overall hybrid alleles account for one-third of 384 PMS2 alleles analyzed in individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. Depending on the population, 14-60% of hybrid alleles carry PMS2CL-specific sequences in exons 13-15, the remainder only in exon 15. We show that exons 13-15 hybrid alleles, named H1 hybrid alleles, constitute different haplotypes but trace back to a single ancient intrachromosomal recombination event with crossover. Taking advantage of an ancestral sequence variant specific for all H1 alleles we developed a simple gDNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can be used to identify H1-allele carriers with high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 99%, respectively). Because H1 hybrid alleles harbor missense variant p.N775S of so far unknown functional significance, we assessed the H1-carrier frequency in 164 colorectal cancer patients. So far, we found no indication that the variant plays a major role with regard to cancer susceptibility. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form

  8. The Study of Rain Specific Attenuation for the Prediction of Satellite Propagation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeep, J. S.; Ng, Y. Y.; Abdullah, H.; Abdullah, M.

    2010-06-01

    Specific attenuation is the fundamental quantity in the calculation of rain attenuation for terrestrial path and slant paths representing as rain attenuation per unit distance (dB/km). Specific attenuation is an important element in developing the predicted rain attenuation model. This paper deals with the empirical determination of the power law coefficients which allow calculating the specific attenuation in dB/km from the knowledge of the rain rate in mm/h. The main purpose of the paper is to obtain the coefficients of k and α of power law relationship between specific attenuation. Three years (from 1st January 2006 until 31st December 2008) rain gauge and beacon data taken from USM, Nibong Tebal have been used to do the empirical procedure analysis of rain specific attenuation. The data presented are semi-empirical in nature. A year-to-year variation of the coefficients has been indicated and the empirical measured data was compared with ITU-R provided regression coefficient. The result indicated that the USM empirical measured data was significantly vary from ITU-R predicted value. Hence, ITU-R recommendation for regression coefficients of rain specific attenuation is not suitable for predicting rain attenuation at Malaysia.

  9. High-specificity detection of rare alleles with Paired-End Low Error Sequencing (PELE-Seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jessica L; Royall, Ariel E; Randel, Melissa A; Sikkink, Kristin L; Phillips, Patrick C; Johnson, Eric A

    2016-06-14

    Polymorphic loci exist throughout the genomes of a population and provide the raw genetic material needed for a species to adapt to changes in the environment. The minor allele frequencies of rare Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within a population have been difficult to track with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), due to the high error rate of standard methods such as Illumina sequencing. We have developed a wet-lab protocol and variant-calling method that identifies both sequencing and PCR errors, called Paired-End Low Error Sequencing (PELE-Seq). To test the specificity and sensitivity of the PELE-Seq method, we sequenced control E. coli DNA libraries containing known rare alleles present at frequencies ranging from 0.2-0.4 % of the total reads. PELE-Seq had higher specificity and sensitivity than standard libraries. We then used PELE-Seq to characterize rare alleles in a Caenorhabditis remanei nematode worm population before and after laboratory adaptation, and found that minor and rare alleles can undergo large changes in frequency during lab-adaptation. We have developed a method of rare allele detection that mitigates both sequencing and PCR errors, called PELE-Seq. PELE-Seq was evaluated using control E. coli populations and was then used to compare a wild C. remanei population to a lab-adapted population. The PELE-Seq method is ideal for investigating the dynamics of rare alleles in a broad range of reduced-representation sequencing methods, including targeted amplicon sequencing, RAD-Seq, ddRAD, and GBS. PELE-Seq is also well-suited for whole genome sequencing of mitochondria and viruses, and for high-throughput rare mutation screens.

  10. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Anupam; Temkin, Alexis M; Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  11. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Paliwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons, one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs, each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  12. Detection of MPL mutations by a novel allele-specific PCR-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Larissa V; Weigelin, Helmut C; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Betz, Bryan L

    2013-11-01

    MPL mutation testing is recommended in patients with suspected primary myelofibrosis or essential thrombocythemia who lack the JAK2 V617F mutation. MPL mutations can occur at allelic levels below 15%, which may escape detection by commonly used mutation screening methods such as Sanger sequencing. We developed a novel multiplexed allele-specific PCR assay capable of detecting most recurrent MPL exon 10 mutations associated with primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia (W515L, W515K, W515A, and S505N) down to a sensitivity of 2.5% mutant allele. Test results were reviewed from 15 reference cases and 1380 consecutive specimens referred to our laboratory for testing. Assay performance was compared to Sanger sequencing across a series of 58 specimens with MPL mutations. Positive cases consisted of 45 with W515L, 6 with S505N, 5 with W515K, 1 with W515A, and 1 with both W515L and S505N. Seven cases had mutations below 5% that were undetected by Sanger sequencing. Ten additional cases had mutation levels between 5% and 15% that were not consistently detected by sequencing. All results were easily interpreted in the allele-specific test. This assay offers a sensitive and reliable solution for MPL mutation testing. Sanger sequencing appears insufficiently sensitive for robust MPL mutation detection. Our data also suggest the relative frequency of S505N mutations may be underestimated, highlighting the necessity for inclusion of this mutation in MPL test platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. African Swine Fever Virus Georgia 2007 with a Deletion of Virulence-Associated Gene 9GL (B119L), when Administered at Low Doses, Leads to Virus Attenuation in Swine and Induces an Effective Protection against Homologous Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Vivian; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Carlson, Jolene; Sanford, Brenton; Alfano, Marialexia; Kramer, Edward; Lu, Zhiqiang; Arzt, Jonathan; Reese, Bo; Carrillo, Consuelo; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of an often lethal disease of domestic pigs. Disease control strategies have been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines against ASFV. Since its introduction in the Republic of Georgia, a highly virulent virus, ASFV Georgia 2007 (ASFV-G), has caused an epizootic that spread rapidly into Eastern European countries. Currently no vaccines are available or under development to control ASFV-G. In the past, genetically modified ASFVs harboring deletions of virulence-associated genes have proven attenuated in swine, inducing protective immunity against challenge with homologous parental viruses. Deletion of the gene 9GL (open reading frame [ORF] B119L) in highly virulent ASFV Malawi-Lil-20/1 produced an attenuated phenotype even when administered to pigs at 10(6) 50% hemadsorption doses (HAD50). Here we report the construction of a genetically modified ASFV-G strain (ASFV-G-Δ9GLv) harboring a deletion of the 9GL (B119L) gene. Like Malawi-Lil-20/1-Δ9GL, ASFV-G-Δ9GL showed limited replication in primary swine macrophages. However, intramuscular inoculation of swine with 10(4) HAD50 of ASFV-G-Δ9GL produced a virulent phenotype that, unlike Malawi-Lil-20/1-Δ9GL, induced a lethal disease in swine like parental ASFV-G. Interestingly, lower doses (10(2) to 10(3) HAD50) of ASFV-G-Δ9GL did not induce a virulent phenotype in swine and when challenged protected pigs against disease. A dose of 10(2) HAD50 of ASFV-G-Δ9GLv conferred partial protection when pigs were challenged at either 21 or 28 days postinfection (dpi). An ASFV-G-Δ9GL HAD50 of 10(3) conferred partial and complete protection at 21 and 28 dpi, respectively. The information provided here adds to our recent report on the first attempts toward experimental vaccines against ASFV-G. The main problem for controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Studies on ASFV virulence lead to the production of genetically modified attenuated viruses that induce protection

  14. Virulence Factors Associated with Enterococcus Faecalis Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian T; Skov, Marianne N; Gill, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The enterococci are accountable for up to 20% of all cases of infective endocarditis, with Enterococcus faecalis being the primary causative isolate. Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infection of the endocardium that results in the formation of vegetations. Based...... on a literature review, this paper provides an overview of the virulence factors associated with E. faecalis infective endocarditis. Furthermore, it reports the effects of active or passive immunization against some of these involved factors. INDIVIDUAL VIRULENCE FACTORS: Nine virulence factors have in particular...... been associated with E. faecalis infective endocarditis. Absence of these factors entailed attenuation of strains in both mixed- and mono-bacterial infection endocarditis models as well as in in vitro and ex vivo assays when compared to their virulence factor expressing parental strains. PATHOGENESIS...

  15. Allele-Specific Alternative mRNA processing (ASARP) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A software pipeline for prediction of allele-specific alternative RNA processing events using single RNA-seq data. The current version focuses on prediction of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation modulated by genetic variants.

  16. Use of allele-specific FAIRE to determine functional regulatory polymorphism using large-scale genotyping arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J P Smith

    Full Text Available Following the widespread use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, focus is turning towards identification of causal variants rather than simply genetic markers of diseases and traits. As a step towards a high-throughput method to identify genome-wide, non-coding, functional regulatory variants, we describe the technique of allele-specific FAIRE, utilising large-scale genotyping technology (FAIRE-gen to determine allelic effects on chromatin accessibility and regulatory potential. FAIRE-gen was explored using lymphoblastoid cells and the 50,000 SNP Illumina CVD BeadChip. The technique identified an allele-specific regulatory polymorphism within NR1H3 (coding for LXR-α, rs7120118, coinciding with a previously GWAS-identified SNP for HDL-C levels. This finding was confirmed using FAIRE-gen with the 200,000 SNP Illumina Metabochip and verified with the established method of TaqMan allelic discrimination. Examination of this SNP in two prospective Caucasian cohorts comprising 15,000 individuals confirmed the association with HDL-C levels (combined beta = 0.016; p = 0.0006, and analysis of gene expression identified an allelic association with LXR-α expression in heart tissue. Using increasingly comprehensive genotyping chips and distinct tissues for examination, FAIRE-gen has the potential to aid the identification of many causal SNPs associated with disease from GWAS.

  17. An informational view of accession rarity and allele specificity in germplasm banks for management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Valdés, M Humberto; Burgueño, Juan; Singh, Sukhwinder; Martínez, Octavio; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola

    2018-01-01

    Germplasm banks are growing in their importance, number of accessions and amount of characterization data, with a large emphasis on molecular genetic markers. In this work, we offer an integrated view of accessions and marker data in an information theory framework. The basis of this development is the mutual information between accessions and allele frequencies for molecular marker loci, which can be decomposed in allele specificities, as well as in rarity and divergence of accessions. In this way, formulas are provided to calculate the specificity of the different marker alleles with reference to their distribution across accessions, accession rarity, defined as the weighted average of the specificity of its alleles, and divergence, defined by the Kullback-Leibler formula. Albeit being different measures, it is demonstrated that average rarity and divergence are equal for any collection. These parameters can contribute to the knowledge of the structure of a germplasm collection and to make decisions about the preservation of rare variants. The concepts herein developed served as the basis for a strategy for core subset selection called HCore, implemented in a publicly available R script. As a proof of concept, the mathematical view and tools developed in this research were applied to a large collection of Mexican wheat accessions, widely characterized by SNP markers. The most specific alleles were found to be private of a single accession, and the distribution of this parameter had its highest frequencies at low levels of specificity. Accession rarity and divergence had largely symmetrical distributions, and had a positive, albeit non-strictly linear relationship. Comparison of the HCore approach for core subset selection, with three state-of-the-art methods, showed it to be superior for average divergence and rarity, mean genetic distance and diversity. The proposed approach can be used for knowledge extraction and decision making in germplasm collections of

  18. Genome-wide identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence-related genes using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda L Feinbaum

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of infecting a wide range of organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We used a non-redundant transposon mutant library consisting of 5,850 clones corresponding to 75% of the total and approximately 80% of the non-essential PA14 ORFs to carry out a genome-wide screen for attenuation of PA14 virulence in C. elegans. We defined a functionally diverse 180 mutant set (representing 170 unique genes necessary for normal levels of virulence that included both known and novel virulence factors. Seven previously uncharacterized virulence genes (ABC transporters PchH and PchI, aminopeptidase PepP, ATPase/molecular chaperone ClpA, cold shock domain protein PA0456, putative enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase PA0745, and putative transcriptional regulator PA14_27700 were characterized with respect to pigment production and motility and all but one of these mutants exhibited pleiotropic defects in addition to their avirulent phenotype. We examined the collection of genes required for normal levels of PA14 virulence with respect to occurrence in P. aeruginosa strain-specific genomic regions, location on putative and known genomic islands, and phylogenetic distribution across prokaryotes. Genes predominantly contributing to virulence in C. elegans showed neither a bias for strain-specific regions of the P. aeruginosa genome nor for putatively horizontally transferred genomic islands. Instead, within the collection of virulence-related PA14 genes, there was an overrepresentation of genes with a broad phylogenetic distribution that also occur with high frequency in many prokaryotic clades, suggesting that in aggregate the genes required for PA14 virulence in C. elegans are biased towards evolutionarily conserved genes.

  19. Genome-wide identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence-related genes using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinbaum, Rhonda L; Urbach, Jonathan M; Liberati, Nicole T; Djonovic, Slavica; Adonizio, Allison; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of infecting a wide range of organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We used a non-redundant transposon mutant library consisting of 5,850 clones corresponding to 75% of the total and approximately 80% of the non-essential PA14 ORFs to carry out a genome-wide screen for attenuation of PA14 virulence in C. elegans. We defined a functionally diverse 180 mutant set (representing 170 unique genes) necessary for normal levels of virulence that included both known and novel virulence factors. Seven previously uncharacterized virulence genes (ABC transporters PchH and PchI, aminopeptidase PepP, ATPase/molecular chaperone ClpA, cold shock domain protein PA0456, putative enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase PA0745, and putative transcriptional regulator PA14_27700) were characterized with respect to pigment production and motility and all but one of these mutants exhibited pleiotropic defects in addition to their avirulent phenotype. We examined the collection of genes required for normal levels of PA14 virulence with respect to occurrence in P. aeruginosa strain-specific genomic regions, location on putative and known genomic islands, and phylogenetic distribution across prokaryotes. Genes predominantly contributing to virulence in C. elegans showed neither a bias for strain-specific regions of the P. aeruginosa genome nor for putatively horizontally transferred genomic islands. Instead, within the collection of virulence-related PA14 genes, there was an overrepresentation of genes with a broad phylogenetic distribution that also occur with high frequency in many prokaryotic clades, suggesting that in aggregate the genes required for PA14 virulence in C. elegans are biased towards evolutionarily conserved genes.

  20. Helicobacter pylori virulence and cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is human gastric pathogen that causes chronic and progressive gastric mucosal inflammation and is responsible for the gastric inflammation-associated diseases, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Specific outcomes reflect the interplay between host-, environmental- and bacterial-specific factors. Progress in understanding putative virulence factors in disease pathogenesis has been limited and many false leads have consumed scarce resources. Few in vitro-in vivo correlations or translational applications have proved clinically relevant. Reported virulence factor-related outcomes reflect differences in relative risk of disease rather than specificity for any specific outcome. Studies of individual virulence factor associations have provided conflicting results. Since virulence factors are linked, studies of groups of putative virulence factors are needed to provide clinically useful information. Here, the authors discuss the progress made in understanding the role of H. pylori virulence factors CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin, OipA and DupA in disease pathogenesis and provide suggestions for future studies.

  1. Attenuation of monkeypox virus by deletion of genomic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, Juan G.; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an emerging pathogen from Africa that causes disease similar to smallpox. Two clades with different geographic distributions and virulence have been described. Here, we utilized bioinformatic tools to identify genomic regions in MPXV containing multiple virulence genes and explored their roles in pathogenicity; two selected regions were then deleted singularly or in combination. In vitro and in vivostudies indicated that these regions play a significant role in MPXV replication, tissue spread, and mortality in mice. Interestingly, while deletion of either region led to decreased virulence in mice, one region had no effect on in vitro replication. Deletion of both regions simultaneously also reduced cell culture replication and significantly increased the attenuation in vivo over either single deletion. Attenuated MPXV with genomic deletions present a safe and efficacious tool in the study of MPX pathogenesis and in the identification of genetic factors associated with virulence.

  2. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Taane G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%. Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes

  3. Development of a human live attenuated West Nile infectious DNA vaccine: Suitability of attenuating mutations found in SA14-14-2 for WN vaccine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamshchikov, Vladimir, E-mail: yaximik@gmail.com; Manuvakhova, Marina; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2016-01-15

    Direct attenuation of West Nile (WN) virus strain NY99 for the purpose of vaccine development is not feasible due to its high virulence and pathogenicity. Instead, we created highly attenuated chimeric virus W1806 with the serological identity of NY99. To further attenuate W1806, we investigated effects of mutations found in Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine SA14-14-2. WN viruses carrying all attenuating mutations lost infectivity in mammalian, but not in mosquito cells. No single reversion restored infectivity in mammalian cells, although increased infectivity in mosquito cells was observed. To identify a subset of mutations suitable for further attenuation of W1806, we analyzed effects of E{sub 138}K and K{sub 279}M changes on virulence, growth properties, and immunogenicity of derivatized W956, from which chimeric W1806 inherited its biological properties and attenuation profile. Despite strong dominant attenuating effect, introduction of only two mutations was not sufficient for attenuating W1806 to the safety level acceptable for human use. - Highlights: • Further attenuation of a WN vaccine precursor is outlined. • Effect of SA14-14-2 attenuating mutations is tested. • Mechanism of attenuation is proposed and illustrated. • The need for additional attenuating mutations is justified.

  4. A naturally occurring mutation in ropB suppresses SpeB expression and reduces M1T1 group A streptococcal systemic virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hollands

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS.

  5. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jolene; O'Donnell, Vivian; Alfano, Marialexia; Velazquez Salinas, Lauro; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Higgs, Stephen; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-10-22

    African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  6. A SNARE-Like Protein and Biotin Are Implicated in Soybean Cyst Nematode Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bekal

    Full Text Available Phytoparasitic nematodes that are able to infect and reproduce on plants that are considered resistant are referred to as virulent. The mechanism(s that virulent nematodes employ to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here we report the use of a genetic strategy (allelic imbalance analysis to associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with nematode virulence genes in Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN. To accomplish this analysis, a custom SCN SNP array was developed and used to genotype SCN F3-derived populations grown on resistant and susceptible soybean plants. Three SNPs reproducibly showed allele imbalances between nematodes grown on resistant and susceptible plants. Two candidate SCN virulence genes that were tightly linked to the SNPs were identified. One SCN gene encoded biotin synthase (HgBioB, and the other encoded a bacterial-like protein containing a putative SNARE domain (HgSLP-1. The two genes mapped to two different linkage groups. HgBioB contained sequence polymorphisms between avirulent and virulent nematodes. However, the gene encoding HgSLP-1 had reduced copy number in virulent nematode populations and appears to produce multiple forms of the protein via intron retention and alternative splicing. We show that HgSLP-1 is an esophageal-gland protein that is secreted by the nematode during plant parasitism. Furthermore, in bacterial co-expression experiments, HgSLP-1 co-purified with the SCN resistance protein Rhg1 α-SNAP, suggesting that these two proteins physically interact. Collectively our data suggest that multiple SCN genes are involved in SCN virulence, and that HgSLP-1 may function as an avirulence protein and when absent it helps SCN evade host defenses.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus type O specific mutations determine RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fidelity and virus attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Haiwei; Yuan, Tiangang; Woodman, Andrew; Yang, Decheng; Zhou, Guohui; Cameron, Craig E; Yu, Li

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the FMDV Asia1/YS/CHA/05 high-fidelity mutagen-resistant variants are attenuated (Zeng et al., 2014). Here, we introduced the same single or multiple-amino-acid substitutions responsible for increased 3D pol fidelity of type Asia1 FMDV into the type O FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 infectious clone. The rescued viruses O-DA and O-DAMM are lower replication fidelity mutants and showed an attenuated phenotype. These results demonstrated that the same amino acid substitution of 3D pol in different serotypes of FMDV strains had different effects on viral fidelity. In addition, nucleoside analogues were used to select high-fidelity mutagen-resistant type O FMDV variants. The rescued mutagen-resistant type O FMDV high-fidelity variants exhibited significantly attenuated fitness and a reduced virulence phenotype. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanism of FMDV evolution and pathogenicity, especially in developing a safer modified live-attenuated vaccine against FMDV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. downregulate the expression of quorum sensing genes to attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence.

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    Sajal Sarabhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7, obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001 in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05 reduced with enhanced (20% susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C(12HSL and C(4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C(4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C(12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors

  9. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

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    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-07-28

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Putative Virulence Determinants in Burkholderia pseudomallei

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    Suat Moi Puah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease which is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. This bacterium possesses many virulence factors which are thought to contribute to its survival and pathogenicity. Using a virulent clinical isolate of B. pseudomallei and an attenuated strain of the same B. pseudomallei isolate, 6 genes BPSL2033, BP1026B_I2784, BP1026B_I2780, BURPS1106A_A0094, BURPS1106A_1131, and BURPS1710A_1419 were identified earlier by PCR-based subtractive hybridization. These genes were extensively characterized at the molecular level, together with an additional gene BPSL3147 that had been identified by other investigators. Through a reverse genetic approach, single-gene knockout mutants were successfully constructed by using site-specific insertion mutagenesis and were confirmed by PCR. BPSL2033::Km and BURPS1710A_1419::Km mutants showed reduced rates of survival inside macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and also low levels of virulence in the nematode infection model. BPSL2033::Km demonstrated weak statistical significance (P=0.049 at 8 hours after infection in macrophage infection study but this was not seen in BURPS1710A_1419::Km. Nevertheless, complemented strains of both genes were able to partially restore the gene defects in both in vitro and in vivo studies, thus suggesting that they individually play a minor role in the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  11. A novel anti-virulence gene revealed by proteomic analysis in Shigella flexneri 2a

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    Ying Tianyi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative, facultative pathogen that causes the majority of communicable bacterial dysenteries in developing countries. The virulence factors of S. flexneri have been shown to be produced at 37 degrees C but not at 30 degrees C. To discover potential, novel virulence-related proteins of S. flexneri, we performed differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis to measure changes in the expression profile that are induced by a temperature increase. Results The ArgT protein was dramatically down-regulated at 37 degrees C. In contrast, the ArgT from the non-pathogenic E. coli did not show this differential expression as in S. flexneri, which suggested that argT might be a potential anti-virulence gene. Competitive invasion assays in HeLa cells and in BALB/c mice with argT mutants were performed, and the results indicated that the over-expression of ArgTY225D would attenuate the virulence of S. flexneri. A comparative proteomic analysis was subsequently performed to investigate the effects of ArgT in S. flexneri at the molecular level. We show that HtrA is differentially expressed among different derivative strains. Conclusion Gene argT is a novel anti-virulence gene that may interfere with the virulence of S. flexneri via the transport of specific amino acids or by affecting the expression of the virulence factor, HtrA.

  12. Phenotypic Analysis and Virulence of Candida albicans LIG4 Mutants

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    Andaluz, Encarnación; Calderone, Richard; Reyes, Guadalupe; Larriba, Germán

    2001-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported the isolation and preliminary characterization of a DNA ligase-encoding gene of Candida albicans. This gene (LIG4) is the structural and functional homologue of both yeast and human ligase IV, which is involved in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks. In the present study, we have shown that there are no other LIG4 homologues in C. albicans. In order to study the function of LIG4 in morphogenesis and virulence, we constructed gene deletions. LIG4 transcript levels were reduced in the heterozygote and were completely absent in null strains. Concomitantly, the heterozygote showed a pronounced defect in myceliation, which was slightly greater in the null strain. This was true with several solid and liquid media, such as Spider medium, medium 199, and 2% glucose–1% yeast extract–2% Bacto Peptone, at several pHs. Reintroduction of the wild-type allele into the null mutant partially restored the ability of cells to form hyphae. In agreement with the positive role of LIG4 in morphogenesis, we detected a significant rise in mRNA levels during the morphological transition. LIG4 is not essential for DNA replication or for the repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation or UV light, indicating that these lesions are repaired primarily by homologous recombination. However, our data show that the NHEJ apparatus of C. albicans may control morphogenesis in this diploid organism. In addition, deletion of one or both copies of LIG4 resulted in attenuation of virulence in a murine model of candidiasis. PMID:11119499

  13. The Role of TonB Gene in Edwardsiella ictaluri Virulence

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    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish (ESC. Stress factors including poor water quality, poor diet, rough handling, overcrowding, and water temperature fluctuations increase fish susceptibility to ESC. The TonB energy transducing system (TonB-ExbB-ExbD and TonB-dependent transporters of Gram-negative bacteria support active transport of scarce resources including iron, an essential micronutrient for bacterial virulence. Deletion of the tonB gene attenuates virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, the role of TonB (NT01EI_RS07425 in iron acquisition and E. ictaluri virulence were investigated. To accomplish this, the E. ictaluri tonB gene was in-frame deleted. Growth kinetics, iron utilization, and virulence of the EiΔtonB mutant were determined. Loss of TonB caused a significant reduction in bacterial growth in iron-depleted medium (p > 0.05. The EiΔtonB mutant grew similarly to wild-type E. ictaluri when ferric iron was added to the iron-depleted medium. The EiΔtonB mutant was significantly attenuated in catfish compared with the parent strain (21.69 vs. 46.91% mortality. Catfish surviving infection with EiΔtonB had significant protection against ESC compared with naïve fish (100 vs. 40.47% survival. These findings indicate that TonB participates in pathogenesis of ESC and is an important E. ictaluri virulence factor.

  14. Host specific glycans are correlated with susceptibility to infection by lagoviruses, but not with their virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M; Breiman, Adrien; Lora, Mónica; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Béatrice; Galanina, Oxana; Nyström, Kristina; Marchandeau, Stephane; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Strive, Tanja; Neimanis, Aleksija; Bovin, Nicolai V; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2017-11-29

    The rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) are two lagoviruses from the family Caliciviridae that cause fatal diseases in two leporid genera, Oryctolagus and Lepus , respectively. In the last few years, several examples of host jumps of lagoviruses among leporids were recorded. In addition, a new pathogenic genotype of RHDV emerged and many non-pathogenic strains of lagoviruses have been described. The molecular mechanisms behind host shifts and the emergence of virulence are unknown. Since RHDV uses glycans of the histo-blood group antigen type as attachment factors to initiate infection, we studied if glycan specificities of the new pathogenic RHDV genotype, non-pathogenic lagoviruses and EBHSV potentially play a role in determining host range and virulence of lagoviruses. We observed binding to A, B or H antigens of the histo-blood group family for all strains known to primarily infect European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), that have recently been classified as GI strains. Yet, we could not explain the emergence of virulence since similar glycan specificities were found between several pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. By contrast, EBHSV, recently classified as GII.1, bound to terminal β-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues of O-glycans. Expression of these attachment factors in the upper respiratory and digestive tracts in three lagomorph species ( Oryctolagus cuniculus, Lepus europaeus and Sylvilagus floridanus ) showed species-specific patterns regarding the susceptibility to infection by these viruses, indicating that species-specific glycan expression is likely a major contributor to lagoviruses host specificity and range. IMPORTANCE Lagoviruses constitute a genus of the Caliciviridae family, comprising highly pathogenic viruses, RHDV and EBHSV, which infect rabbits and hares, respectively. Recently, non-pathogenic strains were discovered and new pathogenic strains have emerged. In addition, host

  15. Macrophage replication screen identifies a novel Francisella hydroperoxide resistance protein involved in virulence.

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    Anna C Llewellyn

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Recently, genome-wide screens have identified Francisella genes required for virulence in mice. However, the mechanisms by which most of the corresponding proteins contribute to pathogenesis are still largely unknown. To further elucidate the roles of these virulence determinants in Francisella pathogenesis, we tested whether each gene was required for replication of the model pathogen F. novicida within macrophages, an important virulence trait. Fifty-three of the 224 genes tested were involved in intracellular replication, including many of those within the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI, validating our results. Interestingly, over one third of the genes identified are annotated as hypothetical, indicating that F. novicida likely utilizes novel virulence factors for intracellular replication. To further characterize these virulence determinants, we selected two hypothetical genes to study in more detail. As predicted by our screen, deletion mutants of FTN_0096 and FTN_1133 were attenuated for replication in macrophages. The mutants displayed differing levels of attenuation in vivo, with the FTN_1133 mutant being the most attenuated. FTN_1133 has sequence similarity to the organic hydroperoxide resistance protein Ohr, an enzyme involved in the bacterial response to oxidative stress. We show that FTN_1133 is required for F. novicida resistance to, and degradation of, organic hydroperoxides as well as resistance to the action of the NADPH oxidase both in macrophages and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that F. holarctica LVS, a strain derived from a highly virulent human pathogenic species of Francisella, also requires this protein for organic hydroperoxide resistance as well as replication in macrophages and mice. This study expands our knowledge of Francisella's largely uncharacterized intracellular lifecycle and

  16. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Devyn D.; Curry, Heather M.; Cremer, Thomas; Ravneberg, David; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy A.; Wewers, Mark D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human monocyte inflammatory responses differ between virulent and attenuated Francisella infection. Results: A mixed infection model showed that the virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 can attenuate inflammatory cytokine responses to the less virulent F. novicida in human monocytes. Conclusion: F. tularensis dampens inflammatory response by an active process. Significance: This suppression may contribute to enhanced pathogenicity of F. tularensis. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity. PMID:24783062

  17. An Aphid Effector Targets Trafficking Protein VPS52 in a Host-Specific Manner to Promote Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Patricia A; Escudero-Martinez, Carmen; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2017-03-01

    Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility. We showed that the effector Mp1 from Myzus persicae associates with the host Vacuolar Protein Sorting Associated Protein52 (VPS52). Using natural variants, we provide a strong link between effector virulence activity and association with VPS52, and show that the association is highly specific to M persicae -host interactions. Also, coexpression of Mp1, but not Mp1-like variants, specifically with host VPS52s resulted in effector relocalization to vesicle-like structures that associate with prevacuolar compartments. We show that high VPS52 levels negatively impact virulence, and that aphids are able to reduce VPS52 levels during infestation, indicating that VPS52 is an important virulence target. Our work is an important step forward in understanding, at the molecular level, how a major agricultural pest promotes susceptibility during infestation of crop plants. We give evidence that an herbivorous insect employs effectors that interact with host proteins as part of an effective virulence strategy, and that these effectors likely function in a species-specific manner. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Rapid ABO genotyping by high-speed droplet allele-specific PCR using crude samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takeichi, Naoya; Furukawa, Satomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Okumura, Nobuo; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    ABO genotyping has common tools for personal identification of forensic and transplantation field. We developed a new method based on a droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) that enabled rapid PCR amplification. We attempted rapid ABO genotyping using crude DNA isolated from dried blood and buccal cells. We designed allele-specific primers for three SNPs (at nucleotides 261, 526, and 803) in exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene. We pretreated dried blood and buccal cells with proteinase K, and obtained crude DNAs without DNA purification. Droplet-AS-PCR allowed specific amplification of the SNPs at the three loci using crude DNA, with results similar to those for DNA extracted from fresh peripheral blood. The sensitivity of the methods was 5%-10%. The genotyping of extracted DNA and crude DNA were completed within 8 and 9 minutes, respectively. The genotypes determined by the droplet-AS-PCR method were always consistent with those obtained by direct sequencing. The droplet-AS-PCR method enabled rapid and specific amplification of three SNPs of the ABO gene from crude DNA treated with proteinase K. ABO genotyping by the droplet-AS-PCR has the potential to be applied to various fields including a forensic medicine and transplantation medical care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts.

  20. Isolation of an attenuated myxoma virus field strain that can confer protection against myxomatosis on contacts of vaccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, J; Pagès-Manté, A; March, R; Morales, M; Ramírez, M A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Torres, J M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty MV strains obtained from a survey of field strains currently circulating throughout Spain were analyzed for their virulence and horizontal spreading among rabbits by contact transmission. A virus strain with suitable characteristics to be used as a potential vaccine against myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations was selected. Following inoculation, the selected MV strain elicited high levels of MV specific antibodies and induced protection of rabbits against a virulent MV challenge. Furthermore, the attenuated MV was transmitted to 9 out of 16 uninoculated rabbits by contact, inducing protection against myxomatosis.

  1. Toxin-independent virulence of Bacillus anthracis in rabbits.

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    Haim Levy

    Full Text Available The accepted paradigm states that anthrax is both an invasive and toxinogenic disease and that the toxins play a major role in pathogenicity. In the guinea pig (GP model we have previously shown that deletion of all three toxin components results in a relatively moderate attenuation in virulence, indicating that B. anthracis possesses an additional toxin-independent virulence mechanism. To characterize this toxin-independent mechanism in anthrax disease, we developed a new rabbit model by intravenous injection (IV of B. anthracis encapsulated vegetative cells, artificially creating bacteremia. Using this model we were able to demonstrate that also in rabbits, B. anthracis mutants lacking the toxins are capable of killing the host within 24 hours. This virulent trait depends on the activity of AtxA in the presence of pXO2, as, in the absence of the toxin genes, deletion of either component abolishes virulence. Furthermore, this IV virulence depends mainly on AtxA rather than the whole pXO1. A similar pattern was shown in the GP model using subcutaneous (SC administration of spores of the mutant strains, demonstrating the generality of the phenomenon. The virulent strains showed higher bacteremia levels and more efficient tissue dissemination; however our interpretation is that tissue dissemination per se is not the main determinant of virulence whose exact nature requires further elucidation.

  2. The sensor kinase MprB is required for Rhodococcus equi virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Iain; Parreira, Valeria R; Lepp, Dion; Mutharia, Lucy M; Vazquez-Boland, José A; Prescott, John F

    2011-01-10

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil bacterium and, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the mycolata. Through possession of a virulence plasmid, it has the ability to infect the alveolar macrophages of foals, resulting in pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia. The virulence plasmid has an orphan two-component system (TCS) regulatory gene, orf8, mutation of which completely attenuates virulence. This study attempted to find the cognate sensor kinase (SK) of orf8. Annotation of the R. equi strain 103 genome identified 23 TCSs encoded on the chromosome, which were used in a DNA microarray to compare TCS gene transcription in murine macrophage-like cells to growth in vitro. This identified six SKs as significantly up-regulated during growth in macrophages. Mutants of these SKs were constructed and their ability to persist in macrophages was determined with one SK, MprB, found to be required for intracellular survival. The attenuation of the mprB- mutant, and its complementation, was confirmed in a mouse virulence assay. In silico analysis of the R. equi genome sequence identified an MprA binding box motif homologous to that of M. tuberculosis, on mprA, pepD, sigB and sigE. The results of this study also show that R. equi responds to the macrophage environment differently from M. tuberculosis. MprB is the first SK identified as required for R. equi virulence and intracellular survival. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model

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    Jolene Carlson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV. There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4 virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi. This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  4. Attenuated Phenotype of a Recent House Finch-Associated Mycoplasma gallisepticum Isolate in Domestic Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, K; Tulman, E R; Beaudet, J; Liao, X; Dhondt, K V; Dhondt, A A; Hawley, D M; Ley, D H; Kerr, K M; Geary, S J

    2017-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum , known primarily as a respiratory pathogen of domestic poultry, has emerged since 1994 as a significant pathogen of the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus ) causing severe conjunctivitis and mortality. House finch-associated M. gallisepticum (HFMG) spread rapidly and increased in virulence for the finch host in the eastern United States. In the current study, we assessed virulence in domestic poultry with two temporally distant, and yet geographically consistent, HFMG isolates which differ in virulence for house finches-Virginia 1994 (VA1994), the index isolate of the epidemic, and Virginia 2013 (VA2013), a recent isolate of increased house finch virulence. Here we report a significant difference between VA1994 and VA2013 in their levels of virulence for chickens; notably, this difference correlated inversely to the difference in their levels of virulence for house finches. VA1994, while moderately virulent in house finches, displayed significant virulence in the chicken respiratory tract. VA2013, while highly virulent in the house finch, was significantly attenuated in chickens relative to VA1994, displaying less-severe pathological lesions in, and reduced bacterial recovery from, the respiratory tract. Overall, these data indicate that a recent isolate of HFMG is greatly attenuated in the chicken host relative to the index isolate, notably demonstrating a virulence phenotype in chickens inversely related to that in the finch host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Consequences for diversity when animals are prioritized for conservation of the whole genome or of one specific allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    When animals are selected for one specific allele, for example for inclusion in a gene bank, this may result in the loss of diversity in other parts of the genome. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of losing diversity across the genome when targeting a single allele for conservation

  6. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

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    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  7. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation and Its Interplay with Repressive Histone Marks at Promoter-Mutant TERT Genes

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    Josh Lewis Stern

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A mutation in the promoter of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT gene is the most frequent noncoding mutation in cancer. The mutation drives unusual monoallelic expression of TERT, allowing immortalization. Here, we find that DNA methylation of the TERT CpG island (CGI is also allele-specific in multiple cancers. The expressed allele is hypomethylated, which is opposite to cancers without TERT promoter mutations. The continued presence of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 on the inactive allele suggests that histone marks of repressed chromatin may be causally linked to high DNA methylation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TERT promoter DNA containing 5-methyl-CpG has much increased affinity for PRC2 in vitro. Thus, CpG methylation and histone marks appear to collaborate to maintain the two TERT alleles in different epigenetic states in TERT promoter mutant cancers. Finally, in several cancers, DNA methylation levels at the TERT CGI correlate with altered patient survival.

  8. Virulence-associated genome mutations of murine rotavirus identified by alternating serial passages in mice and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3' consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its diarrheagenic activity in mice

  9. Virulence-Associated Genome Mutations of Murine Rotavirus Identified by Alternating Serial Passages in Mice and Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3′ consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. IMPORTANCE Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its

  10. Live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine protects against Francisella tularensis pulmonary challenge in rats and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt, leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP. The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform.

  11. Identification of Xylella fastidiosa antivirulence genes: hemagglutinin adhesins contribute a biofilm maturation to X. fastidios and colonization and attenuate virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhabert, Magalie R; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2005-08-01

    Xylella fastidosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium, is the causal agent of several economically important plant diseases, including Pierce's disease (PD) and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). Until recently, the inability to transform or produce transposon mutants of X. fastidosa had been a major impediment to identifying X. fastidosa genes that mediate pathogen and plant interactions. A random transposon (Tn5) library of X. fastidosa was constructed and screened for mutants showing more severe symptoms and earlier grapevine death (hypervirulence) than did vines infected with the wild type. Seven hypervirulent mutants identified in this screen moved faster and reached higher populations than the wild type in grapevines. These results suggest that X. fastidosa attenuates its virulence in planta and that movement is important in X. fastidosa virulence. The mutated genes were sequenced and none had been described previously as antivirulence genes, although six of them showed similarity with genes of known functions in other organisms. One transposon insertion inactivated a hemagglutinin adhesin gene (PD2118), which we named HxfA. Another mutant in a second putative X. fastidosa hemagglutinin gene, PD1792 (HxfB), was constructed, and further characterization of these hxf mutants suggests that X. fastidosa hemagglutinins mediate contact between X. fastidosa cells, which results in colony formation and biofilm maturation within the xylem vessels.

  12. An Aphid Effector Targets Trafficking Protein VPS52 in a Host-Specific Manner to Promote Virulence1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility. We showed that the effector Mp1 from Myzus persicae associates with the host Vacuolar Protein Sorting Associated Protein52 (VPS52). Using natural variants, we provide a strong link between effector virulence activity and association with VPS52, and show that the association is highly specific to M. persicae-host interactions. Also, coexpression of Mp1, but not Mp1-like variants, specifically with host VPS52s resulted in effector relocalization to vesicle-like structures that associate with prevacuolar compartments. We show that high VPS52 levels negatively impact virulence, and that aphids are able to reduce VPS52 levels during infestation, indicating that VPS52 is an important virulence target. Our work is an important step forward in understanding, at the molecular level, how a major agricultural pest promotes susceptibility during infestation of crop plants. We give evidence that an herbivorous insect employs effectors that interact with host proteins as part of an effective virulence strategy, and that these effectors likely function in a species-specific manner. PMID:28100451

  13. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré , Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjö ling, Å sa

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  14. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  15. Aberrant allele-specific replication, independent of parental origin, in blood cells of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotan, Zohar A; Dotan, Aviva; Ramon, Jacob; Avivi, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    Allelic counterparts of biallelically expressed genes display an epigenetic symmetry normally manifested by synchronous replication, different from genes subjected to monoallelic expression, which normally are characterized by an asynchronous mode of replication (well exemplified by the SNRPN imprinted locus). Malignancy was documented to be associated with gross modifications in the inherent replication-timing coordination between allelic counterparts of imprinted genes as well as of biallelically expressed loci. The cancer-related allelic replication timing aberrations are non-disease specific and appear in peripheral blood cells of cancer patients, including those with solid tumors. As such they offer potential blood markers for non-invasive cancer test. The present study was aimed to gain some insight into the mechanism leading to the replication timing alterations of genes in blood lymphocytes of cancer patients. Peripheral blood samples derived from patients with prostate cancer were chosen to represent the cancerous status, and samples taken from patients with no cancer but with benign prostate hyperplasia were used to portray the normal status. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) replication assay, applied to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood lymphocytes, was used to evaluate the temporal order (either synchronous or asynchronous) of genes in the patients' cells. We demonstrated that: (i) the aberrant epigenetic profile, as delineated by the cancer status, is a reversible modification, evidenced by our ability to restore the normal patterns of replication in three unrelated loci (CEN15, SNRPN and RB1) by introducing an archetypical demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine; (ii) following the rehabilitating effect of demethylation, an imprinted gene (SNRPN) retains its original parental imprint; and (iii) the choice of an allele between early or late replication in the aberrant asynchronous replication, delineated by the cancer status, is not

  16. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  17. Identification of an essential virulence gene of cyprinid herpesvirus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutier, Maxime; Gao, Yuan; Vancsok, Catherine; Suárez, Nicolás M; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    The genus Cyprinivirus consists of a growing list of phylogenetically related viruses, some of which cause severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The archetypal member, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes mass mortalities worldwide in koi and common carp. A CyHV-3 mutant was described previously that is attenuated in vivo by a deletion affecting two genes (ORF56 and ORF57). The relative contributions of ORF56 and ORF57 to the safety and efficacy profile of this vaccine candidate have now been assessed by analysing viruses individually deleted for ORF56 or ORF57. Inoculation of these viruses into carp demonstrated that the absence of ORF56 did not affect virulence, whereas the absence of ORF57 led to an attenuation comparable to, though slightly less than, that of the doubly deleted virus. To demonstrate further the role of ORF57 as a key virulence factor, a mutant retaining the ORF57 region but unable to express the ORF57 protein was produced by inserting multiple in-frame stop codons into the coding region. Analysis of this virus in vivo revealed a safety and efficacy profile comparable to that of the doubly deleted virus. These findings show that ORF57 encodes an essential CyHV-3 virulence factor. They also indicate that ORF57 orthologues in other cypriniviruses may offer promising targets for the rational design of attenuated recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Niche-Specific Requirement for Hyphal Wall protein 1 in Virulence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Janet F.; Datta, Kausik; Rhee, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Specialized Candida albicans cell surface proteins called adhesins mediate binding of the fungus to host cells. The mammalian transglutaminase (TG) substrate and adhesin, Hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1), is expressed on the hyphal form of C. albicans where it mediates fungal adhesion to epithelial cells. Hwp1 is also required for biofilm formation and mating thus the protein functions in both fungal-host and self-interactions. Hwp1 is required for full virulence of C. albicans in murine models of disseminated candidiasis and of esophageal candidiasis. Previous studies correlated TG activity on the surface of oral epithelial cells, produced by epithelial TG (TG1), with tight binding of C. albicans via Hwp1 to the host cell surfaces. However, the contribution of other Tgs, specifically tissue TG (TG2), to disseminated candidiasis mediated by Hwp1 was not known. A newly created hwp1 null strain in the wild type SC5314 background was as virulent as the parental strain in C57BL/6 mice, and virulence was retained in C57BL/6 mice deleted for Tgm2 (TG2). Further, the hwp1 null strains displayed modestly reduced virulence in BALB/c mice as did strain DD27-U1, an independently created hwp1Δ/Δ in CAI4 corrected for its ura3Δ defect at the URA3 locus. Hwp1 was still needed to produce wild type biofilms, and persist on murine tongues in an oral model of oropharyngeal candidiasis consistent with previous studies by us and others. Finally, lack of Hwp1 affected the translocation of C. albicans from the mouse intestine into the bloodstream of mice. Together, Hwp1 appears to have a minor role in disseminated candidiasis, independent of tissue TG, but a key function in host- and self-association to the surface of oral mucosa. PMID:24260489

  19. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation and Its Interplay with Repressive Histone Marks at Promoter-Mutant TERT Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Paucek, Richard D; Huang, Franklin W; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Nwumeh, Ronald; Costello, James C; Cech, Thomas R

    2017-12-26

    A mutation in the promoter of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) gene is the most frequent noncoding mutation in cancer. The mutation drives unusual monoallelic expression of TERT, allowing immortalization. Here, we find that DNA methylation of the TERT CpG island (CGI) is also allele-specific in multiple cancers. The expressed allele is hypomethylated, which is opposite to cancers without TERT promoter mutations. The continued presence of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) on the inactive allele suggests that histone marks of repressed chromatin may be causally linked to high DNA methylation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TERT promoter DNA containing 5-methyl-CpG has much increased affinity for PRC2 in vitro. Thus, CpG methylation and histone marks appear to collaborate to maintain the two TERT alleles in different epigenetic states in TERT promoter mutant cancers. Finally, in several cancers, DNA methylation levels at the TERT CGI correlate with altered patient survival. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allele-specific Gene Silencing of Mutant mRNA Restores Cellular Function in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD is an inherited muscle disorder characterized clinically by muscle weakness, distal joint hyperlaxity, and proximal joint contractures. Sporadic and recessive mutations in the three collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, are reported to be causative. In the sporadic forms, a heterozygous point mutation causing glycine substitution in the triple helical domain has been identified in higher rate. In this study, we examined the efficacy of siRNAs, which target point mutation site, on specific knockdown toward transcripts from mutant allele and evaluated consequent cellular phenotype of UCMD fibroblasts. We evaluated the effect of siRNAs targeted to silence-specific COL6A1 alleles in UCMD fibroblasts, where simultaneous expression of both wild-type and mutant collagen VI resulted in defective collagen localization. Addition of mutant-specific siRNAs allowed normal extracellular localization of collagen VI surrounding fibroblasts, suggesting selective inhibition of mutant collagen VI. Targeting the single-nucleotide COL6A1 c.850G>A (p.G284R mutation responsible a sporadic autosomal dominant form of UCMD can potently and selectively block expression of mutant collagen VI. These results suggest that allele-specific knockdown of the mutant mRNA can potentially be considered as a therapeutic procedure in UCMD due to COL6A1 point mutations.

  1. Booster vaccination with safe, modified, live-attenuated mutants of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine confers protective immunity against virulent strains of B. abortus and Brucella canis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Kim, Kiju; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2015-11-01

    Brucella abortus attenuated strain RB51 vaccine (RB51) is widely used in prevention of bovine brucellosis. Although vaccination with this strain has been shown to be effective in conferring protection against bovine brucellosis, RB51 has several drawbacks, including residual virulence for animals and humans. Therefore, a safe and efficacious vaccine is needed to overcome these disadvantages. In this study, we constructed several gene deletion mutants (ΔcydC, ΔcydD and ΔpurD single mutants, and ΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD double mutants) of RB51 with the aim of increasing the safety of the possible use of these mutants as vaccine candidates. The RB51ΔcydC, RB51ΔcydD, RB51ΔpurD, RB51ΔcydCΔcydD and RB51ΔcydCΔpurD mutants exhibited significant attenuation of virulence when assayed in murine macrophages in vitro or in BALB/c mice. A single intraperitoneal immunization with RB51ΔcydC, RB51ΔcydD, RB51ΔcydCΔcydD or RB51ΔcydCΔpurD mutants was rapidly cleared from mice within 3 weeks, whereas the RB51ΔpurD mutant and RB51 were detectable in spleens until 4 and 7 weeks, respectively. Vaccination with a single dose of RB51 mutants induced lower protective immunity in mice than did parental RB51. However, a booster dose of these mutants provided significant levels of protection in mice against challenge with either the virulent homologous B. abortus strain 2308 or the heterologous Brucella canis strain 26. In addition, these mutants were found to induce a mixed but T-helper-1-biased humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice. These data suggest that immunization with a booster dose of attenuated RB51 mutants provides an attractive strategy to protect against either bovine or canine brucellosis.

  2. Necrotic enteritis locus 1 diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase (cyclic-di-GMP) gene mutation attenuates virulence in an avian necrotic enteritis isolate of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Valeria R; Ojha, Shivani; Lepp, Dion; Mehdizadeh Gohari, Iman; Zhou, Hongzhuan; Susta, Leonardo; Gong, Jianhua; Prescott, John F

    2017-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive strains of Clostridium perfringens is an important disease of intensively-reared broiler chickens. It is widely controlled by antibiotic use, but this practice that has come under increasing scrutiny and alternative approaches are required. As part of the search for alternative approaches over the last decade, advances have been made in understanding its pathogenesis but much remains to be understood and applied to the control of NE. The objective of this work was to assess the effect on virulence of mutation of the cyclic-di-GMP signaling genes present on the large pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1) in the tcp-encoding conjugative virulence plasmid, pNetB. For this purpose, the diguanylate cyclase (dgc) and phosphodiesterase (pde) genes were individually insertionally inactivated and the two mutants were subsequently complemented with their respective genes. Southern blotting showed that a single gene insertion was present. Mutation of either gene resulted in almost total attenuation of the mutants to cause NE in experimentally-infected broiler chickens, which was fully restored in each case by complementation of the respective mutated gene. Production of NetB-associated cytotoxicity for Leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cells was unaffected in mutants. We conclude that the cyclic-di-GMP signaling system is important in controlling virulence in a NE C. perfringens strain and might be a target for control of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and Genetic Diversity of Etambutol Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Allelic-Specific PCR and Spologiotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshani Nezhad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Ethambutol is one of the four main drugs in treatment of tuberculosis. The most common mutation associated with this drug resistance usually occurs in codon 306 of embB. The aim of this study was to detect ethambutol resistance using Allele-Specific PCR and Spoligotyping in various subtypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.   Methods : 140 sputum specimens were collected from suspected TB patients. They were digested and decontaminated using Pettrof method before culturing them on LJ medium. Drug susceptibility testing was performed on 106 culture positive specimens using proportional method. DNA was extracted from the isolated organisms and subsequently subjected to Allele-Specific PCR to detect any mutationin embB306. Spoligotyping was then used to determine the subtypes.   Results: Out of 106 cultures positive samples, 36 samples (33.9% showed resistance to ethambutol using proportional method. Allele-Specific PCR assay identified 93 as sensitive and 13 (27.6% as resistant strains. The results of PCR were in agreement with result of proportional method. The PCR method revealed that 61.5% of mutation occurred in the first and 38.5% in third nucleotides. Spoligotyping differentiated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains into Beijing (10 9.4%, Bovis (2 1.8%, CAS (24 22.6%, EAI (1 0.9%, Haarlem (27 25.4%, LAM (5 4.7%, Manu (5 4.7%, T (27 25.4% and U( 2 1,8% families. The high frequency of mutation in embB gene was belonged to Haarlem, CAS and T subfamilies.   Conclusion: Based on results current study, mutations in the genes other than embB might have occurred in the resistant strains that gave negative result in Allele-Specific PCR assay. Therefore other mechanisms of resistance to this antibiotic should be investigated.

  4. Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas O Kilpeläinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166 and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268.All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2>0.8] and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A- allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26, but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction  = 0.001. More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25 than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36. No such interaction was found in children and adolescents.The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.

  5. Strategies for RUN1 Deployment Using RUN2 and REN2 to Manage Grapevine Powdery Mildew Informed by Studies of Race Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Kocsis, Marianna; Riaz, Summaira; Zhang, Wei; Gadoury, David M; Walker, M Andrew; Dry, Ian B; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2015-08-01

    The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat gene, "resistance to Uncinula necator 1" (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic V. vinifera cultivars. However, sporulating powdery mildew colonies and cleistothecia of the heterothallic pathogen have been found on introgression lines containing the RUN1 locus growing in New York (NY). Two E. necator isolates collected from RUN1 vines were designated NY1-131 and NY1-137 and were used in this study to inform a strategy for durable RUN1 deployment. In order to achieve this, fitness parameters of NY1-131 and NY1-137 were quantified relative to powdery mildew isolates collected from V. rotundifolia and V. vinifera on vines containing alleles of the powdery mildew resistance genes RUN1, RUN2, or REN2. The results clearly demonstrate the race specificity of RUN1, RUN2, and REN2 resistance alleles, all of which exhibit programmed cell death (PCD)-mediated resistance. The NY1 isolates investigated were found to have an intermediate virulence on RUN1 vines, although this may be allele specific, while the Musc4 isolate collected from V. rotundifolia was virulent on all RUN1 vines. Another powdery mildew resistance locus, RUN2, was previously mapped in different V. rotundifolia genotypes, and two alleles (RUN2.1 and RUN2.2) were identified. The RUN2.1 allele was found to provide PCD-mediated resistance to both an NY1 isolate and Musc4. Importantly, REN2 vines were resistant to the NY1 isolates and RUN1REN2 vines combining both genes displayed additional resistance. Based on these results, RUN1-mediated resistance in grapevine may be enhanced by pyramiding with RUN2.1 or REN2; however, naturally occurring isolates in North America display some virulence on vines with these resistance genes. The characterization of additional resistance sources is needed to identify

  6. An attemp at reversibility and increase of the virulence of axenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica Tentativa de reversibilidade e aumento de virulência de cepas axônicas de Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gomes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have tried to verify whether the interaction "in vitro" with bacteria or small pieces of normal hamster liver would modify the pathogenic behavior of axenic strains of E. histolytica: avirulent ones (ICB-32 and ICB-RPS, of attenuated virulence (ICB-CSP and HM1 and of mean virulence (ICB-462. Every attempt to render virulent, recover or increase the virulence of axenic strains of E. histolytica has failedNeste trabalho procuramos verificar se a interação "in vitro" com bactérias e fragmentos de fígado de hamster normal, modificaria o comportamento patogênico de cepas axênicas de E. histolytica avirulentas (ICB-32 e ICB-RPS; virulentas, porém atenuadas (ICB-CSP e HM1 e de média virulência (ICB-462. Todas as tentativas de tornar virulentas, restabelecer ou aumentar a virulência das cepas axênicas de E. histolytica utilizadas fracassaram

  7. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing, virulence and biofilm formation by extracts of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Malabika; Moulick, Soumitra; Bhattacharya, Kunal Kumar; Parai, Debaprasad; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) is known to play an essential role in regulation of virulence factors and toxins during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection which may frequently cause antibiotic resistance and hostile outcomes of inflammatory injury. Therefore, it is an urgent need to search for a novel agent with low risk of resistance development that can target QS and inflammatory damage prevention as well. Andrographis paniculata, a herbaceous plant under the family Acanthaceae, native to Asian countries and also cultivated in Scandinavia and some parts of Europe, has a strong traditional usage with its known antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiviral and antioxidant properties. In this study, three different solvent extracts (viz., chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of A. paniculata were examined for their anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities. Study was carried out to assess the effect on some selected QS-regulatory genes at transcriptional level using Real Time-PCR. In addition, ability to attenuate MAPK pathways upon P. aeruginosa infection was performed to check its potential anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform and methanol extracts showed significant reduction (p paniculata extracts inhibit QS in P. aeruginosa and exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, therefore it represents itself as a prospective therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dyslexia risk variant rs600753 is linked with dyslexia-specific differential allelic expression of DYX1C1

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    Bent Müller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.

  9. TumorBoost: Normalization of allele-specific tumor copy numbers from a single pair of tumor-normal genotyping microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuvial Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genotyping microarrays assess both total DNA copy number and allelic composition, which makes them a tool of choice for copy number studies in cancer, including total copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH analyses. Even after state of the art preprocessing methods, allelic signal estimates from genotyping arrays still suffer from systematic effects that make them difficult to use effectively for such downstream analyses. Results We propose a method, TumorBoost, for normalizing allelic estimates of one tumor sample based on estimates from a single matched normal. The method applies to any paired tumor-normal estimates from any microarray-based technology, combined with any preprocessing method. We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of allelic signals, making it significantly easier to detect allelic imbalances. Conclusions TumorBoost increases the power to detect somatic copy-number events (including copy-neutral LOH in the tumor from allelic signals of Affymetrix or Illumina origin. We also conclude that high-precision allelic estimates can be obtained from a single pair of tumor-normal hybridizations, if TumorBoost is combined with single-array preprocessing methods such as (allele-specific CRMA v2 for Affymetrix or BeadStudio's (proprietary XY-normalization method for Illumina. A bounded-memory implementation is available in the open-source and cross-platform R package aroma.cn, which is part of the Aroma Project (http://www.aroma-project.org/.

  10. Failure of attenuated canine distemper virus (Rockborn strain) to suppress lymphocyte blastogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R D

    1976-01-01

    The attenuated Rockborn strain of canine distemper virus is commonly used in commercial vaccines. Since immunosuppression is a common feature of virulent (Snyder Hill) distemper virus infection of the dog, an evaluation of the cellular immune functions of dogs given inoculums of the less virulent Rockborn strain was done using lymphocyte blastogenesis responses to various mitogens. Unlike the viruslent Snyder Hill strain, the attenuated distemper virus did not alter lymphocyte blastogenesis responses to phytohemaglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) which are considered in vitro correlates of T and B cell immunity.

  11. cipC is important for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Heliara Maria Spina; Takami, Luciano Akira; da Silva Ferreira, Márcia Eliana

    2017-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of invasive aspergillosis, a disease that affects immunocompromised patients and has a high mortality rate. We previously observed that the transcription of a cipC-like gene was increased when A. fumigatus encountered an increased CO 2 concentration, as occurs during the infection process. CipC is a protein of unknown function that might be associated with fungal pathogenicity. In this study, the cipC gene was disrupted in A. fumigatus to evaluate its importance for fungal pathogenicity. The gene was replaced, and the germination, growth phenotype, stress responses, and virulence of the resultant mutant were assessed. Although cipC was not essential, its deletion attenuated A. fumigatus virulence in a low-dose murine infection model, suggesting the involvement of the cipC gene in the virulence of this fungus. This study is the first to disrupt the cipC gene in A. fumigatus. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    Full Text Available Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR, termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques.

  13. Allelic Imbalance Is a Prevalent and Tissue-Specific Feature of the Mouse Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Stefan F.; Colognori, David; Beliveau, Brian J.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Payer, Bernhard; Yildirim, Eda; Wu, Chao-ting; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, several classes of monoallelic genes have been identified, including those subject to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and random monoallelic expression (RMAE). However, the extent to which these epigenetic phenomena are influenced by underlying genetic variation is unknown. Here we perform a systematic classification of allelic imbalance in mouse hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses of divergent strains. We observe that deviation from balanced biallelic expression is common, occurring in ∼20% of the mouse transcriptome in a given tissue. Allelic imbalance attributed to genotypic variation is by far the most prevalent class and typically is tissue-specific. However, some genotype-based imbalance is maintained across tissues and is associated with greater genetic variation, especially in 5′ and 3′ termini of transcripts. We further identify novel random monoallelic and imprinted genes and find that genotype can modify penetrance of parental origin even in the setting of large imprinted regions. Examination of nascent transcripts in single cells from inbred parental strains reveals that genes showing genotype-based imbalance in hybrids can also exhibit monoallelic expression in isogenic backgrounds. This surprising observation may suggest a competition between alleles and/or reflect the combined impact of cis- and trans-acting variation on expression of a given gene. Our findings provide novel insights into gene regulation and may be relevant to human genetic variation and disease. PMID:25858912

  14. DQB1*06:02 allele-specific expression varies by allelic dosage, not narcolepsy status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner Lachmi, Karin; Lin, Ling; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2012-01-01

    The association of narcolepsy-cataplexy, a sleep disorder caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, with DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 is one of the tightest known single-allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. In this study, we explored genome-wide expression...

  15. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  16. Screening for SNPs with Allele-Specific Methylation based on Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Ji, Yuan; Xu, Yaomin; Ting, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    Allele-specific methylation (ASM) has long been studied but mainly documented in the context of genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Taking advantage of the next-generation sequencing technology, we conduct a high-throughput sequencing experiment with four prostate cell lines to survey the whole genome and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ASM. A Bayesian approach is proposed to model the counts of short reads for each SNP conditional on its genotypes of multip...

  17. The OmpA-like protein Loa22 is essential for leptospiral virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ristow

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira interrogans, the causal agent of leptospirosis, remain largely unknown. This is mainly due to the lack of tools for genetic manipulations of pathogenic species. In this study, we characterized a mutant obtained by insertion of the transposon Himar1 into a gene encoding a putative lipoprotein, Loa22, which has a predicted OmpA domain based on sequence identity. The resulting mutant did not express Loa22 and was attenuated in virulence in the guinea pig and hamster models of leptospirosis, whereas the genetically complemented strain was restored in Loa22 expression and virulence. Our results show that Loa22 was expressed during host infection and exposed on the cell surface. Loa22 is therefore necessary for virulence of L. interrogans in the animal model and represents, to our knowledge, the first genetically defined virulence factor in Leptospira species.

  18. Spontaneous Loss of Virulence in Natural Populations of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Mylène M; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Han, Lei; Leclercq, Alexandre; Vales, Guillaume; Moura, Alexandra; Gouin, Edith; Scortti, Mariela; Disson, Olivier; Vázquez-Boland, José A; Lecuit, Marc

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes depends on the ability of this bacterium to escape from the phagosome of the host cells via the action of the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). Expression of the LLO-encoding gene ( hly ) requires the transcriptional activator PrfA, and both hly and prfA genes are essential for L. monocytogenes virulence. Here, we used the hemolytic activity of LLO as a phenotypic marker to screen for spontaneous virulence-attenuating mutations in L. monocytogenes Sixty nonhemolytic isolates were identified among a collection of 57,820 confirmed L. monocytogenes strains isolated from a variety of sources (0.1%). In most cases (56/60; 93.3%), the nonhemolytic phenotype resulted from nonsense, missense, or frameshift mutations in prfA Five strains carried hly mutations leading to a single amino acid substitution (G299V) or a premature stop codon causing strong virulence attenuation in mice. In one strain, both hly and gshF (encoding a glutathione synthase required for full PrfA activity) were missing due to genomic rearrangements likely caused by a transposable element. The PrfA/LLO loss-of-function (PrfA - /LLO - ) mutants belonged to phylogenetically diverse clades of L. monocytogenes , and most were identified among nonclinical strains (57/60). Consistent with the rare occurrence of loss-of-virulence mutations, we show that prfA and hly are under purifying selection. Although occurring at a low frequency, PrfA - /LLO - mutational events in L. monocytogenes lead to niche restriction and open an evolutionary path for obligate saprophytism in this facultative intracellular pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Maury et al.

  19. Inhibitory effect of live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines expressing MIA gene on malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yue; Zhang, Na; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Siyuan; Chu, Shujuan; Hamze, Firas; Wu, Yan; Luo, Qin; Feng, Aiping

    2012-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium, can be used as an effective exogenous antigen expression vector in tumor-target therapy. But for successful clinical application, it is necessary to construct attenuated LM stain that is safe yet retains the potency of LM based on the full virulent pathogen. In this study, attenuated LM and recombinants of LM expressing melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) were constructed successfully. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) and invasion efficiency of attenuated LM strains were detected. The recombinants were utilized for immunotherapy of animal model of B16F10 melanoma. The level of MIA mRNA expression in tumor tissue was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific sequence, meanwhile the anti-tumor immune response was assayed by flow cytometric analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. The results showed the toxicity and invasiveness of attenuated LM were decreased as compared with LM, and attenuated LM expressing MIA, especially the double-genes attenuated LM recombinant, could significantly induce anti-tumor immune response and inhibit tumor growth. This study implicates attenuated LM may be a safer and more effective vector for immunotherapy of melanoma.

  20. Virulence of luminescent and non-luminescent isogenic vibrios towards gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae and specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Defoirdt, T; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the virulence of luminescent (L) and non-luminescent (NL) isogenic strains of Vibrio campbellii LMG21363, Vibrio harveyi BB120 (wild type) and quorum-sensing mutant strains derived from the wild type such as Vibrio harveyi BB152, BB170, MM30 and BB886. The NL strains could be obtained by culturing rifampicin-resistant luminescent strains in the dark under static condition. The virulence of the L and NL strains was tested in gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae challenged with 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of bacteria. All luminescent isogenic tested strains showed higher virulence compared to the NL strains. The virulence of L and NL V. campbellii and V. harveyi BB120 was also tested in specific pathogen-free juvenile shrimp upon intramuscular injection with 10(6) CFU of bacteria. In contrast with Artemia, there was no significant difference in mortality between the groups challenged with L and NL strains (P > 0.05). The non-luminescent strains were not able to revert back to the luminescent state and quorum sensing did not influence this phenotypic shift. Luminescent Vibrio strains can switch to a non-luminescent state by culturing them in static conditions. The NL strains become less virulent as verified in Artemia. The luminescent state of Vibrio cells in a culture needs to be verified in order to assure maintenance of virulence.

  1. Frequency Specific Effects of ApoE ε4 Allele on Resting-State Networks in Nondemented Elders

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    Ying Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE ε4 allele effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN and the salience network (SN. Considering the frequency specific effects of functional connectivity, we decomposed the brain network time courses into two bands: 0.01–0.027 Hz and 0.027–0.08 Hz. All scans were acquired by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroscience Initiative (ADNI. Thirty-two nondemented subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence (n=16 or absence (n=16 of the ApoE ε4 allele. We explored the frequency specific effects of ApoE ε4 allele on the default mode network (DMN and the salience network (SN functional connectivity. Compared to ε4 noncarriers, the DMN functional connectivity of ε4 carriers was significantly decreased while the SN functional connectivity of ε4 carriers was significantly increased. Many functional connectivities showed significant differences at the lower frequency band of 0.01–0.027 Hz or the higher frequency band of 0.027–0.08 Hz instead of the typical range of 0.01–0.08 Hz. The results indicated a frequency dependent effect of resting-state signals when investigating RSNs functional connectivity.

  2. Removal of the phage-shock protein PspB causes reduction of virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium independently of NRAMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallrodt, Inke; Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line E; Brix, Lena; Lemire, Sébastien; Gautier, Laurent; Nielsen, Dennis S; Jovanovic, Goran; Buck, Martin; Olsen, John E

    2014-06-01

    The phage-shock protein (Psp) system is believed to manage membrane stress in all Enterobacteriaceae and has recently emerged as being important for virulence in several pathogenic species of this phylum. The core of the Psp system consists of the pspA-D operon and the distantly located pspG gene. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), it has recently been reported that PspA is essential for systemic infection of mice, but only in NRAMP1(+) mice, signifying that attenuation is related to coping with divalent cation starvation in the intracellular environment. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of individual psp genes to virulence of S. Typhimurium. Interestingly, deletion of the whole pspA-D set of genes caused attenuation in both NRAMP1(+) and NRAMP1(-) mice, indicating that one or more of the psp genes contribute to virulence independently of NRAMP1 expression in the host. Investigations of single gene mutants showed that knock out of pspB reduced virulence in both types of mice, while deletion of pspA only caused attenuation in NRAMP1(+) mice, and deletion of pspD had a minor effect in NRAMP1(-) mice, while deletions of either pspC or pspG did not affect virulence. Experiments addressed at elucidating the role of PspB in virulence revealed that PspB is dispensable for uptake to and intracellular replication in cultured macrophages and resistance to complement-induced killing. Furthermore, the Psp system of S. Typhimurium was dispensable during pIV-induced secretin stress. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that removal of PspB reduces virulence in S. Typhimurium independently of host NRAMP1 expression, demonstrating that PspB has roles in intra-host survival distinct from the reported contributions of PspA. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Sergio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of primary resistance of Brazilian H. pylori isolates to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone. In addition, the vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes of strains isolated from Brazilian patients were determined and associated with clinical data in an effort to correlate these four virulence markers and antibiotic resistance. Methods H. pylori was cultured in 155 H. pylori-positive patients and MICs for metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone were determined by the agar dilution method. Genomic DNA was extracted, and allelic variants of vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE were identified by the polymerase chain reaction. Results There was a strong association between the vacA s1/cagA -positive genotype and peptic ulcer disease (OR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.6–11.3, p = 0.0006. Additionally, infection by more virulent strains may protect against GERD, since logistic regression showed a negative association between the more virulent strain, vacA s1/cagA-positive genotype and GERD (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.8, p = 0.03. Resistance to metronidazole was detected in 75 patients (55%, to amoxicillin in 54 individuals (38%, to clarithromycin in 23 patients (16%, to tetracycline in 13 patients (9%, and to furazolidone in 19 individuals (13%. No significant correlation between pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility was detected when MIC values for each antibiotic were compared with different vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes. Conclusion The analysis of virulence genes revealed a specific association between H. pylori strains and clinical outcome, furthermore, no significant association was detected among pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility.

  4. ABO alleles are linked with haplotypes of an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element in intron 1 with a few exceptions attributable to genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Sano, R; Takahashi, Y; Watanabe, K; Kubo, R; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, K; Takeshita, H; Kominato, Y

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigation of transcriptional regulation of the ABO genes has identified a candidate erythroid cell-specific regulatory element, named the +5·8-kb site, in the first intron of ABO. Six haplotypes of the site have been reported previously. The present genetic population study demonstrated that each haplotype was mostly linked with specific ABO alleles with a few exceptions, possibly as a result of hybrid formation between common ABO alleles. Thus, investigation of these haplotypes could provide a clue to further elucidation of ABO alleles. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Expression of rabbit IL-4 by recombinant myxoma viruses enhances virulence and overcomes genetic resistance to myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, P J; Perkins, H D; Inglis, B; Stagg, R; McLaughlin, E; Collins, S V; Van Leeuwen, B H

    2004-06-20

    Rabbit IL-4 was expressed in the virulent standard laboratory strain (SLS) and the attenuated Uriarra (Ur) strain of myxoma virus with the aim of creating a Th2 cytokine environment and inhibiting the development of an antiviral cell-mediated response to myxomatosis in infected rabbits. This allowed testing of a model for genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits that have undergone 50 years of natural selection for resistance to myxomatosis. Expression of IL-4 significantly enhanced virulence of both virulent and attenuated virus strains in susceptible (laboratory) and resistant (wild) rabbits. SLS-IL-4 completely overcame genetic resistance in wild rabbits. The pathogenesis of SLS-IL-4 was compared in susceptible and resistant rabbits. The results support a model for resistance to myxomatosis of an enhanced innate immune response controlling virus replication and allowing an effective antiviral cell-mediated immune response to develop in resistant rabbits. Expression of IL-4 did not overcome immunity to myxomatosis induced by immunization.

  6. Macrophage and Galleria mellonella infection models reflect the virulence of naturally occurring isolates of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a tropical disease of humans with a variable and often fatal outcome. In murine models of infection, different strains exhibit varying degrees of virulence. In contrast, two related species, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis, are highly attenuated in mice. Our aim was to determine whether virulence in mice is reflected in macrophage or wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella infection models. Results B. pseudomallei strains 576 and K96243, which have low median lethal dose (MLD values in mice, were able to replicate and induce cellular damage in macrophages and caused rapid death of G. mellonella. In contrast, B. pseudomallei strain 708a, which is attenuated in mice, showed reduced replication in macrophages, negligible cellular damage and was avirulent in G. mellonella larvae. B. thailandensis isolates were less virulent than B. pseudomallei in all of the models tested. However, we did record strain dependent differences. B. oklahomensis isolates were the least virulent isolates. They showed minimal ability to replicate in macrophages, were unable to evoke actin-based motility or to form multinucleated giant cells and were markedly attenuated in G. mellonella compared to B. thailandensis. Conclusions We have shown that the alternative infection models tested here, namely macrophages and Galleria mellonella, are able to distinguish between strains of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis and that these differences reflect the observed virulence in murine infection models. Our results indicate that B. oklahomensis is the least pathogenic of the species investigated. They also show a correlation between isolates of B. thailandensis associated with human infection and virulence in macrophage and Galleria infection models.

  7. Allele-specific expression in the germline of patients with familial pancreatic cancer: An unbiased approach to cancer gene discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Aik Choon; Fan, Jian-Bing; Karikari, Collins; Bibikova, Marina; Garcia, Eliza Wickham; Zhou, Lixin; Barker, David; Serre, David; Feldmann, Georg; Hruban, Ralph H.; Klein, Alison P.; Goggins, Michael; Couch, Fergus J.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2007-01-01

    Physiologic allele-specific expression (ASE) in germline tissues occurs during random X-chromosome inactivation1 and in genomic imprinting,2 wherein the two alleles of a gene in a heterozygous individual are not expressed equally. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of ASE in apparently non-imprinted autosomal genes;3–14 however, the extent of ASE in the human genome is unknown. We explored ASE in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 145 individuals using an oligonucleotide array based assay....

  8. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  9. Genome sequence of the endosymbiont Rickettsia peacockii and comparison with virulent Rickettsia rickettsii: identification of virulence factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick F Felsheim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia peacockii, also known as the East Side Agent, is a non-pathogenic obligate intracellular bacterium found as an endosymbiont in Dermacentor andersoni ticks in the western USA and Canada. Its presence in ticks is correlated with reduced prevalence of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. It has been proposed that a virulent SFG rickettsia underwent changes to become the East Side Agent. We determined the genome sequence of R. peacockii and provide a comparison to a closely related virulent R. rickettsii. The presence of 42 chromosomal copies of the ISRpe1 transposon in the genome of R. peacockii is associated with a lack of synteny with the genome of R. rickettsii and numerous deletions via recombination between transposon copies. The plasmid contains a number of genes from distantly related organisms, such as part of the glycosylation island of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genes deleted or mutated in R. peacockii which may relate to loss of virulence include those coding for an ankyrin repeat containing protein, DsbA, RickA, protease II, OmpA, ScaI, and a putative phosphoethanolamine transferase. The gene coding for the ankyrin repeat containing protein is especially implicated as it is mutated in R. rickettsii strain Iowa, which has attenuated virulence. Presence of numerous copies of the ISRpe1 transposon, likely acquired by lateral transfer from a Cardinium species, are associated with extensive genomic reorganization and deletions. The deletion and mutation of genes possibly involved in loss of virulence have been identified by this genomic comparison. It also illustrates that the introduction of a transposon into the genome can have varied effects; either correlating with an increase in pathogenicity as in Francisella tularensis or a loss of pathogenicity as in R. peacockii and the recombination enabled by multiple transposon copies can cause significant deletions in some genomes while not in others.

  10. Iron – a key nexus in the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus eHaas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential but in excess toxic nutrient. Therefore, fungi evolved fine-tuned mechanisms for uptake and storage of iron, such as the production of siderophores (low-molecular mass iron-specific chelators. In Aspergillus fumigatus, iron starvation causes extensive transcriptional remodeling involving two central transcription factors, which are interconnected in a negative transcriptional feed-back loop: the GATA-factor SreA and the bZip-factor HapX. During iron sufficiency SreA represses iron uptake, including reductive iron assimilation and siderophore-mediated iron uptake, to avoid toxic effects. During iron starvation HapX represses iron-consuming pathways, including heme biosynthesis and respiration, to spare iron and activates synthesis of ribotoxin AspF1 and siderophores, the latter partly by ensuring supply of the precursor ornithine. In agreement with the expression pattern and mode of action, detrimental effects of inactivation of SreA and HapX are confined to growth during iron sufficiency and iron starvation, respectively. Deficiency in HapX, but not SreA, attenuates virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of aspergillosis, which underlines the crucial role of adaptation to iron limitation in virulence. Consistently, production of both extra- and intracellular siderophores is crucial for virulence of A. fumigatus. Recently, the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein SrbA was found to be essential for adaptation to iron starvation, thereby linking regulation of iron metabolism, ergosterol biosynthesis, azole drug resistance and hypoxia adaptation.

  11. Life history trade-offs and relaxed selection can decrease bacterial virulence in environmental reservoirs.

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    Lauri Mikonranta

    Full Text Available Pathogen virulence is usually thought to evolve in reciprocal selection with the host. While this might be true for obligate pathogens, the life histories of opportunistic pathogens typically alternate between within-host and outside-host environments during the infection-transmission cycle. As a result, opportunistic pathogens are likely to experience conflicting selection pressures across different environments, and this could affect their virulence through life-history trait correlations. We studied these correlations experimentally by exposing an opportunistic bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens to its natural protist predator Tetrahymena thermophila for 13 weeks, after which we measured changes in bacterial traits related to both anti-predator defence and virulence. We found that anti-predator adaptation (producing predator-resistant biofilm caused a correlative attenuation in virulence. Even though the direct mechanism was not found, reduction in virulence was most clearly connected to a predator-driven loss of a red bacterial pigment, prodigiosin. Moreover, life-history trait evolution was more divergent among replicate populations in the absence of predation, leading also to lowered virulence in some of the 'predator absent' selection lines. Together these findings suggest that the virulence of non-obligatory, opportunistic bacterial pathogens can decrease in environmental reservoirs through life history trade-offs, or random accumulation of mutations that impair virulence traits under relaxed selection.

  12. Systematic mutagenesis of genes encoding predicted autotransported proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei identifies factors mediating virulence in mice, net intracellular replication and a novel protein conferring serum resistance.

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    Natalie R Lazar Adler

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA. Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE. A single mutant (bpaC was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA, those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE, the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA. Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors

  13. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per

    2015-01-01

    the possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility...... of RNA sequencing. The visualization features can reveal notable, non-trivial allelic imbalance behavior over specific regions, such as exons. Conclusions: The software provides a complete framework to perform allelic imbalance analyses of aligned RNA sequencing data, from detection to visualization...

  14. Polyamines are essential for virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum despite evolutionary decay of polyamine biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroll, Casper; Christensen, Jens P; Christensen, Henrik; Pors, Susanne E; Thorndahl, Lotte; Jensen, Peter R; Olsen, John E; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2014-05-14

    Serovars of Salmonella enterica exhibit different host-specificities where some have broad host-ranges and others, like S. Gallinarum and S. Typhi, are host-specific for poultry and humans, respectively. With the recent availability of whole genome sequences it has been reported that host-specificity coincides with accumulation of pseudogenes, indicating adaptation of host-restricted serovars to their narrow niches. Polyamines are small cationic amines and in Salmonella they can be synthesized through two alternative pathways directly from l-ornithine to putrescine and from l-arginine via agmatine to putrescine. The first pathway is not active in S. Gallinarum and S. Typhi, and this prompted us to investigate the importance of polyamines for virulence in S. Gallinarum. Bioinformatic analysis of all sequenced genomes of Salmonella revealed that pseudogene formation of the speC gene was exclusive for S. Typhi and S. Gallinarum and happened through independent events. The remaining polyamine biosynthesis pathway was found to be essential for oral infection with S. Gallinarum since single and double mutants in speB and speE, encoding the pathways from agmatine to putrescine and from putrescine to spermidine, were attenuated. In contrast, speB was dispensable after intraperitoneal challenge, suggesting that putrescine was less important for the systemic phase of the disease. In support of this hypothesis, a ΔspeE;ΔpotCD mutant, unable to synthesize and import spermidine, but with retained ability to import and synthesize putrescine, was attenuated after intraperitoneal infection. We therefore conclude that polyamines are essential for virulence of S. Gallinarum. Furthermore, our results point to distinct roles for putrescine and spermidine during systemic infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid identification of ST131 Escherichia coli by a novel multiplex real-time allelic discrimination assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Fankhauser, Carolina; Baud, Damien; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 is increasingly described in severe hospital infections. We developed a rapid real-time allelic discrimination assay for the rapid identification of E. coli ST131 isolates. This rapid assay represents an affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies before completing characterization of potentially highly virulent isolates of E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast and efficient three-step target-specific curing of a virulence plasmid in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Marcos H; Teplitski, Max

    2015-12-01

    Virulence plasmids borne by serovars of Salmonella enterica carry genes involved in its pathogenicity, as well as other functions. Characterization of phenotypes associated with virulence plasmids requires a system for efficiently curing strains of their virulence plasmids. Here, we developed a 3-step protocol for targeted curing of virulence plasmids. The protocol involves insertion of an I-SecI restriction site linked to an antibiotic resistance gene into the target plasmid using λ-Red mutagenesis, followed by the transformation with a temperature-sensitive auxiliary plasmid which carries I-SecI nuclease expressed from a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Finally, the auxiliary plasmid is removed by incubation at 42 °C and the plasmid-less strains are verified on antibiotic-containing media. This method is fast and very efficient: over 90 % of recovered colonies lacked their virulence plasmid.

  17. Aureusimines in Staphylococcus aureus are not involved in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Li, Chunling; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2010-12-29

    Recently, dipeptide aureusimines were reported to activate expression of staphylococcal virulence genes, such as alpha-hemolysin, and increase S. aureus virulence. Surprisingly, most of the virulence genes affected by aureusimines form part of the regulon of the SaeRS two component system (TCS), raising the possibility that SaeRS might be directly or indirectly involved in the aureusimine-dependent signaling process. Using HPLC analyses, we confirmed that a transposon mutant of ausA, the gene encoding the aureusimine dipeptide synthesis enzyme, does not produce dipeptides. However, the transposon mutant showed normal hemolysis activity and alpha-hemolysin/SaeP production. Furthermore, the P1 promoter of the sae operon, one of the targets of the SaeRS TCS, showed normal transcription activity. Moreover, in contrast to the original report, the ausA transposon mutant did not exhibit attenuated virulence in an animal infection model. DNA sequencing revealed that the ausA deletion mutant used in the original study has an 83 nt-duplication in saeS. Hemolysis activity of the original mutant was restored by a plasmid carrying the sae operon. A mutant of the sae operon showed elevated resistance to chloramphenicol and erythromycin, two antibiotics widely used during staphylococcal mutagenesis. At 43°C in the presence of erythromycin and aeration, the conditions typically employed for staphylococcal mutagenesis, an saeR transposon mutant grew much faster than a control mutant and the saeR mutant was highly enriched in a mixed culture experiment. Our results show that the previously reported roles of aureusimines in staphylococcal gene regulation and virulence were due to an unintended mutation in saeS, which was likely selected due to elevated resistance of the mutant to environmental stresses. Thus, there is no evidence indicating that the dipeptide aureusimines play a role in sae-mediated virulence factor production or contribute to staphylococcal virulence.

  18. Aureusimines in Staphylococcus aureus are not involved in virulence.

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    Fei Sun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, dipeptide aureusimines were reported to activate expression of staphylococcal virulence genes, such as alpha-hemolysin, and increase S. aureus virulence. Surprisingly, most of the virulence genes affected by aureusimines form part of the regulon of the SaeRS two component system (TCS, raising the possibility that SaeRS might be directly or indirectly involved in the aureusimine-dependent signaling process.Using HPLC analyses, we confirmed that a transposon mutant of ausA, the gene encoding the aureusimine dipeptide synthesis enzyme, does not produce dipeptides. However, the transposon mutant showed normal hemolysis activity and alpha-hemolysin/SaeP production. Furthermore, the P1 promoter of the sae operon, one of the targets of the SaeRS TCS, showed normal transcription activity. Moreover, in contrast to the original report, the ausA transposon mutant did not exhibit attenuated virulence in an animal infection model. DNA sequencing revealed that the ausA deletion mutant used in the original study has an 83 nt-duplication in saeS. Hemolysis activity of the original mutant was restored by a plasmid carrying the sae operon. A mutant of the sae operon showed elevated resistance to chloramphenicol and erythromycin, two antibiotics widely used during staphylococcal mutagenesis. At 43°C in the presence of erythromycin and aeration, the conditions typically employed for staphylococcal mutagenesis, an saeR transposon mutant grew much faster than a control mutant and the saeR mutant was highly enriched in a mixed culture experiment.Our results show that the previously reported roles of aureusimines in staphylococcal gene regulation and virulence were due to an unintended mutation in saeS, which was likely selected due to elevated resistance of the mutant to environmental stresses. Thus, there is no evidence indicating that the dipeptide aureusimines play a role in sae-mediated virulence factor production or contribute to staphylococcal

  19. Development of allele-specific multiplex PCR to determine the length of poly-T in intron 8 of CFTR

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    Neng Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene mutation analysis has been implemented for Cystic Fibrosis (CF carrier screening, and molecular diagnosis of CF and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Although poly-T allele analysis in intron 8 of CFTR is required when a patient is positive for R117H, it is not recommended for routine carrier screening. Therefore, commercial kits for CFTR mutation analysis were designed either to mask the poly-T allele results, unless a patient is R117H positive, or to have the poly-T analysis as a standalone reflex test using the same commercial platform. There are other standalone assays developed to detect poly-T alleles, such as heteroduplex analysis, High Resolution Melting (HRM curve analysis, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR and Sanger sequencing. In this report, we developed a simple and easy-to-implement multiplex AS-PCR assay using unlabeled standard length primers, which can be used as a reflex or standalone test for CFTR poly-T track analysis. Out of 115 human gDNA samples tested, results from our new AS-PCR matched to the previous known poly-T results or results from Sanger sequencing.

  20. Use of bacteriophage to target bacterial surface structures required for virulence: a systematic search for antibiotic alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    Bacteriophages (phage) that infect pathogenic bacteria often attach to surface receptors that are coincidentally required for virulence. Receptor loss or modification through mutation renders mutants both attenuated and phage resistant. Such attenuated mutants frequently have no apparent laboratory growth defects, but in the host, they fail to exhibit properties needed to produce disease such as mucosal colonization or survival within professional phagocytic cells. The connection between attenuation and phage resistance has been exploited in experimental demonstrations of phage therapy. In such experiments, phage resistant mutants that arise naturally during therapy are inconsequential because of their attenuated status. A more contemporary approach to exploiting this connection involves identifying small effector molecules, identified in high-throughput screens, that inhibit one or more of the steps needed to produce a functioning phage receptor. Since such biosynthetic steps are unique to bacteria, inhibitors can be utilized therapeutically, in lieu of antibiotics. Also, since the inhibitor is specific to a particular bacterium or group of bacteria, no off-target resistance is generated in the host's commensal bacterial population. This brief review covers examples of how mutations that confer phage resistance produce attenuation, and how this coincidental relationship can be exploited in the search for the next generation of therapeutic agents for bacterial diseases.

  1. [Molecular authentication of Jinyinhua formula granule by using allele-specific PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Tu, Li-Chan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Jin, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Traditional authentication method is hard to identify herb's authenticity of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formula granules because they have lost all their morphological characteristics. In this study, a new allele-specific PCR method was established for identifying the authentication of Jinyinhua formula granule (made from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos) based on an SNP site in trnL-trnF fragment. Genomic DNA was successfully extracted from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and its formula granules by using an improved spin column method and then PCR was performed with the designed primer. Approximately 110 bp specific bands was obtained only in the authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and its formula granules, while no bands were found in fake mixed products. In addition, the PCR product sequence was proved from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos trnL-trnF sequence by using BLAST method. Therefore, DNA molecular authentication method could make up the limitations of character identification method and microscopic identification, and quickly identify herb's authenticity of TCM formula granules, with enormous potential for market supervision and quality control. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Role of the B Allele of Influenza A Virus Segment 8 in Setting Mammalian Host Range and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Matthew L; Wise, Helen M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Smith, Nikki; Dunfee, Rebecca L; Beard, Philippa M; Jagger, Brett W; Ligertwood, Yvonne; Hardisty, Gareth R; Xiao, Haixia; Benton, Donald J; Coburn, Alice M; Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P; McCauley, John W; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Lycett, Samantha J; Weekes, Michael P; Dutia, Bernadette M; Digard, Paul

    2016-10-15

    Two alleles of segment 8 (NS) circulate in nonchiropteran influenza A viruses. The A allele is found in avian and mammalian viruses, but the B allele is viewed as being almost exclusively found in avian viruses. This might reflect the fact that one or both of its encoded proteins (NS1 and NEP) are maladapted for replication in mammalian hosts. To test this, a number of clade A and B avian virus-derived NS segments were introduced into human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. In no case was the peak virus titer substantially reduced following infection of various mammalian cell types. Exemplar reassortant viruses also replicated to similar titers in mice, although mice infected with viruses with the avian virus-derived segment 8s had reduced weight loss compared to that achieved in mice infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) parent. In vitro, the viruses coped similarly with type I interferons. Temporal proteomics analysis of cellular responses to infection showed that the avian virus-derived NS segments provoked lower levels of expression of interferon-stimulated genes in cells than wild type-derived NS segments. Thus, neither the A nor the B allele of avian virus-derived NS segments necessarily attenuates virus replication in a mammalian host, although the alleles can attenuate disease. Phylogenetic analyses identified 32 independent incursions of an avian virus-derived A allele into mammals, whereas 6 introductions of a B allele were identified. However, A-allele isolates from birds outnumbered B-allele isolates, and the relative rates of Aves-to-Mammalia transmission were not significantly different. We conclude that while the introduction of an avian virus segment 8 into mammals is a relatively rare event, the dogma of the B allele being especially restricted is misleading, with implications in the assessment of the pandemic potential of avian influenza viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) can adapt to poultry and mammalian species, inflicting a great socioeconomic

  3. Deletion analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae late competence genes distinguishes virulence determinants that are dependent or independent of competence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Luchang; Lin, Jingjun; Kuang, Zhizhou; Vidal, Jorge E; Lau, Gee W

    2015-07-01

    The competence regulon of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is crucial for genetic transformation. During competence development, the alternative sigma factor ComX is activated, which in turn, initiates transcription of 80 'late' competence genes. Interestingly, only 16 late genes are essential for genetic transformation. We hypothesized that these late genes that are dispensable for competence are beneficial to pneumococcal fitness during infection. These late genes were systematically deleted, and the resulting mutants were examined for their fitness during mouse models of bacteremia and acute pneumonia. Among these, 14 late genes were important for fitness in mice. Significantly, deletion of some late genes attenuated pneumococcal fitness to the same level in both wild-type and ComX-null genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the constitutive baseline expression of these genes was important for bacterial fitness. In contrast, some mutants were attenuated only in the wild-type genetic background but not in the ComX-null background, suggesting that specific expression of these genes during competence state contributed to pneumococcal fitness. Increased virulence during competence state was partially caused by the induction of allolytic enzymes that enhanced pneumolysin release. These results distinguish the role of basal expression versus competence induction in virulence functions encoded by ComX-regulated late competence genes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of pre-existing MSP142-allele specific immunity on potency of an erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann-Leitner Elke S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 is the major surface protein on merozoites and a prime candidate for a blood stage malaria vaccine. Preclinical and seroepidemiological studies have implicated antibodies to MSP1 in protection against blood stage parasitaemia and/or reduced parasite densities, respectively. Malaria endemic areas have multiple strains of Plasmodium falciparum circulating at any given time, giving rise to complex immune responses, an issue which is generally not addressed in clinical trials conducted in non-endemic areas. A lack of understanding of the effect of pre-existing immunity to heterologous parasite strains may significantly contribute to vaccine failure in the field. The purpose of this study was to model the effect of pre-existing immunity to MSP142 on the immunogenicity of blood-stage malaria vaccines based on alternative MSP1 alleles. Methods Inbred and outbred mice were immunized with various recombinant P. falciparum MSP142 proteins that represent the two major alleles of MSP142, MAD20 (3D7 and Wellcome (K1, FVO. Humoral immune responses were analysed by ELISA and LuminexTM, and functional activity of induced MSP142-specific antibodies was assessed by growth inhibition assays. T-cell responses were characterized using ex vivo ELISpot assays. Results Analysis of the immune responses induced by various immunization regimens demonstrated a strong allele-specific response at the T cell level in both inbred and outbred mice. The success of heterologous regimens depended on the degree of homology of the N-terminal p33 portion of the MSP142, likely due to the fact that most T cell epitopes reside in this part of the molecule. Analysis of humoral immune responses revealed a marked cross-reactivity between the alleles. Functional analyses showed that some of the heterologous regimens induced antibodies with improved growth inhibitory activities. Conclusion The development of a more broadly efficacious MSP1 based vaccine may be

  5. Allele-specific marker generation and linkage mapping on the Xiphophorus sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcock, B; Kazianis, S; Lucito, R; Walter, R B; Kallman, K D; Morizot, D C; Vielkind, J R

    2006-01-01

    There is great interest in the sex chromosomes of Xiphophorus fishes because both WY/YY and XX/XY sex-determining mechanisms function in these species, with at least one taxon possessing all three types of sex chromosomes, and because in certain interspecific hybrids melanoma arises as a consequence of inheritance of the sex-linked macromelanophore determining locus (MDL). Representational difference analysis (RDA) has been used to clone two sequences from the sex-determining region of X. maculatus, including a cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta polypeptide (CHRND) orthologue. Allele-specific assays for these sequences, as well as for the sex-linked XMRK1 and XMRK2 genes, were developed to distinguish W, X, and Y chromosomes derived from a X. maculatus (XX/XY) strain and a X. helleri (WY/YY) strain. Linkage mapping localized these markers to linkage group (LG) 24. No recombinants were observed between XMRK2 and MDL, confirming a role for XMRK2 in macromelanophore development. Although the master sex-determining (SD) locus certainly resides on Xiphophorus LG 24, autosomal loci are probably involved in sex determination as well, as indicated by the abnormal sex ratios in the backcross hybrids that contrast theoretical predictions based on LG 24 genotyping. Marker development and allelic discrimination on the Xiphophorus sex chromosomes should prove highly useful for studies that utilize this genus as an animal model.

  6. Differences in genotype and virulence among four multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates belonging to the PMEN1 clone.

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    N Luisa Hiller

    Full Text Available We report on the comparative genomics and characterization of the virulence phenotypes of four S. pneumoniae strains that belong to the multidrug resistant clone PMEN1 (Spain(23F ST81. Strains SV35-T23 and SV36-T3 were recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of patients at an AIDS hospice in New York. Strain SV36-T3 expressed capsule type 3 which is unusual for this clone and represents the product of an in vivo capsular switch event. A third PMEN1 isolate - PN4595-T23 - was recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of a child attending day care in Portugal, and a fourth strain - ATCC700669 - was originally isolated from a patient with pneumococcal disease in Spain in 1984. We compared the genomes among four PMEN1 strains and 47 previously sequenced pneumococcal isolates for gene possession differences and allelic variations within core genes. In contrast to the 47 strains - representing a variety of clonal types - the four PMEN1 strains grouped closely together, demonstrating high genomic conservation within this lineage relative to the rest of the species. In the four PMEN1 strains allelic and gene possession differences were clustered into 18 genomic regions including the capsule, the blp bacteriocins, erythromycin resistance, the MM1-2008 prophage and multiple cell wall anchored proteins. In spite of their genomic similarity, the high resolution chinchilla model was able to detect variations in virulence properties of the PMEN1 strains highlighting how small genic or allelic variation can lead to significant changes in pathogenicity and making this set of strains ideal for the identification of novel virulence determinants.

  7. Coordinated zinc homeostasis is essential for the wild-type virulence of Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lauren M; Budnick, James A; Roop, R Martin; Caswell, Clayton C

    2015-05-01

    Metal homeostasis in bacterial cells is a highly regulated process requiring intricately coordinated import and export, as well as precise sensing of intracellular metal concentrations. The uptake of zinc (Zn) has been linked to the virulence of Brucella abortus; however, the capacity of Brucella strains to sense Zn levels and subsequently coordinate Zn homeostasis has not been described. Here, we show that expression of the genes encoding the zinc uptake system ZnuABC is negatively regulated by the Zn-sensing Fur family transcriptional regulator, Zur, by direct interactions between Zur and the promoter region of znuABC. Moreover, the MerR-type regulator, ZntR, controls the expression of the gene encoding the Zn exporter ZntA by binding directly to its promoter. Deletion of zur or zntR alone did not result in increased zinc toxicity in the corresponding mutants; however, deletion of zntA led to increased sensitivity to Zn but not to other metals, such as Cu and Ni, suggesting that ZntA is a Zn-specific exporter. Strikingly, deletion of zntR resulted in significant attenuation of B. abortus in a mouse model of chronic infection, and subsequent experiments revealed that overexpression of zntA in the zntR mutant is the molecular basis for its decreased virulence. The importance of zinc uptake for Brucella pathogenesis has been demonstrated previously, but to date, there has been no description of how overall zinc homeostasis is maintained and genetically controlled in the brucellae. The present work defines the predominant zinc export system, as well as the key genetic regulators of both zinc uptake and export in Brucella abortus. Moreover, the data show the importance of precise coordination of the zinc homeostasis systems as disregulation of some elements of these systems leads to the attenuation of Brucella virulence in a mouse model. Overall, this study advances our understanding of the essential role of zinc in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacteria

  8. Kinetic characterisation of primer mismatches in allele-specific PCR: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Christy M; Eisenthal, Robert; Cobb, Benjamin D

    2002-12-20

    A novel method of estimating the kinetic parameters of Taq DNA polymerase during rapid cycle PCR is presented. A model was constructed using a simplified sigmoid function to represent substrate accumulation during PCR in combination with the general equation describing high substrate inhibition for Michaelis-Menten enzymes. The PCR progress curve was viewed as a series of independent reactions where initial rates were accurately measured for each cycle. Kinetic parameters were obtained for allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) amplification to examine the effect of mismatches on amplification. A high degree of correlation was obtained providing evidence of substrate inhibition as a major cause of the plateau phase that occurs in the later cycles of PCR.

  9. siRNA-mediated Allele-specific Silencing of a COL6A3 Mutation in a Cellular Model of Dominant Ullrich Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bolduc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD is a severe disorder of early childhood onset for which currently there is no effective treatment. UCMD commonly is caused by dominant-negative mutations in the genes coding for collagen type VI, a major microfibrillar component of the extracellular matrix surrounding the muscle fibers. To explore RNA interference (RNAi as a potential therapy for UCMD, we designed a series of small interfering RNA (siRNA oligos that specifically target the most common mutations resulting in skipping of exon 16 in the COL6A3 gene and tested them in UCMD-derived dermal fibroblasts. Transcript analysis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that two of these siRNAs were the most allele-specific, i.e., they efficiently knocked down the expression from the mutant allele, without affecting the normal allele. In HEK293T cells, these siRNAs selectively suppressed protein expression from a reporter construct carrying the mutation, with no or minimal suppression of the wild-type (WT construct, suggesting that collagen VI protein levels are as also reduced in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we found that treating UCMD fibroblasts with these siRNAs considerably improved the quantity and quality of the collagen VI matrix, as assessed by confocal microscopy. Our current study establishes RNAi as a promising molecular approach for treating dominant COL6-related dystrophies.

  10. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Bowden, Timothy R; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in Africa and Asia. Currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. However, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy skin disease (LSD) the vaccine can cause clinical disease. In order to develop safer vaccines effective against all three diseases, a pathogenic strain of LSDV (Warmbaths [WB], South Africa) was attenuated by removing a putative virulence factor gene (IL-10-like) using gene knockout (KO) technology. This construct (LSDV WB005KO) was then evaluated as a vaccine for sheep and goats against virulent capripoxvirus challenge. Sheep and goats were vaccinated with the construct and the animals were observed for 21days. The vaccine appeared to be safe, and did not cause disease, although it induced minor inflammation at the injection site similar to that caused by other attenuated sheep and goat pox vaccines. In addition, no virus replication was detected in blood, oral or nasal swabs using real-time PCR following vaccination and low levels of neutralising antibodies were detected in both sheep and goats. Leukocytes isolated from vaccinated animals following vaccination elicited capripoxvirus-specific IFN-γ secretion, suggesting that immunity was also T-cell mediated. Following challenge with virulent capripoxvirus, vaccinated sheep and goats were found to be completely protected and exhibited no clinical disease. Furthermore, real-time PCR of blood samples at various time points suggested that viremia was absent in both groups of vaccinated animals, as opposed to capripoxvirus-related clinical disease and viremia observed in the unvaccinated animals. These findings suggest that this

  11. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane; Demangel, Caroline; Van Ingen, Jakko; Perez, Jorge; Baldeó n, Lucy R.; Abdallah, Abdallah; Caleechurn, Laxmee; Bottai, Daria; Van Zon, Maaike; De Punder, Karin; Van Der Laan, Tridia; Kant, Arie; Bossers-De Vries, Ruth; Willemsen, Peter Th J; Bitter, Wilbert M.; Van Soolingen, Dick; Brosch, Roland; Van Der Wel, Nicole N.; Peters, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane

    2012-05-08

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Inactivation of the Ecs ABC transporter of Staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence by altering composition and function of bacterial wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Marie Jonsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecs is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter present in aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-positive Firmicutes. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Ecs causes pleiotropic changes in the bacterial phenotype including inhibition of intramembrane proteolysis. The molecule(s transported by Ecs is (are still unknown.In this study we mutated the ecsAB operon in two Staphylococcus aureus strains, Newman and LS-1. Phenotypic and functional characterization of these Ecs deficient mutants revealed a defect in growth, increased autolysis and lysostaphin sensitivity, altered composition of cell wall proteins including the precursor form of staphylokinase and an altered bacterial surface texture. DNA microarray analysis indicated that the Ecs deficiency changed expression of the virulence factor regulator protein Rot accompanied by differential expression of membrane transport proteins, particularly ABC transporters and phosphate-specific transport systems, protein A, adhesins and capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis proteins. Virulence of the ecs mutants was studied in a mouse model of hematogenous S. aureus infection. Mice inoculated with the ecs mutant strains developed markedly milder infections than those inoculated with the wild-type strains and had consequently lower mortality, less weight loss, milder arthritis and decreased persistence of staphylococci in the kidneys. The ecs mutants had higher susceptibility to ribosomal antibiotics and plant alkaloids chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Our results show that Ecs is essential for staphylococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance probably since the transport function of Ecs is essential for the normal structure and function of the cell wall. Thus targeting Ecs may be a new approach in combating staphylococcal infection.

  14. Inactivation of the Ecs ABC transporter of Staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence by altering composition and function of bacterial wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Juuti, Jarmo T; François, Patrice; AlMajidi, Rana; Pietiäinen, Milla; Girard, Myriam; Lindholm, Catharina; Saller, Manfred J; Driessen, Arnold J M; Kuusela, Pentti; Bokarewa, Maria; Schrenzel, Jacques; Kontinen, Vesa P

    2010-12-02

    Ecs is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-positive Firmicutes. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Ecs causes pleiotropic changes in the bacterial phenotype including inhibition of intramembrane proteolysis. The molecule(s) transported by Ecs is (are) still unknown. In this study we mutated the ecsAB operon in two Staphylococcus aureus strains, Newman and LS-1. Phenotypic and functional characterization of these Ecs deficient mutants revealed a defect in growth, increased autolysis and lysostaphin sensitivity, altered composition of cell wall proteins including the precursor form of staphylokinase and an altered bacterial surface texture. DNA microarray analysis indicated that the Ecs deficiency changed expression of the virulence factor regulator protein Rot accompanied by differential expression of membrane transport proteins, particularly ABC transporters and phosphate-specific transport systems, protein A, adhesins and capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis proteins. Virulence of the ecs mutants was studied in a mouse model of hematogenous S. aureus infection. Mice inoculated with the ecs mutant strains developed markedly milder infections than those inoculated with the wild-type strains and had consequently lower mortality, less weight loss, milder arthritis and decreased persistence of staphylococci in the kidneys. The ecs mutants had higher susceptibility to ribosomal antibiotics and plant alkaloids chelerythrine and sanguinarine. Our results show that Ecs is essential for staphylococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance probably since the transport function of Ecs is essential for the normal structure and function of the cell wall. Thus targeting Ecs may be a new approach in combating staphylococcal infection.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins in virulence and immunity - fighting with a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katja; Sander, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are secreted membrane-anchored proteins characterized by a lipobox motif. This lipobox motif directs post-translational modifications at the conserved cysteine through the consecutive action of three enzymes: Lgt, LspA and Lnt, which results in di- or triacylated forms. Lipoproteins are abundant in all bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and often involved in virulence and immunoregulatory processes. On the one hand, disruption of the biosynthesis pathway of lipoproteins leads to attenuation of M. tuberculosis in vivo, and mycobacteria deficient for certain lipoproteins have been assessed as attenuated live vaccine candidates. On the other hand, several mycobacterial lipoproteins form immunodominant antigens which promote an immune response. Some of these have been explored in DNA or subunit vaccination approaches against tuberculosis. The immune recognition of specific lipoproteins, however, might also benefit long-term survival of M. tuberculosis through immune modulation, while others induce protective responses. Exploiting lipoproteins as vaccines is thus a complex matter which requires deliberative investigation. The dual role of lipoproteins in the immunity to and pathogenicity of mycobacteria is discussed here. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Data in support of quantitative proteomics to identify potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Keiji Tashima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides genus are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Few virulence factors have been identified in these fungi. This paper describes support data from the quantitative proteomics of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis attenuated and virulent isolates [1]. The protein compositions of two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles were quantitatively assessed by stable isotopic dimethyl labeling and proteomic analysis. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with identifier PXD000804.

  17. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop-out...... of true alleles is possible. As part of the validation of the IrisPlex assay in our ISO17025 accredited, forensic genetic laboratory, we estimated the probability of drop-out of specific SNP alleles using 29 and 30 PCR cycles and 25, 50 and 100 Single Base Extension (SBE) cycles. We observed no drop-out...... when the amount of DNA was greater than 125 pg for 29 cycles of PCR and greater than 62 pg for 30 cycles of PCR. With the use of a logistic regression model, we estimated the allele specific probability of drop-out in heterozygote systems based on the signal strength of the observed allele...

  18. Infrequent detection of germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 in lymphoblasts and tissues of colon cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Guda, Kishore

    2009-06-15

    Recently, germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the gene encoding for transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TGFBR1) has been proposed to be a major risk factor for cancer predisposition in the colon. Germline ASE results in a lowered expression of one of the TGFBR1 alleles (>1.5-fold), and was shown to occur in approximately 20% of informative familial and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the present study, using the highly quantitative pyrosequencing technique, we estimated the frequency of ASE in TGFBR1 in a cohort of affected individuals from familial clusters of advanced colon neoplasias (cancers and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia), and also from a cohort of individuals with sporadic CRCs. Cases were considered positive for the presence of ASE if demonstrating an allelic expression ratio <0.67 or >1.5. Using RNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines, we find that of 46 informative Caucasian advanced colon neoplasia cases with a family history, only 2 individuals display a modest ASE, with allelic ratios of 1.65 and 1.73, respectively. Given that ASE of TGFBR1, if present, would likely be more pronounced in the colon compared with other tissues, we additionally determined the allele ratios of TGFBR1 in the RNA derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of sporadic CRC cases. We, however, found no evidence of ASE in any of 44 informative sporadic cases analyzed. Taken together, we find that germline ASE of TGFBR1, as assayed in lymphoblastoid and colon epithelial cells of colon cancer patients, is a relatively rare event.

  19. A pilot study on interaction between donkey tetherin and EIAV stains with different virulent and replication characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiucheng; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Guo, Miaomiao; Li, Yanfei; Wang, Xiaojun

    2017-05-01

    Tetherin (BST-2) is an important host restriction factor that can inhibit the release of a diverse array of enveloped viruses from infected cells. Conversely, to facilitate their release and spread, many viruses have evolved various strategies to overcome the antiviral effect of tetherin in a species-specific manner. During the development of an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine in our laboratory, we found that serial passage of a field-isolated virulent EIAV strains in horse and donkey as well as the cultivated donkey cells, produces several typical EIAV strains, including EIAV DV , EIAV DLV , and EIAV FDDV , which exhibit distinct virulence and replication features in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of host restriction factors in EIAV evolution during the serial passage is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate whether these newly generated strains adapt differently to donkey tetherin (do-tetherin) based on their virulence. We found that do-tetherin exerts an inhibition on the release of the viral particles produced by all three strains, albeit with varying intensity: EIAV DV   EIAV DLV  > EIAV FDDV . These results indicate that donkey tetherin is involved in shaping of EIAV evolution during serial passage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific β-turns precede PPIIL structures binding to allele-specific HLA-DRβ1* PBRs in fully-protective malaria vaccine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Adriana; Alba, Martha P.; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2018-04-01

    The 3D structural analysis of 62 peptides derived from highly pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite proteins involved in host cell invasion led to finding a striking association between particular β-turn types located in the N-terminal peripheral flanking residue region (preceding the polyproline II left-handed structures fitting into the HLA-DRβ* allele family) and modified immune protection-inducing protein structure induced long-lasting protective immunity. This is the first time association between two different secondary structures associated with a specific immunological function has been described: full, long-lasting protective immunity.

  1. Construction of a Streptococcus agalactiae phoB mutant and evaluation of its potential as an attenuated modified live vaccine in golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaohui; Wang, Bei; Peng, Yinhui; Li, Yuan; Lu, Yishan; Huang, Yucong; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive pathogen that can survive inside professional phagocytes and nonphagocytic cells to cause septicemia and meningoencephalitis in freshwater and marine fish. However, vaccines based on extracellular products (ECP) and formalin-killed whole S. agalactiae cells, as well as subunit vaccine are unable to protect fish from infection by variant serotypes S. agalactiae. The search for live attenuated vaccine with highly conserved and virulent-related genes is essential for producing a vaccine to help understand and control streptococcosis In this study, the phoB gene was cloned from pathogenic S. agalactiae TOS01 strain and the mutant strain SAΔphoB was constructed via allelic exchange mutagenesis. The results showed that the deduced amino acid of S. agalactiae TOS01 shares high similarities with other Streptococcus spp. and has high conserved response regulator receiver domain (REC) and DNA-binding effector domain of two-component system response regulators (Trans_reg_C). Cell adherence and invasion assays, challenge experiments and histopathological changes post-vaccination were performed and observed, the results showed that the mutant strain SAΔphoB has a lower adherence and invasion rate and less virulent than the wild type strain in golden pompano, and it doesn't induce clinical symptoms and obvious pathological changes in golden pompano, thereby indicating that the deletion of phoB affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. agalactiae. Golden pompano vaccinated via intraperitoneal injection SAΔphoB had the relative percent survival value of 93.1% after challenge with TOS01, demonstrating its high potential as an effective attenuated live vaccine candidate. Real-time PCR assays showed that the SAΔphoB was able to enhance the expression of immune-related genes, including MHC-I, MyD88, IL-22 and IL-10 after vaccination, indicating that the SAΔphoB is able to induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response

  2. Substitutions at residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein serve as the minimal determinant of attenuation for canine parvovirus vaccine strain 9985-46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Morimasa; Takahashi, Takuo; Kainuma, Risa; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Oshima, Sho; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells. Using an infectious molecular clone system, we constructed isogenic CPVs of the parental virulent 9985 strain carrying single or double mutations. We observed that only a single amino acid substitution in VP2, G300V or T389N, attenuated the virulent parental virus. Combinations of these mutations further attenuated CPV to a level comparable to that of 9985-46. Strains with G300V/T389N substitutions did not induce clinical symptoms in experimentally infected pups, and their ability to infect canine cells was highly restricted. We found that another G300V/V562L double mutation decreased affinity of the virus for canine cells, although its pathogenicity to dogs was maintained. These results indicate that mutation of residue 300, which plays a critical role in host tropism, is not sufficient for viral attenuation in vivo, and that attenuation of 9985-46 strain is defined by at least two mutations in residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein. This finding is relevant for quality control of the vaccine and provides insight into the rational design of second-generation live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  3. Comparative proteome analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae strains from cultured tilapia with different virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Su, You-Lu; Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2014-05-14

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen, which causes significant morbidity and mortality among numerous fish species, and results in huge economic losses to aquaculture. Many S. agalactiae strains showing different virulence characteristics have been isolated from infected tilapia in different geographical regions throughout South China in the recent years, including natural attenuated S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and virulent S. agalactiae strain THN0901. In the present study, survival of tilapia challenged with S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and THN0901 (10(7)CFU/fish) were 93.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Moreover, there are severe lesions of the examined tissues in tilapia infected with strain THN0901, but no significant histopathological changes were observed in tilapia infected with the strain TFJ0901. In order to elucidate the factors responsible for the invasive potential of S. agalactiae between two strains TFJ0901 and THN0901, a comparative proteome analysis was applied to identify the different protein expression profiles between the two strains. 506 and 508 cellular protein spots of S. agalactiae TFJ0901 and THN0901 were separated by two dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. And 34 strain-specific spots, corresponding to 27 proteins, were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Among them, 23 proteins presented exclusively in S. agalactiae TFJ0901 or THN0901, and the other 4 proteins presented in different isomeric forms between TFJ0901 and THN0901. Most of the strain-specific proteins were just involved in metabolic pathways, while 7 of them were presumed to be responsible for the virulence differences of S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and THN0901, including molecular chaperone DnaJ, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, thioredoxin, manganese-dependent inorganic pyrophosphatase, elongation factor Tu, bleomycin resistance protein and cell division protein DivIVA. These virulence-associated proteins may contribute to identify new

  4. Yersinia Virulence Depends on Mimicry of Host Rho-Family Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehna,G.; Ivanov, M.; Blisha, J.; Stebbins, C.

    2006-01-01

    Yersinia spp. cause gastroenteritis and the plague, representing historically devastating pathogens that are currently an important biodefense and antibiotic resistance concern. A critical virulence determinant is the Yersinia protein kinase A, or YpkA, a multidomain protein that disrupts the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton. Here we solve the crystal structure of a YpkA-Rac1 complex and find that YpkA possesses a Rac1 binding domain that mimics host guanidine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) of the Rho GTPases. YpkA inhibits nucleotide exchange in Rac1 and RhoA, and mutations that disrupt the YpkA-GTPase interface abolish this activity in vitro and impair in vivo YpkA-induced cytoskeletal disruption. In cell culture experiments, the kinase and the GDI domains of YpkA act synergistically to promote cytoskeletal disruption, and a Y. pseudotuberculosis mutant lacking YpkA GDI activity shows attenuated virulence in a mouse infection assay. We conclude that virulence in Yersinia depends strongly upon mimicry of host GDI proteins by YpkA.

  5. Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Competition and Endocarditis Virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Chen, Lei; Chen, Weihua; Elrami, Fadi; Kong, Fanxiang; Kitten, Todd; Xu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report for the first time that the Streptococcus sanguinis nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in both competition with Streptococcus mutans and virulence for infective endocarditis. An S. sanguinis nox mutant was found to fail to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans under microaerobic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, the recombinant Nox protein of S. sanguinis could reduce oxygen to water and oxidize NADH to NAD(+) The oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) was diminished in the nox mutant. The nox mutant exhibited decreased levels of extracellular H2O2; however, the intracellular level of H2O2 in the mutant was increased. Furthermore, the virulence of the nox mutant was attenuated in a rabbit endocarditis model. The nox mutant also was shown to be more sensitive to blood killing, oxidative and acid stresses, and reduced growth in serum. Thus, NADH oxidase contributes to multiple phenotypes related to competitiveness in the oral cavity and systemic virulence. Copyright © 2016 Ge et al.

  6. Use of signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify virulence determinants in Haemophilus ducreyi responsible for ulcer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Angela; Cameron, D William; Desjardins, Marc; Lee, B Craig

    2011-02-01

    Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for chancroid, a genital ulcer disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, has been hampered in part by the relative genetic intractability of the organism. A whole genome screen using signature-tagged mutagenesis in the temperature-dependent rabbit model (TDRM) of H. ducreyi infection uncovered 26 mutants with a presumptive attenuated phenotype. Insertions in two previously recognized virulence determinants, hgbA and lspA1, validated this genome scanning technique. Database interrogation allowed assignment of 24 mutants to several functional classes, including transport, metabolism, DNA repair, stress response and gene regulation. The attenuated virulence for a 3 strain with a mutation in hicB was confirmed by individual infection in the TDRM. The results from this preliminary study indicate that this high throughput strategy will further the understanding of the pathogenesis of H. ducreyi infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rin4 causes hybrid necrosis and race-specific resistance in an interspecific lettuce hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J W; Zhang, Ningwen W; McHale, Leah K; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E

    2009-10-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.

  8. Type IV pili in Francisella – A virulence trait in an intracellular pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie eNäslund Salomonsson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular human pathogen that is capable of rapid proliferation in the infected host. Mutants affected in intracellular survival and growth are highly attenuated which highlights the importance of the intracellular phase of the infection. Genomic analysis has revealed that Francisella encodes all genes required for expression of functional type IV pili (Tfp, and in this focused review we summarise recent findings regarding this system in the pathogenesis of tularemia. Tfp are dynamic adhesive structures that have been identified as major virulence determinants in several human pathogens, but it is not obvious what role these structures could have in an intracellular pathogen like Francisella. In the human pathogenic strains, genes required for secretion and assembly of Tfp and one pilin, PilA, have shown to be required for full virulence. Importantly, specific genetic differences have been identified between the different Francisella subspecies where in the most pathogenic type A variants all genes are intact while several Tfp genes are pseudogenes in the less pathogenic type B strains. This suggests that there has been a selection for expression of Tfp with different properties in the different subspecies. There is also a possibility that the genetic differences reflect adaption to different environmental niches of the subspecies and plays a role in transmission of tularemia. This is also in line with recent findings where Tfp pilins are found to be glycosylated which could reflect a role for Tfp in the environment to promote survival and transmission. We are still far from understanding the role of Tfp in virulence and transmission of tularemia, but with the genomic information and genetic tools available we are in a good position to address these issues in the future.

  9. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Comparison between African and French Invasive Isolates and Implication for Future Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Blumental

    Full Text Available Many surface proteins thought to promote Streptocococcus pneumoniae virulence have recently been discovered and are currently being considered as future vaccine targets. We assessed the prevalence of 16 virulence genes among 435 S. pneumoniae invasive isolates from France and the "African meningitis belt" region, with particular focus on serotype 1 (Sp1, to compare their geographical distribution, assess their association with site of infection and evaluate their potential interest as new vaccine candidates.Detection by PCR of pspA (+families, pspC (+pspC.4, pavA, lytA, phtA,B,D,E, nanA,B,C, rrgA (Pilus-1, sipA (Pilus-2, pcpA and psrp was performed on all isolates, as well as antibiotic resistance testing and MLVA typing (+MLST on 54 representative strains. Determination of ply alleles was performed by sequencing (Sp1 isolates.MLVA and virulence genes profiles segregated Sp1 isolates into 2 groups that followed continent distribution. The ply allele 5 and most of the genes that were variable (nanC, Pilus-2, psrp, pcpA, phtD were present in the French Sp1 isolates (PMEN clone Sweden(1-28, ST306 but absent from the African ones. Whereas all African Sp1 isolates clustered into a single MLST CC (CC217, MLVA distinguished two CCs that followed temporal evolution. Pilus-2 and psrp were more prevalent in bacteraemic pneumonia yielded isolates and phtB in meningitis-related isolates. Considering vaccine candidates, phtD was less prevalent than anticipated (50% and pcpA varied importantly between France and Africa (98% versus 34%. Pilus-1 was carried by 7-11% of isolates and associated with β-lactams resistance.Most virulence genes were carried by the European ST306 clone but were lacking on Sp1 isolates circulating in the African meningitis belt, where a more serious pattern of infection is observed. While virulence proteins are now considered as vaccine targets, the geographical differences in their prevalence could affect the efficacy expected from

  10. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-10-31

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  11. The non-conserved region of MRP is involved in the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Fu, Yang; Ma, Caifeng; He, Yanan; Yu, Yanfei; Du, Dechao; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-10-03

    Muramidase-released protein (MRP) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important epidemic virulence marker with an unclear role in bacterial infection. To investigate the biologic functions of MRP, 3 mutants named Δmrp, Δmrp domain 1 (Δmrp-d1), and Δmrp domain 2 (Δmrp-d2) were constructed to assess the phenotypic changes between the parental strain and the mutant strains. The results indicated that MRP domain 1 (MRP-D1, the non-conserved region of MRP from a virulent strain, a.a. 242-596) played a critical role in adherence of SS2 to host cells, compared with MRP domain 1* (MRP-D1*, the non-conserved region of MRP from a low virulent strain, a.a. 239-598) or MRP domain 2 (MRP-D2, the conserved region of MRP, a.a. 848-1222). We found that MRP-D1 but not MRP-D2, could bind specifically to fibronectin (FN), factor H (FH), fibrinogen (FG), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Additionally, we confirmed that mrp-d1 mutation significantly inhibited bacteremia and brain invasion in a mouse infection model. The mrp-d1 mutation also attenuated the intracellular survival of SS2 in RAW246.7 macrophages, shortened the growth ability in pig blood and decreased the virulence of SS2 in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, antiserum against MRP-D1 was found to dramatically impede SS2 survival in pig blood. Finally, immunization with recombinant MRP-D1 efficiently enhanced murine viability after SS2 challenge, indicating its potential use in vaccination strategies. Collectively, these results indicated that MRP-D1 is involved in SS2 virulence and eloquently demonstrate the function of MRP in pathogenesis of infection.

  12. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Allele-specific gene expression patterns in primary leukemic cells reveal regulation of gene expression by CpG site methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Lili; Lundmark, Anders; Nordlund, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    To identify genes that are regulated by cis-acting functional elements in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) we determined the allele-specific expression (ASE) levels of 2, 529 genes by genotyping a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms in RNA and DNA from bone marrow and blood...

  14. Rin4 Causes Hybrid Necrosis and Race-Specific Resistance in an Interspecific Lettuce Hybrid[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J.W.; Zhang, Ningwen W.; McHale, Leah K.; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Niks, Rients E.

    2009-01-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis. PMID:19855048

  15. Swine dysentery: protection of pigs by oral and parenteral immunisation with attenuated Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M J; Alexander, T J; Lysons, R J; Prescott, J F

    1976-11-01

    An attenuated strain of Treponema hyodysenteriae was used to immunise 18 pigs in three experiments. Live attenuated spirochaetes were dosed orally and injected intra-peritoneally, and killed spirochaetes were injected intramuscularly with adjuvant. The vaccinated pigs, which developed high serum agglutination titres against T hyodysenteriae, and 18 unvaccinated litter-mates were repeatedly challenged with virulent T hyodysenteriae. Nine vaccinated pigs and 16 control pigs developed typical swine dysentery.

  16. Systematic evaluation of the impact of ChIP-seq read designs on genome coverage, peak identification, and allele-specific binding detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zeng, Xin; Younkin, Sam; Kawli, Trupti; Snyder, Michael P; Keleş, Sündüz

    2016-02-24

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments revolutionized genome-wide profiling of transcription factors and histone modifications. Although maturing sequencing technologies allow these experiments to be carried out with short (36-50 bps), long (75-100 bps), single-end, or paired-end reads, the impact of these read parameters on the downstream data analysis are not well understood. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of different read parameters on genome sequence alignment, coverage of different classes of genomic features, peak identification, and allele-specific binding detection. We generated 101 bps paired-end ChIP-seq data for many transcription factors from human GM12878 and MCF7 cell lines. Systematic evaluations using in silico variations of these data as well as fully simulated data, revealed complex interplay between the sequencing parameters and analysis tools, and indicated clear advantages of paired-end designs in several aspects such as alignment accuracy, peak resolution, and most notably, allele-specific binding detection. Our work elucidates the effect of design on the downstream analysis and provides insights to investigators in deciding sequencing parameters in ChIP-seq experiments. We present the first systematic evaluation of the impact of ChIP-seq designs on allele-specific binding detection and highlights the power of pair-end designs in such studies.

  17. A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bozue

    Full Text Available Bacterial proteins destined for the Tat pathway are folded before crossing the inner membrane and are typically identified by an N-terminal signal peptide containing a twin arginine motif. Translocation by the Tat pathway is dependent on the products of genes which encode proteins possessing the binding site of the signal peptide and mediating the actual translocation event. In the fully virulent CO92 strain of Yersinia pestis, the tatA gene was deleted. The mutant was assayed for loss of virulence through various in vitro and in vivo assays. Deletion of the tatA gene resulted in several consequences for the mutant as compared to wild-type. Cell morphology of the mutant bacteria was altered and demonstrated a more elongated form. In addition, while cultures of the mutant strain were able to produce a biofilm, we observed a loss of adhesion of the mutant biofilm structure compared to the biofilm produced by the wild-type strain. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed a partial disruption of the F1 antigen on the surface of the mutant. The virulence of the ΔtatA mutant was assessed in various murine models of plague. The mutant was severely attenuated in the bubonic model with full virulence restored by complementation with the native gene. After small-particle aerosol challenge in a pneumonic model of infection, the mutant was also shown to be attenuated. In contrast, when mice were challenged intranasally with the mutant, very little difference in the LD50 was observed between wild-type and mutant strains. However, an increased time-to-death and delay in bacterial dissemination was observed in mice infected with the ΔtatA mutant as compared to the parent strain. Collectively, these findings demonstrate an essential role for the Tat pathway in the virulence of Y. pestis in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic infection but less important role for intranasal challenge.

  18. Associations between gastric dilatation-volvulus in Great Danes and specific alleles of the canine immune-system genes DLA88, DRB1, and TLR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkey, Michael A; Villagran, Alexandra M; Venkataraman, Gopalakrishnan M; Leisenring, Wendy M; Hullar, Meredith A J; Torok-Storb, Beverly J

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether specific alleles of candidate genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and innate immune system were associated with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in Great Danes. ANIMALS 42 healthy Great Danes (control group) and 39 Great Danes with ≥ 1 GDV episode. PROCEDURES Variable regions of the 2 most polymorphic MHC genes (DLA88 and DRB1) were amplified and sequenced from the dogs in each group. Similarly, regions of 3 genes associated with the innate immune system (TLR5, NOD2, and ATG16L1), which have been linked to inflammatory bowel disease, were amplified and sequenced. Alleles were evaluated for associations with GDV, controlling for age and dog family. RESULTS Specific alleles of genes DLA88, DRB1, and TLR5 were significantly associated with GDV. One allele of each gene had an OR > 2 in the unadjusted univariate analyses and retained a hazard ratio > 2 after controlling for temperament, age, and familial association in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The 3 GDV-associated alleles identified in this study may serve as diagnostic markers for identification of Great Danes at risk for GDV. Additional research is needed to determine whether other dog breeds have the same genetic associations. These findings also provided a new target for research into the etiology of, and potential treatments for, GDV in dogs.

  19. Attenuated Expression of DFFB is a Hallmark of Oligodendrogliomas with 1p-Allelic Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Gregory N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allelic loss of chromosome 1p is frequently observed in oligodendroglioma. We screened 177 oligodendroglial tumors for 1p deletions and found 6 tumors with localized 1p36 deletions. Several apoptosis regulation genes have been mapped to this region, including Tumor Protein 73 (p73, DNA Fragmentation Factor subunits alpha (DFFA and beta (DFFB, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Members 9 and 25 (TNFRSF9, TNFRSF25. We compared expression levels of these 5 genes in pairs of 1p-loss and 1p-intact tumors using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (QRTPCR to test if 1p deletions had an effect on expression. Only the DFFB gene demonstrated decreased expression in all tumor pairs tested. Mutational analysis did not reveal DFFB mutations in 12 tested samples. However, it is possible that DFFB haploinsufficiency from 1p allelic loss is a contributing factor in oligodendroglioma development.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals cotton-specific virulence factors in flexible genomic regions in Verticillium dahliae and evidence of horizontal gene transfer from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Yin; Liu, Chun; Gui, Yue-Jing; Si, Kai-Wei; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jie; Short, Dylan P G; Huang, Jin-Qun; Li, Nan-Yang; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Qi; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xue-Feng; Li, Ting-Gang; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bao-Li; Bao, Yu-Ming; Subbarao, Krishna V; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae isolates are most virulent on the host from which they were originally isolated. Mechanisms underlying these dominant host adaptations are currently unknown. We sequenced the genome of V. dahliae Vd991, which is highly virulent on its original host, cotton, and performed comparisons with the reference genomes of JR2 (from tomato) and VdLs.17 (from lettuce). Pathogenicity-related factor prediction, orthology and multigene family classification, transcriptome analyses, phylogenetic analyses, and pathogenicity experiments were performed. The Vd991 genome harbored several exclusive, lineage-specific (LS) genes within LS regions (LSRs). Deletion mutants of the seven genes within one LSR (G-LSR2) in Vd991 were less virulent only on cotton. Integration of G-LSR2 genes individually into JR2 and VdLs.17 resulted in significantly enhanced virulence on cotton but did not affect virulence on tomato or lettuce. Transcription levels of the seven LS genes in Vd991 were higher during the early stages of cotton infection, as compared with other hosts. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that G-LSR2 was acquired from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum through horizontal gene transfer. Our results provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer from Fusarium to Vd991 contributed significantly to its adaptation to cotton and may represent a significant mechanism in the evolution of an asexual plant pathogen. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity in the type 1 poliovirus Sabin vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, M J; Lam, D H; Racaniello, V R

    1995-01-01

    To identify determinants of attenuation in the poliovirus type 1 Sabin vaccine strain, a series of recombinant viruses were constructed by using infectious cDNA clones of the virulent type 1 poliovirus P1/Mahoney and the attenuated type 1 vaccine strain P1/Sabin. Intracerebral inoculation of these viruses into transgenic mice which express the human receptor for poliovirus identified regions of the genome that conferred reduced neurovirulence. Exchange of smaller restriction fragments and sit...

  2. Attenuated bioluminescent Brucella melitensis mutants GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091) confer protection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Glover, David A; Banai, Menachem; O'Callaghan, David; Splitter, Gary A

    2006-05-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging is a persuasive approach to investigate a number of issues in microbial pathogenesis. Previously, we have applied bioluminescence imaging to gain greater insight into Brucella melitensis pathogenesis. Endowing Brucella with bioluminescence allowed direct visualization of bacterial dissemination, pattern of tissue localization, and the contribution of Brucella genes to virulence. In this report, we describe the pathogenicity of three attenuated bioluminescent B. melitensis mutants, GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091), and the dynamics of bioluminescent virulent bacterial infection following vaccination with these mutants. The virB4, galE, and BMEI1090-BMEI1091 mutants were attenuated in interferon regulatory factor 1-deficient (IRF-1(-/-)) mice; however, only the GR019 (virB4) mutant was attenuated in cultured macrophages. Therefore, in vivo imaging provides a comprehensive approach to identify virulence genes that are relevant to in vivo pathogenesis. Our results provide greater insights into the role of galE in virulence and also suggest that BMEI1090 and downstream genes constitute a novel set of genes involved in Brucella virulence. Survival of the vaccine strain in the host for a critical period is important for effective Brucella vaccines. The galE mutant induced no changes in liver and spleen but localized chronically in the tail and protected IRF-1(-/-) and wild-type mice from virulent challenge, implying that this mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies and that the direct visualization of Brucella may provide insight into selection of improved vaccine candidates.

  3. Humoral immune responses of pregnant Guinea pigs Immunized with live attenuated Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawlood Abass Ali Al- Graibawi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential to increase passive transfer of specific Rhodococcus equi (R.equi humoral immunity to newborn by preparturient vaccination of their dams was investigated in Pregnant Guinea pigs as a pilot study. Attenuated autogenous vaccine was prepared from a Congo red negative (CR- R.equi local isolate mixed with adjuvant (potassium alum sulphate, tested for sterility, safety and potency prior to vaccination .Two groups of pregnant G. pigs were used, the first group was vaccinated twice subcutaneously (S.C with the prepared vaccine at five and three weeks prior parturition, the second group was inoculated with adjuvant plus phosphate buffer saline (PBS twice s.c and kept as control. Offspring from the vaccinated dams had revealed high titers of specific R. equi antibody as detected by tube agglutination (TA and passive haemagglutination (PH test and showed protection against challenge dose. The results revealed that vaccination of pregnant G. pigs with the prepared attenuated vaccine was safe and efficient method to protect their offspring against experimental challenge with virulent R.equi. Vaccination was associated with increased humoral immune response in vaccinated group.

  4. Discovery of a Novel Stem Rust Resistance Allele in Durum Wheat that Exhibits Differential Reactions to Ug99 Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf. Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24. However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines, and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13. The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.

  5. Characterization of the peptide binding specificity of the HLA class I alleles B*38:01 and B*39:06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Moore, Carrie; Lindvall, Mikaela; Wriston, Amanda; Hunt, Donald F; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; DiLorenzo, Teresa P; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    B*38:01 and B*39:06 are present with phenotypic frequencies 39:06 is the B allele most associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility and 38:01 is most protective. A previous study derived putative main anchor motifs for both alleles based on peptide elution data. The present study has utilized panels of single amino acid substitution peptide libraries to derive detailed quantitative motifs accounting for both primary and secondary influences on peptide binding. From these analyses, both alleles were confirmed to utilize the canonical position 2/C-terminus main anchor spacing. B*38:01 preferentially bound peptides with the positively charged or polar residues H, R, and Q in position 2 and the large hydrophobic residues I, F, L, W, and M at the C-terminus. B*39:06 had a similar preference for R in position 2, but also well-tolerated M, Q, and K. A more dramatic contrast between the two alleles was noted at the C-terminus, where the specificity of B*39:06 was clearly for small residues, with A as most preferred, followed by G, V, S, T, and I. Detailed position-by-position and residue-by-residue coefficient values were generated from the panels to provide detailed quantitative B*38:01 and B*39:06 motifs. It is hoped that these detailed motifs will facilitate the identification of T cell epitopes recognized in the context of two class I alleles associated with dramatically different dispositions towards type 1 diabetes, offering potential avenues for the investigation of the role of CD8 T cells in this disease.

  6. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  7. Effect of decreased BCAA synthesis through disruption of ilvC gene on the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Lee; Lee, Seungyeop; Luong, Truc Thanh; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Park, Sang-Sang; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2017-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It causes a variety of life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. In bacterial physiology, the metabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plays an important role in virulence. Nonetheless, the function of IlvC, one of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BCAAs, in S. pneumoniae remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that downregulation of BCAA biosynthesis by ilvC ablation can diminish BCAA concentration and expression of pneumolysin (Ply) and LytA, and subsequently attenuate virulence. Infection with an ilvC mutant showed significantly reduced mortality and colonization in comparison with strain D39 (serotype 2, wild type), suggesting that ilvC can potentiate S. pneumoniae virulence due to adequate BCAA synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that the function of ilvC in BCAA synthesis is essential for virulence factor and could play an important role in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections.

  8. Rift valley fever virus lacking the NSs and NSm genes is highly attenuated, confers protective immunity from virulent virus challenge, and allows for differential identification of infected and vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Albariño, César G; Hartman, Amy L; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

    2008-03-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne human and veterinary pathogen associated with large outbreaks of severe disease throughout Africa and more recently the Arabian peninsula. Infection of livestock can result in sweeping "abortion storms" and high mortality among young animals. Human infection results in self-limiting febrile disease that in approximately 1 to 2% of patients progresses to more serious complications including hepatitis, encephalitis, and retinitis or a hemorrhagic syndrome with high fatality. The virus S segment-encoded NSs and the M segment-encoded NSm proteins are important virulence factors. The development of safe, effective vaccines and tools to screen and evaluate antiviral compounds is critical for future control strategies. Here, we report the successful reverse genetics generation of multiple recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged RVF viruses containing either the full-length, complete virus genome or precise deletions of the NSs gene alone or the NSs/NSm genes in combination, thus creating attenuating deletions on multiple virus genome segments. These viruses were highly attenuated, with no detectable viremia or clinical illness observed with high challenge dosages (1.0 x 10(4) PFU) in the rat lethal disease model. A single-dose immunization regimen induced robust anti-RVF virus immunoglobulin G antibodies (titer, approximately 1:6,400) by day 26 postvaccination. All vaccinated animals that were subsequently challenged with a high dose of virulent RVF virus survived infection and could be serologically differentiated from naïve, experimentally infected animals by the lack of NSs antibodies. These rationally designed marker RVF vaccine viruses will be useful tools for in vitro screening of therapeutic compounds and will provide a basis for further development of RVF virus marker vaccines for use in endemic regions or following the natural or intentional introduction of the virus into previously unaffected areas.

  9. Infection in a rat model reactivates attenuated virulence after long-term axenic culture of Acanthamoeba spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina De Marco Verissimo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged culturing of many microorganisms leads to the loss of virulence and a reduction of their infective capacity. However, little is known about the changes in the pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba after long culture periods. Our study evaluated the effect of prolonged culturing on the invasiveness of different isolates of Acanthamoeba in an in vivo rat model. ATCC strains of Acanthamoeba, isolates from the environment and clinical cases were evaluated. The in vivo model was effective in establishing the infection and differentiating the pathogenicity of the isolates and re-isolates. The amoebae cultured in the laboratory for long periods were less virulent than those that were recently isolated, confirming the importance of passing Acanthamoeba strains in animal models.

  10. Isolation and mutagenesis of a capsule-like complex (CLC from Francisella tularensis, and contribution of the CLC to F. tularensis virulence in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloka B Bandara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is a category-A select agent and is responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. The surface components of F. tularensis that contribute to virulence are not well characterized. An electron-dense capsule has been postulated to be present around F. tularensis based primarily on electron microscopy, but this specific antigen has not been isolated or characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A capsule-like complex (CLC was effectively extracted from the cell surface of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS lacking O-antigen with 0.5% phenol after 10 passages in defined medium broth and growth on defined medium agar for 5 days at 32°C in 7% CO₂. The large molecular size CLC was extracted by enzyme digestion, ethanol precipitation, and ultracentrifugation, and consisted of glucose, galactose, mannose, and Proteinase K-resistant protein. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that expression of genes in a putative polysaccharide locus in the LVS genome (FTL_1432 through FTL_1421 was upregulated when CLC expression was enhanced. Open reading frames FTL_1423 and FLT_1422, which have homology to genes encoding for glycosyl transferases, were deleted by allelic exchange, and the resulting mutant after passage in broth (LVSΔ1423/1422_P10 lacked most or all of the CLC, as determined by electron microscopy, and CLC isolation and analysis. Complementation of LVSΔ1423/1422 and subsequent passage in broth restored CLC expression. LVSΔ1423/1422_P10 was attenuated in BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally (IN and intraperitoneally with greater than 80 times and 270 times the LVS LD₅₀, respectively. Following immunization, mice challenged IN with over 700 times the LD₅₀ of LVS remained healthy and asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the CLC may be a glycoprotein, FTL_1422 and -FTL_1423 were involved in CLC biosynthesis, the CLC contributed to the virulence of F. tularensis LVS, and a CLC

  11. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  12. Characterization of Foodborne Strains of Staphylococcus aureus by Shotgun Proteomics: Functional Networks, Virulence Factors and Species-Specific Peptide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Böhme, Karola; Gallardo, José M.; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Cañas, Benito; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we applied a shotgun proteomics approach for the fast and easy characterization of 20 different foodborne strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most recognized foodborne pathogenic bacteria. A total of 644 non-redundant proteins were identified and analyzed via an easy and rapid protein sample preparation procedure. The results allowed the differentiation of several proteome datasets from the different strains (common, accessory, and unique datasets), which were used to determine relevant functional pathways and differentiate the strains into different Euclidean hierarchical clusters. Moreover, a predicted protein-protein interaction network of the foodborne S. aureus strains was created. The whole confidence network contains 77 nodes and 769 interactions. Most of the identified proteins were surface-associated proteins that were related to pathways and networks of energy, lipid metabolism and virulence. Twenty-seven virulence factors were identified, and most of them corresponded to autolysins, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, phenol-soluble modulins, extracellular fibrinogen-binding proteins and virulence factor EsxA. Potential species-specific peptide biomarkers were screened. Twenty-one species-specific peptide biomarkers, belonging to eight different proteins (nickel-ABC transporter, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, autolysin, clumping factor A, gram-positive signal peptide YSIRK, cysteine protease/staphopain, transcriptional regulator MarR, and transcriptional regulator Sar-A), were proposed to identify S. aureus. These results constitute the first major dataset of peptides and proteins of foodborne S. aureus strains. This repository may be useful for further studies, for the development of new therapeutic treatments for S. aureus food intoxications and for microbial source-tracking in foodstuffs. PMID:29312172

  13. ChIP-seq and in vivo transcriptome analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus SREBP SrbA reveals a new regulator of the fungal hypoxia response and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawoon Chung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Aspergillus fumigatus sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP SrbA belongs to the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH family of transcription factors and is crucial for antifungal drug resistance and virulence. The latter phenotype is especially striking, as loss of SrbA results in complete loss of virulence in murine models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA. How fungal SREBPs mediate fungal virulence is unknown, though it has been suggested that lack of growth in hypoxic conditions accounts for the attenuated virulence. To further understand the role of SrbA in fungal infection site pathobiology, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq was used to identify genes under direct SrbA transcriptional regulation in hypoxia. These results confirmed the direct regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis and iron uptake by SrbA in hypoxia and revealed new roles for SrbA in nitrate assimilation and heme biosynthesis. Moreover, functional characterization of an SrbA target gene with sequence similarity to SrbA identified a new transcriptional regulator of the fungal hypoxia response and virulence, SrbB. SrbB co-regulates genes involved in heme biosynthesis and demethylation of C4-sterols with SrbA in hypoxic conditions. However, SrbB also has regulatory functions independent of SrbA including regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Loss of SrbB markedly attenuates A. fumigatus virulence, and loss of both SREBPs further reduces in vivo fungal growth. These data suggest that both A. fumigatus SREBPs are critical for hypoxia adaptation and virulence and reveal new insights into SREBPs' complex role in infection site adaptation and fungal virulence.

  14. Protein kinase A and fungal virulence: a sinister side to a conserved nutrient sensing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kevin K; Rhodes, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    Diverse fungal species are the cause of devastating agricultural and human diseases. As successful pathogenesis is dependent upon the ability of the fungus to adapt to the nutritional and chemical environment of the host, the understanding of signaling pathways required for such adaptation will provide insights into the virulence of these pathogens and the potential identification of novel targets for antifungal intervention. The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway is well conserved across eukaryotes. In the nonpathogenic yeast, S. cerevisiae, PKA is activated in response to extracellular nutrients and subsequently regulates metabolism and growth. Importantly, this pathway is also a regulator of pathogenesis, as defects in PKA signaling lead to an attenuation of virulence in diverse plant and human pathogenic fungi. This review will compare and contrast PKA signaling in S. cerevisiae vs. various pathogenic species and provide a framework for the role of this pathway in regulating fungal virulence.

  15. Specific Silencing of L392V PSEN1 Mutant Allele by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Sierant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi technology provides a powerful molecular tool to reduce an expression of selected genes in eukaryotic cells. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs are the effector molecules that trigger RNAi. Here, we describe siRNAs that discriminate between the wild type and mutant (1174 C→G alleles of human Presenilin1 gene (PSEN1. This mutation, resulting in L392V PSEN1 variant, contributes to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Using the dual fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy we identified positions 8th–11th, within the central part of the antisense strand, as the most sensitive to mismatches. 2-Thiouridine chemical modification introduced at the 3′-end of the antisense strand improved the allele discrimination, but wobble base pairing adjacent to the mutation site abolished the siRNA activity. Our data indicate that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild type and mutant alleles of genes that differ by just a single nucleotide.

  16. Allele specific LAMP- gold nanoparticle for characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their relevance as disease biomarkers and for diagnostics, screening of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs requires simple and straightforward strategies capable to provide results in medium throughput settings. Suitable approaches relying on isothermal amplification techniques have been evolving to substitute the cumbersome and highly specialized PCR amplification detection schemes. Nonetheless, identification of an individual’s genotype still requires sophisticated equipment and laborious methods.Here, we present a low-cost and reliable approach based on the allele specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP coupled to ssDNA functionalized gold nanoparticle (Au-nanoprobe colorimetric sequence discrimination. The Au-nanoprobe integration allows for the colorimetric detection of AS-LAMP amplification product that can be easily interpreted in less than 15 min. We targeted a clinical relevant SNP responsible for lactose intolerance (-13910C/T dbSNP rs#: 4988235 to demonstrate its proof of concept and full potential of this novel approach. Keywords: SNP, Isothermal amplification, Gold nanoparticles, Gold nanoprobes, Lactose intolerance

  17. Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A.; Kurath, Gael; Brito, Ilana L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Read, Andrew F.; Winton, James R.; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future.

  18. AhrC and Eep Are Biofilm Infection-Associated Virulence Factors in Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiton, Pascale S.; Barnes, Aaron M. T.; Manias, Dawn A.; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Kohler, Petra L.; Spaulding, Adam R.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiome and is a prominent cause of health care-associated infections. The pathogenesis of many E. faecalis infections, including endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), is related to the ability of clinical isolates to form biofilms. To identify chromosomal genetic determinants responsible for E. faecalis biofilm-mediated infection, we used a rabbit model of endocarditis to test strains with transposon insertions or in-frame deletions in biofilm-associated loci: ahrC, argR, atlA, opuBC, pyrC, recN, and sepF. Only the ahrC mutant was significantly attenuated in endocarditis. We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator AhrC and the protease Eep, which we showed previously to be an endocarditis virulence factor, are also required for full virulence in murine CAUTI. Therefore, AhrC and Eep can be classified as enterococcal biofilm-associated virulence factors. Loss of ahrC caused defects in early attachment and accumulation of biofilm biomass. Characterization of ahrC transcription revealed that the temporal expression of this locus observed in wild-type cells promotes initiation of early biofilm formation and the establishment of endocarditis. This is the first report of AhrC serving as a virulence factor in any bacterial species. PMID:23460519

  19. Intraspecific bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants carrying glycoprotein E deletion as a vaccine marker are virulent in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; Farnir, Frédéric; Pourchet, Aldo; Bardiau, Marjorie; Gogev, Sacha; Thiry, Julien; Cuisenaire, Adeline; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-08-01

    Vaccines used in control programmes of Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) utilize highly attenuated BoHV-1 strains marked by a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. Since BoHV-1 recombinants are obtained at high frequency in experimentally coinfected cattle, the consequences of recombination on the virulence of gE-negative BoHV-1 were investigated. Thus, gE-negative BoHV-1 recombinants were generated in vitro from several virulent BoHV-1 and one mutant BoHV-1 deleted in the gC and gE genes. Four gE-negative recombinants were tested in the natural host. All the recombinants were more virulent than the gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine and the gC- and gE-negative parental BoHV-1. The gE-negative recombinant isolated from a BoHV-1 field strain induced the highest severe clinical score. Latency and reactivation studies showed that three of the recombinants were reexcreted. Recombination can therefore restore virulence of gE-negative BoHV-1 by introducing the gE deletion into a different virulence background.

  20. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrieres, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    microorganisms can attach. Urinary tract infectious (UTI) Escherichia coli range in pathogenicity and the damage they cause - from benign asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains, which inflict no or few problems to the host, to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, which are virulent and often cause severe...... for and promote biofilm formation of the most virulent group of UTI E. coli strains, hardly a desirable situation for the catheterized patient....

  1. Identification of New Virulence Factors and Vaccine Candidates for Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jourdan A; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Fitts, Eric C; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Kozlova, Elena V; Kirtley, Michelle L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA , which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK , an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized. In this study, in-frame deletion mutants of ypo0815, ypo2884, ypo3614-3168 (cyoABCDE) , and ypo1119-1120 , identified from the STM screen, were generated. While ypo0815 codes for a general secretion pathway protein E (GspE) of the T2SS, the ypo2884 -encoded protein has homology to the βγ crystallin superfamily, cyoABCDE codes for the cytochrome o oxidase operon, and the ypo1119-1120 genes are within the Tol-Pal system which has multiple functions. Additionally, as our STM screen identified three T6SS-associated genes, and, based on in silico analysis, six T6SS clusters and multiple homologs of the T6SS effector hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) exist in Y. pestis CO92, we also targeted these T6SS clusters and effectors for generating deletion mutants. These deletion mutant strains exhibited varying levels of attenuation (up to 100%), in bubonic or pneumonic murine infection models. The attenuation could be further augmented by generation of combinatorial deletion mutants, namely Δ lpp Δ ypo0815 , Δ lpp Δ ypo2884 , Δ lpp Δ cyoABCDE , Δ vasK Δ hcp6 , and Δ ypo2720-2733 Δ hcp3 . We earlier showed that deletion of the lpp gene, which encodes Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and activates Toll-like receptor-2, reduced virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in murine models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The surviving mice infected with Δ lpp Δ cyoABCDE , Δ vasK Δ hcp6 , and Δ ypo2720-2733 Δ hcp3 mutant strains were 55-100% protected upon subsequent re

  2. Identification of New Virulence Factors and Vaccine Candidates for Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdan A. Andersson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA, which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK, an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS, were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized. In this study, in-frame deletion mutants of ypo0815, ypo2884, ypo3614-3168 (cyoABCDE, and ypo1119-1120, identified from the STM screen, were generated. While ypo0815 codes for a general secretion pathway protein E (GspE of the T2SS, the ypo2884-encoded protein has homology to the βγ crystallin superfamily, cyoABCDE codes for the cytochrome o oxidase operon, and the ypo1119-1120 genes are within the Tol-Pal system which has multiple functions. Additionally, as our STM screen identified three T6SS-associated genes, and, based on in silico analysis, six T6SS clusters and multiple homologs of the T6SS effector hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp exist in Y. pestis CO92, we also targeted these T6SS clusters and effectors for generating deletion mutants. These deletion mutant strains exhibited varying levels of attenuation (up to 100%, in bubonic or pneumonic murine infection models. The attenuation could be further augmented by generation of combinatorial deletion mutants, namely ΔlppΔypo0815, ΔlppΔypo2884, ΔlppΔcyoABCDE, ΔvasKΔhcp6, and Δypo2720-2733Δhcp3. We earlier showed that deletion of the lpp gene, which encodes Braun lipoprotein (Lpp and activates Toll-like receptor-2, reduced virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in murine models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The surviving mice infected with ΔlppΔcyoABCDE, ΔvasKΔhcp6, and Δypo2720-2733Δhcp3 mutant strains were 55–100% protected upon subsequent re-challenge with wild

  3. aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Michael; Kocijancic, Dino; Rohde, Manfred; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Bueno, Emilio; Cava, Felipe; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Curtiss, Roy; Häussler, Susanne; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that ΔaroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, ΔaroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of ΔaroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. PMID:27601574

  4. Genetic mapping of a new race specific resistance allele effective to Puccinia hordei at the Rph9/Rph12 locus on chromosome 5HL in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Khatkar, Mehar S; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-12-20

    Barley is an important cereal crop cultivated for malt and ruminant feed and in certain regions it is used for human consumption. It is vulnerable to numerous foliar diseases including barley leaf rust caused by the pathogen Puccinia hordei. A temporarily designated resistance locus RphCantala (RphC) identified in the Australian Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar 'Cantala' displayed an intermediate to low infection type (";12 = N") against the P. hordei pathotype 253P- (virulent on Rph1, Rph2, Rph4, Rph6, Rph8 and RphQ). Phenotypic assessment of a 'CI 9214' (susceptible) x 'Stirling' (RphC) (CI 9214/Stirling) doubled haploid (DH) population at the seedling stage using P. hordei pathotype 253P-, confirmed that RphC was monogenically inherited. Marker-trait association analysis of RphC in the CI 9214/Stirling DH population using 4,500 DArT-seq markers identified a highly significant (-log10Pvalue > 17) single peak on the long arm of chromosome 5H (5HL). Further tests of allelism determined that RphC was genetically independent of Rph3, Rph7, Rph11, Rph13 and Rph14, and was an allele of Rph12 (Rph9.z), which also maps to 5HL. Multipathotype tests and subsequent pedigree analysis determined that 14 related Australian barley varieties (including 'Stirling' and 'Cantala') carry RphC and that the likely source of this resistance is via a Czechoslovakian landrace LV-Kvasice-NA-Morave transferred through common ancestral cultivars 'Hanna' and 'Abed Binder'. RphC is an allele of Rph12 (Rph9.z) and is therefore designated Rph9.am. Bioinformatic analysis using sequence arrays from DArT-seq markers in linkage disequilibrium with Rph9.am identified possible candidates for further gene cloning efforts and marker development at the Rph9/Rph12/Rph9.am locus.

  5. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar was obtained from its virulent parent strain S. agalactiae 138P. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138spar is 1,838,126 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identi...

  6. Differential ACE expression among tissues in allele-specific Wistar rat lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamilic, Jelena; Lely, A. Titia; van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik; Tent, Hilde; Navis, Gerjan J.; Korstanje, Ron

    In humans, the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene accounts for half of the variance in plasma ACE activity. The deletion allele is associated with high plasma ACE activity, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. In rat, a similar association is found

  7. Lipoprotein(a) and HIV: Allele-Specific Apolipoprotein(a) Levels Predict Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chin-Shang; Kaplan, Robert; Lazar, Jason; Merenstein, Dan; Karim, Roksana; Aouizerat, Brad; Cohen, Mardge; Butler, Kenneth; Pahwa, Savita; Ofotokun, Igho; Adimora, Adaora A; Golub, Elizabeth; Berglund, Lars

    2017-05-01

    In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study). Linear regression analyses with and without adjustments were used. The cohort was young (mean age, ≈31 years), with the majority being Blacks (≈70%). The prevalence of a small size apo(a) (≤22 Kringle repeats) or a high Lp(a) level (≥30 mg/dL) was similar by HIV status. Total plasma Lp(a) level ( P =0.029) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.022) were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in the HIV-infected women only. After accounting for confounders (age, race, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, hepatitis C virus coinfection, menopause, plasma lipids, treatment status, CD4 + T cell count, and HIV/RNA viral load), the association remained significant for both Lp(a) ( P =0.035) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.010) in the HIV-infected women. Notably, none of the other lipids/lipoproteins was associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels predict carotid artery intima-media thickness in HIV-infected young women. Further research is needed to identify underlying mechanisms of an increased Lp(a) atherogenicity in HIV infection. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitobe, Jiro; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Saito, Noriko; Shimuta, Ken; Koizumi, Nobuo; Koley, Hemanta

    2017-07-01

    Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.

  9. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Mitobe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.

  10. Plasmodium yoelii: induction of attenuated mutants by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    When erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, which is invariably fatal in mice, were exposed to X rays, the dose to reduce surviving parasites to one millionth was 100 gray (10 Krad). A suspension of 5 X 10(6) per ml of parasitized erythrocyte was irradiated at 100 gray, and 0.2 ml aliquots were inoculated into 22 mice. Eleven mice showed patent parasitemia, and in these the growth curves were less steep than that found in nonirradiated parasites. The infections of 8 mice of the 11 were self-resolving, and the attenuated feature of the parasites maintained following a limited number of blood passages. The parasites were slowly growing even in nude mice and cause self-resolving infections in intact mice. BALB/c mice immunized with the attenuated parasites were protected against subsequent challenge infections with the original virulent erythrocytic and sporogonic forms. These findings indicate that attenuated mutants of malaria parasites can be readily induced by this method

  11. A genome-wide screen in human embryonic stem cells reveals novel sites of allele-specific histone modification associated with known disease loci

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prendergast, James G D

    2012-05-19

    AbstractBackgroundChromatin structure at a given site can differ between chromosome copies in a cell, and such imbalances in chromatin structure have been shown to be important in understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling several disease loci. Human genetic variation, DNA methylation, and disease have been intensely studied, uncovering many sites of allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM). However, little is known about the genome-wide occurrence of sites of allele-specific histone modification (ASHM) and their relationship to human disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and characteristics of sites of ASHM in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).ResultsUsing a statistically rigorous protocol, we investigated the genomic distribution of ASHM in hESCs, and their relationship to sites of allele-specific expression (ASE) and DNA methylation. We found that, although they were rare, sites of ASHM were substantially enriched at loci displaying ASE. Many were also found at known imprinted regions, hence sites of ASHM are likely to be better markers of imprinted regions than sites of ASM. We also found that sites of ASHM and ASE in hESCs colocalize at risk loci for developmental syndromes mediated by deletions, providing insights into the etiology of these disorders.ConclusionThese results demonstrate the potential importance of ASHM patterns in the interpretation of disease loci, and the protocol described provides a basis for similar studies of ASHM in other cell types to further our understanding of human disease susceptibility.

  12. Virulence Inhibitors from Brazilian Peppertree Block Quorum Sensing and Abate Dermonecrosis in Skin Infection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Amelia; Lyles, James T.; Parlet, Corey P.; Nelson, Kate; Kavanaugh, Jeffery S.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Quave, Cassandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance is on the rise and current therapies are becoming increasingly limited in both scope and efficacy. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a major contributor to this trend. Quorum sensing controlled virulence factors include secreted toxins responsible for extensive damage to host tissues and evasion of the immune system response; they are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Investigation of botanical folk medicines for wounds and infections led us to study Schinus terebinthifolia (Brazilian Peppertree) as a potential source of virulence inhibitors. Here, we report the inhibitory activity of a flavone rich extract “430D-F5” against all S. aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles in the absence of growth inhibition. Evidence for this activity is supported by its agr-quenching activity (IC50 2–32 μg mL−1) in transcriptional reporters, direct protein outputs (α-hemolysin and δ-toxin), and an in vivo skin challenge model. Importantly, 430D-F5 was well tolerated by human keratinocytes in cell culture and mouse skin in vivo; it also demonstrated significant reduction in dermonecrosis following skin challenge with a virulent strain of MRSA. This study provides an explanation for the anti-infective activity of peppertree remedies and yields insight into the potential utility of non-biocide virulence inhibitors in treating skin infections. PMID:28186134

  13. Development of live attenuated sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae polyvalent vaccines to protect Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  14. Identification and removal of low-complexity sites in allele-specific analysis of ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Sebastian M; Kilpinen, Helena; Gschwind, Andreas R; Orioli, Andrea; Raghav, Sunil K; Witwicki, Robert M; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Yurovsky, Alisa; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Hernandez, Nouria; Reymond, Alexandre; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Deplancke, Bart

    2014-01-15

    High-throughput sequencing technologies enable the genome-wide analysis of the impact of genetic variation on molecular phenotypes at unprecedented resolution. However, although powerful, these technologies can also introduce unexpected artifacts. We investigated the impact of library amplification bias on the identification of allele-specific (AS) molecular events from high-throughput sequencing data derived from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP-seq). Putative AS DNA binding activity for RNA polymerase II was determined using ChIP-seq data derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines of two parent-daughter trios. We found that, at high-sequencing depth, many significant AS binding sites suffered from an amplification bias, as evidenced by a larger number of clonal reads representing one of the two alleles. To alleviate this bias, we devised an amplification bias detection strategy, which filters out sites with low read complexity and sites featuring a significant excess of clonal reads. This method will be useful for AS analyses involving ChIP-seq and other functional sequencing assays. The R package abs filter for library clonality simulations and detection of amplification-biased sites is available from http://updepla1srv1.epfl.ch/waszaks/absfilter

  15. Screening for SNPs with Allele-Specific Methylation based on Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Ji, Yuan; Xu, Yaomin; Ting, Angela H

    2013-05-01

    Allele-specific methylation (ASM) has long been studied but mainly documented in the context of genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Taking advantage of the next-generation sequencing technology, we conduct a high-throughput sequencing experiment with four prostate cell lines to survey the whole genome and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ASM. A Bayesian approach is proposed to model the counts of short reads for each SNP conditional on its genotypes of multiple subjects, leading to a posterior probability of ASM. We flag SNPs with high posterior probabilities of ASM by accounting for multiple comparisons based on posterior false discovery rates. Applying the Bayesian approach to the in-house prostate cell line data, we identify 269 SNPs as candidates of ASM. A simulation study is carried out to demonstrate the quantitative performance of the proposed approach.

  16. Advantage of using allele-specific copy numbers when testing for association in regions with common copy number variants.

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    Gaëlle Marenne

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNV can be called from SNP-arrays; however, few studies have attempted to combine both CNV and SNP calls to test for association with complex diseases. Even when SNPs are located within CNVs, two separate association analyses are necessary, to compare the distribution of bi-allelic genotypes in cases and controls (referred to as SNP-only strategy and the number of copies of a region (referred to as CNV-only strategy. However, when disease susceptibility is actually associated with allele specific copy-number states, the two strategies may not yield comparable results, raising a series of questions about the optimal analytical approach. We performed simulations of the performance of association testing under different scenarios that varied genotype frequencies and inheritance models. We show that the SNP-only strategy lacks power under most scenarios when the SNP is located within a CNV; frequently it is excluded from analysis as it does not pass quality control metrics either because of an increased rate of missing calls or a departure from fitness for Hardy-Weinberg proportion. The CNV-only strategy also lacks power because the association testing depends on the allele which copy number varies. The combined strategy performs well in most of the scenarios. Hence, we advocate the use of this combined strategy when testing for association with SNPs located within CNVs.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors identified by using a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans-killing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, Jakob; Sifri, Costi D; Goldman, Samuel; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is also able to kill the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We constructed a 2,950-member Tn917 transposon insertion library in S. aureus strain NCTC 8325. Twenty-one of these insertions exhibited attenuated C. elegans killing, and of these, 12 contained insertions in different genes or chromosomal locations. Ten of these 12 insertions showed attenuated killing phenotypes when transduced into two different S. aureus strains, and 5 of the 10 mutants correspond to genes that have not been previously identified in signature-tagged mutagenesis studies. These latter five mutants were tested in a murine renal abscess model, and one mutant harboring an insertion in nagD exhibited attenuated virulence. Interestingly, Tn917 was shown to have a very strong bias for insertions near the terminus of DNA replication.

  18. SOLiD sequencing of four Vibrio vulnificus genomes enables comparative genomic analysis and identification of candidate clade-specific virulence genes

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    Telonis-Scott Marina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of reported death from consumption of seafood in the United States. Despite several decades of research on molecular pathogenesis, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of virulence of this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. The two complete and annotated genomic DNA sequences of V. vulnificus belong to strains of clade 2, which is the predominant clade among clinical strains. Clade 2 strains generally possess higher virulence potential in animal models of disease compared with clade 1, which predominates among environmental strains. SOLiD sequencing of four V. vulnificus strains representing different clades (1 and 2 and biotypes (1 and 2 was used for comparative genomic analysis. Results Greater than 4,100,000 bases were sequenced of each strain, yielding approximately 100-fold coverage for each of the four genomes. Although the read lengths of SOLiD genomic sequencing were only 35 nt, we were able to make significant conclusions about the unique and shared sequences among the genomes, including identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Comparative analysis of the newly sequenced genomes to the existing reference genomes enabled the identification of 3,459 core V. vulnificus genes shared among all six strains and 80 clade 2-specific genes. We identified 523,161 SNPs among the six genomes. Conclusions We were able to glean much information about the genomic content of each strain using next generation sequencing. Flp pili, GGDEF proteins, and genomic island XII were identified as possible virulence factors because of their presence in virulent sequenced strains. Genomic comparisons also point toward the involvement of sialic acid catabolism in pathogenesis.

  19. The Pleiotropic Phenotype of Apc Mutations in the Mouse: Allele Specificity and Effects of the Genetic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Richard B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; White, Alanna; Rasmussen, Kristin; Clipson, Linda; Pasch, Cheri; Sullivan, Ruth; Pitot, Henry C.; Dove, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a human cancer syndrome characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of colonic polyps and extracolonic lesions including desmoid fibromas, osteomas, epidermoid cysts, and congenital hypertrophy of the pigmented retinal epithelium. Afflicted individuals are heterozygous for mutations in the APC gene. Detailed investigations of mice heterozygous for mutations in the ortholog Apc have shown that other genetic factors strongly influence the phenotype. Here we report qualitative and quantitative modifications of the phenotype of Apc mutants as a function of three genetic variables: Apc allele, p53 allele, and genetic background. We have found major differences between the Apc alleles Min and 1638N in multiplicity and regionality of intestinal tumors, as well as in incidence of extracolonic lesions. By contrast, Min mice homozygous for either of two different knockout alleles of p53 show similar phenotypic effects. These studies illustrate the classic principle that functional genetics is enriched by assessing penetrance and expressivity with allelic series. The mouse permits study of an allelic gene series on multiple genetic backgrounds, thereby leading to a better understanding of gene action in a range of biological processes. PMID:18723878

  20. Ploidy mosaicism and allele-specific gene expression differences in the allopolyploid Squalius alburnoides

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    Matos Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squalius alburnoides is an Iberian cyprinid fish resulting from an interspecific hybridisation between Squalius pyrenaicus females (P genome and males of an unknown Anaecypris hispanica-like species (A genome. S. alburnoides is an allopolyploid hybridogenetic complex, which makes it a likely candidate for ploidy mosaicism occurrence, and is also an interesting model to address questions about gene expression regulation and genomic interactions. Indeed, it was previously suggested that in S. alburnoides triploids (PAA composition silencing of one of the three alleles (mainly of the P allele occurs. However, not a whole haplome is inactivated but a more or less random inactivation of alleles varying between individuals and even between organs of the same fish was seen. In this work we intended to correlate expression differences between individuals and/or between organs to the occurrence of mosaicism, evaluating if mosaics could explain previous observations and its impact on the assessment of gene expression patterns. Results To achieve our goal, we developed flow cytometry and cell sorting protocols for this system generating more homogenous cellular and transcriptional samples. With this set-up we detected 10% ploidy mosaicism within the S. alburnoides complex, and determined the allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of mosaic and non-mosaic individuals coming from different rivers over a wide geographic range. Conclusions Ploidy mosaicism occurs sporadically within the S. alburnoides complex, but in a frequency significantly higher than reported for other organisms. Moreover, we could exclude the influence of this phenomenon on the detection of variable allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of triploid individuals. Finally, we determined that the expression patterns

  1. Extended Preclinical Safety, Efficacy and Stability Testing of a Live-attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate.

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    Kenneth S Plante

    Full Text Available We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV, both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from 30% and mortality (from 0 to 100%, CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality. These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing.

  2. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis - A virus and its attenuated candidate vaccine derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.I.; Rosenblum, B.; Ticehurst, J.R.; Daemer, R.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Development of attenuated mutants for use as vaccines is in progress for other viruses, including influenza, rotavirus, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis-A virus (HAV). Attenuated viruses may be derived from naturally occurring mutants that infect human or nonhuman hosts. Alternatively, attenuated mutants may be generated by passage of wild-type virus in cell culture. Production of attenuated viruses in cell culture is a laborious and empiric process. Despite previous empiric successes, understanding the molecular basis for attenuation of vaccine viruses could facilitate future development and use of live-virus vaccines. Comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences of wild-type (virulent) and vaccine (attenuated) viruses has been reported for polioviruses and yellow fever virus. Here, the authors compare the nucleotide sequence of wild-type HAV HM-175 with that of a candidate vaccine derivative

  3. Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Shun-Chung Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of human platelet antigens (HPAs leads to alloimmunizations and immune-mediated platelet disorders including fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT, posttransfusion purpura (PTP, and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR. HPA typing and knowledge of antigen frequency in a population are important in particular for the provision of HPA-matched blood components for patients with PTR. We have performed allele genotyping for HPA-1 through -6 and -15 among 998 platelet donors from 6 blood centers in Taiwan using sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The HPA allele frequency was 99.55, and 0.45% for HPA-1a and -1b; 96.49, and 3.51% for HPA-2a and -2b; 55.81, and 44.19% for HPA-3a and -3b; 99.75, and 0.25% for HPA-4a and -4b; 98.50, and 1.50% for HPA-5a and -5b; 97.75 and 2.25% for HPA-6a and -6b; 53.71 and 46.29% for HPA-15a and -15b. HPA-15b and HPA-3a, may be considered the most important, followed by HPA-2, -6, -1, -5, and -4 systems, as a cause of FNAIT, PTP, and PTR based on allele frequency. HPA-4b and HPA-5b role cannot be excluded based on their immunogenicity. A larger-scale study will now be conducted to confirm these hypotheses and to establish an apheresis donor database for the procurement of HPA-matched apheresis platelets for patients with PTR.

  4. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in development of gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Gao, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. However, only a relatively small proportion of individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric carcinoma. Differences in the incidence of gastric carcinoma among infected individuals can be explained, at least partly, by the different genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors. Thus far, many virulence factors of H. pylori, such as Cag PAI, VacA, OMPs and DupA, have been reported to be involved in the development of gastric cancer. The risk of developing gastric cancer during H. pylori infection is affected by specific host-microbe interactions that are independent of H. pylori virulence factors. In this review, we discuss virulence factors of H. pylori and their role in the development of gastric carcinoma that will provide further understanding of the biological interactions of H. pylori with the host.

  5. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

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    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  6. Role of dupA in virulence of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo

    2016-12-14

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is a gastric human pathogen associated with acute and chronic gastritis, 70% of all gastric ulcers, 85% of all duodenal ulcers, and both forms of stomach cancer, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Recently, attention has focused on possible relationship between presence of certain virulence factor and H. pylori -associated diseases. Some contradictory data between this bacterium and related disorders has been observed since not all the colonized individuals develop to severe disease. The reported diseases plausibility related to H. pylori specific virulence factors became an interesting story about this organism. Although a number of putative virulence factors have been identified including cytotoxin-associated gene a ( cagA ) and vacA , there are conflicting data about their actual participation as specific risk factor for H. pylori -related diseases. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene a ( dupA ) is a virulence factor of H. pylori that is highly associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk of gastric cancer. The prevalence of dupA in H. pylori strains isolated from western countries is relatively higher than in H. pylori strains from Asian countries. Current confusing epidemiological reports will continue unless future sophisticated and molecular studies provide data on functional and complete dupA cluster in H. pylori infected individuals. This paper elucidates available knowledge concerning role of dupA in virulence of H. pylori after a decade of its discovery.

  7. Allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction for a single nucleotide polymorphism (C1205T) of swine Toll-like receptor 5 and comparison of the allelic frequency among several pig breeds in Japan and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muneta, Y.; Minagawa, Y.; Kusumoto, M.; Shinkai, H.; Uenishi, H.; Šplíchal, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2012), s. 385-391 ISSN 0385-5600 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0365 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allele-specific PCR * Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis * single nucleotide polymorphism Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2012

  8. Diverse Genetic Regulon of the Virulence-Associated Transcriptional Regulator MucR in Brucella abortus 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Clayton C.; Elhassanny, Ahmed E. M.; Planchin, Emilie E.; Roux, Christelle M.; Weeks-Gorospe, Jenni N.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The Ros-type regulator MucR is one of the few transcriptional regulators that have been linked to virulence in Brucella. Here, we show that a Brucella abortus in-frame mucR deletion strain exhibits a pronounced growth defect during in vitro cultivation and, more importantly, that the mucR mutant is attenuated in cultured macrophages and in mice. The genetic basis for the attenuation of Brucella mucR mutants has not been defined previously, but in the present study the genes regulated by MucR in B. abortus have been elucidated using microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). In B. abortus 2308, MucR regulates a wide variety of genes whose products may function in establishing and maintaining cell envelope integrity, polysaccharide biosynthesis, iron homeostasis, genome plasticity, and transcriptional regulation. Particularly notable among the MucR-regulated genes identified is arsR6 (nolR), which encodes a transcriptional regulator previously linked to virulence in Brucella melitensis 16 M. Importantly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) determined that a recombinant MucR protein binds directly to the promoter regions of several genes repressed by MucR (including arsR6 [nolR]), and in Brucella, as in other alphaproteobacteria, MucR binds to its own promoter to repress expression of the gene that encodes it. Overall, these studies have uncovered the diverse genetic regulon of MucR in Brucella, and in doing so this work has begun to define the MucR-controlled genetic circuitry whose misregulation contributes to the virulence defect of Brucella mucR mutants. PMID:23319565

  9. Cystic fibrosis-niche adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa reduces virulence in multiple infection hosts.

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    Nicola Ivan Lorè

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to thrive in diverse ecological niches and to cause serious human infection. P. aeruginosa environmental strains are producing various virulence factors that are required for establishing acute infections in several host organisms; however, the P. aeruginosa phenotypic variants favour long-term persistence in the cystic fibrosis (CF airways. Whether P. aeruginosa strains, which have adapted to the CF-niche, have lost their competitive fitness in the other environment remains to be investigated. In this paper, three P. aeruginosa clonal lineages, including early strains isolated at the onset of infection, and late strains, isolated after several years of chronic lung infection from patients with CF, were analysed in multi-host model systems of acute infection. P. aeruginosa early isolates caused lethality in the three non-mammalian hosts, namely Caenorhabditis elegans, Galleria mellonella, and Drosophila melanogaster, while late adapted clonal isolates were attenuated in acute virulence. When two different mouse genetic background strains, namely C57Bl/6NCrl and Balb/cAnNCrl, were used as acute infection models, early P. aeruginosa CF isolates were lethal, while late isolates exhibited reduced or abolished acute virulence. Severe histopathological lesions, including high leukocytes recruitment and bacterial load, were detected in the lungs of mice infected with P. aeruginosa CF early isolates, while late isolates were progressively cleared. In addition, systemic bacterial spread and invasion of epithelial cells, which were detected for P. aeruginosa CF early strains, were not observed with late strains. Our findings indicate that niche-specific selection in P. aeruginosa reduced its ability to cause acute infections across a broad range of hosts while maintaining the capacity for chronic infection in the CF host.

  10. Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P; Towers, Greg J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos

    2018-02-28

    Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerises and translocates from the ER to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Here we investigated the activation of innate immune signalling by 4 different strains of the prototypic poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) in a cell line proficient in DNA sensing. Infection with the attenuated VACV strain MVA activated IRF-3 via cGAS and STING, and accordingly STING dimerised and was phosphorylated during MVA infection. Conversely, VACV strains Copenhagen and Western Reserve inhibited STING dimerisation and phosphorylation during infection and in response to transfected DNA and cGAMP, thus efficiently suppressing DNA sensing and IRF-3 activation. A VACV deletion mutant lacking protein C16, thought to be the only viral DNA sensing inhibitor acting upstream of STING, retained the ability to block STING activation. Similar inhibition of DNA-induced STING activation was also observed for cowpox and ectromelia viruses. Our data demonstrate that virulent poxviruses possess mechanisms for targeting DNA sensing at the level of the cGAS-STING axis and that these mechanisms do not operate in replication-defective strains such as MVA. These findings shed light on the role of cellular DNA sensing in poxvirus-host interactions and will open new avenues to determine its impact on VACV immunogenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses infecting a wide range of vertebrates and include the causative agent of smallpox (variola virus) and its vaccine vaccinia virus (VACV). Despite smallpox eradication VACV remains of interest as a therapeutic. Attenuated strains are popular vaccine candidates, whereas replication-competent strains are emerging as

  11. Tumor transcriptome sequencing reveals allelic expression imbalances associated with copy number alterations.

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    Brian B Tuch

    Full Text Available Due to growing throughput and shrinking cost, massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to microarrays for the genome-wide study of gene expression and copy number alterations in primary tumors. The sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq should offer several advantages over microarray-based methods, including the ability to detect somatic mutations and accurately measure allele-specific expression. To investigate these advantages we have applied a novel, strand-specific RNA-Seq method to tumors and matched normal tissue from three patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, to better understand the genomic determinants of the gene expression changes observed, we have sequenced the tumor and normal genomes of one of these patients. We demonstrate here that our RNA-Seq method accurately measures allelic imbalance and that measurement on the genome-wide scale yields novel insights into cancer etiology. As expected, the set of genes differentially expressed in the tumors is enriched for cell adhesion and differentiation functions, but, unexpectedly, the set of allelically imbalanced genes is also enriched for these same cancer-related functions. By comparing the transcriptomic perturbations observed in one patient to his underlying normal and tumor genomes, we find that allelic imbalance in the tumor is associated with copy number mutations and that copy number mutations are, in turn, strongly associated with changes in transcript abundance. These results support a model in which allele-specific deletions and duplications drive allele-specific changes in gene expression in the developing tumor.

  12. SU94. Allele-Specific and Trauma-Related Epigenetic Changes in the FKBP5 Gene: Differences Between Psychotic Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, Marina; Franic, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Andric, Sanja; Mirjanic, Tijana; Novakovic, Ivana; Adzic, Miroslav; Maric, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is a proposed etiological mechanism of psychosis. Recent studies highlighted impact of the FKBP5 gene and its functional variant rs1360780, which risk (T) allele affects the activity of HPA axis following stress exposure, on psychotic patients exposed to early trauma (1). Additionally, risk allele and trauma dependent FKBP5 demethylation in intron 7 was observed in traumatized individuals (2). Thus, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate influence of the risk allele and trauma on FKBP5 DNA methylation levels at intron 7 in psychotic patients and to compare it with healthy individuals. Methods: The sample consisted of 24 psychosis spectrum patients and 24 controls matched by age and gender. All participants were genotyped for rs1360780 and divided into 2 groups depending on the presence of the risk allele (risk and nonrisk group). DNA methylation levels at 3 CpG sites (CpG1, CpG2, and CpG3) in intron 7 were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Early-life adversities were measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Pearson correlation and t test were performed as appropriate. Results: Analyses revealed decreased FKBP5 methylation at targeted CpG sites and averaged methylation level (AML) at intron 7 in patients compared to controls (P = .026, P = .017, P = .027, and P = .003, respectively). Decreased AML and methylation at CpG3 were observed comparing risk and nonrisk patients’ groups (P = .018 and P = .016, respectively). Additionally, decreased methylation was found in risk patients’ group compared to risk controls’ group. No differences were found comparing nonrisk groups. Furthermore, strong negative associations between trauma and methylation at CpG3 and AML were observed only in risk controls’ group (r = −0.707, P = .007; r = −0.741, P = .004, respectively). Conclusion: Our preliminary results revealed allele-specific epigenetic changes of the FKBP

  13. Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis SO2 vaccine candidate is unable to induce cell death.

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    Adriana Aporta

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulent strains inhibit apoptosis and trigger cell death by necrosis of host macrophages to evade innate immunity, while non-virulent strains induce typical apoptosis activating a protective host response. As part of the characterization of a novel tuberculosis vaccine candidate, the M. tuberculosis phoP mutant SO2, we sought to evaluate its potential to induce host cell death. The parental M. tuberculosis MT103 strain and the current vaccine against tuberculosis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG were used as comparators in mouse models in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that attenuated SO2 was unable to induce apoptotic events neither in mouse macrophages in vitro nor during lung infection in vivo. In contrast, virulent MT103 triggers typical apoptotic events with phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activation and nuclear condensation and fragmentation. BCG strain behaved like SO2 and did not induce apoptosis. A clonogenic survival assay confirmed that viability of BCG- or SO2-infected macrophages was unaffected. Our results discard apoptosis as the protective mechanism induced by SO2 vaccine and provide evidence for positive correlation between classical apoptosis induction and virulent strains, suggesting apoptosis as a possible virulence determinant during M. tuberculosis infection.

  14. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-07-01

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, A R; Andersson, R A; Pirhonen, M; Palva, E T

    1998-08-01

    Production of extracellular, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, is coordinately controlled by a complex regulatory network. Insertion mutants in the exp (extracellular enzyme production) loci exhibit pleiotropic defects in virulence and the growth-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Two new exp mutations, designated expA and expS, were characterized. Introduction of the corresponding wild-type alleles to the mutants complemented both the lack of virulence and the impaired production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. The expA gene was shown to encode a 24-kDa polypeptide that is structurally and functionally related to the uvrY gene product of Escherichia coli and the GacA response regulator of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Functional similarity of expA and uvrY was demonstrated by genetic complementation. The expA gene is organized in an operon together with a uvrC-like gene, identical to the organization of uvrY and uvrC in E. coli. The unlinked expS gene encodes a putative sensor kinase that shows 92% identity to the recently described rpfA gene product from another E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strain. Our data suggest that ExpS and ExpA are members of two-component sensor kinase and response regulator families, respectively. These two proteins might interact in controlling virulence gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.

  16. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  17. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  18. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS). In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i) which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii) is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  19. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  20. Mutations in the β-Subunit of the RNA Polymerase Impair the Surface-Associated Motility and Virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Varela, María; Corral, Jordi; Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Rumbo-Feal, Soraya; Bou, Germán; Aranda, Jesús; Barbé, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections worldwide. In this study, several rifampin-resistant spontaneous mutants obtained from the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain that differed in their point mutations in the rpoB gene, encoding the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase, were isolated. All the mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in position 522 or 540 of the RpoB protein were impaired in surface-associated motility and had attenuated virulence in the fertility model of Caenorhabditis elegans The transcriptional profile of these mutants included six downregulated genes encoding proteins homologous to transporters and metabolic enzymes widespread among A. baumannii clinical isolates. The construction of knockout mutants in each of the six downregulated genes revealed a significant reduction in the surface-associated motility and virulence of four of them in the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain, as well as in the virulent clinical isolate MAR002. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence of the connection between motility and virulence in this multiresistant nosocomial pathogen. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Clonality, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from Mirzapur, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Day, Michaela; Mtwale, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the virulence and antimicrobial resistance in association with common clonal complexes (CCs) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) isolated from Bangladesh. The aim was to determine whether specific CCs were more likely to be associated with putative...... virulence genes and/or antimicrobial resistance.Methodology. The presence of 15 virulence genes (by PCR) and susceptibility to 18 antibiotics were determined for 151 EAEC isolated from cases and controls during an intestinal infectious disease study carried out between 2007-2011 in the rural setting...... between the presence of virulence or antimicrobial resistance genes in isolates of EAEC from cases versus controls. However, when stratified by clonal complex (CC) one CC associated with cases harboured more virulence factors (CC40) and one CC harboured more resistance genes (CC38) than the average...

  2. A putative regulatory genetic locus modulates virulence in the pathogen Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Azad; Becam, Jérôme; Lambert, Ambroise; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Jagla, Bernd; Wunder, Elsio A; Ko, Albert I; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Goarant, Cyrille; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the role of transcriptional regulators in relation to virulence in Leptospira interrogans, the etiological agent of leptospirosis. Here, we identify an L. interrogans locus that encodes a sensor protein, an anti-sigma factor antagonist, and two genes encoding proteins of unknown function. Transposon insertion into the gene encoding the sensor protein led to dampened transcription of the other 3 genes in this locus. This lb139 insertion mutant (the lb139(-) mutant) displayed attenuated virulence in the hamster model of infection and reduced motility in vitro. Whole-transcriptome analyses using RNA sequencing revealed the downregulation of 115 genes and the upregulation of 28 genes, with an overrepresentation of gene products functioning in motility and signal transduction and numerous gene products with unknown functions, predicted to be localized to the extracellular space. Another significant finding encompassed suppressed expression of the majority of the genes previously demonstrated to be upregulated at physiological osmolarity, including the sphingomyelinase C precursor Sph2 and LigB. We provide insight into a possible requirement for transcriptional regulation as it relates to leptospiral virulence and suggest various biological processes that are affected due to the loss of native expression of this genetic locus.

  3. Mutations in ppe38 block PE_PGRS secretion and increase virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Louis S; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Ummels, Roy; Piersma, Sander R; van der Woude, Aniek D; van der Kuij, Kim; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; Barrios-Payán, Jorge; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Guapillo, Carolina; Jiménez, Connie R; Pain, Arnab; Houben, Edith N G; Warren, Robin M; Brosch, Roland; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Bitter, Wilbert

    2018-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a large number of secreted and exported proteins for its virulence, immune modulation and nutrient uptake. Most of these proteins are transported by the different type VII secretion systems 1,2 . The most recently evolved type VII secretion system, ESX-5, secretes dozens of substrates belonging to the PE and PPE families, which are named for conserved proline and glutamic acid residues close to the amino terminus 3,4 . However, the role of these proteins remains largely elusive 1 . Here, we show that mutations of ppe38 completely block the secretion of two large subsets of ESX-5 substrates, that is, PPE-MPTR and PE_PGRS, together comprising >80 proteins. Importantly, hypervirulent clinical M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage have such a mutation and a concomitant loss of secretion 5 . Restoration of PPE38-dependent secretion partially reverted the hypervirulence phenotype of a Beijing strain, and deletion of ppe38 in moderately virulent M. tuberculosis increased virulence. This indicates that these ESX-5 substrates have an important role in virulence attenuation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that deletion of ppe38 occurred at the branching point of the 'modern' Beijing sublineage and is shared by Beijing outbreak strains worldwide, suggesting that this deletion may have contributed to their success and global distribution 6,7 .

  4. Mutations in ppe38 block PE_PGRS secretion and increase virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ates, Louis S.

    2018-01-12

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a large number of secreted and exported proteins for its virulence, immune modulation and nutrient uptake. Most of these proteins are transported by the different type VII secretion systems1,2. The most recently evolved type VII secretion system, ESX-5, secretes dozens of substrates belonging to the PE and PPE families, which are named for conserved proline and glutamic acid residues close to the amino terminus3,4. However, the role of these proteins remains largely elusive1. Here, we show that mutations of ppe38 completely block the secretion of two large subsets of ESX-5 substrates, that is, PPE-MPTR and PE_PGRS, together comprising >80 proteins. Importantly, hypervirulent clinical M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage have such a mutation and a concomitant loss of secretion5. Restoration of PPE38-dependent secretion partially reverted the hypervirulence phenotype of a Beijing strain, and deletion of ppe38 in moderately virulent M. tuberculosis increased virulence. This indicates that these ESX-5 substrates have an important role in virulence attenuation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that deletion of ppe38 occurred at the branching point of the ‘modern’ Beijing sublineage and is shared by Beijing outbreak strains worldwide, suggesting that this deletion may have contributed to their success and global distribution6,7.

  5. Mutations in ppe38 block PE_PGRS secretion and increase virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ates, Louis S.; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Ummels, Roy; Piersma, Sander R.; van der Woude, Aniek D.; van der Kuij, Kim; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; Barrios-Payá n, Jorge; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Guapillo, Carolina; Jimé nez, Connie R.; Pain, Arnab; Houben, Edith N. G.; Warren, Robin M.; Brosch, Roland; Herná ndez-Pando, Rogelio; Bitter, Wilbert

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a large number of secreted and exported proteins for its virulence, immune modulation and nutrient uptake. Most of these proteins are transported by the different type VII secretion systems1,2. The most recently evolved type VII secretion system, ESX-5, secretes dozens of substrates belonging to the PE and PPE families, which are named for conserved proline and glutamic acid residues close to the amino terminus3,4. However, the role of these proteins remains largely elusive1. Here, we show that mutations of ppe38 completely block the secretion of two large subsets of ESX-5 substrates, that is, PPE-MPTR and PE_PGRS, together comprising >80 proteins. Importantly, hypervirulent clinical M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage have such a mutation and a concomitant loss of secretion5. Restoration of PPE38-dependent secretion partially reverted the hypervirulence phenotype of a Beijing strain, and deletion of ppe38 in moderately virulent M. tuberculosis increased virulence. This indicates that these ESX-5 substrates have an important role in virulence attenuation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that deletion of ppe38 occurred at the branching point of the ‘modern’ Beijing sublineage and is shared by Beijing outbreak strains worldwide, suggesting that this deletion may have contributed to their success and global distribution6,7.

  6. A common polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNFSF4 gene is associated with lower allele-specific expression and risk of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The TNFSF4/TNFRSF4 system, along with several other receptor-ligand pairs, is involved in the recruitment and activation of T-cells and is therefore tentatively implicated in atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. We have previously shown that genetic variants in TNFSF4 are associated with myocardial infarction (MI in women. This prompted functional studies of TNFSF4 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a screening of the TNFSF4 genomic region, a promoter polymorphism (rs45454293 and a haplotype were identified, conceivably involved in gene regulation. The rs45454293T-allele, in agreement with the linked rs3850641G-allele, proved to be associated with increased risk of MI in women. Haplotype-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation of activated polymerase II, as a measure of transcriptional activity in vivo, suggested that the haplotype including the rs45454293 and rs3850641 polymorphisms is functionally important, the rs45454293T- and rs3850641G-alleles being associated with lower transcriptional activity in cells heterozygous for both polymorphisms. The functional role of rs45454293 on transcriptional levels of TNFSF4 was clarified by luciferase reporter assays, where the rs45454293T-allele decreased gene expression when compared with the rs45454293C-allele, while the rs3850641 SNP did not have any effect on TNFSF4 promoter activity. Electromobility shift assay showed that the rs45454293 polymorphism, but not rs3850641, affects the binding of nuclear factors, thus suggesting that the lower transcriptional activity is attributed to binding of one or more transcriptional repressor(s to the T-allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the TNFSF4 rs45454293T-allele is associated with lower TNFSF4 expression and increased risk of MI.

  7. RgpF Is Required for Maintenance of Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, C J; Faustoferri, R C; Quivey, R G

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance, and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans , the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of the deletion of rgpF , the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in the construction of the core polyrhamnose backbone of RGP. The Δ rgpF mutant strain displayed an overall reduced fitness compared to the wild type, with heightened sensitivities to various stress-inducing culture conditions and an inability to tolerate acid challenge. The loss of rgpF caused a perturbation of membrane-associated functions known to be critical for aciduricity, a hallmark of S. mutans acid tolerance. The proton gradient across the membrane was disrupted, and the Δ rgpF mutant strain was unable to induce activity of the F 1 F o ATPase in cultures grown under low-pH conditions. Further, the virulence potential of S. mutans was also drastically reduced following the deletion of rgpF The Δ rgpF mutant strain produced significantly less robust biofilms, indicating an impairment in its ability to adhere to hydroxyapatite surfaces. Additionally, the Δ rgpF mutant lost competitive fitness against oral peroxigenic streptococci, and it displayed significantly attenuated virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella infection model. Collectively, these results highlight a critical function of the RGP in the maintenance of overall stress tolerance and virulence traits in S. mutans IMPORTANCE The cell wall of Streptococcus mutans , the bacterium most commonly associated with tooth decay, is abundant in rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP). While these structures are antigenically distinct to S. mutans

  8. Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-11-01

    The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, anti-virulence approaches target bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability, which may be less prone to develop drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces diverse virulence factors, such as α-toxin, which is hemolytic. Also, biofilm formation of S. aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. In this study, anti-biofilm screening of 83 essential oils showed that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and their common constituent cis-nerolidol at 0.01 % markedly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Furthermore, the three essential oils and cis-nerolidol at below 0.005 % almost abolished the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that black pepper oil down-regulated the expressions of the α-toxin gene (hla), the nuclease genes, and the regulatory genes. In addition, black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and cis-nerolidol attenuated S. aureus virulence in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study is one of the most extensive on anti-virulence screening using diverse essential oils and provides comprehensive data on the subject. This finding implies other beneficial effects of essential oils and suggests that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential use as anti-virulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infections.

  9. Assessment of the myostatin Q204X allele using an allelic discrimination assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Puentes-Montiel,Herlinda E.; Moreno-Medina,Víctor R.; Rosa-Reyna,Xóchitl F. de la

    2006-01-01

    An allelic discrimination assay was designed and used to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the myostatin (MSTN) gene Q204X allele from two Mexican Full-French herds. The assay is a simple high throughput genotyping method that could be applied to investigate the effect of the Q204X allele on the Charolais breed.

  10. The induction of specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of mice to ultraviolet attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, N.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Webbe, G.

    1985-01-01

    Mice can be partially protected against Schistosoma japonicum by prior exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated infections which fail to survive to the adult stage and produce no overt pathology in the host. Optimum resistance was induced by parasites exposed to 40 seconds of UV, significantly lower levels of resistance being stimulated by both shorter and longer exposures. No consistent relationship between the degree of resistance induced and the number of irradiated cercariae given could be demonstrated and equivocal results were obtained when comparing the efficacy of single and multiple vaccinations. Vaccinations with UV-attenuated cercariae given intraperitoneally (i.p.) were as efficacious as those given percutaneously but mice were as or more resistant to challenges given by the i.p. route, the possible reasons are discussed. There was no observed delay in the migration of the challenge, vaccinated mice being as resistant when perfused 6 or 3.5 weeks after challenge. Vaccination was species specific since mice exposed to either UV-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae or gamma-attenuated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to homologous but not heterologous challenge. (author)

  11. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ß-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-02-26

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ß-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to Amp does not influence bacterial growth and biofilm formation, but alters the virulence, colonization capacity, composition of extracellular polymeric substances and secretion of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector Hcp. This attenuation in virulence is linked to unique or differential expression of known virulence-associated genes based on genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. The reliability of expression data generated by RNA-Seq was verified with quantitative real-time PCR of 21 selected T6SS genes, where significant down-regulation in expression of hcp gene, corresponding to the reduction in secretion of Hcp, was observed under exposure to Amp. Hcp is highlighted as a potential target for Amp, with similar changes observed in virulence-associated phenotypes between exposure to Amp and mutation of hcp gene. In addition, Hcp secretion is reduced in knockout mutants of 4 differentially expressed T6SS genes.

  12. Virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus: the need for in vivo analysis of virulence factor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragman, Alexa A; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2004-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic microorganism that is responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. These infections can be relatively mild, but serious, life-threatening infections may result from the expression of staphylococcal virulence factors that are coordinated by virulence regulators. Much work has been done to characterize the actions of staphylococcal virulence regulators in broth culture. Recently, several laboratories showed that transcriptional analyses of virulence regulators in in vivo animal models or in human infection did not correlate with transcriptional analyses accomplished in vitro. In describing the differences between in vitro and in vivo transcription of staphylococcal virulence regulators, we hope to encourage investigators to study virulence regulators using infection models whenever possible.

  13. Using the Textpresso Site-Specific Recombinases Web server to identify Cre expressing mouse strains and floxed alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Brian G; Urbanski, William M

    2014-01-01

    Effective tools for searching the biomedical literature are essential for identifying reagents or mouse strains as well as for effective experimental design and informed interpretation of experimental results. We have built the Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases (Textpresso SSR) Web server to enable researchers who use mice to perform in-depth searches of a rapidly growing and complex part of the mouse literature. Our Textpresso Web server provides an interface for searching the full text of most of the peer-reviewed publications that report the characterization or use of mouse strains that express Cre or Flp recombinase. The database also contains most of the publications that describe the characterization or analysis of strains carrying conditional alleles or transgenes that can be inactivated or activated by site-specific recombinases such as Cre or Flp. Textpresso SSR complements the existing online databases that catalog Cre and Flp expression patterns by providing a unique online interface for the in-depth text mining of the site specific recombinase literature.

  14. A novel Toxoplasma gondii nuclear factor TgNF3 is a dynamic chromatin-associated component, modulator of nucleolar architecture and parasite virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Olguin-Lamas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Toxoplasma gondii, cis-acting elements present in promoter sequences of genes that are stage-specifically regulated have been described. However, the nuclear factors that bind to these cis-acting elements and regulate promoter activities have not been identified. In the present study, we performed affinity purification, followed by proteomic analysis, to identify nuclear factors that bind to a stage-specific promoter in T. gondii. This led to the identification of several nuclear factors in T. gondii including a novel factor, designated herein as TgNF3. The N-terminal domain of TgNF3 shares similarities with the N-terminus of yeast nuclear FK506-binding protein (FKBP, known as a histone chaperone regulating gene silencing. Using anti-TgNF3 antibodies, HA-FLAG and YFP-tagged TgNF3, we show that TgNF3 is predominantly a parasite nucleolar, chromatin-associated protein that binds specifically to T. gondii gene promoters in vivo. Genome-wide analysis using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identified promoter occupancies by TgNF3. In addition, TgNF3 has a direct role in transcriptional control of genes involved in parasite metabolism, transcription and translation. The ectopic expression of TgNF3 in the tachyzoites revealed dynamic changes in the size of the nucleolus, leading to a severe attenuation of virulence in vivo. We demonstrate that TgNF3 physically interacts with H3, H4 and H2A/H2B assembled into bona fide core and nucleosome-associated histones. Furthermore, TgNF3 interacts specifically to histones in the context of stage-specific gene silencing of a promoter that lacks active epigenetic acetylated histone marks. In contrast to virulent tachyzoites, which express the majority of TgNF3 in the nucleolus, the protein is exclusively located in the cytoplasm of the avirulent bradyzoites. We propose a model where TgNF3 acts essentially to coordinate nucleolus and nuclear functions by modulating

  15. Mechanistic Insight into the Host Transcription Inhibition Function of Rift Valley Fever Virus NSs and Its Importance in Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kaori; Ramirez, Sydney I; Makino, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the genus Phlebovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, causes periodic outbreaks in livestocks and humans in countries of the African continent and Middle East. RVFV NSs protein, a nonstructural protein, is a major virulence factor that exhibits several important biological properties. These include suppression of general transcription, inhibition of IFN-β promoter induction and degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R. Although each of these biological functions of NSs are considered important for countering the antiviral response in the host, the individual contributions of these functions towards RVFV virulence remains unclear. To examine this, we generated two RVFV MP-12 strain-derived mutant viruses. Each carried mutations in NSs that specifically targeted its general transcription inhibition function without affecting its ability to degrade PKR and inhibit IFN-β promoter induction, through its interaction with Sin3-associated protein 30, a part of the repressor complex at the IFN-β promoter. Using these mutant viruses, we have dissected the transcription inhibition function of NSs and examined its importance in RVFV virulence. Both NSs mutant viruses exhibited a differentially impaired ability to inhibit host transcription when compared with MP-12. It has been reported that NSs suppresses general transcription by interfering with the formation of the transcription factor IIH complex, through the degradation of the p62 subunit and sequestration of the p44 subunit. Our study results lead us to suggest that the ability of NSs to induce p62 degradation is the major contributor to its general transcription inhibition property, whereas its interaction with p44 may not play a significant role in this function. Importantly, RVFV MP-12-NSs mutant viruses with an impaired general transcription inhibition function showed a reduced cytotoxicity in cell culture and attenuated virulence in young mice

  16. Virulence determinants of Moraxella catarrhalis: distribution and considerations for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, Luke V; Tan, Aimee; Peak, Ian R A; Seib, Kate L

    2017-10-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa. It frequently colonizes the nasopharynx asymptomatically, but is also an important causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children, and plays a significant role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. As the current treatment options for M. catarrhalis infection in OM and exacerbations of COPD are often ineffective, the development of an efficacious vaccine is warranted. However, no vaccine candidates for M. catarrhalis have progressed to clinical trials, and information regarding the distribution of M. catarrhalis virulence factors and vaccine candidates is inconsistent in the literature. It is largely unknown if virulence is associated with particular strains or subpopulations of M. catarrhalis, or if differences in clinical manifestation can be attributed to the heterogeneous expression of specific M. catarrhalis virulence factors in the circulating population. Further investigation of the distribution of M. catarrhalis virulence factors in the context of carriage and disease is required so that vaccine development may be targeted at relevant antigens that are conserved among disease-causing strains. The challenge of determining which of the proposed M. catarrhalis virulence factors are relevant to human disease is amplified by the lack of a standardized M. catarrhalis typing system to facilitate direct comparisons of worldwide isolates. Here we summarize and evaluate proposed relationships between M. catarrhalis subpopulations and specific virulence factors in the context of colonization and disease, as well as the current methods used to infer these associations.

  17. Frequency of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Bagheri, Nader; Zamanzad, Behnam; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-03-01

    The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been related to specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cagA gene, oipA and babA2 gene are important virulence factor involving gastric diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between virulence factors of H. pylori and histopathological findings. Gastroduodenoscopy was performed in 436 dyspeptic patients. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, virulence factors and for histopathological assessment. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence factors of H. pylori using specific primers. vacA genotypes in patients infected with H. pylori were associated with cagA, iceA1 and iceA2. In the patients with H. pylori infection there was a significant relationship between cagA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and chronic inflammation (P = 0.013) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.034). Neutrophil infiltration was found to be more severe in the s1 group than in the s2 group (P = 0.042). Also was a significant relationship between oipA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.018). No significant relationships were observed between other vacA genotypes and histopathological parameters. H. pylori strains showing cagA, vacA s1 and oipA positivity are associated with more severe gastritis in some histological features but virulence factors of H. pylori do not appear to determine the overall pattern of gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Life Stage-specific Proteomes of Legionella pneumophila Reveal a Highly Differential Abundance of Virulence-associated Dot/Icm effectors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurass, Philipp; Gerlach, Thomas; Becher, Dörte; Voigt, Birgit; Karste, Susanne; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Hecker, Michael; Flieger, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Major differences in the transcriptional program underlying the phenotypic switch between exponential and post-exponential growth of Legionella pneumophila were formerly described characterizing important alterations in infection capacity. Additionally, a third state is known where the bacteria transform in a viable but nonculturable state under stress, such as starvation. We here describe phase-related proteomic changes in exponential phase (E), postexponential phase (PE) bacteria, and unculturable microcosms (UNC) containing viable but nonculturable state cells, and identify phase-specific proteins. We present data on different bacterial subproteomes of E and PE, such as soluble whole cell proteins, outer membrane-associated proteins, and extracellular proteins. In total, 1368 different proteins were identified, 922 were quantified and 397 showed differential abundance in E/PE. The quantified subproteomes of soluble whole cell proteins, outer membrane-associated proteins, and extracellular proteins; 841, 55, and 77 proteins, respectively, were visualized in Voronoi treemaps. 95 proteins were quantified exclusively in E, such as cell division proteins MreC, FtsN, FtsA, and ZipA; 33 exclusively in PE, such as motility-related proteins of flagellum biogenesis FlgE, FlgK, and FliA; and 9 exclusively in unculturable microcosms soluble whole cell proteins, such as hypothetical, as well as transport/binding-, and metabolism-related proteins. A high frequency of differentially abundant or phase-exclusive proteins was observed among the 91 quantified effectors of the major virulence-associated protein secretion system Dot/Icm (> 60%). 24 were E-exclusive, such as LepA/B, YlfA, MavG, Lpg2271, and 13 were PE-exclusive, such as RalF, VipD, Lem10. The growth phase-related specific abundance of a subset of Dot/Icm virulence effectors was confirmed by means of Western blotting. We therefore conclude that many effectors are predominantly abundant at either E or PE which suggests

  19. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis. PMID:26731663

  20. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

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    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  1. Pyramiding of transgenic Pm3 alleles in wheat results in improved powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Teresa; Brunner, Susanne; Herren, Gerhard; Hurni, Severine; Keller, Beat

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of enhanced total transgene expression level and allele-specificity combination in transgenic allele-pyramided Pm3 wheat lines result in improved powdery mildew field resistance without negative pleiotropic effects. Allelic Pm3 resistance genes of wheat confer race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) and encode nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors. Transgenic wheat lines overexpressing alleles Pm3a, b, c, d, f, and g have previously been generated by transformation of cultivar Bobwhite and tested in field trials, revealing varying degrees of powdery mildew resistance conferred by the transgenes. Here, we tested four transgenic lines each carrying two pyramided Pm3 alleles, which were generated by crossbreeding of lines transformed with single Pm3 alleles. All four allele-pyramided lines showed strongly improved powdery mildew resistance in the field compared to their parental lines. The improved resistance results from the two effects of enhanced total transgene expression levels and allele-specificity combinations. In contrast to leaf segment tests on greenhouse-grown seedlings, no allelic suppression was observed in the field. Plant development and yield scores of the pyramided lines were similar to the mean scores of the corresponding parental lines, and thus, the allele pyramiding did not cause any negative effects. On the contrary, in pyramided line, Pm3b × Pm3f normal plant development was restored compared to the delayed development and reduced seed set of parental line Pm3f. Allele-specific RT qPCR revealed additive transgene expression levels of the two Pm3 alleles in the pyramided lines. A positive correlation between total transgene expression level and powdery mildew field resistance was observed. In summary, allele pyramiding of Pm3 transgenes proved to be successful in enhancing powdery mildew field resistance.

  2. Sigma E regulators control hemolytic activity and virulence in a shrimp pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonsri Rattanama

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. vulnificus. We have used transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in the hemolytic activity of shrimp-pathogenic V. harveyi strain PSU3316. Out of 1,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited virulence attenuation in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Mutants were identified by comparing transposon junction sequences to a draft of assembly of the PSU3316 genome. Surprisingly none of the disrupted open reading frames or gene neighborhoods contained genes annotated as hemolysins. The gene encoding RseB, a negative regulator of the sigma factor (σ(E, was interrupted in 2 out of 5 transposon mutants, in addition, the transcription factor CytR, a threonine synthetase, and an efflux-associated cytoplasmic protein were also identified. Knockout mutations introduced into the rpoE operon at the rseB gene exhibited low hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison of whole cell extracted proteins in the rseB mutant (PSU4030 to the wild-type by 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed 6 differentially expressed proteins, including two down-regulated porins (OmpC-like and OmpN and an upregulated protease (DegQ which have been associated with σ(E in other organisms. Our study is the first report linking hemolytic activity to the σ(E regulators in pathogenic Vibrio species and suggests expression of this virulence-linked phenotype is governed by multiple regulatory pathways within the V. harveyi.

  3. Global phylogeography of the avian malaria pathogen Plasmodium relictum based on MSP1 allelic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Olof; Atkinson, Carter T.; Bensch, Staffan; Albayrak, Tamer; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ewen, John G.; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Lima, Marcos R.; Martin, Lynn; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Ricklefs, Robert; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Gediminas, Valkiunas; Tsuda, Yoshio; Marzal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the genetic variation that occurs in pathogen populations and how it is distributed across geographical areas is essential to understand parasite epidemiology, local patterns of virulence, and evolution of host-resistance. In addition, it is important to identify populations of pathogens that are evolutionarily independent and thus ‘free’ to adapt to hosts and environments. Here, we investigated genetic variation in the globally distributed, highly invasive avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, which has several distinctive mitochondrial haplotyps (cyt b lineages, SGS1, GRW11 and GRW4). The phylogeography of P. relictum was accessed using the highly variable nuclear gene merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a gene linked to the invasion biology of the parasite. We show that the lineage GRW4 is evolutionarily independent of GRW11 and SGS1 whereas GRW11 and SGS1 share MSP1 alleles and thus suggesting the presence of two distinct species (GRW4 versus SGS1 and GRW11). Further, there were significant differences in the global distribution of MSP1 alleles with differences between GRW4 alleles in the New and the Old World. For SGS1, a lineage formerly believed to have both tropical and temperate transmission, there were clear differences in MSP1 alleles transmitted in tropical Africa compared to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Further, we highlight the occurrence of multiple MSP1 alleles in GRW4 isolates from the Hawaiian Islands, where the parasite has contributed to declines and extinctions of endemic forest birds since it was introduced. This study stresses the importance of multiple independent loci for understanding patterns of transmission and evolutionary independence across avian malaria parasites.

  4. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seedlings of 4 barley lines possessing resistance genes M1-a6, M1-a12 or M1-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3, which is a-virulent to the 4 host lines. In total, 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence of virulent mutants, 43 putative virulent mutants were found. They could be grouped into 5 genotypes according to the virulence spectrum. They might have originated by one of the following events: 1. admixture, 2. physiological events that allow a few conidia to establish colonies in spite of the presence of a functional gene for resistance, 3. mutation in a gene for specificity, 4. deletion or mutation in some kind of suppressing element in which case more than one virulence may be affected. Based upon the virulence spectra, mating type, biochemical tests and analysis of test crosses, 3 of the genotypes were clearly classified as not being of mutational origin. Of the two remaining genotypes one differed in 4 virulences, the other by two virulences and one avirulence. Based upon expectations from the gene-for-gene concept, it is concluded that both were not of mutational origin. If in fact there are derived from a mutation, the concept of gene-for-gene interactions would have to be revised. Assuming that no mutations for virulence were found in this experiment, the spontaneous mutation frequency from avirulence to virulence would be below 2x10 -8 . (author)

  5. Virulence marker candidates in N-protein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV): virulence variability within VHSV Ib clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-ichiro

    2018-01-01

    , upon cloning by limited dilution, both isolates appeared to be heterogeneous in terms of reactivity with nucleo (N)-protein-specific MAbs as well their gene sequences. Infection trials in rainbow trout further revealed differences in the virulence of these virus clones derived from the same primary...

  6. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug

  7. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisle John T

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis

  8. Mutation of purD and purF genes further attenuates Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Barate, Abhijit Kashinath; Kim, Suk; Watarai, Masahisa; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, transposon mutagenesis was used to further attenuate Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine strain. Two purD and purF mutants were constructed, characterized and evaluated for attenuation via intracellular survival in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 and HeLa cells, and by clearance in BALB/c mice. The purD and purF mutants showed significantly decreased intracellular survival, and complementation of these mutants with intact copies of purD or purF genes of RB51 strain was able to restore these defects. In addition, the pur mutants presented significantly lowered persistence in mice. Immunization with purD and purF mutants protected mice against a challenge with the virulent B. abortus strain 544 at a level similar to that of the parent RB51. These data suggest that genes encoding the early stages of purine biosynthesis (purD and purF) are required for intracellular survival and virulence of B. abortus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HLA Dr beta 1 alleles in Pakistani patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqi, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 alleles in rheumatoid arthritis in Pakistani patients. Study Design: Cross sectional / analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Rheumatology departments of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: HLA DR beta 1 genotyping of one hundred Pakistani patients, diagnosed as having RA as per American College of Rheumatology revised criteria 1987, was done. HLA DR beta 1 genotyping was carried out at allele group level (DR beta 1*01-DR beta 1*16) by sequence specific primers in RA patients. Comparison of HLA DR beta 1 allele frequencies between patients and control groups was made using Pearson's chi-square test to find possible association of HLA DR?1 alleles with RA in Pakistani rheumatoid patients. Results: HLA DR beta 1*04 was expressed with significantly increased frequency in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p <0.05). HLA DR?1*11 was expressed statistically significantly more in control group as compared to rheumatoid patients indicating a possible protective effect. There was no statistically significant difference observed in frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 allele *01, DR beta 1 allele *03, DR beta 1 allele *07, DR beta 1 allele *08, DR beta 1 allele *09, DR beta 1 allele *10, DR beta 1 allele *12, DR beta 1 allele *13, DR beta 1 allele *14, DR?1 allele *15 and DR beta 1 allele *16 between patients and control groups. Conclusion: The identification of susceptible HLA DR beta 1 alleles in Pakistani RA patients may help physicians to make early decisions regarding initiation of early intensive therapy with disease modifying anti rheumatic medicines and biological agents decreasing disability in RA patients. (author)

  10. Evaluation of a FRET-peptide substrate to predict virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Wendy E Kaman

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of proteases that are associated with virulence and disease progression. A substrate able to detect P. aeruginosa-specific proteolytic activity could help to rapidly alert clinicians to the virulence potential of individual P. aeruginosa strains. For this purpose we designed a set of P. aeruginosa-specific fluorogenic substrates, comprising fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-labeled peptides, and evaluated their applicability to P. aeruginosa virulence in a range of clinical isolates. A FRET-peptide comprising three glycines (3xGly was found to be specific for the detection of P. aeruginosa proteases. Further screening of 97 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates showed a wide variation in 3xGly cleavage activity. The absence of 3xGly degradation by a lasI knock out strain indicated that 3xGly cleavage by P. aeruginosa could be quorum sensing (QS-related, a hypothesis strengthened by the observation of a strong correlation between 3xGly cleavage, LasA staphylolytic activity and pyocyanin production. Additionally, isolates able to cleave 3xGly were more susceptible to the QS inhibiting antibiotic azithromycin (AZM. In conclusion, we designed and evaluated a 3xGly substrate possibly useful as a simple tool to predict virulence and AZM susceptibility.

  11. Attenuation of quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation by medicinal plants against antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sankar Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa use small signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, which play an important role in release virulence factors and toxin for further establishment of host infection. Thus, involving with the QS system would provide alternative ways of preventing the pathogenicity. In the present study, totally six medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Celastrus paniculatus, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Schleichera oleosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Garcinia gummi-gutta were screened for anti-QS activity using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472. The primary screening of antimicrobial activity of all the plant extracts have inhibited the growth of tested bacterial species. Of these at the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration the methanol extract of T. bellerica (0.0625–0.5 mg/ml has significantly inhibited violacein production (20.07–66.22% in C. violaceum (CV12472. Consequently, the extract of T. bellerica has reduced the production of pyocyanin, exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the reduction of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains when treated with T. bellerica. GC–MS analysis showed the active compounds inhibited the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. The results suggest the possible use of this T. bellerica as an anti-QS and anti-biofilm agent to control Pseudomonas infection. Interference of QS provides an important means for the inhibition of bacterial virulence and thus aids in treatment strategies.

  12. Induction of Mucosal Homing Virus-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes by Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Cromwell, Mandy A.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Altman, John D.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Glickman, Rhona; Allen, Todd M.; Watkins, David I.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Johnson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Induction of virus-specific T-cell responses in mucosal as well as systemic compartments of the immune system is likely to be a critical feature of an effective AIDS vaccine. We investigated whether virus-specific CD8+ lymphocytes induced in rhesus macaques by immunization with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an approach that is highly effective in eliciting protection against mucosal challenge, express the mucosa-homing receptor α4β7 and traffic to the intestinal mucosa. SIV-...

  13. RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression 24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Zhao, XinXin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2017-09-13

    Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for many years, however, a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of CHv strain and protection of CHa strain to ducks is still blank. In present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to analyze transcriptome profiling of duck spleens for the first time to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the infection of CHv and CHa at 24 h. Comparison of gene expression with mock ducks revealed 748 DEGs and 484 DEGs after CHv and CHa infection, respectively. Gene pathway analysis of DEGs highlighted valuable biological processes involved in host immune response, cell apoptosis and viral invasion. Genes expressed in those pathways were different in CHv infected duck spleens and CHa vaccinated duck spleens. The results may provide valuable information for us to explore the reasons of pathogenicity caused by CHv strain and protection activated by CHa strain.

  14. An extensive allelic series of Drosophila kae1 mutants reveals diverse and tissue-specific requirements for t6A biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Jung; Smibert, Peter; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Hu, Jennifer F.; Ramroop, Johnny; Kellner, Stefanie M.; Benton, Matthew A.; Govind, Shubha; Dedon, Peter C.; Sternglanz, Rolf; Lai, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenosine (t6A) is one of the few RNA modifications that is universally present in life. This modification occurs at high frequency at position 37 of most tRNAs that decode ANN codons, and stabilizes cognate anticodon–codon interactions. Nearly all genetic studies of the t6A pathway have focused on single-celled organisms. In this study, we report the isolation of an extensive allelic series in the Drosophila ortholog of the core t6A biosynthesis factor Kae1. kae1 hemizygous larvae exhibit decreases in t6A that correlate with allele strength; however, we still detect substantial t6A-modified tRNAs even during the extended larval phase of null alleles. Nevertheless, complementation of Drosophila Kae1 and other t6A factors in corresponding yeast null mutants demonstrates that these metazoan genes execute t6A synthesis. Turning to the biological consequences of t6A loss, we characterize prominent kae1 melanotic masses and show that they are associated with lymph gland overgrowth and ectopic generation of lamellocytes. On the other hand, kae1 mutants exhibit other phenotypes that reflect insufficient tissue growth. Interestingly, whole-tissue and clonal analyses show that strongly mitotic tissues such as imaginal discs are exquisitely sensitive to loss of kae1, whereas nonproliferating tissues are less affected. Indeed, despite overt requirements of t6A for growth of many tissues, certain strong kae1 alleles achieve and sustain enlarged body size during their extended larval phase. Our studies highlight tissue-specific requirements of the t6A pathway in a metazoan context and provide insights into the diverse biological roles of this fundamental RNA modification during animal development and disease. PMID:26516084

  15. The IL23R A/Gln381 allele promotes IL-23 unresponsiveness in human memory T-helper 17 cells and impairs Th17 responses in psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meglio, Paola; Villanova, Federica; Napolitano, Luca; Tosi, Isabella; Terranova Barberio, Manuela; Mak, Rose K; Nutland, Sarah; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Todd, John A; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-10-01

    We and others have shown that the minor, nonconserved allele Gln381 of the Arg381Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs11209026G>A) of the IL-23 receptor gene (IL23R) protects against psoriasis. Moreover, we have recently shown impaired IL-23-induced IL-17A production and STAT-3 phosphorylation in Th17 cells generated in vitro from healthy individuals heterozygous for the protective A allele (GA). However, the biological effect of this variant has not been determined in homozygous carriers of the protective A allele (AA), nor in psoriatic patients. Here we expand our functional investigation of the IL23R Arg381Gln gene variant to include AA homozygous individuals. By using isolated memory CD4+ T cells, we found attenuated IL-23-induced Th17 response in heterozygous individuals. Moreover, we found that AA homozygous individuals were strikingly unresponsive to IL-23, with minimal or no IL-17A and IL-17F production and failure of human memory Th17 cell survival/expansion. Finally, IL-23-induced Th17 response was also attenuated in age- and sex-matched GA versus GG psoriatic patients undergoing systemic treatment. Taken together, our data provide evidence for an allele-dosage effect for IL-23R Gln381 and indicate that common gene alleles associated with complex diseases might have biological effects of considerable magnitude in homozygous carriers.

  16. Cell Density Control of Staphylococcal Virulence Mediated by an Octapeptide Pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangyong; Beavis, Ronald C.; Novick, Richard P.

    1995-12-01

    Some bacterial pathogens elaborate and secrete virulence factors in response to environmental signals, others in response to a specific host product, and still others in response to no discernible cue. In this study, we have demonstrated that the synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors is controlled by a density-sensing system that utilizes an octapeptide produced by the organism itself. The octapeptide activates expression of the agr locus, a global regulator of the virulence response. This response involves the reciprocal regulation of genes encoding surface proteins and those encoding secreted virulence factors. As cells enter the postexponential phase, surface protein genes are repressed by agr and secretory protein genes are subsequently activated. The intracellular agr effector is a regulatory RNA, RNAIII, whose transcription is activated by an agr-encoded signal transduction system for which the octapeptide is the ligand.

  17. Differences in Virulence Markers between Helicobacter pylori Strains from Iraq and Those from Iran: Potential Importance of Regional Differences in H. pylori-Associated Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R.; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P.; Muhammad, Merdan K.; Argent, Richard H.; Atherton, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P ≤ 0.01) but not in Iran. cagA alleles encoding four or more tyrosine phosphorylation motifs were found in 12% of the Iranian strains but none of the Iraqi strains (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in the vacA signal-, middle-, or intermediate-region types between Iranian and Iraqi strains. Among the strains from Iran, vacA genotypes showed no specific peptic ulcer associations, but among the strains from Iraq, vacA i1 strains were associated with gastric ulcer (P ≤ 0.02), mimicking their previously demonstrated association with gastric cancer in Iran. dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P ≤ 0.01) but not Iranian patients. H. pylori strains from Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population. PMID:18353934

  18. Patterns of variation at Ustilago maydis virulence clusters 2A and 19A largely reflect the demographic history of its populations.

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    Ronny Kellner

    Full Text Available The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis - Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

  19. Novel Burkholderia mallei Virulence Factors Linked to Specific Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-23

    equine hosts. Thus, the genes retained in B. mallei share a high sequence similarity to genes common to B. pseudomallei (3), and many virulence...oppor- tunistic infections in mammalian hosts. Even for the equine - adapted and, thus, more genetically constrained, B. mallei pathogen, we cannot...BioDrugs: Clin. Immunotherapeut., Biopharmaceut. Gene Therapy 17, 413–424 88. Anderson, D. M., and Frank, D. W. (2012) Five mechanisms of manipula

  20. Development of a human live attenuated West Nile infectious DNA vaccine: Identification of a minimal mutation set conferring the attenuation level acceptable for a human vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamshchikov, Vladimir, E-mail: yaximik@gmail.com; Manuvakhova, Marina; Rodriguez, Efrain; Hébert, Charles

    2017-01-15

    ABSTRACT: For the development of a human West Nile (WN) infectious DNA (iDNA) vaccine, we created highly attenuated chimeric virus W1806 with the serological identity of highly virulent WN-NY99. Earlier, we attempted to utilize mutations found in the E protein of the SA14-14-2 vaccine to bring safety of W1806 to the level acceptable for human use (). Here, we analyzed effects of the SA14-14-2 changes on growth properties and neurovirulence of W1806. A set including the E138K, K279M, K439R and G447D changes was identified as the perspective subset for satisfying the target safety profile without compromising immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate. The genetic stability of the attenuated phenotype was found to be unsatisfactory being dependent on a subset of attenuating changes incorporated in W1806. Elucidation of underlying mechanisms influencing selection of pathways for restoration of the envelope protein functionality will facilitate resolution of the emerged genetic stability issue. - Highlights: •Effect of mutations in E on properties of WN1806 is determined. •A subset of attenuating mutations suitable for a human vaccine is defined. •Mechanism of attenuation is proposed and illustrated. •Underlying mechanisms of neurovirulence reversion are suggested.

  1. The stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, regulates the production of a carbapenem antibiotic, a bioactive prodigiosin and virulence in the enterobacterial pathogen Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Nabil M; Salmond, George P C

    2012-03-01

    Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and invertebrate animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes pectate lyase and cellulase. We showed previously that deletion of the RNA chaperone Hfq abolished antibiotic production and attenuated virulence in both animal and plant hosts. Hfq and dependent small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to regulate the post-transcriptional expression of rpoS, which encodes σ(S), the stationary phase sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase. An S39006 hfq deletion mutant showed decreased transcript levels of rpoS. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether the phenotypes regulated by Hfq were mediated through its control of rpoS. Whereas loss of Hfq abolished prodigiosin and carbapenem production and attenuated virulence in both C. elegans and potato, characterization of an S39006 rpoS mutant showed unexpectedly elevated prodigiosin and carbapenem production. Furthermore, the rpoS mutant exhibited attenuated animal pathogenesis, but not plant pathogenesis. Additionally, a homologue of the Hfq-dependent sRNA, RprA, was identified and shown to regulate prodigiosin production in a manner consistent with its role in positively regulating translation of rpoS mRNA. Combined, these results demonstrate that Hfq regulation of secondary metabolism and plant pathogenesis is independent of RpoS and establishes RpoS and RprA as regulators of antibiotic production.

  2. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

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    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  3. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  4. [Analysis of allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li; Shen, Xiao-li; Xue, Shi-jie; Hu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    To analyze allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing in order to determine the accurate genotype. To use a two STR loci genotyping system to verify an abnormal genotype for the TH01 locus with PCR using specific primers, cloning and DNA sequencing. A rare allele at TH01 locus named 5.2, which was undetectable with PowerPlex 21 system, was detected with an Identifiler system. Genetic variations may result in rare alleles and loci loss. To avoid misjudgment, laboratories should have a variety of methods for detecting loci loss.

  5. The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J D; Adler, B

    2000-06-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121-134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode proteins involved in capsule export, and region 2 contains genes proposed to encode proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. In order to construct a mutant impaired in capsule export, the final gene of region 1, cexA, was disrupted by insertion of a tetracycline resistance cassette by allelic replacement. The genotype of the tet(M) OmegacexA mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The acapsular phenotype was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and the strain could be complemented and returned to capsule production by the presence of a cloned uninterrupted copy of cexA. Wild-type, mutant, and complemented strains were tested for virulence by intraperitoneal challenge of mice; the presence of the capsule was shown to be a crucial virulence determinant. Following intraperitoneal challenge of mice, the acapsular bacteria were removed efficiently from the blood, spleen, and liver, while wild-type bacteria multiplied rapidly. Acapsular bacteria were readily taken up by murine peritoneal macrophages, but wild-type bacteria were significantly resistant to phagocytosis. Both wild-type and acapsular bacteria were resistant to complement in bovine and murine serum.

  6. Clonality, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from Mirzapur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Day, Michaela; Mtwale, Julia; White, Emma; Rogers, James; Day, Martin; Powell, David; Ahmad, Marwa; Harris, Ross; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Wain, John; Jenkins, Claire; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the virulence and antimicrobial resistance in association with common clonal complexes (CCs) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) isolated from Bangladesh. The aim was to determine whether specific CCs were more likely to be associated with putative virulence genes and/or antimicrobial resistance. The presence of 15 virulence genes (by PCR) and susceptibility to 18 antibiotics were determined for 151 EAEC isolated from cases and controls during an intestinal infectious disease study carried out between 2007-2011 in the rural setting of Mirzapur, Bangladesh (Kotloff KL, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Farag TH et al.Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:S232-S245). These data were then analysed in the context of previously determined serotypes and clonal complexes defined by multi-locus sequence typing. Overall there was no association between the presence of virulence or antimicrobial resistance genes in isolates of EAEC from cases versus controls. However, when stratified by clonal complex (CC) one CC associated with cases harboured more virulence factors (CC40) and one CC harboured more resistance genes (CC38) than the average. There was no direct link between the virulence gene content and antibiotic resistance. Strains within a single CC had variable virulence and resistance gene content indicating independent and multiple gene acquisitions over time. In Bangladesh, there are multiple clonal complexes of EAEC harbouring a variety of virulence and resistance genes. The emergence of two of the most successful clones appeared to be linked to either increased virulence (CC40) or antimicrobial resistance (CC38), but increased resistance and virulence were not found in the same clonal complexes.

  7. Brunenders: a partially attenuated historic poliovirus type I vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; Liu, Ying; Brandjes, Alies; van Hoek, Vladimir; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Brunenders, a type I poliovirus (PV) strain, was developed in 1952 by J. F. Enders and colleagues through serial in vitro passaging of the parental Brunhilde strain, and was reported to display partial neuroattenuation in monkeys. This phenotype of attenuation encouraged two vaccine manufacturers to adopt Brunenders as the type I component for their inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPVs) in the 1950s, although today no licensed IPV vaccine contains Brunenders. Here we confirmed, in a transgenic mouse model, the report of Enders on the reduced neurovirulence of Brunenders. Although dramatically neuroattenuated relative to WT PV strains, Brunenders remains more virulent than the attenuated oral vaccine strain, Sabin 1. Importantly, the neuroattenuation of Brunenders does not affect in vitro growth kinetics and in vitro antigenicity, which were similar to those of Mahoney, the conventional type I IPV vaccine strain. We showed, by full nucleotide sequencing, that Brunhilde and Brunenders differ at 31 nucleotides, eight of which lead to amino acid changes, all located in the capsid. Upon exchanging the Brunenders capsid sequence with that of the Mahoney capsid, WT neurovirulence was regained in vivo, suggesting a role for the capsid mutations in Brunenders attenuation. To date, as polio eradication draws closer, the switch to using attenuated strains for IPV is actively being pursued. Brunenders preceded this novel strategy as a partially attenuated IPV strain, accompanied by decades of successful use in the field. Providing data on the attenuation of Brunenders may be of value in the further construction of attenuated PV strains to support the grand pursuit of the global eradication of poliomyelitis.

  8. Amending Koch's postulates for viral disease: When "growth in pure culture" leads to a loss of virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2017-01-01

    It is a common laboratory practice to propagate viruses in cell culture. While convenient, these methodologies often result in unintentional genetic alterations, which have led to adaptation and even attenuation in animal models of disease. An example is the attenuation of hantaviruses (family: Bunyaviridae, genus: Hantavirus) when cultured in vitro. In this case, viruses propagated in the natural reservoir species cause disease in nonhuman primates that closely mimics the human disease, but passaging in cell culture attenuates these viruses to the extent that do not cause any measurable disease in nonhuman primates. As efforts to develop animal models progress, it will be important to take into account the influences that culture in vitro may have on the virulence of viruses. In this review we discuss this phenomenon in the context of past and recent examples in the published literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RHD alleles in the Tunisian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchari, Mouna; Jemni-Yaacoub, Saloua; Chakroun, Taher; Abdelkefi, Saida; Houissa, Batoul; Hmida, Slama

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in Tunisia population was lacking. The aim of this study was to use a multiplex RHD typing assay for simultaneous detection of partial D especially with RHD/RHCE deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence exchange mechanism and some weak D alleles. Materials and Methods: Six RHD specific primer sets were designed to amplify RHD exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9. DNA from 2000 blood donors (1777 D+ and 223 D-) from several regions was selected for RHD genotyping using a PCR multiplex assay. Further molecular investigations were done to characterize the RHD variants that were identified by the PCR multiplex assay. Results: In the 1777 D+ samples, only 10 individuals showed the absence of amplification of exons 4 and 5 that were subsequently identified by PCR-SSP as weak D type 4 variants. No hybrid allele was detected. In the 223 D-, RHD amplification of some exons was observed only in 5 samples: 4 individuals expressed only RHD exon 9, and one subject lacking exons 4 and 5. These samples were then screened by PCR-SSPs on d(C) ces and weak D type 4, respectively. Conclusion: The weak D type 4 appears to be the most common D variant allele. We have not found any partial D variant. Findings also indicated that RHD gene deletion is the most prevalent cause of the D- phenotype in the Tunisian population. PMID:24014941

  10. Reliable allele detection using SNP-based PCR primers containing Locked Nucleic Acid: application in genetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trognitz Friederike

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid, Solanum caripense, a wild relative of potato and tomato, possesses valuable resistance to potato late blight and we are interested in the genetic base of this resistance. Due to extremely low levels of genetic variation within the S. caripense genome it proved impossible to generate a dense genetic map and to assign individual Solanum chromosomes through the use of conventional chromosome-specific SSR, RFLP, AFLP, as well as gene- or locus-specific markers. The ease of detection of DNA polymorphisms depends on both frequency and form of sequence variation. The narrow genetic background of close relatives and inbreds complicates the detection of persisting, reduced polymorphism and is a challenge to the development of reliable molecular markers. Nonetheless, monomorphic DNA fragments representing not directly usable conventional markers can contain considerable variation at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. This can be used for the design of allele-specific molecular markers. The reproducible detection of allele-specific markers based on SNPs has been a technical challenge. Results We present a fast and cost-effective protocol for the detection of allele-specific SNPs by applying Sequence Polymorphism-Derived (SPD markers. These markers proved highly efficient for fingerprinting of individuals possessing a homogeneous genetic background. SPD markers are obtained from within non-informative, conventional molecular marker fragments that are screened for SNPs to design allele-specific PCR primers. The method makes use of primers containing a single, 3'-terminal Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA base. We demonstrate the applicability of the technique by successful genetic mapping of allele-specific SNP markers derived from monomorphic Conserved Ortholog Set II (COSII markers mapped to Solanum chromosomes, in S. caripense. By using SPD markers it was possible for the first time to map the S. caripense alleles

  11. Comparison of allele-specific PCR, created restriction-site PCR, and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis methods used for screening complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınel, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is an inherited, autosomal recessive disorder of Holstein cattle. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and rapidity of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), created restriction-site PCR (CRS-PCR), and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA), three methods used in identification of CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. In order to screen for the G>T mutation in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 (SLC35A3) gene, DNA sequencing as the gold standard method was used. The prevalence of carriers and the mutant allele frequency were 3.2% and 0.016, respectively, among Holstein cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey. Among the three methods, the fastest but least accurate was AS-PCR. Although the rapidity of CRS-PCR and PCR-PIRA were nearly equal, the accuracy of PCR-PIRA was higher than that of CRS-PCR. Therefore, among the three methods, PCR-PIRA appears to be the most efficacious for screening of mutant alleles when identifying CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. PMID:28927256

  12. Energy-Specific Optimization of Attenuation Thresholds for Low-Energy Virtual Monoenergetic Images in Renal Lesion Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavik N; Farjat, Alfredo; Schabel, Christoph; Duvnjak, Petar; Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo the optimal threshold for renal lesion vascularity at low-energy (40-60 keV) virtual monoenergetic imaging. A rod simulating unenhanced renal parenchymal attenuation (35 HU) was fitted with a syringe containing water. Three iodinated solutions (0.38, 0.57, and 0.76 mg I/mL) were inserted into another rod that simulated enhanced renal parenchyma (180 HU). Rods were inserted into cylindric phantoms of three different body sizes and scanned with single- and dual-energy MDCT. In addition, 102 patients (32 men, 70 women; mean age, 66.8 ± 12.9 [SD] years) with 112 renal lesions (67 nonvascular, 45 vascular) measuring 1.1-8.9 cm underwent single-energy unenhanced and contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT. Optimal threshold attenuation values that differentiated vascular from nonvascular lesions at 40-60 keV were determined. Mean optimal threshold values were 30.2 ± 3.6 (standard error), 20.9 ± 1.3, and 16.1 ± 1.0 HU in the phantom, and 35.9 ± 3.6, 25.4 ± 1.8, and 17.8 ± 1.8 HU in the patients at 40, 50, and 60 keV. Sensitivity and specificity for the thresholds did not change significantly between low-energy and 70-keV virtual monoenergetic imaging (sensitivity, 87-98%; specificity, 90-91%). The AUC from 40 to 70 keV was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.99) to 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1.00). Low-energy virtual monoenergetic imaging at energy-specific optimized attenuation thresholds can be used for reliable characterization of renal lesions.

  13. The Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Contributes to but Is Not Sufficient for Virulence In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison; Marzi, Andrea; Hoenen, Thomas; Herwig, Astrid; Gardner, Don; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Among the Ebola viruses most species cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans; however, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) has not been associated with human disease despite numerous documented infections. While the molecular basis for this difference remains unclear, in vitro evidence has suggested a role for the glycoprotein (GP) as a major filovirus pathogenicity factor, but direct evidence for such a role in the context of virus infection has been notably lacking. In order to assess the role of GP in EBOV virulence, we have developed a novel reverse genetics system for REBOV, which we report here. Together with a previously published full-length clone for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), this provides a unique possibility to directly investigate the role of an entire filovirus protein in pathogenesis. To this end we have generated recombinant ZEBOV (rZEBOV) and REBOV (rREBOV), as well as chimeric viruses in which the glycoproteins from these two virus species have been exchanged (rZEBOV-RGP and rREBOV-ZGP). All of these viruses could be rescued and the chimeras replicated with kinetics similar to their parent virus in tissue culture, indicating that the exchange of GP in these chimeric viruses is well tolerated. However, in a mouse model of infection rZEBOV-RGP demonstrated markedly decreased lethality and prolonged time to death when compared to rZEBOV, confirming that GP does indeed contribute to the full expression of virulence by ZEBOV. In contrast, rREBOV-ZGP did not show any signs of virulence, and was in fact slightly attenuated compared to rREBOV, demonstrating that GP alone is not sufficient to confer a lethal phenotype or exacerbate disease in this model. Thus, while these findings provide direct evidence that GP contributes to filovirus virulence in vivo, they also clearly indicate that other factors are needed for the acquisition of full virulence. PMID:22876185

  14. The Ebola virus glycoprotein contributes to but is not sufficient for virulence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available Among the Ebola viruses most species cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans; however, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV has not been associated with human disease despite numerous documented infections. While the molecular basis for this difference remains unclear, in vitro evidence has suggested a role for the glycoprotein (GP as a major filovirus pathogenicity factor, but direct evidence for such a role in the context of virus infection has been notably lacking. In order to assess the role of GP in EBOV virulence, we have developed a novel reverse genetics system for REBOV, which we report here. Together with a previously published full-length clone for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, this provides a unique possibility to directly investigate the role of an entire filovirus protein in pathogenesis. To this end we have generated recombinant ZEBOV (rZEBOV and REBOV (rREBOV, as well as chimeric viruses in which the glycoproteins from these two virus species have been exchanged (rZEBOV-RGP and rREBOV-ZGP. All of these viruses could be rescued and the chimeras replicated with kinetics similar to their parent virus in tissue culture, indicating that the exchange of GP in these chimeric viruses is well tolerated. However, in a mouse model of infection rZEBOV-RGP demonstrated markedly decreased lethality and prolonged time to death when compared to rZEBOV, confirming that GP does indeed contribute to the full expression of virulence by ZEBOV. In contrast, rREBOV-ZGP did not show any signs of virulence, and was in fact slightly attenuated compared to rREBOV, demonstrating that GP alone is not sufficient to confer a lethal phenotype or exacerbate disease in this model. Thus, while these findings provide direct evidence that GP contributes to filovirus virulence in vivo, they also clearly indicate that other factors are needed for the acquisition of full virulence.

  15. CRISPR interference can prevent natural transformation and virulence acquisition during in vivo bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikard, David; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Mucida, Daniel; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-08-16

    Pathogenic bacterial strains emerge largely due to transfer of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria, a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci of bacteria and archaea encode a sequence-specific defense mechanism against bacteriophages and constitute a programmable barrier to HGT. However, the impact of CRISPRs on the emergence of virulence is unknown. We programmed the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae with CRISPR sequences that target capsule genes, an essential pneumococcal virulence factor, and show that CRISPR interference can prevent transformation of nonencapsulated, avirulent pneumococci into capsulated, virulent strains during infection in mice. Further, at low frequencies bacteria can lose CRISPR function, acquire capsule genes, and mount a successful infection. These results demonstrate that CRISPR interference can prevent the emergence of virulence in vivo and that strong selective pressure for virulence or antibiotic resistance can lead to CRISPR loss in bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoration of glycoprotein Erns dimerization via pseudoreversion partially restores virulence of classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucakov, Anna Katharina; Yavuz, Sabine; Schürmann, Eva-Maria; Mischler, Manjula; Klingebeil, Anne; Meyers, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein E rns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked E rns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G. J Virol 2009;83:4823-4834). In the course of an animal experiment with such a dimerization-negative CSFV mutant, viruses were reisolated from pigs that contained a mutation of serine (Ser) 209 to Cys. This mutation restored the ability to form disulphide-linked E rns homodimers. In transient expression studies E rns mutants carrying the S209C change were found to form homodimers with about wt efficiency. Also the secretion level of the mutated proteins was equivalent to that of wt E rns . Virus mutants containing the Cys171Ser/Ser209Cys configuration exhibited wt growth rates and increased virulence when compared with the Cys171Ser mutant. These results provide further support for the connection between CSFV virulence and E rns dimerization.

  17. Mutation of adjacent cysteine residues in the NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus results in loss of virulence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Gaby E R; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J; Odendaal, Lieza; Clift, Sarah J; Kortekaas, Jeroen; Paweska, Janusz T

    2018-04-02

    The NSs protein encoded by the S segment of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is the major virulence factor, counteracting the host innate antiviral defence. It contains five highly conserved cysteine residues at positions 39, 40, 149, 178 and 194, which are thought to stabilize the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein. Here, we report significant differences between clinical, virological, histopathological and host gene responses in BALB/c mice infected with wild-type RVFV (wtRVFV) or a genetic mutant having a double cysteine-to-serine substitution at residues 39 and 40 of the NSs protein (RVFV-C39S/C40S). Mice infected with the wtRVFV developed a fatal acute disease; characterized by high levels of viral replication, severe hepatocellular necrosis, and massive up-regulation of transcription of genes encoding type I and -II interferons (IFN) as well as pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The RVFV-C39S/C40S mutant did not cause clinical disease and its attenuated virulence was consistent with virological, histopathological and host gene expression findings in BALB/c mice. Clinical signs in mice infected with viruses containing cysteine-to-serine substitutions at positions 178 or 194 were similar to those occurring in mice infected with the wtRVFV, while a mutant containing a substitution at position 149 caused mild, non-fatal disease in mice. As mutant RVFV-C39S/C40S showed an attenuated phenotype in mice, the molecular mechanisms behind this attenuation were further investigated. The results show that two mechanisms are responsible for the attenuation; (1) loss of the IFN antagonistic propriety characteristic of the wtRVFV NSs and (2) the inability of the attenuated mutant to degrade Proteine Kinase R (PKR). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Manczinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  19. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F.; Vörös, Andrea; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  20. Preferential Allele Expression Analysis Identifies Shared Germline and Somatic Driver Genes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Najeeb M.; Martinez, Alejandra; Al-Farsi, Halema; Mery, Eliane; Puydenus, Laurence; Pujol, Pascal; Khalak, Hanif G.; McLurcan, Cameron; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Al-Azwani, Iman; Al-Dous, Eman; Mohamoud, Yasmin A.; Malek, Joel A.; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genes where a variant allele is preferentially expressed in tumors could lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and optimization of targeted therapy. However, tumor sample heterogeneity complicates standard approaches for detecting preferential allele expression. We therefore developed a novel approach combining genome and transcriptome sequencing data from the same sample that corrects for sample heterogeneity and identifies significant preferentially expressed alleles. We applied this analysis to epithelial ovarian cancer samples consisting of matched primary ovary and peritoneum and lymph node metastasis. We find that preferentially expressed variant alleles include germline and somatic variants, are shared at a relatively high frequency between patients, and are in gene networks known to be involved in cancer processes. Analysis at a patient level identifies patient-specific preferentially expressed alleles in genes that are targets for known drugs. Analysis at a site level identifies patterns of site specific preferential allele expression with similar pathways being impacted in the primary and metastasis sites. We conclude that genes with preferentially expressed variant alleles can act as cancer drivers and that targeting those genes could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26735499

  1. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  2. Concordance of the ForenSeq™ system and characterisation of sequence-specific autosomal STR alleles across two major population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesse, Laurence; Ballard, David; Davenport, Lucinda; Riethorst, Immy; Mason-Buck, Gabriella; Syndercombe Court, Denise

    2018-05-01

    By using sequencing technology to genotype loci of forensic interest it is possible to simultaneously target autosomal, X and Y STRs as well as identity, ancestry and phenotypic informative SNPs, resulting in a breadth of data obtained from a single run that is considerable when compared to that generated with standard technologies. It is important however that this information aligns with the genotype data currently obtained using commercially available kits for CE-based investigations such that results are compatible with existing databases and hence can be of use to the forensic community. In this work, 400 samples were typed using commercially available STR kits and CE, as well as using the Ilumina ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit and MiSeq ® FGx to assess concordance of autosomal STRs and population variability. Results show a concordance rate between the two technologies exceeding 99.98% while numerous novel sequence based alleles are described. In order to make use of the sequence variation observed, sequence specific allele frequencies were generated for White British and British Chinese populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Siemens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS. In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  4. The FTF gene family regulates virulence and expression of SIX effectors in Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Casado-Del Castillo, Virginia; Tello, Vega; De Vega-Bartol, José J; Ramos, Brisa; Sukno, Serenella A; Díaz Mínguez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The FTF (Fusarium transcription factor) gene family comprises a single copy gene, FTF2, which is present in all the filamentous ascomycetes analysed, and several copies of a close relative, FTF1, which is exclusive to Fusarium oxysporum. An RNA-mediated gene silencing system was developed to target mRNA produced by all the FTF genes, and tested in two formae speciales: F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (whose host is common bean) and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (whose host is tomato). Quantification of the mRNA levels showed knockdown of FTF1 and FTF2 in randomly isolated transformants of both formae speciales. The attenuation of FTF expression resulted in a marked reduction in virulence, a reduced expression of several SIX (Secreted In Xylem) genes, the best studied family of effectors in F. oxysporum, and lower levels of SGE1 (Six Gene Expression 1) mRNA, the presumptive regulator of SIX expression. Moreover, the knockdown mutants showed a pattern of colonization of the host plant similar to that displayed by strains devoid of FTF1 copies (weakly virulent strains). Gene knockout of FTF2 also resulted in a reduction in virulence, but to a lesser extent. These results demonstrate the role of the FTF gene expansion, mostly the FTF1 paralogues, as a regulator of virulence in F. oxysporum and suggest that the control of effector expression is the mechanism involved. © 2016 The Authors Molecular Plant Pathology Published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Controlled branched-chain amino acids auxotrophy in Listeria monocytogenes allows isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Moran; Lobel, Lior; Borovok, Ilya; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A

    2018-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes. While isoleucine was revealed as an important input signal, it was not identified how internal levels are controlled during infection. Here we show that Lm regulates BCAA biosynthesis via CodY and via a riboregulator located upstream to the BCAA biosynthesis genes, named Rli60. rli60 is transcribed when BCAA levels drop, forming a ribosome-mediated attenuator that cis-regulates the downstream genes according to BCAA supply. Notably, we found that Rli60 restricts BCAA production, essentially starving Lm, a mechanism that is directly linked to virulence, as it controls the internal isoleucine pool and thereby CodY activity. This controlled BCAA auxotrophy likely evolved to enable isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

  6. Controlled branched-chain amino acids auxotrophy in Listeria monocytogenes allows isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Brenner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes. While isoleucine was revealed as an important input signal, it was not identified how internal levels are controlled during infection. Here we show that Lm regulates BCAA biosynthesis via CodY and via a riboregulator located upstream to the BCAA biosynthesis genes, named Rli60. rli60 is transcribed when BCAA levels drop, forming a ribosome-mediated attenuator that cis-regulates the downstream genes according to BCAA supply. Notably, we found that Rli60 restricts BCAA production, essentially starving Lm, a mechanism that is directly linked to virulence, as it controls the internal isoleucine pool and thereby CodY activity. This controlled BCAA auxotrophy likely evolved to enable isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

  7. Amending Koch’s postulates for viral disease: when “growth in pure culture” leads to a loss of virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2016-01-01

    It is a common laboratory practice to propagate viruses in cell culture. While convenient, these methodologies often result in unintentional genetic alterations, which have lead to adaptation and even attenuation in animal models of disease. An example is the attenuation of hantaviruses (family: Bunyaviridae, genus: Hantavirus) when cultured in vitro. In this case, viruses propagated in the natural reservoir species cause disease in nonhuman primates that closely mimics the human disease, but passaging in cell culture attenuates these viruses to the extent that do not cause any measurable disease in nonhuman primates. As efforts to develop animal models progress, it will be important to take into account the influences that culture in vitro may have on the virulence of viruses. In this review we discuss this phenomenon in the context of past and recent examples in the published literature. PMID:27832942

  8. In-Frame and Unmarked Gene Deletions in Burkholderia cenocepacia via an Allelic Exchange System Compatible with Gateway Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Mustafa; Harrison, Joe J; Gambino, Michela; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis, which are often difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Understanding the genetic basis of virulence in this emerging pathogen is important for the development of novel treatment regimes. Generation of deletion mutations in genes predicted to encode virulence determinants is fundamental to investigating the mechanisms of pathogenesis. However, there is a lack of appropriate selectable and counterselectable markers for use in B. cenocepacia, making its genetic manipulation problematic. Here we describe a Gateway-compatible allelic exchange system based on the counterselectable pheS gene and the I-SceI homing endonuclease. This system provides efficiency in cloning homology regions of target genes and allows the generation of precise and unmarked gene deletions in B. cenocepacia. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its utility by deleting the Bcam1349 gene, encoding a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-responsive regulator protein important for biofilm formation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  10. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  11. Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Monika; Musa, Lutfi; Zakizadeh, Sonia; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-11-01

    Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

  12. Cooperative effect of the attenuation determinants derived from poliovirus sabin 1 strain is essential for attenuation of enterovirus 71 in the NOD/SCID mouse infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Minetaro; Ami, Yasushi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological disorders. An attenuated EV71 strain [EV71(S1-3')] has been established in the cynomolgus monkey infection model; this strain contains the attenuation determinants derived from the type 1 poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin 1 [PV1(Sabin)], in the 5' nontranslated region (NTR), 3D polymerase, and 3' NTR. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the attenuation determinants of PV1(Sabin) on EV71 infection in a NOD/SCID mouse infection model. We isolated a mouse-adapted EV71 strain [EV71(NOD/SCID)] that causes paralysis of the hind limbs in 3- to 4-week-old NOD/SCID mice by adaptation of the virulent EV71(Nagoya) strain in the brains of NOD/SCID mice. A single mutation at nucleotide 2876 that caused an amino acid change in capsid protein VP1 (change of the glycine at position 145 to glutamic acid) was essential for the mouse-adapted phenotype in NOD/SCID mice. Next, we introduced attenuation determinants derived from PV1(Sabin) along with the mouse adaptation mutation into the EV71(Nagoya) genome. In 4-week-old mice, the determinants in the 3D polymerase and 3' NTR, which are the major temperature-sensitive determinants, had a strong effect on attenuation. In contrast, the effect of individual determinants was weak in 3-week-old NOD/SCID mice, and all the determinants were required for substantial attenuation. These results suggest that a cooperative effect of the attenuation determinants of PV1(Sabin) is essential for attenuated neurovirulence of EV71.

  13. Lipids Derived from Virulent Francisella tularensis Broadly Inhibit Pulmonary Inflammation via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Deborah D.; Ireland, Robin; Alinger, Joshua B.; Small, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes an acute lethal respiratory disease in humans. The heightened virulence of the pathogen is linked to its unique ability to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. The bacterial component and mechanism of this inhibition are unknown. Here we show that lipids isolated from virulent but not attenuated strains of F. tularensis are not detected by host cells, inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by primary macrophages in response to known TLR ligands, and suppress neutrophil recruitment in vivo. We further show that lipid-mediated inhibition of inflammation is dependent on TLR2, MyD88, and the nuclear hormone and fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Pathogen lipid-mediated interference with inflammatory responses through the engagement of TLR2 and PPARα represents a novel manipulation of host signaling pathways consistent with the ability of highly virulent F. tularensis to efficiently evade host immune responses. PMID:23925884

  14. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Quasispecies In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-04-15

    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by long-term passaging of a field-isolated virulent strain in cross-species hosts, followed by successive cultivation in cells in vitro To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the evolution of the EIAV attenuated vaccine, a systematic study focusing on long-terminal-repeat (LTR) variation in numerous virus strains ranging from virulent EIAV to attenuated EIAV was performed over time both in vitro and in vivo Two hypervariable regions were identified within the U3 region in the enhancer region (EHR) and the negative regulatory element (NRE) and within the R region in the transcription start site (TSS) and the Tat-activating region (TAR). Among these sites, variation in the U3 region resulted in the formation of additional transcription factor binding sites; this variation of the in vitro -adapted strains was consistent with the loss of pathogenicity. Notably, the same LTR variation pattern was observed both in vitro and in vivo Generally, the LTR variation in both the attenuated virus and the virulent strain fluctuated over time in vivo Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in horses infected with the virulent strain, supporting the hypothesis that the evolution of an attenuated virus might have involved branching from EIAV quasispecies. This hypothesis was verified by phylogenetic analysis. The present systematic study examining the molecular evolution of attenuated EIAV from EIAV quasispecies may provide an informative model reflecting the evolution of similar lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE The attenuated EIAV vaccine was the first lentiviral vaccine used to successfully control for equine infectious anemia in China. This vaccine provides an important reference for studying the relationship between EIAV gene variation and changes in biological characteristics. Importantly, the vaccine provides a model for the investigation of lentiviral quasispecies

  15. Myxoma virus M130R is a novel virulence factor required for lethal myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W; Werden, Steven J; Wang, Fuan; McKillop, William M; Jimenez, June; Villeneuve, Danielle; McFadden, Grant; Dekaban, Gregory A

    2009-09-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a highly lethal, rabbit-specific poxvirus that induces a disease called myxomatosis in European rabbits. In an effort to understand the function of predicted immunomodulatory genes we have deleted various viral genes from MV and tested the ability of these knockout viruses to induce lethal myxomatosis. MV encodes a unique 15 kD cytoplasmic protein (M130R) that is expressed late (12h post infection) during infection. M130R is a non-essential gene for MV replication in rabbit, monkey or human cell lines. Construction of a targeted gene knockout virus (vMyx130KO) and infection of susceptible rabbits demonstrate that the M130R knockout virus is attenuated and that loss of M130R expression allows the rabbit host immune system to effectively respond to and control the lethal effects of MV. M130R expression is a bona fide poxviral virulence factor necessary for full and lethal development of myxomatosis.

  16. In Vitro Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Using Conditions That Mimic the Environment at Specific Infection Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer-Hamood, J A; Dzvova, N; Kruczek, C; Hamood, A N

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and acute systemic infections in severely burned patients and immunocompromised patients including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and HIV infected individuals. In response to the environmental conditions at specific infection sites, P. aeruginosa expresses certain sets of cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors that produce tissue damage. Analyzing the mechanisms that govern the production of these virulence factors in vitro requires media that closely mimic the environmental conditions within the infection sites. In this chapter, we review studies based on media that closely resemble three in vivo conditions, the thick mucus accumulated within the lung alveoli of CF patients, the serum-rich wound bed and the bloodstream. Media resembling the CF alveolar mucus include standard laboratory media supplemented with sputum obtained from CF patients as well as prepared synthetic mucus media formulated to contain the individual components of CF sputum. Media supplemented with serum or individual serum components have served as surrogates for the soluble host components of wound infections, while whole blood has been used to investigate the adaptation of pathogens to the bloodstream. Studies using these media have provided valuable information regarding P. aeruginosa gene expression in different host environments as varying sets of genes were differentially regulated during growth in each medium. The unique effects observed indicate the essential role of these in vitro media that closely mimic the in vivo conditions in providing accurate information regarding the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic analysis of an attenuated Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain reveals defects in central metabolism and surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burall, L S; Rodolakis, A; Rekiki, A; Myers, G S A; Bavoil, P M

    2009-09-01

    Comparative genomic analysis of a wild-type strain of the ovine pathogen Chlamydia abortus and its nitrosoguanidine-induced, temperature-sensitive, virulence-attenuated live vaccine derivative identified 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms unique to the mutant, including nine nonsynonymous mutations, one leading to a truncation of pmpG, which encodes a polymorphic membrane protein, and two intergenic mutations potentially affecting promoter sequences. Other nonsynonymous mutations mapped to a pmpG pseudogene and to predicted coding sequences encoding a putative lipoprotein, a sigma-54-dependent response regulator, a PhoH-like protein, a putative export protein, two tRNA synthetases, and a putative serine hydroxymethyltransferase. One of the intergenic mutations putatively affects transcription of two divergent genes encoding pyruvate kinase and a putative SOS response nuclease, respectively. These observations suggest that the temperature-sensitive phenotype and associated virulence attenuation of the vaccine strain result from disrupted metabolic activity due to altered pyruvate kinase expression and/or alteration in the function of one or more membrane proteins, most notably PmpG and a putative lipoprotein.

  18. Deducing the pathogenic contribution of recessive ABCA4 alleles in an outbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Emily I; Nylen, Erik L; Ko, Audrey C; Affatigato, Louisa M; Heggen, Andrew C; Wang, Kai; Sheffield, Val C; Stone, Edwin M

    2010-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenic effects of specific genotypes is important for the design and execution of clinical trials as well as for meaningful counseling of individual patients. However, for many autosomal recessive diseases, it can be difficult to deduce the relative pathogenic contribution of individual alleles because relatively few affected individuals share the same two disease-causing variations. In this study, we used multiple regression analysis to estimate the pathogenicity of specific alleles of ABCA4 in patients with retinal phenotypes ranging from Stargardt disease to retinitis pigmentosa. This analysis revealed quantitative allelic effects on two aspects of the visual phenotype, visual acuity (P disease and will also aid in the optimal selection of subjects for clinical trials of new therapies.

  19. Long-distance delivery of bacterial virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Bomberger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use a variety of secreted virulence factors to manipulate host cells, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a mechanism for the long-distance delivery of multiple bacterial virulence factors, simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm, thus obviating the need for direct interaction of the pathogen with the host cell to cause cytotoxicity. We show that outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMV secreted by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa deliver multiple virulence factors, including beta-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, hemolytic phospholipase C, and Cif, directly into the host cytoplasm via fusion of OMV with lipid rafts in the host plasma membrane. These virulence factors enter the cytoplasm of the host cell via N-WASP-mediated actin trafficking, where they rapidly distribute to specific subcellular locations to affect host cell biology. We propose that secreted virulence factors are not released individually as naked proteins into the surrounding milieu where they may randomly contact the surface of the host cell, but instead bacterial derived OMV deliver multiple virulence factors simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm in a coordinated manner.

  20. Increased Virulence in Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) Populations from Southern Spain Is Associated with Greater Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; Malek, Jebri; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana Wallr. (sunflower broomrape) is a holoparasitic weed that infects roots of sunflower in large areas of Europe and Asia. Two distant O. cumana gene pools have been identified in Spain, one in Cuenca province in the Center and another one in the Guadalquivir Valley in the South. Race F has been hypothesized to have arisen by separate mutational events in both gene pools. In the Guadalquivir Valley, race F spread in the middle 1990's to become predominant and contained so far with race F hybrids. Recently, enhanced virulent populations of O. cumana have been observed in commercial fields parasitizing race F resistant hybrids. From them, we collected four independent populations and conducted virulence and SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Virulence essays confirmed that the four populations studied can parasitize most of the race F resistant hybrids tested, but they cannot parasitize the differential inbred lines DEB-2, carrying resistance to race F and G, and P-96, resistant to F but susceptible to races G from other countries. Accordingly, the new populations have been classified as race GGV to distinguish them from other races G. Cluster analysis with a set of populations from the two Spanish gene pools and from other areas, mainly Eastern Europe, confirmed that race GGV populations maintain close genetic relatedness with the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. This suggested that increased virulence was not caused by new introductions from other countries. Genetic diversity parameters revealed that the four populations had much greater genetic diversity than conventional populations of the same area, containing only alleles present in the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca gene pools. The results suggested that increased virulence may have resulted from admixture of populations from the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca followed by recombination of avirulence genes.

  1. Increased Virulence in Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. Populations from Southern Spain is Associated with Greater Genetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eMartín-Sanz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana Wallr. (sunflower broomrape is a holoparasitic weed that infects roots of sunflower in large areas of Europe and Asia. Two distant O. cumana gene pools have been identified in Spain, one in Cuenca province in the Centre and another one in the Guadalquivir Valley in the South. Race F has been hypothesized to have arisen by separate mutational events in both gene pools. In the Guadalquivir Valley, race F spread in the middle 1990’s to become predominant and contained so far with race F hybrids. Recently, enhanced virulent populations of O. cumana have been observed in commercial fields parasitizing race F resistant hybrids. From them, we collected four independent populations and conducted virulence and SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Virulence essays confirmed that the four populations studied can parasitize most of the race F resistant hybrids tested, but they cannot parasitize the differential inbred lines DEB-2, carrying resistance to race F and G and, and P-96, resistant to F but susceptible to races G from other countries. Accordingly, the new populations have been classified as race GGV to distinguish them from other races G. Cluster analysis with a set of populations from the two Spanish gene pools and from other areas, mainly Eastern Europe, confirmed that race GGV populations maintain close genetic relatedness with the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. This suggested that increased virulence was not caused by new introductions from other countries. Genetic diversity parameters revealed that the four populations had much greater genetic diversity than conventional populations of the same area, containing only alleles present in the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca gene pools. The results suggested that increased virulence may have resulted from admixture of populations from the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca followed by recombination of avirulence genes.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo to In Vitro Transition Reveals Mechanisms of Phase Variation and Down-Regulation of Virulence Factors.

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    Vítor Borges

    Full Text Available Research on the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis demands culture in cell-lines, but the adaptive process behind the in vivo to in vitro transition is not understood. We assessed the genomic and transcriptomic dynamics underlying C. trachomatis in vitro adaptation of strains representing the three disease groups (ocular, epithelial-genital and lymphogranuloma venereum propagated in epithelial cells over multiple passages. We found genetic features potentially underlying phase variation mechanisms mediating the regulation of a lipid A biosynthesis enzyme (CT533/LpxC, and the functionality of the cytotoxin (CT166 through an ON/OFF mechanism. We detected inactivating mutations in CT713/porB, a scenario suggesting metabolic adaptation to the available carbon source. CT135 was inactivated in a tropism-specific manner, with CT135-negative clones emerging for all epithelial-genital populations (but not for LGV and ocular populations and rapidly increasing in frequency (~23% mutants per 10 passages. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that a deletion event involving CT135 impacted the expression of multiple virulence factors, namely effectors known to play a role in the C. trachomatis host-cell invasion or subversion (e.g., CT456/Tarp, CT694, CT875/TepP and CT868/ChlaDub1. This reflects a scenario of attenuation of C. trachomatis virulence in vitro, which may take place independently or in a cumulative fashion with the also observed down-regulation of plasmid-related virulence factors. This issue may be relevant on behalf of the recent advances in Chlamydia mutagenesis and transformation where culture propagation for selecting mutants/transformants is mandatory. Finally, there was an increase in the growth rate for all strains, reflecting gradual fitness enhancement over time. In general, these data shed light on the adaptive process underlying the C. trachomatis in vivo to in vitro transition, and indicates that it would be prudent to

  3. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei

    2005-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens

  4. Correlates of virulence in a frog-killing fungal pathogen: evidence from a California amphibian decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah Piovia-Scott; Karen Pope; S. Joy Worth; Erica Bree Rosenblum; Dean Simon; Gordon Warburton; Louise A. Rollins-Smith; Laura K. Reinert; Heather L. Wells; Dan Rejmanek; Sharon Lawler; Janet Foley

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused declines and extinctions in amphibians worldwide, and there is increasing evidence that some strains of this pathogen are more virulent than others. While a number of putative virulence factors have been identified, few studies link these factors to specific epizootic events. We...

  5. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles are associated with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans O.

    2002-01-01

    /GCA, MBL variant alleles were associated with signs of increased inflammatory activity and clinical signs of arteritic manifestations. This was not found for HLA-DR4 alleles. These findings indicate that HLA-DR4 and MBL are contributing to the pathophysiology of GCA at different levels in the disease...... alleles in controls, patients with PMR only, and patients with GCA was 37, 32, and 53% (p = 0.01), respectively. HLA-DRB1*04 was found in 47% of patients with PMR only and in 54% of patients with GCA, which differed significantly from the 35% found in controls (p = 0.01). HLA-DR4 alleles were...... not associated with any clinical phenotypes of PMR/GCA, whereas MBL variant alleles were associated with cranial arteritis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and low B-hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: We found MBL variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles to be weak susceptibility markers for GCA. In patients with PMR...

  6. The Rhoptry Proteins ROP18 and ROP5 Mediate Toxoplasma gondii Evasion of the Murine, But Not the Human, Interferon-Gamma Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedelman, Wendy; Gold, Daniel A.; Rosowski, Emily E.; Sprokholt, Joris K.; Lim, Daniel; Farid Arenas, Ailan; Melo, Mariane B.; Spooner, Eric; Yaffe, Michael B.; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii secretes effector proteins into the host cell that manipulate the immune response allowing it to establish a chronic infection. Crosses between the types I, II and III strains, which are prevalent in North America and Europe, have identified several secreted effectors that determine strain differences in mouse virulence. The polymorphic rhoptry protein kinase ROP18 was recently shown to determine the difference in virulence between type I and III strains by phosphorylating and inactivating the interferon-γ (IFNγ)-induced immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) that promote killing by disrupting the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) in murine cells. The polymorphic pseudokinase ROP5 determines strain differences in virulence through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that ROP18 can only inhibit accumulation of the IRGs on the PVM of strains that also express virulent ROP5 alleles. In contrast, specific ROP5 alleles can reduce IRG coating even in the absence of ROP18 expression and can directly interact with one or more IRGs. We further show that the allelic combination of ROP18 and ROP5 also determines IRG evasion and virulence of strains belonging to other lineages besides types I, II and III. However, neither ROP18 nor ROP5 markedly affect survival in IFNγ-activated human cells, which lack the multitude of IRGs present in murine cells. These findings suggest that ROP18 and ROP5 have specifically evolved to block the IRGs and are unlikely to have effects in species that do not have the IRG system, such as humans. PMID:22761577

  7. The induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts. (author)

  8. LPS structure and PhoQ activity are important for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Bender

    Full Text Available The larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, have been used experimentally to host a range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study we evaluated the suitability of G. mellonella as an alternative animal model of Salmonella infection. Using a range of inoculum doses we established that the LD₅₀ of SalmonellaTyphimurium strain NCTC 12023 was 3.6 × 10³ bacteria per larva. Further, a set of isogenic mutant strains depleted of known virulence factors was tested to identify determinants essential for S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Mutants depleted of one or both of the type III secretion systems encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 showed no virulence defect. In contrast, we observed reduced pathogenic potential of a phoQ mutant indicating an important role for the PhoPQ two-component signal transduction system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure was also shown to influence Salmonella virulence in G. mellonella. A waaL(rfaL mutant, which lacks the entire O-antigen (OAg, was virtually avirulent, while a wzz(ST/wzz(fepE double mutant expressing only a very short OAg was highly attenuated for virulence. Furthermore, shortly after infection both LPS mutant strains showed decreased replication when compared to the wild type in a flow cytometry-based competitive index assay. In this study we successfully established a G. mellonella model of S. Typhimurium infection. By identifying PhoQ and LPS OAg length as key determinants of virulence in the wax moth larvae we proved that there is an overlap between this and other animal model systems, thus confirming that the G. mellonella infection model is suitable for assessing aspects of Salmonella virulence function.

  9. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

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    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  10. Three regulators of G protein signaling differentially affect mating, morphology and virulence in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marino; Wang, Lei; Grognet, Pierre; Lanver, Daniel; Link, Hannes; Kahmann, Regine

    2017-09-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate heterotrimeric G protein signaling negatively. To broaden an understanding of the roles of RGS proteins in fungal pathogens, we functionally characterized the three RGS protein-encoding genes (rgs1, rgs2 and rgs3) in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. It was found that RGS proteins played distinct roles in the regulation of development and virulence. rgs1 had a minor role in virulence when deleted in a solopathogenic strain. In crosses, rgs1 was dispensable for mating and filamentation, but was required for teliospore production. Haploid rgs2 mutants were affected in cell morphology, growth, mating and were unable to cause disease symptoms in crosses. However, virulence was unaffected when rgs2 was deleted in a solopathogenic strain, suggesting an exclusive involvement in pre-fusion events. These rgs2 phenotypes are likely connected to elevated intracellular cAMP levels. rgs3 mutants were severely attenuated in mating, in their response to pheromone, virulence and formation of mature teliospores. The mating defect could be traced back to reduced expression of the transcription factor rop1. It was speculated that the distinct roles of the three U. maydis RGS proteins were achieved by direct modulation of the Gα subunit-activated signaling pathways as well as through Gα-independent functions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Phenotypic characterization of a novel virulence-factor deletion strain of Burkholderia mallei that provides partial protection against inhalational glanders in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A. Bozue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei (Bm is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After respiratory exposure, Bm establishes itself within host macrophages before spreading into major organ systems, which can lead to chronic infection, sepsis, and death. Previously, we combined computational prediction of host-pathogen interactions with yeast two-hybrid experiments and identified novel virulence factor genes in Bm, including BMAA0553, BMAA0728 (tssN, and BMAA1865. In the present study, we used recombinant allelic exchange to construct deletion mutants of BMAA0553 and tssN (ΔBMAA0553 and ΔTssN, respectively and showed that both deletions completely abrogated virulence at doses of >100 times the LD50 of the wild-type Bm strain. Analysis of ΔBMAA0553- and ΔTssN-infected mice showed starkly reduced bacterial dissemination relative to wild-type Bm, and subsequent in vitro experiments characterized pathogenic phenotypes with respect to intracellular growth, macrophage uptake and phagosomal escape, actin-based motility, and multinucleated giant cell formation. Based on observed in vitro and in vivo phenotypes, we explored the use of ΔTssN as a candidate live-attenuated vaccine. Mice immunized with aerosolized ΔTssN showed a 21-day survival rate of 67% after a high-dose aerosol challenge with the wild-type Bm ATCC 23344 strain, compared to a 0% survival rate for unvaccinated mice. However, analysis of histopathology and bacterial burden showed that while the surviving vaccinated mice were protected from acute infection, Bm was still able to establish a chronic infection. Vaccinated mice showed a modest IgG response, suggesting a limited potential of ΔTssN as a vaccine candidate, but also showed prolonged elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underscoring the role of cellular and innate immunity in mitigating acute infection in inhalational glanders.

  12. Identification and distribution of three serologically undetected alleles of HLA-DR by oligonucleotide x DNA typing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiercy, J.M.; Gorski, J.; Jeannet, M.; Mach, B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the molecular biology of human major histocompatibility complex class II genes (HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR) have shown that the genetic complexity and allelic polymorphism are greater than expected. In the case of HLA-DR, three DR β-chain loci have been identified and linked, two of which (DR βI and DR βIII, now assigned names HLA-DR1B and HLA-DR3B) are functional. The authors have shown that the HLA micropolymorphism detected at the DNA sequence level can easily be analyzed by hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides (HLA oligotyping). In the case of the HLA DRw52 supertypic specificity, which includes the DR3, DR5, DRw6, and DRw8 haplotypes, three alleles, referred to as DRw52a, DRw52b, and DRw52c, have recently been identified at the HLA-DR3B locus by DNA sequencing. Hybridization with locus- and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes (designated 52a, 52b, and 52c) has been performed on DNA from normal individuals forming a panel of 82 haplotypes to establish the distribution of these three alleles. Individuals of the DR3 haplotype had either the DRw52a or DRw52b allele, and individuals of extended haplotype HLA-A1,B8,DR3 had only the DRw52a allele. DR5 individuals all had the DRw52b allele, while individuals of DRw6 haplotype had the DRw52a, -52b, or -52c allele. None of these three alleles are found in DRw8 individuals. Analysis of this micropolymorphism, undetectable by common typing procedures, is therefore now operational for more accurate HLA matching for transplantation and for improving correlations between HLA and disease susceptibility

  13. Exploring virulence and immunogenicity in the emerging pathogen Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2017-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic chronic infection of humans and animals classically acquired after traumatic inoculation with soil and plant material contaminated with Sporothrix spp. propagules. An alternative and successful route of transmission is bites and scratches from diseased cats, through which Sporothrix yeasts are inoculated into mammalian tissue. The development of a murine model of subcutaneous sporotrichosis mimicking the alternative route of transmission is essential to understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. To explore the impact of horizontal transmission in animals (e.g., cat-cat) and zoonotic transmission on Sporothrix fitness, the left hind footpads of BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5×106 yeasts (n = 11 S. brasiliensis, n = 2 S. schenckii, or n = 1 S. globosa). Twenty days post-infection, our model reproduced both the pathophysiology and symptomology of sporotrichosis with suppurating subcutaneous nodules that progressed proximally along lymphatic channels. Across the main pathogenic members of the S. schenckii clade, S. brasiliensis was usually more virulent than S. schenckii and S. globosa. However, the virulence in S. brasiliensis was strain-dependent, and we demonstrated that highly virulent isolates disseminate from the left hind footpad to the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, and brain of infected animals, inducing significant and chronic weight loss (losing up to 15% of their body weight). The weight loss correlated with host death between 2 and 16 weeks post-infection. Histopathological features included necrosis, suppurative inflammation, and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates. Immunoblot using specific antisera and homologous exoantigen investigated the humoral response. Antigenic profiles were isolate-specific, supporting the hypothesis that different Sporothrix species can elicit a heterogeneous humoral response over time, but cross reaction was observed

  14. Dopaminergic Neuron-Specific Deletion of p53 Gene Attenuates Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Kim, Paul P; Greig, Nigel H; Luo, Yu

    2017-08-01

    p53 plays an essential role in the regulation of cell death in dopaminergic (DA) neurons and its activation has been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA). However, how p53 mediates MA neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of DA-specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. Whereas in vivo MA binge exposure reduced locomotor activity in wild-type (WT) mice, this was significantly attenuated in DAT-p53KO mice and associated with significant differences in the levels of the p53 target genes BAX and p21 between WT and DAT-p53KO. Notably, DA-specific deletion of p53 provided protection of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive fibers following binge MA, with DAT-p53KO mice having less decline of TH protein levels in striatum versus WT mice. Whereas DAT-p53KO mice demonstrated a consistently higher density of TH fibers in striatum compared to WT mice at 10 days after MA exposure, DA neuron counts within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were similar. Finally, supportive of these results, administration of a p53-specific inhibitor (PFT-α) provided a similarly protective effect on MA binge-induced behavioral deficits. Neither DA specific p53 deletion nor p53 pharmacological inhibition affected hyperthermia induced by MA binge. These findings demonstrate a specific contribution of p53 activation in behavioral deficits and DA neuronal terminal loss by MA binge exposure.

  15. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer-Chávez, Janeth A; Welsh, Oliverio; Lozano-Garza, Hector G; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2011-10-26

    Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130). The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  16. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Candiani Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130. The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  17. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zhou, Yanhui; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Lin; Lou, Hongxiang, E-mail: louhongxiang@sdu.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infected by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.

  18. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zhou, Yanhui; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Lin; Lou, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infected by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.

  19. Discovery of Salmonella Virulence Factors Translocated via Outer Membrane Vesicles to Murine Macrophages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-06-01

    We have previously shown that the regulators SpvR, FruR, IHF, PhoP/PhoQ, SsrA/SsrB, SlyA, Hnr, RpoE, SmpB, CsrA, RpoS, Crp, OmpR/EnvZ, and Hfq are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in mice. Here we use quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics profiling of in-frame deletion mutants of these 14 regulators to identify proteins that are coordinately regulated by these virulence regulators and are thus presumably novel factors contributing to Salmonella pathogenesis. Putative candidate proteins from proteomics analysis were determined, which exhibited similar abundance profiles to those of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 type III secretion system (TTSS) proteins. A subset of 5 proteins including STM0082, STM1548, PdgL, STM1633, and STM3595 was selected for further analysis. All 5 proteins were expressed inside macrophage cells and STM0082 (SrfN) was secreted into host cytoplasm. Furthermore, deletion of STM0082 attenuated virulence in mice when administered intraperitoneally as determined by competitive index. srfN transcription was positively regulated by SsrAB, however, secretion was independent of SPI-2 TTSS as well as SPI-1 TTSS and flagella. Proteins including PagK and STM2585A, which are positively regulated by PhoP/PhoQ, have sec signal peptides as predicted for SrfN and were secreted into macrophage cytoplasm regardless of SPI-2 TTSS. Isolation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) revealed the presence of SrfN, PagK, and STM2585A inside vesicle compartments. This result is the first case showing delivery of virulence effectors via OMVs in S. Typhimurium. Moreover, Hfq regulation of SrfN translation suggests that small non-coding RNAs may be responsible for regulating effector protein expression.

  20. Somatic recombination in wheat stem rust leads to virulence for Ug99-effective SR50 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race-specific resistance genes protect much of the global wheat crop from stem rust disease caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), but often break down due to evolution of new virulent pathogen races. To understand the molecular mechanisms of virulence evolution in Pgt we identified the p...

  1. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  2. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2018-03-23

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells and macrophages we identify a set of microRNAs induced by infection, whose expression diminishes upon loss of the hyper-disseminating phenotype of virulent transformed macrophages. We describe how infection-induced upregulation of miR-126-5p ablates JIP-2 expression to release cytosolic JNK to translocate to the nucleus and trans-activate AP-1-driven transcription of mmp9 to promote tumour dissemination. In non-disseminating attenuated macrophages miR-126-5p levels drop, JIP-2 levels increase, JNK1 is retained in the cytosol leading to decreased c-Jun phosphorylation and dampened AP-1-driven mmp9 transcription. We show that variation in miR-126-5p levels depends on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of AGO2 that is regulated by Grb2-recruitment of PTP1B. In attenuated macrophages Grb2 levels drop resulting in less PTP1B recruitment, greater AGO2 phosphorylation, less miR-126-5p associated with AGO2 and a consequent rise in JIP-2 levels. Changes in miR-126-5p levels therefore, underpin both the virulent hyper-dissemination and the attenuated dissemination of T. annulata-infected macrophages.

  3. Rapid detection of the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele by Pyrosequencing® technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Margaret L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of CYP2A6 alleles associated with reduced enzyme activity is important in the study of inter-individual differences in drug metabolism. CYP2A6*12 is a hybrid allele that results from unequal crossover between CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes. The 5' regulatory region and exons 1–2 are derived from CYP2A7, and exons 3–9 are derived from CYP2A6. Conventional methods for detection of CYP2A6*12 consist of two-step PCR protocols that are laborious and unsuitable for high-throughput genotyping. We developed a rapid and accurate method to detect the CYP2A6*12 allele by Pyrosequencing technology. Methods A single set of PCR primers was designed to specifically amplify both the CYP2A6*1 wild-type allele and the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele. An internal Pyrosequencing primer was used to generate allele-specific sequence information, which detected homozygous wild-type, heterozygous hybrid, and homozygous hybrid alleles. We first validated the assay on 104 DNA samples that were also genotyped by conventional two-step PCR and by cycle sequencing. CYP2A6*12 allele frequencies were then determined using the Pyrosequencing assay on 181 multi-ethnic DNA samples from subjects of African American, European Caucasian, Pacific Rim, and Hispanic descent. Finally, we streamlined the Pyrosequencing assay by integrating liquid handling robotics into the workflow. Results Pyrosequencing results demonstrated 100% concordance with conventional two-step PCR and cycle sequencing methods. Allele frequency data showed slightly higher prevalence of the CYP2A6*12 allele in European Caucasians and Hispanics. Conclusion This Pyrosequencing assay proved to be a simple, rapid, and accurate alternative to conventional methods, which can be easily adapted to the needs of higher-throughput studies.

  4. A Maximum-Likelihood Method to Correct for Allelic Dropout in Microsatellite Data with No Replicate Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Schroeder, Kari B.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Allelic dropout is a commonly observed source of missing data in microsatellite genotypes, in which one or both allelic copies at a locus fail to be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Especially for samples with poor DNA quality, this problem causes a downward bias in estimates of observed heterozygosity and an upward bias in estimates of inbreeding, owing to mistaken classifications of heterozygotes as homozygotes when one of the two copies drops out. One general approach for avoiding allelic dropout involves repeated genotyping of homozygous loci to minimize the effects of experimental error. Existing computational alternatives often require replicate genotyping as well. These approaches, however, are costly and are suitable only when enough DNA is available for repeated genotyping. In this study, we propose a maximum-likelihood approach together with an expectation-maximization algorithm to jointly estimate allelic dropout rates and allele frequencies when only one set of nonreplicated genotypes is available. Our method considers estimates of allelic dropout caused by both sample-specific factors and locus-specific factors, and it allows for deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium owing to inbreeding. Using the estimated parameters, we correct the bias in the estimation of observed heterozygosity through the use of multiple imputations of alleles in cases where dropout might have occurred. With simulated data, we show that our method can (1) effectively reproduce patterns of missing data and heterozygosity observed in real data; (2) correctly estimate model parameters, including sample-specific dropout rates, locus-specific dropout rates, and the inbreeding coefficient; and (3) successfully correct the downward bias in estimating the observed heterozygosity. We find that our method is fairly robust to violations of model assumptions caused by population structure and by genotyping errors from sources other than allelic dropout. Because the data sets

  5. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  6. Fatal laboratory-acquired infection with an attenuated Yersinia pestis Strain--Chicago, Illinois, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    On September 18, 2009, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified by a local hospital of a suspected case of fatal laboratory-acquired infection with Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. The patient, a researcher in a university laboratory, had been working along with other members of the laboratory group with a pigmentation-negative (pgm-) attenuated Y. pestis strain (KIM D27). The strain had not been known to have caused laboratory-acquired infections or human fatalities. Other researchers in a separate university laboratory facility in the same building had contact with a virulent Y. pestis strain (CO92) that is considered a select biologic agent; however, the pgm- attenuated KIM D27 is excluded from the National Select Agent Registry. The university, CDPH, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH), and CDC conducted an investigation to ascertain the cause of death. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the cause of death likely was an unrecognized occupational exposure (route unknown) to Y. pestis, leading to septic shock. Y. pestis was isolated from premortem blood cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified the clinical isolate as a pgm- strain of Y. pestis. Postmortem examination revealed no evidence of pneumonic plague. A postmortem diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis was made on the basis of histopathologic, laboratory, and genetic testing. One possible explanation for the unexpected fatal outcome in this patient is that hemochromatosis-induced iron overload might have provided the infecting KIM D27 strain, which is attenuated as a result of defects in its ability to acquire iron, with sufficient iron to overcome its iron-acquisition defects and become virulent. Researchers should adhere to recommended biosafety practices when handling any live bacterial cultures, even attenuated strains, and institutional biosafety committees should implement and maintain effective

  7. Development of Allele-Specific Primer PCR for a Swine TLR2 SNP and Comparison of the Frequency among Several Pig Breeds of Japan and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muneta, Y.; Minagawa, Y.; Kusumoto, M.; Shinkai, H.; Uenishi, H.; Šplíchal, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 5 (2012), s. 553-559 ISSN 0916-7250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0365 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allele-specific PCR * Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae * single nucleotide polymorphism Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2012

  8. Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus BA71, the Virulent Parental Strain of the Nonpathogenic and Tissue-Culture Adapted BA71V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Javier M; Moreno, Leticia Tais; Alejo, Alí; Lacasta, Anna; Rodríguez, Fernando; Salas, María L

    2015-01-01

    The strain BA71V has played a key role in African swine fever virus (ASFV) research. It was the first genome sequenced, and remains the only genome completely determined. A large part of the studies on the function of ASFV genes, viral transcription, replication, DNA repair and morphogenesis, has been performed using this model. This avirulent strain was obtained by adaptation to grow in Vero cells of the highly virulent BA71 strain. We report here the analysis of the genome sequence of BA71 in comparison with that of BA71V. They possess the smallest genomes for a virulent or an attenuated ASFV, and are essentially identical except for a relatively small number of changes. We discuss the possible contribution of these changes to virulence. Analysis of the BA71 sequence allowed us to identify new similarities among ASFV proteins, and with database proteins including two ASFV proteins that could function as a two-component signaling network.

  9. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g., soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g., rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and interbacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets. PMID:25368845

  10. The link between morphotype transition and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqi Wang

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen. This pathogen can undergo morphotype transition between the yeast and the filamentous form and such morphological transition has been implicated in virulence for decades. Morphotype transition is typically observed during mating, which is governed by pheromone signaling. Paradoxically, components specific to the pheromone signaling pathways play no or minimal direct roles in virulence. Thus, the link between morphotype transition and virulence and the underlying molecular mechanism remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that filamentation can occur independent of pheromone signaling and mating, and both mating-dependent and mating-independent morphotype transition require the transcription factor Znf2. High expression of Znf2 is necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain sex-independent filamentous growth under host-relevant conditions in vitro and during infection. Importantly, ZNF2 overexpression abolishes fungal virulence in murine models of cryptococcosis. Thus, Znf2 bridges the sex-independent morphotype transition and fungal pathogenicity. The impacts of Znf2 on morphological switch and pathogenicity are at least partly mediated through its effects on cell adhesion property. Cfl1, a Znf2 downstream factor, regulates morphogenesis, cell adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Cfl1 is the first adhesin discovered in the phylum Basidiomycota of the Kingdom Fungi. Together with previous findings in other eukaryotic pathogens, our findings support a convergent evolution of plasticity in morphology and its impact on cell adhesion as a critical adaptive trait for pathogenesis.

  11. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur...

  12. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Kelemen, M

    1981-01-01

    Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly. They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

  13. SAAS-CNV: A Joint Segmentation Approach on Aggregated and Allele Specific Signals for the Identification of Somatic Copy Number Alterations with Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity.

  14. The metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G translocation and oxidative DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonam; Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Biswas, Joyshree; Rama Raju, K Siva; Joshi, Neeraj; Wahajuddin; Singh, Sarika

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the involvement of mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G in piracetam (P)-induced protective mechanisms. Studies have shown the antiapoptotic effects of piracetam but the mechanism of action of piracetam is still an enigma. To assess the involvement of endonuclease G in piracetam-induced protective effects, astrocyte glial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and piracetam. LPS treatment caused significantly decreased viability, mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, which were attenuated by piracetam cotreatment. Cotreatment of astrocytes with piracetam showed its significantly time-dependent absorption as observed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Astrocytes treated with piracetam alone showed enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in comparison to control astrocytes. However, in LPS-treated cells no significant alteration in MMP was observed in comparison to control cells. Protein and mRNA levels of the terminal executor of the caspase-mediated pathway, caspase-3, were not altered significantly in LPS or LPS + piracetam-treated astrocytes, whereas endonuclease G was significantly translocated to the nucleus in LPS-treated astrocytes. Piracetam cotreatment attenuated the LPS-induced endonuclease G translocation. In conclusion this study indicates that LPS treatment of astrocytes caused decreased viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, and translocation of endonuclease G to the nucleus, which was inhibited by piracetam cotreatment, confirming that the mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G is one of the factors involved in piracetam-induced protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Majority of Genotypes of the Virulence Gene inlA Are Intact among Natural Watershed Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from the Central California Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available Internalin A is an essential virulence gene involved in the uptake of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes into host cells. It is intact in clinical strains and often truncated due to Premature Stop Codons (PMSCs in isolates from processed foods and processing facilities. Less information is known about environmental isolates. We sequenced the inlA alleles and did Multi Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA on 112 L. monocytogenes isolates from a 3-year period from naturally contaminated watersheds near a leafy green growing area in Central California. The collection contained 14 serotype 1/2a, 12 serotype 1/2b, and 86 serotype 4b strains. Twenty-seven different inlA alleles were found. Twenty-three of the alleles are predicted to encode intact copies of InlA, while three contain PMSCs. Another allele has a 9-nucleotide deletion, previously described for a clinical strain, indicating that it is still functional. Intact inlA genes were found in 101 isolates, and 8 isolates contained the allele predicted to contain the 3-amino acid deletion. Both allele types were found throughout the 3-year sampling period. Three strains contained inlA alleles with PMSCs, and these were found only during the first 3 months of the study. SNP analysis of the intact alleles indicated clustering of alleles based on serotype and lineage with serotypes 1/2b and 4b (lineage I strains clustering together, and serotype 1/2a (lineage II strains clustering separately. The combination of serotype, MLVA types, and inlA allele types indicate that the 112 isolates reflect at least 49 different strains of L. monocytogenes. The finding that 90% of environmental L. monocytogenes isolates contain intact inlA alleles varies significantly from isolates found in processing plants. This information is important to public health labs and growers as to the varieties of L. monocytogenes that could potentially contaminate fresh produce in the field by various means.

  16. Comparison of biological and genomic characteristics between a newly isolated mink enteritis parvovirus MEV-LHV and an attenuated strain MEV-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Wang, Jigui; Hou, Qiang; Xi, Ji; Zhang, Xiaomei; Bian, Dawei; Yu, Yongle; Wang, Xi; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-06-01

    A virus isolated from mink showing clinical signs of enteritis was identified as a high virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) based on its biological characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Mink, challenged with this strain named MEV-LHV, exhibited severe pathological lesions as compared to those challenged with attenuated strain MEV-L. MEV-LHV also showed higher infection and replication efficiencies in vitro than MEV-L. Sequence of the complete genome of MEV-LHV was determined and analyzed in comparison with those in GenBank, which revealed that MEV-LHV shared high homology with virulent strain MEV SD12/01, whereas MEV-L was closely related to Abashiri and vaccine strain MEVB, and belonged to a different branch of the phylogenetic tree. The genomes of the two strains differed by insertions and deletions in their palindromic termini and specific unique mutations (especially VP2 300) in coding sequences which may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the biological and genomic characteristics of MEV and identify certain regions and sites that may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity.

  17. Population genetics of Phytophthora infestans in Denmark reveals dominantly clonal populations and specific alleles linked to metalaxyl-M resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, M. S.; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Schmidt, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    population of P. infestans was characterized over the course of the 2013 growing season, as was the population genetic structure, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotypes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mitochondrial haplotyping of over 80 isolates. Both mating types A1 and A2 were present...... in most fields, but tests for recombination showed that clonal reproduction dominates in Danish populations. Genotype was not linked to haplotype and no differentiation was observed at the haplotype level, but rather between fields. Resistance phenotypes were linked to specific SSR alleles, demonstrating...

  18. Antimicrobial peptide GH12 suppresses cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Wang, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wentao; Wang, Kun; Luo, Junyuan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xuedong; Zhang, Linglin

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans include acidogenicity, aciduricity, and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis. The de novo designed antimicrobial peptide GH12 has shown bactericidal effects on S. mutans, but its interaction with virulence and regulatory systems of S. mutans remains to be elucidated. The objectives were to investigate the effects of GH12 on virulence factors of S. mutans, and further explore the function mechanisms at enzymatic and transcriptional levels. To avoid decrease in bacterial viability, we limited GH12 to subinhibitory levels. We evaluated effects of GH12 on acidogenicity of S. mutans by pH drop, lactic acid measurement and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, on aciduricity through survival rate at pH 5.0 and F1F0-ATPase assay, and on EPS synthesis using quantitative measurement, morphology observation, vertical distribution analyses and biomass calculation. Afterwards, we conducted quantitative real-time PCR to acquire the expression profile of related genes. GH12 at 1/2 MIC (4 mg/L) inhibited acid production, survival rate, EPS synthesis, and biofilm formation. The enzymatic activity of LDH and F1F0-ATPase was inhibited, and ldh, gtfBCD, vicR, liaR, and comDE genes were significantly downregulated. In conclusion, GH12 inhibited virulence factors of S. mutans, through reducing the activity of related enzymes, downregulating virulence genes, and inactivating specific regulatory systems. PMID:29503706

  19. Allele-specific DNA methylation of disease susceptibility genes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hirofumi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Munenori; Naito, Takeo; Onodera, Motoyuki; Moroi, Rintaro; Kuroha, Masatake; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Endo, Katsuya; Negoro, Kenichi; Nagasaki, Masao; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has an unknown etiology; however, accumulating evidence suggests that IBD is a multifactorial disease influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation in cis and cis effects on expression have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that IBD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulate susceptibility gene expressions in cis by regulating DNA methylation around SNPs. For this, we determined cis-regulated allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) around IBD susceptibility genes in CD4+ effector/memory T cells (Tem) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) in patients with IBD and examined the association between the ASM SNP genotype and neighboring susceptibility gene expressions. CD4+ effector/memory T cells (Tem) were isolated from LPMCs in 15 Japanese IBD patients (ten Crohn's disease [CD] and five ulcerative colitis [UC] patients). ASM analysis was performed by methylation-sensitive SNP array analysis. We defined ASM as a changing average relative allele score ([Formula: see text]) >0.1 after digestion by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. Among SNPs showing [Formula: see text] >0.1, we extracted the probes located on tag-SNPs of 200 IBD susceptibility loci and around IBD susceptibility genes as candidate ASM SNPs. To validate ASM, bisulfite-pyrosequencing was performed. Transcriptome analysis was examined in 11 IBD patients (seven CD and four UC patients). The relation between rs36221701 genotype and neighboring gene expressions were analyzed. We extracted six candidate ASM SNPs around IBD susceptibility genes. The top of [Formula: see text] (0.23) was rs1130368 located on HLA-DQB1. ASM around rs36221701 ([Formula: see text] = 0.14) located near SMAD3 was validated using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The SMAD3 expression was significantly associated with the rs36221701 genotype (p = 0.016). We confirmed the existence of cis-regulated ASM around

  20. Allele-specific DNA methylation of disease susceptibility genes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hirofumi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Munenori; Naito, Takeo; Onodera, Motoyuki; Moroi, Rintaro; Kuroha, Masatake; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Endo, Katsuya; Negoro, Kenichi; Nagasaki, Masao; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has an unknown etiology; however, accumulating evidence suggests that IBD is a multifactorial disease influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation in cis and cis effects on expression have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that IBD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulate susceptibility gene expressions in cis by regulating DNA methylation around SNPs. For this, we determined cis-regulated allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) around IBD susceptibility genes in CD4+ effector/memory T cells (Tem) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) in patients with IBD and examined the association between the ASM SNP genotype and neighboring susceptibility gene expressions. Methods CD4+ effector/memory T cells (Tem) were isolated from LPMCs in 15 Japanese IBD patients (ten Crohn's disease [CD] and five ulcerative colitis [UC] patients). ASM analysis was performed by methylation-sensitive SNP array analysis. We defined ASM as a changing average relative allele score (ΔRAS¯) >0.1 after digestion by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. Among SNPs showing ΔRAS¯ >0.1, we extracted the probes located on tag-SNPs of 200 IBD susceptibility loci and around IBD susceptibility genes as candidate ASM SNPs. To validate ASM, bisulfite-pyrosequencing was performed. Transcriptome analysis was examined in 11 IBD patients (seven CD and four UC patients). The relation between rs36221701 genotype and neighboring gene expressions were analyzed. Results We extracted six candidate ASM SNPs around IBD susceptibility genes. The top of ΔRAS¯ (0.23) was rs1130368 located on HLA-DQB1. ASM around rs36221701 (ΔRAS¯ = 0.14) located near SMAD3 was validated using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The SMAD3 expression was significantly associated with the rs36221701 genotype (p = 0.016). Conclusions We confirmed the existence of cis-regulated ASM around IBD

  1. Multilocus sequence typing and virulence analysis of Haemophilus parasuis strains isolated in five provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyan; Ma, Lina; Liu, Yongan; Gao, Pengcheng; Li, Youquan; Li, Xuerui; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässers disease, which causes high morbidity and mortality in swine herds. Although H. parasuis strains can be classified into 15 serovars with the Kielstein-Rapp-Gabrielson serotyping scheme, a large number of isolates cannot be classified and have been designated 'nontypeable' strains. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of H. parasuis was used to analyze 48 H. parasuis field strains isolated in China and two strains from Australia. Twenty-six new alleles and 29 new sequence types (STs) were detected, enriching the H. parasuis MLST databases. A BURST analysis indicated that H. parasuis lacks stable population structure and is highly heterogeneous, and that there is no association between STs and geographic area. When an UPGMA dendrogram was constructed, two major clades, clade A and clade B, were defined. Animal experiments, in which guinea pigs were challenged intraperitoneally with the bacterial isolates, supported the hypothesis that the H. parasuis STs in clade A are generally avirulent or weakly virulent, whereas the STs in clade B tend to be virulent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia coli virulence genes in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from diarrhoeagenic patients in Burkina Faso. Methodology: From September 2016 to Mars 2017, a total of 211 faecal samples from diarrhoeagenic patients from ...

  3. Identification of Streptococcus sanguinis genes required for biofilm formation and examination of their role in endocarditis virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Kitten, Todd; Chen, Zhenming; Lee, Sehmi P; Munro, Cindy L; Xu, Ping

    2008-06-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is one of the pioneers in the bacterial colonization of teeth and is one of the most abundant species in the oral biofilm called dental plaque. S. sanguinis is also the most common viridans group streptococcal species implicated in infective endocarditis. To investigate the association of biofilm and endocarditis, we established a biofilm assay and examined biofilm formation with a signature-tagged mutagenesis library of S. sanguinis. Four genes that have not previously been associated with biofilm formation in any other bacterium, purB, purL, thrB, and pyrE, were putatively identified as contributing to in vitro biofilm formation in S. sanguinis. By examining 800 mutants for attenuation in the rabbit endocarditis model and for reduction in biofilm formation in vitro, we found some mutants that were both biofilm defective and attenuated for endocarditis. However, we also identified mutants with only reduced biofilm formation or with only attenuation in the endocarditis model. This result indicates that the ability to form biofilms in vitro is not associated with endocarditis virulence in vivo in S. sanguinis.

  4. The link between some alleles on human leukocyte antigen system and autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Shehab, Abeer A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2013-02-15

    The reason behind the initiation of autoimmunity to brain in some patients with autism is not well understood. There is an association between some autoimmune disorders and specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Thus, we examined the frequency of some HLA-DRB1 alleles in 100 autistic children and 100 healthy matched-children by differential hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The risk of association between acquisition or absence of these alleles and autism and also a history of autoimmune diseases in autistic relatives was studied. Autistic children had significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 allele than controls (P<0.001). In contrast, autistic children had significantly lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*03 allele than controls (P<0.001). Acquisition of HLA-DRB1*011 and absence of HLA-DRB1*3 had significant risk for association with autism (odds ratio: 3.21 and 0.17, respectively; 95% CI: 1.65-6.31 and 0.06-0.45, respectively). HLA-DRB1*11 had a significant risk for association with a family history of autoimmunity in autistic children (odds ratio: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.07-16.3). In conclusions, the link of some HLA alleles to autism and to family history of autoimmunity indicates the possible contributing role of these alleles to autoimmunity in some autistic children. Despite a relatively small sample size, we are the first to report a probable protective association of HLA-DRB1*03 allele with autism. It warrants a replication study of a larger sample to validate the HLA-DRB1 genetic association with autism. This is important to determine whether therapeutic modulations of the immune function are legitimate avenues for novel therapy in selected cases of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence genes: invaluable approaches for designing DNA microarray probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandeh, Nadia; Ranjbar, Reza; Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    The pathotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause different types of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The presence of a wide range of virulence genes in UPEC enables us to design appropriate DNA microarray probes. These probes, which are used in DNA microarray technology, provide us with an accurate and rapid diagnosis and definitive treatment in association with UTIs caused by UPEC pathotypes. The main goal of this article is to introduce the UPEC virulence genes as invaluable approaches for designing DNA microarray probes. Main search engines such as Google Scholar and databases like NCBI were searched to find and study several original pieces of literature, review articles, and DNA gene sequences. In parallel with in silico studies, the experiences of the authors were helpful for selecting appropriate sources and writing this review article. There is a significant variety of virulence genes among UPEC strains. The DNA sequences of virulence genes are fabulous patterns for designing microarray probes. The location of virulence genes and their sequence lengths influence the quality of probes. The use of selected virulence genes for designing microarray probes gives us a wide range of choices from which the best probe candidates can be chosen. DNA microarray technology provides us with an accurate, rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic method which is facilitated by designing microarray probes. Via these tools, we are able to have an accurate diagnosis and a definitive treatment regarding UTIs caused by UPEC pathotypes.

  6. Genome-wide screen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new virulence factors

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    Rafat eZrieq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes mortality in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. While many virulence factors of this pathogen have already been identified, several remain to be discovered. In this respect we set an unprecedented genome-wide screen of a P. aeruginosa expression library based on a yeast growth phenotype. 51 candidates were selected in a three-round screening process. The robustness of the screen was validated by the selection of three well known secreted proteins including one demonstrated virulence factor, the protease LepA. Further in silico sorting of the 51 candidates highlighted three potential new Pseudomonas effector candidates (Pec. By testing the cytotoxicity of wild type P. aeruginosa vs pec mutants towards macrophages and the virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrated that the three selected Pecs are novel virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Additional cellular localization experiments in the host revealed specific localization for Pec1 and Pec2 that could inform about their respective functions.

  7. Aspergillus fumigatus melanins: Interference with the host endocytosis pathway and impact on virulence

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    Thorsten eHeinekamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus produces at least two types of melanin, namely pyomelanin and dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN melanin. Pyomelanin is produced during tyrosine catabolism via accumulation of homogentisic acid. Although pyomelanin protects the fungus against reactive oxygen species and acts as a defense compound in response to cell wall stress, mutants deficient for pyomelanin biosynthesis do not differ in virulence when tested in a murine infection model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. DHN melanin is responsible for the characteristic grey-greenish color of A. fumigatus conidia. Mutants lacking a functional polyketide synthase PksP, the enzyme responsible for the initial step in DHN-melanin formation, i.e., the synthesis of naphthopyrone, produce white spores and are attenuated in virulence. The activity of PksP was found to be essential not only for inhibition of apoptosis of phagocytes by interfering with the host PI3K/Akt signaling cascade but also for effective inhibition of acidification of conidia-containing phagolysosomes. These features allow A. fumigatus to survive in phagocytes and thereby to escape from human immune effector cells and to become a successful pathogen.

  8. The NlpD lipoprotein is a novel Yersinia pestis virulence factor essential for the development of plague.

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    Avital Tidhar

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. Previously we have isolated an attenuated Y. pestis transposon insertion mutant in which the pcm gene was disrupted. In the present study, we investigated the expression and the role of pcm locus genes in Y. pestis pathogenesis using a set of isogenic surE, pcm, nlpD and rpoS mutants of the fully virulent Kimberley53 strain. We show that in Y. pestis, nlpD expression is controlled from elements residing within the upstream genes surE and pcm. The NlpD lipoprotein is the only factor encoded from the pcm locus that is essential for Y. pestis virulence. A chromosomal deletion of the nlpD gene sequence resulted in a drastic reduction in virulence to an LD(50 of at least 10(7 cfu for subcutaneous and airway routes of infection. The mutant was unable to colonize mouse organs following infection. The filamented morphology of the nlpD mutant indicates that NlpD is involved in cell separation; however, deletion of nlpD did not affect in vitro growth rate. Trans-complementation experiments with the Y. pestis nlpD gene restored virulence and all other phenotypic defects. Finally, we demonstrated that subcutaneous administration of the nlpD mutant could protect animals against bubonic and primary pneumonic plague. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Y. pestis NlpD is a novel virulence factor essential for the development of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Further, the nlpD mutant is superior to the EV76 prototype live vaccine strain in immunogenicity and in conferring effective protective immunity. Thus it could serve as a basis for a very potent live vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  9. Earth-Space Link Attenuation Estimation via Ground Radar Kdp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Benjamin, Andrew L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of predicting attenuation on microwave Earth/spacecraft communication links, over wide areas and under various atmospheric conditions, has been developed. In the area around the ground station locations, a nearly horizontally aimed polarimetric S-band ground radar measures the specific differential phase (Kdp) along the Earth-space path. The specific attenuation along a path of interest is then computed by use of a theoretical model of the relationship between the measured S-band specific differential phase and the specific attenuation at the frequency to be used on the communication link. The model includes effects of rain, wet ice, and other forms of precipitation. The attenuation on the path of interest is then computed by integrating the specific attenuation over the length of the path. This method can be used to determine statistics of signal degradation on Earth/spacecraft communication links. It can also be used to obtain real-time estimates of attenuation along multiple Earth/spacecraft links that are parts of a communication network operating within the radar coverage area, thereby enabling better management of the network through appropriate dynamic routing along the best combination of links.

  10. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia virulence and specific variations in trace elements during acute lung infection: implications in cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Pompilio

    Full Text Available Metal ions are necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system, and, therefore, they might have a significant influence on the interaction between bacteria and host. Ionic dyshomeostasis has been recently observed also in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, whose respiratory tract is frequently colonized by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. For the first time, here we used an inductively mass spectrometry method to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of the pattern of changes in a broad range of major trace elements in response to pulmonary infection by S. maltophilia. To this, DBA/2 mouse lungs were comparatively infected by a CF strain and by an environmental one. Our results showed that pulmonary ionomic profile was significantly affected during infection. Infected mice showed increased lung levels of Mg, P, S, K, Zn, Se, and Rb. To the contrary, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu levels resulted significantly decreased. Changes of element concentrations were correlated with pulmonary bacterial load and markers of inflammation, and occurred mostly on day 3 post-exposure, when severity of infection culminated. Interestingly, CF strain - significantly more virulent than the environmental one in our murine model - provoked a more significant impact in perturbing pulmonary metal homeostasis. Particularly, exposure to CF strain exclusively increased P and K levels, while decreased Fe and Mn ones. Overall, our data clearly indicate that S. maltophilia modulates pulmonary metal balance in a concerted and virulence-dependent manner highlighting the potential role of the element dyshomeostasis during the progression of S. maltophilia infection, probably exacerbating the harmful effects of the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator function. Further investigations are required to understand the biological significance of these alterations and to confirm they are specifically caused by S. maltophilia.

  11. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: in the Wake of Reclassification

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    Cody R Rasmussen-Ivey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous jack-of-all-trades, Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed.

  12. Genome-wide identification and quantification of cis- and trans-regulated genes responding to Marek’s disease virus infection via analysis of allele-specific expression

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    Sean eMaceachern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease (MD is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV, an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. Selecting for increased genetic resistance to MD is a control strategy that can augment vaccinal control measures. To identify high-confidence candidate MD resistance genes, we conducted a genome-wide screen for allele-specific expression (ASE amongst F1 progeny of two inbred chicken lines that differ in MD resistance. High throughput sequencing was used to profile transcriptomes from pools of uninfected and infected individuals at 4 days post-infection to identify any genes showing ASE in response to MDV infection. RNA sequencing identified 22,655 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of which 5,360 in 3,773 genes exhibited significant allelic imbalance. Illumina GoldenGate assays were subsequently used to quantify regulatory variation controlled at the gene (cis and elsewhere in the genome (trans by examining differences in expression between F1 individuals and artificial F1 RNA pools over 6 time periods in 1,536 of the most significant SNPs identified by RNA sequencing. Allelic imbalance as a result of cis-regulatory changes was confirmed in 861 of the 1,233 GoldenGate assays successfully examined. Furthermore we have identified 7 genes that display trans-regulation only in infected animals and approximately 500 SNP that show a complex interaction between cis- and trans-regulatory changes. Our results indicate ASE analyses are a powerful approach to identify regulatory variation responsible for differences in transcript abundance in genes underlying complex traits. And the genes with SNPs exhibiting ASE provide a strong foundation to further investigate the causative polymorphisms and genetic mechanisms for MD resistance. Finally, the methods used here for identifying specific genes and SNPs may have practical implications for applying marker-assisted selection to complex traits that are

  13. Novel polymorphisms within the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus in rat: a putative genetic basis for strain-specific allelic gene expression

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    Laura J Sittig

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The imprinted iodothyronine deiodinase-III (Dio3 thyroid hormone metabolizing gene exhibits paternal expression in most fetal tissues, yet exhibits aberrant, maternal expression in the hippocampus in F1 offspring of Sprague Dawley (SD x Brown Norway (BN rats. The maternal hippocampal expression is associated with lower Dio3 mRNA levels specifically in the hippocampus. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms between the SD and BN parent strains cause this aberrant allelic Dio3 expression and contribute to behavioral sequelae of higher thyroid hormone levels locally in the hippocampus, including anxiety-related behavior. We mapped and sequenced the Dio3 gene and several previously unmapped regions in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus that could regulate imprinting of the Dio3 gene. In the Dio3 promoter we identified four novel polymorphisms between the BN and SD strains. Next we took advantage of the fact that the Long Evans (LE strain exhibits identical polymorphisms as the SD strain in the region 5’ and including the Dio3 gene. By reciprocally crossing LE and BN strains we tested the relationship among Dio3 promoter region polymorphisms and Dio3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Aberrant strain-specific hippocampal Dio3 allelic expression replicated in the LE-BN reciprocal crosses, suggesting that hippocampal-specific imprinting of the Dio3 gene is not the result of a unique genetic or epigenetic characteristic of the SD rat strain, or a unique epistatic interaction between SD and BN. To our knowledge no other studies have reported a genetic x epigenetic interaction of genetic origin in the brain.

  14. Molecular epidemiology and virulence of Escherichia coli O16:H5-ST131: comparison with H30 and H30-Rx subclones of O25b:H4-ST131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Marzoa, Juan; Blanco, Miguel; Herrera, Alexandra; Viso, Susana; García-Garrote, Fernando; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Billig, Mariya; de la Cruz, Fernando; de Toro, María; González-López, Juan José; Prats, Guillermo; Chaves, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Denamur, Erick; Blanco, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of the clonal subgroup O16:H5-ST131 and the H30 and H30-Rx subclones among E. coli isolates causing extraintestinal infections and to know their virulence potential. The ST131 clonal group accounted for 490 (16%) of the 2995 isolates obtained from clinical samples in five Spanish hospitals during the study period (2005-2012). Among those 490 ST131 isolates, 456 belonged to serotype O25b:H4, 27 to O16:H5 and seven were O-non-typeable:H4 (ONT:H4). All 27 O16:H5 isolates showed fimH41, whereas fimH30 and fimH22 alleles were the most frequently detected among O25b:H4 isolates. The majority (381/490; 78%) of ST131 isolates belonged to H30 subclone, and 302 of 381 (79%) H30 isolates belonged to the H30-Rx subclone. Of the 27 O16:H5 isolates, 48% produced CTX-M-14; however, none produced CTX-M-15. In contrast, 46% of O25b:H4 isolates produced CTX-M-15 while only 2% produced CTX-M-14. More than a half of the O16:H5 isolates (56%) showed the ExPEC status which was significantly more prevalent within O25b:H4 isolates (81%) (P<0.01), especially among H30-Rx (97%) isolates. In the present study, a modified virotype scheme was applied within which approximately half (52%) of the O16:H5 isolates showed the C1 specific virotype. Despite their low virulence-gene score (mean of virulence genes 6.4 versus 8.5 in O25b:H4 isolates), six out of the 10 O16:H5 isolates assayed showed high virulence in the mouse model of sepsis (killed 90-100% of mice challenged). Furthermore, four O16:H5 isolates of virotypes A and C1, carrying K2 variant of group II capsule, showed lethality at 24h. Thus, certain O16:H5 fimH41 isolates show a similar in vivo virulence to that reported with the highly virulent O25b:H4 H30-Rx isolates (Mora et al., PLOS ONE 2014, e87025), supporting their potential virulence for humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

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    Ann Kathrin eHeroven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Y. pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g. soil, plants, insects as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g. rodents, pigs, humans with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and inter-bacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp and the carbon storage regulator (Csr system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets.

  16. Detecting imbalanced expression of SNP alleles by minisequencing on microarrays

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    Dahlgren Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each of the human genes or transcriptional units is likely to contain single nucleotide polymorphisms that may give rise to sequence variation between individuals and tissues on the level of RNA. Based on recent studies, differential expression of the two alleles of heterozygous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be frequent for human genes. Methods with high accuracy to be used in a high throughput setting are needed for systematic surveys of expressed sequence variation. In this study we evaluated two formats of multiplexed, microarray based minisequencing for quantitative detection of imbalanced expression of SNP alleles. We used a panel of ten SNPs located in five genes known to be expressed in two endothelial cell lines as our model system. Results The accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative detection of allelic imbalance was assessed for each SNP by constructing regression lines using a dilution series of mixed samples from individuals of different genotype. Accurate quantification of SNP alleles by both assay formats was evidenced for by R2 values > 0.95 for the majority of the regression lines. According to a two sample t-test, we were able to distinguish 1–9% of a minority SNP allele from a homozygous genotype, with larger variation between SNPs than between assay formats. Six of the SNPs, heterozygous in either of the two cell lines, were genotyped in RNA extracted from the endothelial cells. The coefficient of variation between the fluorescent signals from five parallel reactions was similar for cDNA and genomic DNA. The fluorescence signal intensity ratios measured in the cDNA samples were compared to those in genomic DNA to determine the relative expression levels of the two alleles of each SNP. Four of the six SNPs tested displayed a higher than 1.4-fold difference in allelic ratios between cDNA and genomic DNA. The results were verified by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation and

  17. Abnormal segregation of alleles in CEPH pedigree DNAs arising from allele loss in lymphoblastoid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1993-01-01

    Somatic events that result in the reduction to hemi- or homozygosity at all loci affected by the event have been identified in lymphoblastoid DNA from mothers of two CEPH families. Using suitably informative probes, the allele deficiencies were detected by the abnormal transmission of alleles from grandparents to grandchildren, with the apparent absence of the alleles from the parent. Undetected somatic deficiencies in family DNAs could result in misscoring of recombination events and consequently introduce errors into linkage analysis.

  18. Intrinsic MYH7 expression regulation contributes to tissue level allelic imbalance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Judith; Syring, Mandy; Rose, Julia; Weber, Anna-Lena; Ernstberger, Pia; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Becker, Edgar; Keyser, Britta; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Perrot, Andreas; van der Velden, Jolanda; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francesco; Ho, Carolyn Yung; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2017-08-01

    HCM, the most common inherited cardiac disease, is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes. More than a third of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding for the β-myosin heavy chain. In HCM-patients, expression of the mutant and the wildtype allele can be unequal, thus leading to fractions of mutant and wildtype mRNA and protein which deviate from 1:1. This so-called allelic imbalance was detected in whole tissue samples but also in individual cells. There is evidence that the severity of HCM not only depends on the functional effect of the mutation itself, but also on the fraction of mutant protein in the myocardial tissue. Allelic imbalance has been shown to occur in a broad range of genes. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the MYH7-alleles are intrinsically expressed imbalanced or whether the allelic imbalance is solely associated with the disease. We compared the expression of MYH7-alleles in non-HCM donors and in HCM-patients with different MYH7-missense mutations. In the HCM-patients, we identified imbalanced as well as equal expression of both alleles. Also at the protein level, allelic imbalance was determined. Most interestingly, we also discovered allelic imbalance and balance in non-HCM donors. Our findings therefore strongly indicate that apart from mutation-specific mechanisms, also non-HCM associated allelic-mRNA expression regulation may account for the allelic imbalance of the MYH7 gene in HCM-patients. Since the relative amount of mutant mRNA and protein or the extent of allelic imbalance has been associated with the severity of HCM, individual analysis of the MYH7-allelic expression may provide valuable information for the prognosis of each patient.

  19. Technical aspects of typing for HLA-DP alleles using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Detection of single base mismatches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an effective method for in vitro DNA amplification which combined with probing with synthetic oligonucleotides can be used for, e.g., HLA-typing. We have studied the technical aspects of HLA-DP typing with the technique. DNA from mononuclear nucleated cells...... was extracted with either a simple salting out method or phenol/chloroform. Both DNAs could be readily used for PCR. The MgC2 concentration of the PCR buffer and the annealing temperature of the thermal cycle of the PCR were the two most important variables. The MgCl2 concentration and the temperature must...... be carefully titrated for each primer pair in the PCR. The influence of mismatches between the primer and the DNA template were studied and we found that, by using primers differing only from each other at the 3' end, cross-amplification of closely homologous alleles could be avoided. Thus, single base...

  20. Vitamin D inhibits the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by Porphyromonas gingivalis and blocks activation of the nuclear factor kappa B transcription factor in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, D; Morin, M-P; Fournier-Larente, J; Chen, H

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone, has a positive impact on periodontal health through diverse mechanisms. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. The effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on P. gingivalis-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor in monocytes was also assessed. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . The modulation of virulence factor gene expression in P. gingivalis was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. NF-κB activation was assessed using a human monocytic cell line stably transfected with a luciferase reporter containing NF-κB binding sites. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1,25(OH)2 D3 against P. gingivalis ranged from 3.125 to 6.25 μg/mL. Moreover, a partial synergistic effect was observed when 1,25(OH)2 D3 was used in association with metronidazole. 1,25(OH)2 D3 attenuated the virulence of P. gingivalis by reducing the expression of genes coding for important virulence factors, including adhesins (fimA, hagA and hagB) and proteinases (rgpA, rgpB and kgp). 1,25(OH)2 D3 dose-dependently prevented P. gingivalis-induced NF-κB activation in a monocyte model. Our study suggested that 1,25(OH)2 D3 selectively inhibits the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by P. gingivalis, in addition to attenuating NF-κB activation by this periodontopathogen. This dual action on P. gingivalis and the inflammatory response of host cells may be of particular interest with a view to developing a novel and inexpensive preventive/therapeutic strategy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phloretin Attenuates Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Both In vitro and In vivo by Simultaneously Targeting Listeriolysin O and Sortase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Bowen; Teng, Zihao; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Xiyan; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Gejin; Niu, Xiaodi; Yang, Yongjun; Deng, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    The critical roles of sortase A (SrtA) and listeriolysin O (LLO) in Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity render these two virulence factors as ideal targets for the development of anti-virulence agents against L. monocytogenes infection. Additionally, the structures of SrtA and LLO are highly conserved among the members of sortase enzyme family and cholesterol dependent toxin family. Here, phloretin, a natural polyphenolic compound derived from apples and pears that has little anti- L. monocytogenes activity, was identified to simultaneously inhibit LLO expression and neutralize SrtA catalytic activity. Phloretin neutralized SrtA activity by causing a conformational change in the protein's active pocket, which prevented engagement with its substrate. Treatment with phloretin simultaneously reduced L. monocytogenes invasion into host cells and blocked the escape of vacuole-entrapped L. monocytogenes into cytoplasm. Further, L. monocytogenes -infected mice that received phloretin showed lower mortality, decreased bacterial burden and reduced pathological injury. Our results demonstrate that phloretin is a promising anti-infective therapeutic for infections caused by L. monocytogenes due to its simultaneous targeting of SrtA and LLO, which may result in fewer side effects than those caused by other antibiotics.

  2. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  3. Poliovirus intrahost evolution is required to overcome tissue-specific innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghong; Dolan, Patrick Timothy; Goldstein, Elizabeth Faul; Li, Min; Farkov, Mikhail; Brodsky, Leonid; Andino, Raul

    2017-08-29

    RNA viruses, such as poliovirus, have a great evolutionary capacity, allowing them to quickly adapt and overcome challenges encountered during infection. Here we show that poliovirus infection in immune-competent mice requires adaptation to tissue-specific innate immune microenvironments. The ability of the virus to establish robust infection and virulence correlates with its evolutionary capacity. We further identify a region in the multi-functional poliovirus protein 2B as a hotspot for the accumulation of minor alleles that facilitate a more effective suppression of the interferon response. We propose that population genetic dynamics enables poliovirus spread between tissues through optimization of the genetic composition of low frequency variants, which together cooperate to circumvent tissue-specific challenges. Thus, intrahost virus evolution determines pathogenesis, allowing a dynamic regulation of viral functions required to overcome barriers to infection.RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, have a great evolutionary capacity and can adapt quickly during infection. Here, the authors show that poliovirus infection in mice requires adaptation to innate immune microenvironments encountered in different tissues.

  4. Masking of the contribution of V protein to sendai virus pathogenesis in an infection model with a highly virulent field isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Kiyotani, Katsuhiro; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Huang Cheng; Fukuhara, Noriko; Fujii, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yukie; Sugahara, Fumihiro; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Sendai virus V protein is not essential for virus replication in cultured cells but is essential for efficient virus replication and pathogenesis in mice, indicating that the V protein has a luxury function to facilitate virus propagation in mice. This was discovered in the Z strain, an egg-adapted avirulent laboratory strain. In the present study, we reexamined the function of Sendai virus V protein by generating a V-knockout Sendai virus derived from the Hamamatsu strain, a virulent field isolate, which is an appropriate model for studying the natural course of Sendai virus infection in mice. We unexpectedly found that the V-knockout virus propagated efficiently in mice and was as virulent as the wild-type virus. Switching of the functionally important V unique region demonstrated that this region of the Hamamatsu strain was also functional in a Z strain background. It thus appears that the V protein is nonsense in a field isolate of Sendai virus. However, the V protein was required for virus growth and pathogenesis of the Hamamatsu strain in mice when the virulence of the virus was attenuated by introducing mutations that had been found in an egg-adapted, avirulent virus. The V protein therefore seems to be potentially functional in the highly virulent Hamamatsu strain and to be prominent if virus replication is restricted

  5. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik; Seong, Baik Lin

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.

  6. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jae [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yo Han [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baik Lin, E-mail: blseong@yonsei.ac.kr [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.

  7. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Meng, Qingmei; Dai, Jianjun; Han, Xiangan; Han, Yue; Ding, Chan; Liu, Haiwen; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-01-01

    Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs) bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development.

  8. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Wang

    Full Text Available Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development.

  9. CARAT: A novel method for allelic detection of DNA copy number changes using high density oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shumpei

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA copy number alterations are one of the main characteristics of the cancer cell karyotype and can contribute to the complex phenotype of these cells. These alterations can lead to gains in cellular oncogenes as well as losses in tumor suppressor genes and can span small intervals as well as involve entire chromosomes. The ability to accurately detect these changes is central to understanding how they impact the biology of the cell. Results We describe a novel algorithm called CARAT (Copy Number Analysis with Regression And Tree that uses probe intensity information to infer copy number in an allele-specific manner from high density DNA oligonuceotide arrays designed to genotype over 100, 000 SNPs. Total and allele-specific copy number estimations using CARAT are independently evaluated for a subset of SNPs using quantitative PCR and allelic TaqMan reactions with several human breast cancer cell lines. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm are characterized using DNA samples containing differing numbers of X chromosomes as well as a test set of normal individuals. Results from the algorithm show a high degree of agreement with results from independent verification methods. Conclusion Overall, CARAT automatically detects regions with copy number variations and assigns a significance score to each alteration as well as generating allele-specific output. When coupled with SNP genotype calls from the same array, CARAT provides additional detail into the structure of genome wide alterations that can contribute to allelic imbalance.

  10. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  11. Amino Acid Permeases and Virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho

    Full Text Available Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints. Our previous and current research on amino acid biosynthetic pathways indicates that amino acid permeases are regulated by the presence of the amino acids, nitrogen and temperature. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans have twenty-four and twenty-seven genes encoding amino acid permeases, respectively; conversely, they are scarce in number in Basidiomycetes (C. neoformans, Coprinopsis cinerea and Ustilago maydis, where nine to ten permease genes can be found depending on the species. In this study, we have demonstrated that two amino acid permeases are essential for virulence in C. neoformans. Our data showed that C. neoformans uses two global and redundant amino acid permeases, Aap4 and Aap5 to respond correctly to thermal and oxidative stress. Double deletion of these permeases causes growth arrest in C. neoformans at 37°C and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The inability to uptake amino acid at a higher temperature and under oxidative stress also led to virulence