WorldWideScience

Sample records for allegheny mountain region

  1. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  2. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  3. Allegheny County TIF Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) outline parcels for Allegheny County, PA. TIF closing books contain all necessary documentation related to a TIF in order to close on...

  4. Allegheny County Property Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Webmap of Allegheny municipalities and parcel data. Zoom for a clickable parcel map with owner name, property photograph, and link to the County Real Estate...

  5. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  6. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  7. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  8. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary...

  9. Allegheny County Beltway System Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Authoritative dataset of the beltway system in Allegheny County. The system was developed to help motorists navigate through Allegheny County on low-traffic roads....

  10. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  11. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  12. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  13. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  14. Allegheny County Property Sale Transactions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2012 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales,...

  15. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  16. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  17. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  18. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  19. Allegheny County Building Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  20. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  1. Allegheny County Parks Data Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size, shape, and amenities of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  2. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the location of bridges owned by Allegheny County as centroids. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  3. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the bridges owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  4. Allegheny County-Owned Roads Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  5. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  6. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  7. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  8. Allegheny County Block Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset overlays a grid on the County to assist in locating a parcel. The grid squares are 3,500 by 4,500 square feet. The data was derived from original...

  9. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  10. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  11. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  12. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  13. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  14. Allegheny County Housing and Community Environment Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Residential housing inspections and inspections in response to complaints for community environment problems, such as open vacant structures, vacant lots with...

  15. State of Aging in Allegheny County Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — For more than three decades UCSUR has documented the status of older adults in the County along multiple life domains. Every decade we issue a comprehensive report...

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Resin Disposal, Jefferson Borough, Allegheny County, PA. (First remedial action), June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 26-acre Resin Disposal site is an inactive industrial landfill and former coal strip mining area in Jefferson Borough, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The site overlies a bedrock aquifer, a source of non-potable ground water. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses source control, as well as preventing migration of contaminated ground water in the Pittsburgh Coal Formation. The primary contaminants of concern affecting soil, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; and other organics including napthalene, PAHs and phenols. The selected remedial action for the site includes capping the landfill with a multi-layer cap, and upgrading the landfill dike; relocating a sanitary sewer; installing a new oil/water separator for leachate treatment, and implementing institutional controls, including deed restrictions. The estimated present worth cost for this remedial action is $4,348,000

  17. Allegheny County Municipal Building Energy and Water Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains energy and water use information from 2010 to 2014 for 144 County-operated buildings. Metrics include: kBtu (thousand British thermal units),...

  18. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  19. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  20. Transfer of Forestry Expertise Between Mountain Regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandl, R.; Van Miegroet, H.; Ač, Alexander; Pokorný, Radek

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2009), s. 103-114. ISBN 978-3-902571-97-7. ISSN N R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : mountain * Alps * Carpathian Mountains * Rocky Mountains * forestry Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  1. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  2. TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  3. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  4. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data

  5. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  6. Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain Research Initiative Edw Working Group; Pepin, N.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.; Baraer, M.; Caceres, E. B.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H.; Greenwood, G.; Hashmi, M. Z.; Liu, X. D.; Miller, J. R.; Ning, L.; Ohmura, A.; Palazzi, E.; Rangwala, I.; Schöner, W.; Severskiy, I.; Shahgedanova, M.; Wang, M. B.; Williamson, S. N.; Yang, D. Q.

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the rate of warming is amplified with elevation, such that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) can accelerate the rate of change in mountain ecosystems, cryospheric systems, hydrological regimes and biodiversity. Here we review important mechanisms that contribute towards EDW: snow albedo and surface-based feedbacks; water vapour changes and latent heat release; surface water vapour and radiative flux changes; surface heat loss and temperature change; and aerosols. All lead to enhanced warming with elevation (or at a critical elevation), and it is believed that combinations of these mechanisms may account for contrasting regional patterns of EDW. We discuss future needs to increase knowledge of mountain temperature trends and their controlling mechanisms through improved observations, satellite-based remote sensing and model simulations.

  7. Task 5 -- Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Progress on the tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region is described. Results are reported in the following: regional overview of structure and geometry of Meozoic thrust faults and folds in the area around Yucca Mountain; Evaluation of pre-middle Miocecne structure of Grapevine Mountains and it`s relation to Bare Mountain; Kinematic analysis of low and high angle normal faults in the Bare Mountain area, and comparison of structures with the Grapevine Mountains; and Evaluation of paleomagnetic character of tertiary and pre-tertiary units in the Yucca Mountain region.

  8. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-08-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported.

  9. Air resource management program assessment (Rocky Mountain Region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Mountain Region of the USDA Forest Service comprises 17 National Forests and seven National Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. These contain sensitive ecosystems and spectacular scenery which can be harmed by existing and future air pollution. To minimize or prevent such damage, the Region has created the Air Resource Management Program Assessment. Its basic purpose is to ensure that the Region's most sensitive ecosystems will be identified and protected. Also, by helping to coordinate air resource management activities between Forests, unnecessary duplication of effort will be minimized

  10. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain Counties Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.274 Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  11. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia

    2007-01-01

    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  12. LACTIC ACID MICROFLORA OF BULGARIAN MILK PRODUCTS FROM MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, P.; Georgieva, R.; D. Nikolova; Danova, S.

    2009-01-01

    International audience This study aimed to isolate and characterize viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the most popular in Bulgaria fermented milk products. Different samples from home-made cheeses, yoghurt and katak, from ecological regions of Stara Planina, Rila and Rodopi mountains were collected. A total of 25 LAB cultures (coci and rods) were isolated and polyphasic taxonomic characterization was performed. Eight of the strains from yoghurt were phenotypically similar to Lactobaci...

  13. Mapping plant functional types over broad mountainous regions

    OpenAIRE

    Danlu Cai; Yanning Guan; Shan Guo; Chunyan Zhang; Klaus Fraedrich

    2014-01-01

    Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT) products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical s...

  14. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  15. Aeromagnetic map of Yucca Mountain and surrounding regions, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic anomalies over Yucca Mountain and surround areas are largely caused by variations in magnetic properties and shapes, including structural offsets, of the extensive volcanic units that underlie the region. In a few places the anomalies are caused by intrusions. Correlation between magnetic properties measured from rock samples and those derived from rock unit-magnetic anomaly associations is excellent. Anomaly characteristics, extensive magnetic gradients, and marked changes in the regional magnetic field can be coupled with the magnetic properties of the rock units to delineate structural boundaries. Three major boundaries are indicated by contrasts in regional magnetic expressions. Less extensive but more clearly indicated boundaries in the immediate vicinity of Yucca Mountain are interpreted from a distinctive pairing of northerly-displacement in generally gently dipping volcanic beds. The displacement between beds is located approximately along the border line between the linear anomaly pairs. One series of pairs of more northeasterly trend lies over the general location of a change from moderately thick to very thick volcanic units that was interpreted from gravity data. Several low amplitude but distinctively shaped anomalies in areas underlain primarily by sedimentary strata indicate the presence of intrusions and faults. 14 references, 2 figures

  16. Project monitor. Final report. [Allegheny County, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P.Y.; Beck, P.; Doctors, S.I.

    1979-04-27

    Results are reported of a study of consumers' energy attitudes and behavior. Household consumers and small business consumers (both retail and manufacturing) responded to the survey, but only the household results are reported. The study sought to understand energy-related behavior at the level where the various components of energy policy intersect. Attempts are made to attain this goal by determining the extent to which various properties of the individuals and firms are associated with various amounts of conservation. A representative sample of the adult population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania was interviewed. Part I introduces the measures of household conservation to be used in the survey. Part II analyzes each of the types of energy conservation - general, winterization, heating, cooling, appliance, transportation, and electricity reductions - and relates them to demographic, situation, attitudinal, and perceptual variables in the household sample. Part III deals with the impacts of Project Pacesetter and the United Mine Workers' strike against the coal operators - particularly, the impact of the coal strike on household residents of Allegheny County. Part IV summarizes the findings and uses them for recommendations regarding energy conservation policy. Additional data are presented in 4 appendices. (MCW)

  17. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Ping WANG

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  18. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  19. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.; Obregón, N.; Wright, G.

    2015-07-01

    A regional analysis of flood risk was carried out in the mountainous area surrounding the city of Bogotá (Colombia). Vulnerability at regional level was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability; using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood analysis at regional level to provide a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of four constituent indicators; socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; lack of resilience, which is composed of education, preparedness and response capacity, rescue capacity, social cohesion and participation; and physical exposure is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability. The complex interaction between vulnerability and hazard is evidenced in the case study. Environmental degradation in vulnerable watersheds shows the influence that vulnerability exerts on hazard and vice versa, thus establishing a cycle that builds up risk conditions.

  20. Environmental geology, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania; description of a program and its results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Reginald Peter

    1977-01-01

    Past land-use practices, including mining, in Allegheny County, Pa., have resulted in three principal environmental problems, exclusive of air and water contamination. They are flooding, landsliding, and subsidence over underground mines. In 1973, information was most complete relative to flooding and least complete relative to landsliding. Accordingly, in July 1973, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) entered into an agreement by which the USGS undertook studies chiefly aimed at increasing knowledge of landsliding and mine subsidence relative to land use, but having other ramifications as well, as part of a larger ARC 'Land-use and physical-resource analysis' (LUPRA) program. The chief geographic focus was Allegheny County, but adjacent areas were included in some investigations. Resulting products, exclusive of this report, are: 1. Forty-three provisional maps of landslide, distribution and susceptibility and of land modified by man in Allegheny County, 1:24,000 scale, 7? -minute quadrangle format, released to open files. 2. Four USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps of Allegheny County showing (a) bedrock, MF685A; (b) susceptibility to landsliding, MF-685B ; (c) coal-mining features, MF-685C; and (d) zones that can be affected by flooding, landsliding and undermining, MF-685D; all at the scale of 1:50,000. 3. Two MF maps showing coal-mining activity and related information and sites of recorded mine-subsidence events, and one MF map classifying land surface by relative potentiality of mine subsidence, in Allegheny, Washington, and Westmoreland Counties, Pa., at a scale of 1:125,000--MF-693A through MF-693C. 4. A companion report to the Allegheny County map of susceptibility to landsliding--USGS Circular 728. 5. Five MF maps, largely in chart form, describing interaction of the shallow ground-water regime with mining-related problems, landsliding, heavy storm precipitation, and other features and processes, largely

  1. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W G

    2004-10-19

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (approximately 70 km) occur at 25 degrees south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile-Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25 degrees south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrain at 45 degrees south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (approximately 35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25 degrees south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  2. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, María Carolina; Werner, Micha; Obregón, Nelson; Wright, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a method is proposed to identify mountainous watersheds with the highest flood risk at the regional level. Through this, the watersheds to be subjected to more detailed risk studies can be prioritised in order to establish appropriate flood risk management strategies. The prioritisation is carried out through an index composed of a qualitative indicator of vulnerability and a qualitative flash flood/debris flow susceptibility indicator. At the regional level, vulnerability was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability, using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood extent analysis at the regional level, which provided a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of three constituent indicators: (i) socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; (ii) lack of resilience and coping capacity, which is composed of lack of education, lack of preparedness and response capacity, lack of rescue capacity, cohesiveness of the community; and (iii) physical exposure, which is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability.

  3. Revisiting Sustainable Development of Dry Valleys in Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya; XIE Jiasui; SUN Hui

    2004-01-01

    Dry valleys are a striking geographic landscape in Hengduan Mountains Region and are characterized by low rainfall, desert type of vegetation and fragile environment. Past efforts and resources have been concentrated mainly on rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and fragile environment,particularly reforestation, while socio-economic development has been largely overlooked. Despite successes in pocket areas, the overall trend of unsustainability and environmental deterioration are continuing. It is important to understand that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is the root cause of development of dry valleys, and development and formation of dry valleys is a natural process. Human intervention has played a secondary role in development of dry valleys and degradation of dry valleys though human intervention in many cases has speeded up environmental degradation of the dry valleys. It is important to understand that dry valleys are climatic enclaves and an integrated approach that combines rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and socio-economic development should be adopted if the overall goal of sustainable development of dry valleys is to be achieved. Promotion of niche-based cash crops, rural energy including hydropower, solar energy, biogas and fuelwood plantation is recommended as the priority activities.

  4. Strategic evaluation of economic feasibility of mountain tourist region development: Case study of Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers theoretical, methodological and practical discoveries and evaluation of the economic aspects of development and planning of the mountain tourist regions. The basic aspects of economic-spatial theories, analysis and methods are presented for research of development effects in the mountain regions. It is also pointed to the basic terms of the mountain tourist regions development in the countries of the European Union which realize respective development results The work analyses significance of tourism in development of the mountain regions characterized by the capability for innovative activities, i.e. starting the whole range of complementary activities which reversibly influence the forming of growth and development poles. Especially are analyzed commercial and non-commercial effects of realization of the mountain tourist centers in ecologically saved, but as a rule, economically not enough developed mountain regions. The approach in the strategic evaluation of the economic feasibility of development of the tourist region is considered in accordance with the experience of the countries with higher degree of mountain region development, on example of Stara Planina. The analysis of economic feasibility of mountain region development Stara Planina covered the following segments: market, consumption, number of employed, investment means and economic effects of exploitation. Considering the fact that Stara planina is region covered by the Park of Nature and Tourist region for which the Spatial plan is done, a special problem was harmonization of development and protection functions, i.e. evaluation of economic and ecological acceptability for development implementation. The Spatial plan foreseen rational model of sustainable regional development of the Stara planina region based on integration of urban and rural economies on one side and development of tourism and protection of nature, on the other.

  5. Integrated and Participatory Research Approaches towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; David Thomas; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mountainous regions cover about 27 per cent of the world's land surface and are home to some 22 per cent of the global population (UNEP 2002). A much greater number of people depend on mountain environments for a wide range of services, including clean water, energy, timber,biodiversity, recreation, and protection from environmental hazards, such as landslides and floods.

  6. The Region of the Tara Mountain – Entrepreneurial Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Lukić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tara Mountain is situated on the west border of Serbia. Terrain observation has provided comparative analysis of attractive mountains in Serbia. It has explained the position of the Tara Mountain in different important categories (geographic, touristic etc. Literature sources have helped in the analysis of the past entrepreneurial initiatives. Some important facts are provided by the questionnaire, in the form of the interview. The article has presented entrepreneurial initiatives on the two levels. “Time level” has divided entrepreneurial initiatives on: the time before socialist period, socialist period, then initiatives in the period from 1991 to 1999 and initiatives from the period of transition and owner transformation. “Space level” has differed entrepreneurial initiatives from the two points of view. Depending on the relief, different entrepreneurial initiatives have found “perfect place under the sun” on the different exposure of the Tara Mountain and on the different altitude levels. Short survey of genders and professions of entrepreneurs is given. Synthesis of explorations results has showed some common characteristics of all entrepreneurial initiatives. Data obtained in the Republic Statistic Bureau have used for analyze of tourist circulation in the last ten years. It has contributed illustration of the last results of new entrepreneurial initiatives. The article search the answer on the following questions: How entrepreneurial initiatives contributed to the development of the Tara Mountain? Which entrepreneurial initiatives can improve the quality of life on the Tara Mountain? Using interview, the answer was gotten and formed by locals, tourists and experts.

  7. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  8. Landslide assessment in a remote mountain region: a case study from the Toktogul region of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Khampilang, Namphon

    2015-01-01

    Slope instability is a significant natural hazard in the Tien Shan mountain range, some landslide studies were carried out in small areas in the Tien Shan Mountain but no landslide susceptibility mapping has been carried out for the region. This thesis describes the creation of a digital landslide inventory and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create the first landslide susceptibility models for the area. This research has resulted in the landslide inventory of the Tok...

  9. Process identification of soil erosion in steep mountain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Konz, N.; D. Baenninger; Konz, M.; Nearing, M.; Alewell, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mountainous soil erosion processes were investigated in the Urseren Valley (Central Switzerland) by means of measurements and simulations. The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale (2 center dot 20 m) for three different land use types: hayfields, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs with three replicates each. Erosion rates during growing season were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rat...

  10. Review article: Inferring permafrost and permafrost thaw in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Stephan; Fleiner, Renate; Guegan, Emilie; Panday, Prajjwal; Schmid, Marc-Olivier; Stumm, Dorothea; Wester, Philippus; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The cryosphere reacts sensitively to climate change, as evidenced by the widespread retreat of mountain glaciers. Subsurface ice contained in permafrost is similarly affected by climate change, causing persistent impacts on natural and human systems. In contrast to glaciers, permafrost is not observable spatially and therefore its presence and possible changes are frequently overlooked. Correspondingly, little is known about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region, despi...

  11. Ground surface temperature scenarios in complex high-mountain topography based on regional climate model results

    OpenAIRE

    Salzmann, N.; Noetzli, J.; C. Hauck; Gruber, S.; M. Hoelzle; Haeberli, W.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change can have severe impacts on the high-mountain cryosphere, such as instabilities in rock walls induced by thawing permafrost. Relating climate change scenarios produced from global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) to complex high-mountain environments is a challenging task. The qualitative and quantitative impact of changes in climatic conditions on local to microscale ground surface temperature (GST) and the ground thermal regime is not readily apparent. ...

  12. Longitudinal Growth of VEX Robotic Competitions in Utah and the Rocky Mountain Region

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Trevor P.

    2013-01-01

    The Utah State University VEX Robotics Team (USUVRT) is in its fifth year of promoting the VEX Robotics Competition in the Utah and Rocky Mountain Region. The Robotics Education and Competition Foundation (RECF) annually hosts the VEX World Championships to identify and award the best middle school, high school, and college robotics teams. The USUVRT has partnered with the Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activities...

  13. The Growth of VEX Robotics Competitions in Utah and the Rocky Mountain Region

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Trevor P.; Stewardson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 school year, the Utah State University (USU) VEX Robotics team competed for the first time in the VEX Robotics World Championship. VEX annually hosts this championship to identify and award the best middle school, high school, and college robotics teams. A major goal of the USU VEX Robotics Team, through a partnership with the Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium (RMNSPC) is to promote middle and high school students in Utah and the Rocky Mountain Region to develop ...

  14. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses. PMID:27387190

  15. Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Eastoe; Ryan Rodney

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The same trend occurs in basin groundwater east and west of the range, indicating the high Sacramento Mountains as the principal regional water source, either direct from the limestone aquifers or from mountain-derive...

  16. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  17. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  18. Low-level radioactive waste facility siting in the Rocky Mountain compact region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The puprose of the Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is to develop a regional management system for low-level waste (LLW) generated in the six states eligible for membership: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Under the terms of the compact, any party state generating at least 20% of the region's waste becomes responsible for hosting a regional LLW management facility. However, the compact prescribes no system which the host state must follow to develop a facility, but rather calls on the state to fulfill its responsibility through reliance on its own laws and regulations. Few of the Rocky Mountain compact states have legislation dealing specifically with LLW facility siting. Authority for LLW facility siting is usually obtained from radiation control statutes and solid or hazardous waste statutes. A state-by-state analysis of the siting authorities of each of the Rock Mountain compact states as they pertain to LLW disposal facility siting is presented. Siting authority for LLW disposal facilities in the Rocky Mountain compact region runs from no authority, as in Wyoming, to general statutory authority for which regulations would have to be promulgated, as in Arizona and Nevada, to more detailed siting laws, as in Colorado and New Mexico. Barring an amendment to, or different interpretation of, the Utah Hazardous Waste Facility Siting Act, none of the Rocky Mountain States' LLW facility siting authorities preempt local veto authorities

  19. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-Tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T. L., (Edited By); Brooks, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Professional Paper contains 14 chapters on the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. The authors discuss petrology and tectonic evolution of an island arc that formed in the ancestral Pacific Ocean during the Permian to Cretaceous interval. The island arc was accreted to cratonal North America in the Early Cretaceous and thereby became one of the several exotic terranes in western North America.

  20. Regional groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain are presented. Both a regional (200 x 200 km) and subregional (50 x 50 km) model were used in the analyses. Simulations were conducted to determine the impact of various disruptive that might take place over the life span of a proposed Yucca Mountain geologic conditions repository on the groundwater flow field, as well as changes in the water-table elevations. These conditions included increases in precipitation and groundwater recharge within the regional model, changes in permeability of existing hydrogeologic barriers, a:nd the vertical intrusion of volcanic dikes at various orientations through the saturated zone. Based on the regional analysis, the rise in the water-table under Yucca Mountain due to various postulated conditions ranged from only a few meters to 275 meters. Results of the subregional model analysis, which was used to simulate intrusive dikes approximately 4 kilometers in length in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, showed water-table rises ranging from a few meters to as much as 103 meters. Dikes oriented approximately north-south beneath Yucca Mountain produced the highest water-table rises. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are likely to change as more site-specific data become available and as the assumptions in the model are improved

  1. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  2. Approach to identification and development of mountain tourism regions and destinations in Serbia with special reference to the Stara Planina mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with theoretical-methodological issues of tourism offer planning and regulation of settlements in mountain destinations. The basic determinants of the development of mountain tourist regions destinations in EU countries, in which respectable development results have been achieved, first of all in terms of income, together with appropriately adjusted development and environmental management system, have been emphasized. The ongoing transition and structural processes in Serbia will have an impact on application of these experiences. At the same time, a basis for competitiveness of mountain regions will not be determined only by spatial capacity and geological location, but also by creative-innovative developing environment. Taking into account the spatial-functional criteria and criteria for the development and protection, the possible spatial definition of mountain tourist regions/destinations in Serbia are presented. The justifiability and positioning of tourism development projects are analyzed aiming at uniform regional development, where two segments of demand are of particularly importance, i.e. demand for mountain tourism services and for real estates in mountain centers. Furthermore, holders of tourism offer will be analyzed through a contemporary approach which may be defined as the development and noncommercial and market and commercial one. International criteria which are evaluated while selecting city/mountain destination for Winter Olympic Games are particularly analyzed. Considering experience of countries with higher level of development of mountain regions, the main starting point for positioning projects for sustainable development of tourist destinations are defined by specifying them according to specific local and regional conditions. A rational model for spatial organization of tourism offer is shown on the example of the Stara Planina tourist region.

  3. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  4. Through mountains and valleys: entrepreneurship, innovation and regional growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vítor Hugo dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Doutoramento em Economia This thesis consists of a series of essays focusing upon regional and national differences and variations in terms of their innovation and growth performances, while also approaching the role played by intellectual property rights (IPR), knowledge intensive business services (KIBS), entrepreneurship and other traditional factors that influence innovation. The title of the thesis reflects the enormous variation of economic performance across regions and countries wo...

  5. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China’s Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.

  6. ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESEARCH CENTER FOR REMEDIATION OF MINE WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 11 research projects were funded as part of the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC. The typical project duration was 2 years, with one project funded for 3 years and another project funded for only 1 year. Three projects were funded in each of three research focus areas, ...

  7. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills

  8. Differences in changes of potential evaporation in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Data from eleven meteorological stations in the Tianshan mountains and the north slope of west Kunlun mountains, and eighteen meteorological stations in the Kaidu-Kongque river, Akesu river, Kashiger river and Yankant river oases were examined to assess the differences in changes in potential evaporation from 1960 to 2006 in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin and the relationships of these changes to meteorological factors. The decreasing trends in potential evaporation were primarily due to the decrease in the aerodynamic terms in both the mountainous and oasis regions, but the trends in the oasis regions were more pronounced. Based on the complementary relationship between potential and actual evaporation, the decreasing trends in potential evaporation appeared to be related to the increasing trends in precipitation in the mountainous regions and the increasing trends in water consumption in the oasis regions, thus reflecting the different impacts of natural changes and anthropogenic influences.

  9. Differences in chanses of potential evaporation in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN SongJun; HU HePing; YANG DaWen; LIU QunChang

    2009-01-01

    Data from eleven meteorological stations in the Tianshan mountains and the north slope of west Kunlun mountains, and eighteen meteorological stations in the Keidu- Kongque river, Akesu river, Kashiger river and Yankant river oases were examined to assess the differences in changes in potential evaporation from 1960 to 2006 in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin and the relationships of these changes to meteorological factors. The decreasing trends in potential evaporation were primarily due to the decrease in the aerodynamic terms in both the mountainous and oasis regions, but the trends in the oasis regions were more pronounced. Based on the complementary relationship between potential and actual evaporation, the decreasing trends in potential evaporation appeared to be related to the increasing trends in precipitation in the mountainous regions and the increasing trends in water consumption in the oasis regions, thus reflecting the different impacts of natural changes and anthropogenic influences.

  10. BURIAL AND EXHUMATION OF THE TERRA NOVA BAY REGION, TRANSANTARCTIC MOUNTAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Prenzel, Jannis

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Terra Nova Bay region in the Ross Sea sector of the Transantarctic Mountains. For quantification of the burial and exhumation history, thermochronological methods were applied on samples from vertical profiles across the basement in the northern Terra Nova Bay region (Eisenhower Range, Deep Freeze Range) and supplemented by paleotemperature analysis on overlying Beacon sandstones from the Eisenhower Range and published thermochronological data of vertical basement p...

  11. Silvopastoralism in Turkey’s Mountainous Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEN, Sezgin; Geray, Uçkun

    2003-01-01

    Grasslands and forests are degraded in Turkey’s Mediterranean Region (TMR), the center of the widespread traditional Yoruk sil- vopastoral system. Government efforts tohalt degradation focus on afforestation, a policy that reduces the amount of land avail- able to the Yoruks for their traditional liveli- hood system, which is further endangered by socioeconomic dynamics subject to the pres- sures of globalization. This silvopastoral system is examined with respect to policies that affect it a...

  12. Silvopastoralism in Turkey’s Mountainous Mediteranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEN, Sezgin

    2003-01-01

    Grasslands and forests are degraded inTurkey’s Mediterranean Region (TMR), the center of the widespread traditional Yoruk silvopastoral system. Government efforts to halt degradation focus on afforestation, apolicy that reduces the amount of land available to the Yoruks for their traditional livelihood system, which is further endangered by socioeconomic dynamics subject to the pressuresof globalization. This silvopastoral system is examined with respect to policies that affect it and its pot...

  13. Participatory and Integrated Research in Mountainous Regions of Thailand and Vietnam: Approaches and Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    Participatory and integrated research approaches employed by a long-term ThaiVietnamese-German collaborative research program,circles of resource scarcity, environmental degradation and rural poverty in mountainous regions of northern Thailand and northern Vietnam are discussed in this paper. We present two examples from the Thai component of the research program to show how different disciplines and stakeholders need to cooperate at different scales to make meaningful scientific contributions towards sustainable land use and rural development in mountainous regions. The case of resource conservation in the Thai highlands shows that local and scientific knowledge, conventional surveys and participatory modeling can be creatively combined. Integrated research on the potential of integrating fruit trees and associated technologies into mountain farming systems suggests that natural scientists have to work alongside economists and social scientists to avoid harmful effects of purely technology-driven and productivityenhancing approaches. The success of new technologies cannot be measured solely by adoption rates and yield increases, but also needs to take into account their long-term impact on various groups of farmers and the ecological, economic and social trade-offs that they entail. Technical and institutional innovations need to go hand in hand to provide viable livelihood opportunities for smallholder farmers in mountain watersheds. The major lesson learned from the first six years of our research in the mountains of Thailand and Vietnam is that conventional and participatory approaches are not antagonistic; if scientists from various disciplines and research paradigms are open-minded, the combination of both approaches can produce meaningful results that cater for the needs of both the academic community and local stakeholders in mountain environments.

  14. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the

  15. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  16. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  17. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., at 75 FR 38192. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The underwriting limitation for Allegheny Casualty Company (NAIC 13285), which was listed in the... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-- Allegheny Casualty...

  18. Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Eastoe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The same trend occurs in basin groundwater east and west of the range, indicating the high Sacramento Mountains as the principal regional water source, either direct from the limestone aquifers or from mountain-derived surface water. Tritium and carbon-14 indicate bulk residence times of a few decades in the high Sacramento Mountains and at Alamogordo, and of thousands of years south of Alamogordo and in the artesian aquifer near Artesia. Stable O, H isotope data fail to demonstrate the presence of Sacramento Mountains water in a saline aquifer of the Hueco Bolson (Texas.

  19. Farming System and Agricultural Production among Small Farmers in the Uluguru Mountain Area, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    MASAWE, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    A farming systems approach is used to explain the problems of small scale farmers in the Uluguru Mountain Area in Morogoro region, Tanzania. A survey, involving 60 small farmers selected at random, was conducted by means of questionnaires, discussions as well as field observations. It was revealed that although farmers in this area practice a variety of cropping systems partly taken over the know-how of the older shifting type of cultivation, and considered more appropriate to deal with the f...

  20. Development of State Interindustry Models for Rocky Mountain Region and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Kunin, Leonard

    1976-02-01

    Interindustry tables have been developed for the eight Rocky Mountain States and California. These tables are based on the 367-order 1967 national interindustry table. The national matrix was expanded to 404 sectors by disaggregating the seven minerals industries to 44 industries. The state tables can be used for energy and other resource analysis. Regional impacts of alternate development strategies can be evaluated with their use. A general computer program has been developed to facilitate construction of state interindustry tables.

  1. The productive traits of different potato genotypes in mountainous region of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Jovović Zoran; Dolijanović Željko; Kovačević Dušan; Velimirović Ana; Biberdžić Milan

    2012-01-01

    The results of three-year study of productivity for the five leading potato varieties in Montenegro: Riviera and Tresor (early), Kennebec (medium-early), Aladin and Agria (medium-late) are presented. The research was conducted during 2009, 2010 and 2011, on three highly diverse, related to the pedological and climatic conditions, locations in mountainous region of Montenegro: Niksic (800 m.a.s.l.), Kolasin (900 m.a.s.l.) and Zabljak (1450 m.a.s.l.). Field e...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bendifallah; A. E. Benmahfoud; Y. Hameni; S. Mameche

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae) is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and...

  3. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mandelli; Emanuela Colombo; Jerome Mungwe

    2016-01-01

    Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper ...

  4. Centralized planning and economic reforms in a mountainous region in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Gevraise, V.; Novosad, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study contributes to an understanding of the diversity of agrarian systems in the mountainous regions of northern Vietnam. By examining over 100 small family farms, we identified the major changes in production systems that have occurred over the last 50 years. Access to land, population migration, and individual initiative were the three major factors driving household differentiation. State policies had substantial impacts on all three factors, making the State the key driving force of...

  5. Ground surface temperature scenarios in complex high-mountain topography based on regional climate model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Nadine; NöTzli, Jeannette; Hauck, Christian; Gruber, Stephan; Hoelzle, Martin; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2007-06-01

    Climate change can have severe impacts on the high-mountain cryosphere, such as instabilities in rock walls induced by thawing permafrost. Relating climate change scenarios produced from global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) to complex high-mountain environments is a challenging task. The qualitative and quantitative impact of changes in climatic conditions on local to microscale ground surface temperature (GST) and the ground thermal regime is not readily apparent. This study assesses a possible range of changes in the GST (ΔGST) in complex mountain topography. To account for uncertainties associated with RCM output, a set of 12 different scenario climate time series (including 10 RCM-based and 2 incremental scenarios) was applied to the topography and energy balance (TEBAL) model to simulate average ΔGST for 36 different topographic situations. Variability of the simulated ΔGST is related primarily to the emission scenarios, the RCM, and the approach used to apply RCM results to the impact model. In terms of topography, significant influence on GST simulation was shown by aspect because it modifies the received amount of solar radiation at the surface. North faces showed higher sensitivity to the applied climate scenarios, while uncertainties are higher for south faces. On the basis of the results of this study, use of RCM-based scenarios is recommended for mountain permafrost impact studies, as opposed to incremental scenarios.

  6. 75 FR 73064 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 19, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI, and Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC filed applications... Allegheny River Lock & Dam No. 7 Projects Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI's project (Project No....

  7. Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    The Carpathian Mountains Region (CMR) lies over parts of the territories of seven Central and Southeastern European countries, and the mountain chain induces major changes in the temperate climate specific to the latitudes between 43° and 49°N. Different administrations govern the long-term meteorological networks; the infrastructure, collection protocols, and storage capacities are specific to each country, so that a comprehensive study on the climate of the area has met considerable difficulties along time. Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM) is a regional initiative developed between 2010 and 2013 aiming to enhance the climatic information in the area by providing comprehensive, temporally and spatially homogenous data sets of the main meteorological variables. Based on daily data aggregated to a monthly scale at 10-km resolution, this study exploits and promotes the results of the CARPATCLIM project, documenting the variability of the main climatic variables over 1961-2010. For each month, the significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified, mapped and placed in the context of previous studies and climate change perspectives. The study has revealed several patterns in the climatic variability, i.e., positive or negative trends prevailing over the entire area, very distinct delineation between various trends induced by the Carpathian Mountain chain, and pledges for further scientific approaches, i.e., causes of the variability and applications in other domains.

  8. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mitrofanenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered by the research community. This paper explores the potential for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management in mountainous regions, guided by 3 research questions: What challenges of protected area management could benefit from intergenerational practice? How can intergenerational practice help to address these challenges? And how could intergenerational practice be more strongly integrated into current protected area management? The paper focuses on selected management challenges, mostly related to the development function of protected areas, and suggests intergenerational practice solution pathways for each challenge, derived from qualitative content analysis of the literature, interviews with protected area and regional development experts, and participation in the project Big Foot: Crossing Generations, Crossing Mountains, which tested intergenerational learning approaches in 3 rural municipalities—one each in Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy. Recommendations are proposed for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management policy and practice at the global, regional, and local levels.

  9. Impacts of mountains on black carbon aerosol under different synoptic meteorology conditions in the Guanzhong region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyu; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The Xi'an City and the surrounding area (the Guan-Zhong-GZ region) in western China have been suffering severe air pollutions during wintertime in recent years. In-situ black carbon (BC) measurement combined with a regional dynamical and chemical model (WRF-Chem model) is used to investigate the formation of a haze episode occurred from Jan. 3rd to Jan. 13th 2013. The results show that the measured BC concentrations exhibit a large day-to-day variability. The impacts of synoptic weather systems, local meteorological parameters and mountain effect on the BC variability are studied. Because the GZ region is surrounded by two major mountains, the Loess Plateau in the north and the Qinling Mountains in the south, especially the peak of the Qinling Mountains higher than 3000 m, we particularly analyze the effects of the Qinling Mountains on the BC pollution. The analysis shows that the BC pollution in Xi'an City and the GZ region is strongly affected by the synoptic weather systems, local meteorological winds and the Qinling Mountains. Under a typical northeast wind condition, winds are blocked by the Qinling Mountains, and BC particles are trapped at the foothill of the mountains, resulting in high BC concentrations in the city of Xi'an. Under a typical east wind condition, BC particles are transported along a river valley and the foothill of the Qinling Mountains. In this case, the mountain-river valley plays a role to accelerate the east wind, resulting in a reduction of the BC pollution. Under a typical calm wind condition, the BC particles are less diffused from their source region, and there is a mountain breeze from the Qinling Mountains to the city of Xi'an, and BC particles accumulate in the city, especially in the north side of the city. This study illustrates that while locating between complicated terrain conditions, such as the GZ region, the mountains play very important roles for the formation of hazes in the region.

  10. Bryophytes and their distribution in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Andrew Jackson; Brown, E. A.; Oldfield, R. J.; Selkirk, P.M.; Coveny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) that occur in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales (latitude 33˚–34˚ S, longitude 151˚–151˚40’ E) are listed and information is provided on their distribution in the region. Species lists are based on herbarium specimens and field collections. 348 bryophyte taxa have been recorded from 70 families, including 225 moss taxa (in 108 genera from 45 families), 120 liverwort taxa (in 51 genera from 24 families) and 3 hornwort taxa (in 3 gene...

  11. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region, are described. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth's surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which have occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. In this paper an example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. The authors are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii

  12. Living in a High Mountain Border Region: the Case of the 'Bhotiyas' of the Indo-Chinese Border Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Bergmann; Martin Gerwin; Marcus Nüsse; William S. Sax

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces one of South Asia's most important border regions into academic discourse, namely, the Central Himalayan mountain rim separating India and the Tibetan Autonomous Region (People's Republic of China). What makes this border region so interesting is a tangled interplay of changing environmental, cultural, and political forms to which the local populations constantly have to adapt in order to make a living there. We focused on the so-called 'Bhotiyas' of Uttarakhand, former trans-Himalayan traders whose ethnicity and livelihood was traditionally associated with the Indo-Chinese border that was sealed as a result of the India-China war in 1962. Drawing on the work of borderland scholarship, we identified the key processes and developments that changed the perspective of this area. Competing political aspirations as well as the 'Bhotiyas' countervailing strategies were considered equally important for understanding local livelihoods and identities within the dynamics of a 'high mountain border region'. Through an exemplary analysis of historical differences of power in one 'Bhotiya' valley, we further explored the ways in which shifting socio-spatial constellations are creatively re-interpreted by the borderlanders.

  13. MARKETIZATION OF GREEN FOOD RESOURCES IN FOREST REGION OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains is rich in the resources of green food. At present, the low marketization of green food resources in the forest region of the Changbai Mountains becomes the bottleneck to restrict the benign development of its green food industry. With huge market demands at home and abroad, it is the urgent problem how to improve marketization process of green food resources and transfer the resources superiority into the market superiority in the region. According to the investigation, this paper analyzed the status quo and the cause of formation of low-marketization with the method of combining comparative research and practice research. It pointed out that necessary condition of marketization of green food resources in the forest region, such as strategy, economic environment, marketization allocation of sci-tech resources, etc. should be established. Furthermore, the concrete strategies of marketization of green food resources in the region such as market location, strategies of objective markets, combined strategy of marketing, etc. were advanced.

  14. Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of Regional Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary method for changing the climates of entire countries or portions thereof, obtaining huge amounts of cheap water and energy from the atmosphere. In this paper is presented the idea of cheap artificial inflatable mountains, which may cardinally change the climate of a large region or country. Additional benefits: The potential of tapping large amounts of fresh water and energy. The mountains are inflatable semi-cylindrical constructions from thin film (gas bags) having heights of up to 3 - 5 km. They are located perpendicular to the main wind direction. Encountering these artificial mountains, humid air (wind) rises to crest altitude, is cooled and produces rain (or rain clouds). Many natural mountains are sources of rivers, and other forms of water and power production - and artificial mountains may provide these services for entire nations in the future. The film of these gasbags is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric overpressure and may be...

  15. Regional and local correlations of feldspar geochemistry of the Peach Spring Tuff, Alvord Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesch, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of feldspar grains in an ignimbrite from the Spanish Canyon Formation in the Alvord Mountain area, California, have been used to confirm similarities in three measured sections locally, and they are similar to exposures of the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) regionally. Feldspar grains were identified on the basis of texture (zoning, as mantled feldspars, or in crystal clusters), whether the grains were attached to glass or were in pumice clasts, or were simply crystal fragments with no textural context. Chemistry was determined by electron microprobe analysis, and each analysis is calculated in terms of the percent endmember and plotted on orthoclase (Or) versus anorthite (An) plots. In general, the PST has sanidine and plagioclase compositions that are consistent with having formed in high-silica rhyolite and trachyte within a zoned magma chamber. Feldspars from the PST in Spanish Canyon area cluster along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend. Similar clustering of feldspars along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend also occur in the PST from Granite Spring and Providence Mountains to the east of the Alvord Mountain area, and the ranges in compositions are also similar in these locations. In contrast, the PST in the Kane Wash area of the Newberry Mountains has feldspars only from the rhyolitic trend in the basal deposits, but some grains from the trachytic trend are in the upper part of the deposit, and the range in compositions are greater than in the Spanish Canyon area. The variations in vertical compositional zoning and compositional range in these different deposits suggests there were probably different flow paths (or timing of the delivery) during the eruption and runout of the pyroclastic flow(s) generated from the climactic eruption of the PST magma chamber.

  16. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene dikes in Bare Mountain, southwest Nevada: Implications for regional tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Gillett, S.L.; Karlin, R.E.; Schweickert, R.A. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of N-striking Miocene quartz latite dikes (13.9 Ma), within Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Bare Mountain, have been conducted in an effort to determine the sense of post-middle Miocene tectonic tilting and rotation in the Bare Mountain region. A total of 56 oriented samples of dikes and wallrocks were collected from Tarantula Canyon (TC) and south of Joshua Hollow (JH), where the dikes intruded N-dipping Mississippian-Devonian limestone beds. Progressive thermal demagnetization and principal component analyses reveal a stable high temperature component of remanent magnetization that is carried by magnetite or hematite in different samples. Petrographic investigations, combined with thermal demagnetization analysis, indicate that magnetite is a primary phase and that hematite is secondary. Hematitic alteration in both wallrocks and dikes is probably hydrothermal following intrusion as the mean direction of both minerals overlap. The in situ mean magnetization directions from all dikes exhibit negative inclinations that correspond to a Tertiary reversed field. The data indicate that magnetization acquisition in the wallrocks and dikes postdates tilting of the beds and the no major remagnetization event has occurred since the intrusion. The results from TC imply that there has been no significant rotation of the northeast part of Bare Mountain since [minus]14 Ma. The authors further suggest that the E-W structural trends of Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks at Bare Mountain are older than the middle Miocene dikes. Paleomagnetic data from dikes of JH show steeper inclinations and westerly declinations compared to the dike of TC. There are two interpretations to explain the differences: The dikes may have formed at different times in the same magmatic event and the directional differences are due to secular variation. Alternatively, the dikes at JH were tilted slightly to the north around a sub-horizontal axis.

  17. Morphological characteristics of Red Clover Cultivars in the Lowland and Hilly-Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leto

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was (1 to study morphological characteristics (germination, flowering, the height of the plants, leaf share, health condition, lodging and overwintering of six red clover cultivars (Croatia, Reichersberger, K-17, Marino, Viola and Nada grown in the lowland and hilly-mountain region, (2 to determine the interaction of cultivar and location characteristics tested, (3 to determine most appropriate cultivars for hilly-mountain region growth, and 4 to find out those cultivars which would serve as genetic base for breeding improvement of red clover. The trial was set up in spring 1995 in Maksimir (123 m above sea level and on Medvednica (650 m above sea level as a latin square design. The poorest germination was noted for K-17 and Reichersberger cultivars. The cultivars flowered at about the same date except for Nada which flowered 5 to 20 days later, depending on the cut. The highest plants height in Maksimir had K-17 (61.82 cm while the highest leaf share was found in Nada cultivar (52.03%. Both characteristic values on Medvednica were the highest for Nada (66.36 cm, 44.37%. Nada was also the least affected by pathogens (mostly by Erysiphe communis. The degree of infection depended on the cut, year and location. The strongest lodging was noticed for K-17 cultivar. In the third year the highest coverage was found for Croatia (37.1% in Maksimir and Nada (60.8% on Medvednica. Significant interaction genotype x location was found for leaf share while for the plant height the same interaction was very near the level of significance (P<0.05. Therefore, Nada and K-17 cultivars are most suitable as germplasm for plant breeding and most adapted for the growing in hilly-mountain region.

  18. [Variation Characteristics of Total Gaseous Mercury at Simian Mountain Background Station in Mid-subtropical Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-ming; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Sun, Tao; Wei, Shi-qiang

    2016-05-15

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at the Simian Mountain Forest Nature Reserve in Chongqing, a representative of the mid-subtropical region, using high-resolution automatic atmospheric mercury vapor analyzer (Tekran 2537X) from March 2012 to February 2013. The results showed that the average concentration of TGM during the monitoring was (2.88 ± 1.54) ng · m⁻³, which was much higher than the background TGM on north hemisphere but lower than those at most of the other monitoring sites in China. These results suggested that the TGM level in Simian Mountain was still in the normal range on regional scale, but had an increasing tendency globally. The TGM level exhibited a distinct seasonal variation, following the order of winter (3.68 ± 2.43) ng · m⁻³ > summer (3.29 ± 0.79) ng · m⁻³ > spring (2.44 ± 0.69) ng · m⁻³ > autumn (2.13 ± 0.97) ng · m⁻³, and the TGM concentration varied to a greater extent in winter. The diurnal variation of TGM concentration characterized as being higher at the nighttime in spring, while higher during the daytime in other seasons. The concentration variation of TGM had a positive correlation to temperature and light intensity. The result of backward trajectory analysis using HYSPLIT showed that the main source of the TGM in Simian Mountain was the local coal combustion, and long distance transportation by the Indian monsoon might also play a role in the increasing TGM level. PMID:27506014

  19. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth's surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii

  20. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    OpenAIRE

    Spraker Terry R; White Stephen N; Reynolds James O; O'Rourke Katherine I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP h...

  1. [Life span and cercaria shedding of schistosome-infected snails in mountain region of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F; Yin, G; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Zhang, X; Yang, J; Qian, K; Tan, H; Zheng, J; Zhang, R

    1990-01-01

    The life span and cercaria shedding of infected Oncomelania snails in a mountain region of Shitoudi village, Weishan County, Yunnan Province were observed in simulated local ecological environments. 135 infected snails were isolated for observation 3 months after exposure to miracidia in August, 1987. The snail survival rate from the day of initial cercaria shedding to next June, July, August and September was 27.4, 16.3, 13.3 and 11.9% respectively, and the average number of cercariae shed was 139.9, 29.6, 39.2 and 75 per month respectively. The average life span of infected snails was 171.6 days. The average number of cercariae shed per snail in its whole life was 673.0. It was estimated that the average patent period of infected snails was over half a year. As this is the first report in our country in respect to the life span and cercariae shedding of infected snails in a mountain region, the result might be useful for quantitative analysis of epidemiological factors of schistosomiasis in this kind of endemic areas as well as for formulation of control strategy. PMID:2114229

  2. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  3. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  5. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  6. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; stratigraphy, physiography, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T. L., (Edited By); Brooks, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    PART 1: Stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of sedimentary sequences from the Wallowa terrane of northeastern Oregon has provided a unique insight into the paleogeography and depositional history of the terrane, as well as establishing important constraints on its tectonic evolution and accretionary history. Its Late Triassic history is considered here by examining the two most important sedimentary units in the Wallowa terrane-the Martin Bridge Limestone and the Hurwal Formation. Conformably overlying epiclastic volcanic rocks of the Seven Devils Group, the Martin Bridge Limestone comprises shallow-water platform carbonate rocks and deeper water, off-platform slope and basin facies. Regional stratigraphic and tectonic relations suggest that the Martin Bridge was deposited in a narrow, carbonate-dominated (forearc?) basin during a lull in volcanic activity. The northern Wallowa platform was a narrow, rimmed shelf delineated by carbonate sand shoals. Interior parts of the shelf were characterized by supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates and evaporites, which were deposited in a restricted basin. In the southern Wallowa Mountains, lithofacies of the Martin Bridge are primarily carbonate turbidites and debris flow deposits, which accumulated on a carbonate slope apron adjacent to the northern Wallowa rimmed shelf from which they were derived. Drowning of the platform in the latest Triassic, coupled with a renewed influx of volcanically derived sediments, resulted in the progradation of fine-grained turbidites of the Hurwal Formation over the carbonate platform. Within the Hurwal, Norian conglomerates of the Excelsior Gulch unit contain exotic clasts of radiolarian chert, which were probably derived from the Bakei terrane. Such a provenance provides evidence of a tectonic link between the Baker and Wallowa terranes as early as the Late Triassic, and offers support for the theory that both terranes were part of a more extensive and complex Blue Mountains

  7. Study on Regional Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Schwaner Mountains West and Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium occurrences indication in Kalimantan has been discovered at metamorphic and granites rocks of Schwaner Mountains as the radioactivity and geochemical anomalies. A regional geology of Schwaner Mountains show a watershed of West and East Kalimantan consist of Pinoh metamorphic rocks that was intruded by tonalitic and granitic batholite. The goal of this study is to observe the mechanism of the Uranium occurrences related to the regional tectonic, metamorphic rocks, tonalite and granitic batholite. Permokarbonaferrous metamorphic rocks as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally derived from sedimentary process that produce a high content of uranium as well as a fine grained volcanic material. This uranium is deposited within neritic facies. Those sediments have been metamorphosed by low grade Abukuma regional metamorphism at the condition about 540oC and 2000 bar. In early Cretaceous Tonalite of Sep auk intruded the rock and both metamorphics and tonalites. Those rocks were intruded by Late Cretaceous alkalin granite of Sukadana. Those crystalline rocks overlaid by an unconformity-related Kampari and Tebidah Formations that including within Melawi Group of Tertiary age. Uranium mineralization as the centimetric-metric veins related to tectonic N 100o-110oE and N 50oE lineaments. Uranium was interpreted as a volcanic sedimentary origin, than it re mobilized by low grade regional metamorphism process. This enuchment process was carried out by fluor, boron and other metalliferous mineral within hydrothermal solutions of Sukadana granite. (author)

  8. Differential insect and mammalian response to Late Quaternary climate change in the Rocky Mountain region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2015-07-01

    Of the 200 beetle species identified from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene insect faunal assemblages, 23% are no longer resident in this region. None of the 200 species is extinct. In contrast to this, only 8% of 73 identified mammal species from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene assemblages are no longer resident in the Rockies, and 12 species are now extinct. Since both groups of organisms are highly mobile, it would appear that their responses to the large-scale fluctuations of climate associated with the last 125,000 years have been considerably different. Most strikingly contrasting with the insects, there are no mammals in the Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene fossil record that are found exclusively today in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region. The PNW does have a distinctive modern mammalian fauna, but only one of these, Keen's Myotis, has a fossil record outside the PNW region, in the eastern and central United States. No modern PNW vertebrate species have been found in any Rocky Mountain fossil assemblages. Based on these data, it appears that there has been little or no mammalian faunal exchange between the PNW region and the Rocky Mountains during the Late Pleistocene or Holocene. This is in stark contrast to the fossil beetle record, where PNW species are a substantial component in many faunas, right through to the Late Holocene.

  9. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  10. The Mountain Image in Regional Songs%国风诗中的山意象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由娜

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly applies the theory and method of archetypal criticism to the mountain image in Regional Songs from The Book of Poetry for further study their deeper connotations .From high-mountain, ascending and missing relatives ,“Nan-san” ,love story,and dual for love story , the paper explores the source for later literary imagery and finds traces in studying ancient literature.%主要运用原型批评的理论和方法,对《诗经》国风诗的山意象做进一步的探究,拟从山之高大、登高思亲、“南山”与男女情事、山隰对举象征男女爱情等几个层面进行阐述,以发掘其深层次意蕴,为后世文学意象找寻源头。

  11. Effect of climatic change on snowmelt runoffs in mountainous regions of inland rivers in Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; LI Shuo

    2006-01-01

    Climatic change has significant impacts on snow cover in mid-latitude mountainous regions, in the meantime, spatial and temporal changes of snow cover and snowmelt runoffs are considered as sensitive indicators for climatic change. In this study, the upper Heihe Watershed in the Qilian Mountains was selected as a typical area affected by snow cover and snowmelt runoffs in northwestern China. The changes in air temperatures, precipitation, snowfall and spring snowmelt runoffs were analyzed for the period from 1956 to 2001. The results indicate that climatic warming was apparent, particularly in January and February, but precipitation just fluctuated without a clear trend. The possible changes of snowmelt runoffs in the upper Heihe watershed in response to a warming of 4℃ were simulated using Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) based on the degree-day factor algorithm. The results of the simulation indicate that a forward shifting of snow melting season, an increase in water flows in earlier melting season, and a decline in flows in later melting season would occur under a 4℃ warming scenario.

  12. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  13. Analysis and Modelling of Extreme Wind Speed Distributions in Complex Mountainous Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Mohamed; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Modelling of wind speed distributions in complex mountainous regions is an important and challenging problem which interests many scientists from several fields. In the present research, high frequency (10 min) Swiss wind speed monitoring data (IDAWEB service, Meteosuisse) are analysed and modelled with different parametric distributions (Weibull, GEV, Gamma, etc.) using maximum likelihood method. In total, 111 stations placed in different geomorphological units and at different altitude (from 203 to 3580 meters) are studied. Then, this information is used for training machine learning algorithms (Extreme Learning Machines, Support vector machine) to predict the distribution at new places, potentially useful for aeolian energy generation. An important part of the research deals with the construction and application of a high dimensional input feature space, generated from digital elevation model. A comprehensive study was carried out using feature selection approach to get the best model for the prediction. The main results are presented as spatial patterns of distributions' parameters.

  14. Risk and size estimation of debris flow caused by storm rainfall in mountain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Genwei

    2003-01-01

    Debris flow is a common disaster in mountain regions. The valley slope, storm rainfall and amassed sand-rock materials in a watershed may influence the types of debris flow. The bursting of debris flow is not a pure random event. Field investigations show the periodicity of its burst, but no directive evidence has been found yet. A risk definition of debris flow is proposed here based upon the accumulation and the starting conditions of loose material in channel. According to this definition, the risk of debris flow is of quasi-periodicity. A formula of risk estimation is derived. Analysis of relative factors reveals the relationship between frequency and size of debris flow. For a debris flow creek, the longer the time interval between two occurrences of debris flows is, the bigger the bursting event will be.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  16. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios developed at the global and Swiss levels via an external consistency analysis. This method allows the coupling of both the scenario building process and the scenarios as such. We used a functional-dynamic approach to theory-practice cooperation, i.e., the involvement of key stakeholders from, for example, tourism, forestry, and administration, differed in type and intensity during the steps of the research process. In our study, we experienced strong problem awareness among the stakeholders concerning the impacts of global change and local challenges. The guiding research question was commonly defined and problem ownership was more or less balanced. We arrived at six multiscale scenarios that open up future trajectories for the Visp region, and present generic strategies to cope with global and local challenges. The results show that local identity, spatial planning, community budget, and demographic development are important steering elements in the region’s future development. We suggest that method-guided transdisciplinary processes result in a richer picture and a more systemic understanding, which enable a discussion of critical and surprising issues.

  17. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  18. Does WEPP meet the specificity of soil erosion in steep mountain regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We chose the WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project to describe soil erosion in the Urseren Valley (central Switzerland as it seems to be one of the most promising models for steep mountain environments. Crucial model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species, fractional vegetation cover, initial saturation level, by laboratory analyses (grain size, organic matter or by the WEPP manual (rill- and interrill erodibility, effective hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity. The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale for three different land use types: meadows, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs. Erosion rates for the vegetation period were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rates were estimated by measuring Cs-137 redistribution, deposited after the Chernobyl accident. In addition to the erosion rates, soil moisture and surface flow was additionally measured during the vegetation period in the field and compared to model output. Short-term erosion rates are simulated well whereas long term erosion rates were underestimated by the model. Simulated soil moisture has a parallel development compared to measured data from April onwards but a converse dynamic in early spring (simulated increase and measured decrease in March and April. The discrepancy in soil water during springtime was explained by delayed simulated snow cover melting. The underestimation of simulated long term erosion rates is attributed to alpine processes other than overland flow and splash. Snow gliding processes might dominate erosion processes during winter time. We assume that these differences lead to the general simulated underestimation of erosion rates. Thus, forcing erosion processes which dominate erosion rates in mountainous regions have to be implemented to WEPP for a successful application in the future.

  19. Potentials for development of spa tourism in region of Cer Mountain: Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their particularities, thermal and mineral springs at the foothill of Cer Mountain deserve special analysis. This is the reason we wrote this article, aiming to take reader's attention to the touristic potentials of the spa zone of Cer Mountain and possibilities for its perspective development. From the medical and excursion-recreational tourism point of view, there is a possibility for combining the spa tourism with the complementary values of Cer Mountain.

  20. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high mb - Ms. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations

  1. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  2. Predicting the scenic beauty value of mapped landscape changes in a mountainous region through the use of GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey; Ian D. Bishop; Peter Bebi

    2007-01-01

    Planning frequently fails to include the valuation of public goods, such as scenic beauty. This can lead to negative economic impacts for a region over the longer term. Especially in mountainous regions such as the Alps in central Europe, which depend on tourist income, the change of landscape views through the development of facilities for recreation and tourism may negatively affect the tourism experience, and hence the economy. In this study we present a prototypical technique to predict p...

  3. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  4. Snow covers detection using terrestrial photography. Application to a mountain catchment in Alps region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Thierry; Saulnier, Georges-Marie; Malet, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    In August 2005, a significant mudflow leaded to major impacts damages at the Sainte-Agnes village located downstream the Vorz torrent (35 km2, elevations ranging from 1248m and 2977m, Alps region, France). To meet the demand of populations and civil authorities a research program was launched to both monitor and model these regions to help to quantify water resources and vulnerability to such hazardous events, including their probable evolutions do to climatic changes. This communication focuses on one of the several forcing variables of the water cycle in mountainous regions: the snow covering. Indeed, its controls a significant part of the future available water resources and may strongly interact with liquid precipitations during snow melting season. Usual sensors such as remote sensing cannot easily quantify accurately the snow covering for small mountainous catchment at hydrological models spatial and temporal resolutions (typically Dx aspects. This position must also be reached by direct solar radiation to recharge the embedded solar panel. A 2 or 3 hours sampling time-step was chosen for pictures shots (depending to available energy and memory capacity of camera). Indeed it allows observing all the day and offers an accurate sampling of the melting period. First major difficulty of this technique is the retro mapping of the 2D pictures from the camera on the 3D Digital Terrain Model to distribute the snow covering by elevation and aspects. The second difficulty is to automatically distinguish the snow from other meteorological "white" objects (fog, clouds, etc.) taking into account for the very various luminosity and cloud covers conditions. To make the 2D to 3D conversion, the camera referential needs to be replaced in the catchment referential by geometrical transformations. This operation is automatically realized by automatic recognition of geo referenced ground points (particular DTM points) within the camera pictures and resolution of a matrix system

  5. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses' ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain

  6. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Green Tourism in Mountain Regions - Reducing Vulnerability and Promoting People and Place Centric Development in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular. The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry market, uncontrolled numbers of tourists and related haphazard infrastructural facilities in the vulnerable mountain regions pose serious environmental implications. The ecological pressures are threatening land, water and wild life resources through direct and indirect environmental impacts together with generation of solid and liquid wastes, so green tourism is emerging as an important task in order to develop new relationship between communities, government agencies and private sectors. The strategy focuses on ecological understanding, environmental protection and ecodevelopment. The major attributes of the green tourism include environmental conservation and education and distribution of income to local people based on strong partnership. Various knowledge systems go a long way for achieving the goals of the green tourism, which creates awareness about the value of environmental resources.Mountains have ecological, recreational, educational and scientific values, which need to be utilised in sustainable way. Various tourist activities and facilities need to be diversified in order to achieve multiple benefits including scientific field excursion,recreation in natural and cultural areas, community festivals and sport tourisms. Green tourism considers tourism development as an integral part of a national and regional development. The paper discusses the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the green tourism with particular reference to village tourism development programme taking empirical evidences from the Himalaya. Such programme also minimises biophysical and human

  8. Interpretation of crustal structure from regional gravity anomalies, Ouachita Mountains area and adjacent Gulf coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, J.M.; Keller, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    A gravity data base from more than 35,000 stations was used to generate a series of regional gravity maps of the Ouachita Mountains area including adjacent parts of the craton and the Gulf coastal plain. These maps were used in conjunction with information from 96 wells, data from preexisting geophysical and geological investigations, and computer models to interpret four gravity profiles that transect the study area (approximately lat. 30-37/sup 0/N, long. 91.5-99/sup 0/W). These models, gravity maps, and previous investigations were then used to analyze various regional gravity anomalies and to interpret the gross crustal structure of the region and its tectonic implications. These data suggest that variably attenuated continental crust lies beneath the Gulf coastal plain, south of the Ouachita system gravity gradient, as opposed to typical continental crust of the craton north of this gradient. This variation in crustal structure probably reflects the complexity of Eocambrian and early Mesozoic rifting in the area. The Arkoma basin gravity minima may result from the combined effect of a late Paleozoic foreland basin and an Eocambrian northwest-trending, rift-related basin. The Ouachita system interior zone gravity maximum varies along strike of this orogenic belt. This anomaly appears to be a good indicator of the position of the Eocambrian continental margin and associated rift zone. Gravity anomalies in the Gulf coastal plain appear to be a combined effect of variable crustal attenuation, basins and uplifts, and mafic intrusions. Gravity maxima in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen result from uplifts and deep-seated mafic intrusions; gravity minima result from deep sedimentary basins.

  9. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  10. Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, N C; Macdonald, C R; Elkin, B T; Wang, X; Harms, N J; Gamberg, M; Muir, D C G

    2016-10-01

    Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011mg/kg ww). (134)Cs (t½=2.1 y) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. (137)Cs (t½=30.2 y) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney

  11. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  12. Evaluating Satellite Products for Precipitation Estimation in Mountain Regions: A Case Study for Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarendra Lakhankar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation in mountain regions is often highly variable and poorly observed, limiting abilities to manage water resource challenges. Here, we evaluate remote sensing and ground station-based gridded precipitation products over Nepal against weather station precipitation observations on a monthly timescale. We find that the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B-43 precipitation product exhibits little mean bias and reasonable skill in giving precipitation over Nepal. Compared to station observations, the TRMM precipitation product showed an overall Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.49, which is similar to the skill of the gridded station-based product Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE. The other satellite precipitation products considered (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP, the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS were less skillful, as judged by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and, on average, substantially underestimated precipitation compared to station observations, despite their, in some cases, higher nominal spatial resolution compared to TRMM. None of the products fully captured the dependence of mean precipitation on elevation seen in the station observations. Overall, the TRMM product is promising for use in water resources applications.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  14. The productive traits of different potato genotypes in mountainous region of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of three-year study of productivity for the five leading potato varieties in Montenegro: Riviera and Tresor (early, Kennebec (medium-early, Aladin and Agria (medium-late are presented. The research was conducted during 2009, 2010 and 2011, on three highly diverse, related to the pedological and climatic conditions, locations in mountainous region of Montenegro: Nikšic (800 m.a.s.l., Kolašin (900 m.a.s.l. and Žabljak (1450 m.a.s.l.. Field experiments were set up using standard methodology in random block design in four repetitions. The analysis of variance suggested that there were highly significant differences among genotypes (G, investigated years (Y and locations (L for potato yield. Apart from individual influence of the factors, their interactions (G x Y, G x L, Y x L, G x Y x L were also highly significant for investigated trait. In average the highest yield (28.9 t/ha was established at Kolašin locality. The highest yield of all investigated varieties and localities was measured at variety Agria (30.0tha-1, while the lowest at Riviera (24.6 t ha-1. In this investigation Agria variety was favourable for yield of potato tuber.

  15. Natural radioactivity survey in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Mountain Region Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of natural radioactivity in a given region or country is essential to provide a reference base-line map to follow up a possible variation in future. In order to perform such measurement, the natural radioactivity was measured in different locations. The locations (50 sites) were distributed over Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Mountain, starting from the city Al-Azeeziah in the eastern part to Wazen on the Tunisian border in the west. The measurements showed obvious variation from one site to another. The levels were fluctuating from (12.8 counts/minute) in Bir-Ayad to (45.7 counts/minute) in Gherian. In order to investigate the cause for such variation, samples were collected from (27) sites for detailed study. The levels of natural radioactivity were determined in the laboratory, and were ranging from (58.7 Bq/kg) in Bir-Ayad to (102.1 Bq/kg) in Gherian. The variation in measured radioactivity was related to the geological structures taken in six perpendicular sections, namely, Gharian, Yevren, Zintan, Nalut, Wazen and Al-Azeeziah taking the naturally occurred radioisotopes concentration of 40K, 232 Th and 238U present in consideration.

  16. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  17. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066

  18. Studies on the evaluation of thermal belts and radiation fog over mountainous regions by LANDSAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local meteorological phenomena and characteristics under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter were investigated using Landsat data and physiographic parameters over the hilly and mountainous regions of the western part of shikoku. (1) Relative elevation between thermal belts and underlying ground such as bottom of basin or valley was 400m on an average. (2) Thermal belts appeared in the zone between 400m and 1000m above the sea level in the western part of Shikoku. (3) Temperature of the thermal belts varied with the elevation in a ratio of about 1 degrees C/100m. This observation indicated that the thermal belt temperature was closely related to the altitude of the zone where the thermal belts originated. (4) Radiation fog was frequently recorded over some part along the Hiji river and over the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama; fog was present even at 10 a.m. (3 hours after sunrise). (5) Upper surface of the fog layer was located at 200m and 600m above the sea level in the Oozu basin and in the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama respectively. (6) In the Oozu basin, the distribution of hamlets on the mountainside was often recognized in the localities within the upper limit of foggy areas

  19. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel

    2016-07-01

    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  20. Testing geostatistical methods to combine radar and rain gauges for precipitation mapping in a mountainous region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdin, R.; Frei, C.; Sideris, I.; Kuensch, H.-R.

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate mapping of precipitation at a spatial resolution of kilometers. Radar and rain gauges - the two main precipitation measurement systems - exhibit complementary strengths and weaknesses. Radar offers high spatial and temporal resolution but lacks accuracy of absolute values, whereas rain gauges provide accurate values at their specific point location but suffer from poor spatial representativeness. Methods of geostatistical mapping have been proposed to combine radar and rain gauge data for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The aim is to combine the respective strengths and compensate for the respective weaknesses of the two observation platforms. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of these methods over topography of moderate complexity, but their performance remains unclear for high-mountain regions where rainfall patterns are complex, the representativeness of rain gauge measurements is limited and radar observations are obstructed. In this study we examine the potential and limitations of two frequently used geostatistical mapping methods for the territory of Switzerland, where the mountain chain of the Alps poses particular challenges to QPE. The two geostatistical methods explored are kriging with external drift (KED) using radar as drift variable and ordinary kriging of radar errors (OKRE). The radar data is a composite from three C-band radars using a constant Z-R relationship, advanced correction processings for visibility, ground clutter and beam shielding and a climatological bias adjustment. The rain gauge data originates from an automatic network with a typical inter-station distance of 25 km. Both combination methods are applied to a set of case examples representing typical rainfall situations in the Alps with their inherent challenges at daily and hourly time resolution. The quality of precipitation estimates is assessed by several skill scores calculated from cross validation errors at

  1. [Measurement and estimation of grassland evapotranspiration in a mountainous region at the upper reach of Heihe River basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ren-sheng; Song, Yao-xuan; Liu, Jun-feng; Han, Chun-tan; Liu, Zhang-wen

    2013-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water cycle, but its measurement in high altitude mountainous region is quite difficult, inducing the insufficient understanding on the actual ET in high altitude mountainous region and the effects of ET on this region' s water cycle. In this paper, two small type weighing mini-lysimeters were applied to measure the daily ET in a piece of grassland in a high altitude mountainous region of the Heihe River basin from July 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2010. Based on the measured data, the methods of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (F-P-M), Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) were employed to estimate the ET to analyze the applicability of the three methods for the mountainous region, and the pan coefficient at the measurement spots was discussed. During the measurement period, the total annual ET at the measurement spots was 439.9 mm, accounting for 96.5% of the precipitation in the same period, and the ET showed an obvious seasonal distribution, being 389. 3 mm in May-October, accounting for 88. 5% of the annual value. All the three methods could be well applied to estimate the summer ET but not the winter ET, and their applicability followed the sequence of P-T > F-P-M > H-S. At the measurement spots, the daily pan coefficient in summer was 0.7-0. 8, while that in winter was quite variable. PMID:23898665

  2. Integrated Futures for Europe's Mountain Regions: Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Human Livelihoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Mitchley; Martin F. Price; Joseph Tzanopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Europe's mountains cover nearly half of the continent's area and are home to one fifth of the European population. Mountain areas are hotspots of biodiversity and agriculture has played a multifunctional role in defining and sustaining mountain biodiversity. Ongoing trends of agricultural decline are having negative impacts on mountain biodiversity.This paper presents results from an interdisciplinary European research project, BioScene, which investigated the relationship between agriculture and biodiversity in six mountain study areas across Europe to provide recommendations for reconciling biodiversity conservation with social and economic activities through an integrated rural development strategy.BioScene used scenario analysis and stakeholder participation as tools for structuring the analysis of alternative mountain futures. Three main BioScene scenarios were evaluated: Business as Usual (BaU),Agricultural Liberalisation (Lib), Managed Change for Biodiversity (MCB). BioScene brought together ecologists, economists, sociologists and rural geographers, to carry out interdisciplinary analysis of the scenarios: identifying key drivers of change, assessing the biodiversity consequences and evaluating costeffectiveness. BioScene used a sustainability assessment to integrate the research outputs across natural and social science disciplines to assess the broader sustainability of the scenarios in terms of biodiversity,natural resources, rural development, social development, economic development and institutional capacity. The sustainability assessment showed that the MCB scenario was potentially the most sustainable of the three BioScene scenarios. Through the reconciliation of potentially conflicting objectives,such as conservation, economic development and human livelihoods, and with a strong participatory planning approach, the MCB scenario could represent an alternative approach to BaU for sustainable rural development in Europe's mountains. BioScene confirms

  3. Investigation of mineral aerosols radiative effects over High Mountain Asia in 1990-2009 using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhenming; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Pengfei; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Mineral aerosols scatter and absorb incident solar radiation in the atmosphere, and play an important role in the regional climate of High Mountain Asia (the domain includes the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Pamir, Hindu-kush, Karakorum and Tienshan Mountains). Dust deposition on snow/ice can also change the surface albedo, resulting in perturbations in the surface radiation balance. However, most studies that have made quantitative assessments of the climatic effect of mineral aerosols over the High Mountain Asia region did not consider the impact of dust on snow/ice at the surface. In this study, a regional climate model coupled with an aerosol-snow/ice feedback module was used to investigate the emission, distribution, and deposition of dust and the climatic effects of aerosols over High Mountain Asia. Two sets of simulations driven by a reanalysis boundary condition were performed, i.e., with and without dust-climate feedback. Results indicated that the model captured the spatial and temporal features of the climatology and aerosol optical depth (AOD). High dust emission fluxes were simulated in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Yarlung Tsangpo Valley in March-April-May (MAM), with a decreasing trend during 1990-2009. Dry deposition was controlled by the topography, and its spatial and seasonal features agreed well with the dust emission fluxes. The maximum wet deposition occurred in the western (southern and central) TP in MAM (JJA). A positive surface radiative forcing was induced by dust, including aerosol-snow/ice feedback, resulting in 2-m temperature increases of 0.1-0.5 °C over the western TP and Kunlun Mountains in MAM. Mineral dust also caused a decrease of 5-25 mm in the snow water equivalent (SWE) over the western TP, Himalayas, and Pamir Mountains in DJF and MAM. The long-term regional mean radiative forcing via dust deposition on snow showed an rising trend during 1990-2009, which suggested the contribution of aerosols surface

  4. MACROZOOBENTHOS OF MOUNTAIN RIVERS OF THE TRANSCARPATHIAN REGION AS A FORAGE BASE OF BENTHOPHAGOUS FISHES AND SAPROBITY INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruzhylina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study qualitative and qualitative indices of macrozoobenthos as one of main components of the forage base of benthophagous fishes in mountain river reaches of the Transcarpathian region and determination of their saprobity level. Methodology. Thhj,9.e study was carried out in summer period of 2009 in mountain river reaches of the Tisa river catchment. Zoobenthos samples were collected by a Surber sampler (25 × 25 cm on the bottoms of different fractions with different water flow rate (riffle, run, pool. Collection, processing and interpretation of the obtained data was carried out according to generally accepted hydrobiological methods developed for mountain river studies. Saprobity was of the studied rivers was calculated by Pantle-Buck formula. The Zelinka-Marvan saprobity index was used for calculations. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative macrozoobenthos indices have been studied. The number of zoobenthos on the investigated river sections ranged from 416 to 7712 ind./m2 with biomasses from 2.96 to 83.84 g/m2. The major portion of the zoobenthic biomass in the majority of rivers was due to caddis fly larvae composing up to 93% of the total biomass. An important role in the total biomass of the zoobenthos also belonged to mayfly (up to 53% and stonefly (up to 55% larvae and in lower degree amphipods (up to 39%, chironomid larvae (up to 14% and aquatic coleopterans (up to 5%. According to the calculated potential fish productivity, the mountain rivers can be apparently separated into three groups: little productive (4.2–12.7 kg/ha, medium productive (13.2–21.6 kg/ha and high productive (25.3–85.3 kg/ha. Mountain river reaches of the Transcarpathian region were found to belong to pure χ-saprobic, and о- і β-mesosaprobic zones, the saprobity index in which ranged from 0.35 (Rika river to 1.7 (Shipot river. Originality. For further calculation and assessment of brown trout (Salmo trutta and European grayling (Thymallus

  5. Trends in synoptic circulation and precipitation in the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, in the period 1958-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2016-03-01

    The hydroclimate of the Snowy Mountains, south-east Australia (SEA), is influenced by tropical and extra-tropical synoptic scale weather systems. Accordingly, it is sensitive to any changes in the mid-latitude westerly wind belt, the dominant driver of precipitation in winter, and the entrainment of moisture from tropical latitudes, particularly during the warmer months of the austral summer. The region has historically observed a cool-season (April-October) dominated precipitation regime. However, evidence is presented of a decline in precipitation during the autumn and spring transition months. Autumn precipitation is particularly important for crop sowing and agricultural production in the Murray-Darling Basin downstream of the Snowy Mountains, whilst spring precipitation influences snowmelt and water storage replenishment in the Snowy Mountains. Instead, we show a change in the annual precipitation distribution is evident, with an increase in precipitation during warmer months. Trend analyses for the period 1958-2012 show a decrease in annual frequency of precipitation days capable of generating inflows to the catchments of the Snowy Mountains of - 1.4 days per decade on average, whilst the precipitation they generate has increased by + 5.7 mm per decade. These results align with climate change projections that precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense.

  6. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  7. Digital modelling of landscape and soil in a mountainous region: A neuro-fuzzy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, Jesús A.; Viloria-Botello, Alvaro; Pineda, María Corina; Valera, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Research on genetic relationships between soil and landforms has largely improved soil mapping. Recent technological advances have created innovative methods for modelling the spatial soil variation from digital elevation models (DEMs) and remote sensors. This generates new opportunities for the application of geomorphology to soil mapping. This study applied a method based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy clustering to recognize digital classes of land surfaces in a mountainous area in north-central Venezuela. The spatial variation of the fuzzy memberships exposed the areas where each class predominates, while the class centres helped to recognize the topographic attributes and vegetation cover of each class. The obtained classes of terrain revealed the structure of the land surface, which showed regional differences in climate, vegetation, and topography and landscape stability. The land-surface classes were subdivided on the basis of the geological substratum to produce landscape classes that additionally considered the influence of soil parent material. These classes were used as a framework for soil sampling. A redundancy analysis confirmed that changes of landscape classes explained the variation in soil properties (p = 0.01), and a Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in clay, hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca and Mg between classes. Thus, the produced landscape classes correspond to three-dimensional bodies that differ in soil conditions. Some changes of land-surface classes coincide with abrupt boundaries in the landscape, such as ridges and thalwegs. However, as the model is continuous, it disclosed the remaining variation between those boundaries.

  8. Floodplain Modulation of Solute Fluxes from Mountainous Regions: the Amazonian Madre de Dios River Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Baronas, J. J.; Ponton, C.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    In many large river systems, solutes released by chemical weathering in mountainous regions are transported through floodplains before being discharged into the ocean. Chemical reactions within floodplains can both add and remove solutes, significantly modulating fluxes. Despite their importance in the relationship between tectonic uplift and solute fluxes to the ocean, many aspects of floodplain processes are poorly constrained since the chemistry of large rivers is also significantly affected by the mixing between multiple tributaries, which makes the separation and quantification of floodplain processes challenging. Here we explore how floodplain processes affect a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system in Peru. To separate floodplain processes from conservative mixing, we developed a tributary mixing model that uses water isotopic ratios and chloride concentrations measured in each tributary and upstream and downstream of each tributary confluence for all major tributaries along a floodplain reach. The results of the tributary mixing model allow for the chemical composition of the mainstem of the Madre de Dios River to be modeled assuming completely conservative mixing. Differences between the modeled and measured chemical composition of the mainstem are then used to identify and quantify the effects of floodplain processes on different solutes. Our results show that during both the wet and dry seasons, Li is removed and Ca, Mg, and Sr are added to the dissolved load during floodplain transit. Other solutes, like Na and SO4, appear to behave conservatively during floodplain transit. Likely, the removal of Li from the dissolved load reflects the precipitation of secondary silicate minerals in the floodplain. The release of Ca, Mg, and Sr likely reflects the dissolution of detrital carbonate minerals. Our analyses also show that tributaries with Andean headwaters contribute disproportionately to solute budgets while the water budget

  9. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)). PMID:26676296

  10. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  11. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply

  12. Implication of Groundwater Resources Utilization in Mountainous Region for Slopeland Disaster Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chao; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, groundwater resources from mountainous regions have been considered as an alternative water resource in Taiwan. According to previous research outcomes (Hsu, 2011), such a groundwater resource is capable of providing stable and high quality water resources. Additionally, another advantage of using the water resources is attributed to the contribution of slopeland disaster prevention. While pumping groundwater as water resources in hilly areas (e.g., at landslide-prone sites), pore-water pressures can be dropped, which can result in stabilizing landslide-prone slopes. However, the benefit to slope stability by using groundwater resources needs to be quantified. The purpose of this study is to investigate groundwater potential of a deep-seated landslide site first, and then to evaluate variations of slope stability by changing well pumping rate conditions. In this paper, the Baolong landslide site located at the Jiasian district of Kaohsiung city in Southern Taiwan has been selected as a case study. Hydrogeological investigation for the landslide site was conducted to clarify the complexity of field characteristics and to establish a precise conceptual model for simulation. The investigation content includes surficial geology investigation, borehole drilling (6 drilling boreholes and 350 meters drilling length in total), 45 m pumping well construction, borehole hydrogeological tests (borehole televiewer, caliper, borehole electrical logging, sonic logging, flowmeter measurement, pumping test, and double packer test), and laboratory tests from rock core samples (physical properties test of soil and rocks, triaxial permeability test of soil, porosity determination test using helium, and gas permeability test). Based on the aforementioned investigation results, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the Baolong landslide site was constructed, and a 2D slope stability model coupled with transient seepage flow model was used for numerical simulation to

  13. Segmented seismicity of the Mw 6.2 Baladeh earthquake sequence (Alborz mountains, Iran) revealed from regional moment tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donner, Stefanie; Rössler, Dirk; Krüger, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    The M w 6.2 Baladeh earthquake occurred on 28 May 2004 in the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. This earthquake was the first strong shock in this intracontinental orogen for which digital regional broadband data are available. The Baladeh event provides a rare opportunity to study fault geometry...... velocity model, regional waveform data of the mainshock and larger aftershocks (M w  ≥3.3) were inverted for moment tensors. For the Baladeh mainshock, this included inversion for kinematic parameters. All analysed earthquakes show dominant thrust mechanisms at depths between 14 and 26 km, with NW...

  14. Population pressure, mobility, and socio-economic change in mountainous environments: regions of refuge in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines demographic and socioeconomic forces in high isolated parts of the world. These regions were not always isolated; they were once the centers of their own particular worlds which, in some cases, were complex civilizations. It is their relegation to the very periphery of the modern world that is the principal theme of this paper. Population migration, both into and out of these areas, has played a vital role in linking mountainous regions to the wider world. Particular attention is paid to the part played by the traditional mobility patterns and by the resource base of the mountains in the transformation of integral, self-sufficient cultures into dependent, subservient part-cultures, the regions of refuge. The effect of population pressure and the development of outmigration from the Andes of Peru is examined first and the analysis extended to the highlands of Papua-New Guinea and to several regions in the Himalayan arc to provide the background for a comparative study of regions of refuge. PMID:12267903

  15. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  16. Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Integrated Evaluation Model for Eco- Environmental Quality in Mountainous Region Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ainong; WANG Angsheng; HE Xiaorong; FENG Wenlan; ZHOU Wancun

    2006-01-01

    Based on Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and combining Principal Component Analysis, this paper designed a numerical integrated evaluation model for mountain eco-environment on the base of grid scale. Using this model, we evaluated the mountain eco-environmental quality in a case study area-the upper reaches of Minjiang River, and achieved a good result, which accorded well with the real condition. The study indicates that, the integrated evaluation model is suitable for multi-layer spatial factor computation, effectively lowing man's subjective influence in the evaluation process; treating the whole river basin as a system, the model shows full respect to the circulation of material and energy, synthetically embodies the determining impact of such natural condition as water-heat and landform, as well as human interference in natural eco-system; the evaluation result not only clearly presents mountainous vertical distribution features of input factors, but also provides a scientific and reliable thought for quantitatively evaluating mountain eco-environment.

  18. Studies of Soil Seed Banks of Representative Karst Mountainous Region in Three Gorges Reservoir Region--Based on Chongqing Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    WEI Chao-fu; Xie, De-ti; Li, Yang-Bing

    2009-01-01

    In the use of method of "Replacing time by space", on the analysis of species composition, amount and distribution, ecological dominance as well as species similarity, and diversity, the properties of soil seed banks of different land use system located in different ecological evolution sequence, including natural forest, secondary forest, shrub grassland, cropland, artificial woodland, abandoned dry field are studied in Beibei, Wushan, Qianjiang and Jifo Mountain of Nanchuan. They are the re...

  19. 76 FR 6612 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ...; Project No. 13782-000] Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Missouri 4, LLC; Allegheny 4 Hydro, LLC; Three... Hydro, LLC--Project No. 13776-000 4. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL--Project No. 13746-000 Nathaniel...

  20. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a mountain range 480 km-long and up to 2,648 m altitude (Torre Cerredo Peak) trending parallel to the Cantabrian Coastline between Pyrenees and the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (~43oN 5oW). This mountain range is an outstanding area to research the climatic patterns across South Europe during the Quaternary glaciations since well-preserved glacial features evidence the occurrence of past mountain glaciations in a climatic environment marked by the transition from a maritime climate (Atlantic) to Mediterranean one across the mountain range. The available studies in the Cantabrian Mountains stand that the regional glacial maximum recorded here is prior to ca 38, and that glaciers were in some locations remarkably retreated by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., in press; Serrano et al., in press). This study is focused on an area about 800 km2 that includes 36 peaks over 2,000 m (Pico Mampodre; 2,192 m) and partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A geomorphologic database in ArcGIS was produced for this area as a previous step to reconstruct in detail the extent, flow pattern and chronology of the former glaciers (PhD under progress). Here we present a selection of 18 glacial geomorphosites classified according to genetic criteria in sites that show: (i) a nicely preserved moraine sequence recording the transition from glacial to periglacial conditions; (ii) glacial erosion features; (iii) glacial and ice related deposits (like moraines, ice-dammed deposits, erratic boulders or fluvio-glacial deposits); (iv) slope instability related to glacial debuttressing (complex landslides and rock avalanches); and (v) the interaction between the landscape and human activity. The interest of the geomorphosites is supported by its good quality of preservation, allowing its use as a basis to reconstruct the glacial and paraglacial processes in this region during

  1. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94

  2. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  3. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  4. Regional gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Mineral Mountains and vicinity, Millard and Beaver Counties, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1978-04-01

    The results of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Mineral Mountains and vicinity are presented as a terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity anomaly map (about 1450 stations with 1-mgal contour interval) and a total magnetic field intensity residual anomaly map (with contour interval 50 gammas), respectively. Combined interpretation of the gravity and aeromagnetic data was conducted based on comparing and contrasting various processed maps and interpretative geologic cross sections produced from each survey. (MHR)

  5. Sediment Management for Southern California Mountains, Coastal Plains and Shoreline. Part A: Regional Geological History

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Edward W.

    1981-01-01

    In southern California the natural environmental system involves the continual relocation of sedimentary materials. Particles are eroded from inland areas where there is sufficient relief and, precipitation. Then, with reductions in hydraulic gradient along the stream course and at the shoreline, the velocity of surface runoff is reduced and there is deposition. Generally, coarse sand, gravel and larger particles are deposited near the base of the eroding surfaces (mountains and hills) and th...

  6. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Mitrofanenko; Andreas Muhar; Marianne Penker

    2015-01-01

    One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered...

  7. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  8. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

    1989-08-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow.

  9. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow

  10. Soils in mountain and upland regions of southwestern Norway nitrogen leaching and critical loads

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, R; J. Mulder; Esser, Jacqueline M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil data were collected from 36 points in mountain and upland areas of southwestern Norway. Samling was at cross-points on the NIJOS`9x9 km grid used for forest and soil monitoring. The soils were linked to water chemistry and deposition data from the Norwegian critical load database (12x12 km grid). Together the data were tested for relationships between N deposition, C/N ratio in soil, and NO3 concentrations in surface waters. The absence of significant relationships was ascribed to soil h...

  11. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  12. Permafrost model sensitivity to seasonal climatic changes and extreme events in mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models project considerable ranges and uncertainties in future climatic changes. To assess the potential impacts of climatic changes on mountain permafrost within these ranges of uncertainty, this study presents a sensitivity analysis using a permafrost process model combined with climate input based on delta-change approaches. Delta values comprise a multitude of coupled air temperature and precipitation changes to analyse long-term, seasonal and seasonal extreme changes on a typical low-ice content mountain permafrost location in the Swiss Alps. The results show that seasonal changes in autumn (SON) have the largest impact on the near-surface permafrost thermal regime in the model, and lowest impacts in winter (DJF). For most of the variability, snow cover duration and timing are the most important factors, whereas maximum snow height only plays a secondary role unless maximum snow heights are very small. At least for the low-ice content site of this study, extreme events have only short-term effects and have less impact on permafrost than long-term air temperature trends. (letter)

  13. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  14. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis

  15. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  16. Dispersal, niche, and isolation processes jointly explain species turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in a large mountainous region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhixin; Quan, Qing; Du, Yuanbao; Xia, Lin; Ge, Deyan; Yang, Qisen

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the spatial patterns of species turnover (beta diversity) has been one of the fundamental issues in biogeography. Species turnover is generally recognized as strong in mountainous regions, but the way in which different processes (dispersal, niche, and isolation) have shaped the spatial turnover patterns in mountainous regions remains largely unexplored. Here, we explore the directional and elevational patterns of species turnover for nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains of southwest China and distinguish the relative roles of geographic distance, environmental distance, and geographic isolation on the patterns. The spatial turnover was assessed using the halving distance (km), which was the geographic distance that halved the similarity (Jaccard similarity) from its initial value. The halving distance was calculated for the linear, logarithmic, and exponential regression models between Jaccard similarity and geographic distance. We found that the east-west turnover is generally faster than the south-north turnover for high-latitudinal regions in the Hengduan Mountains and that this pattern corresponds to the geographic structure of the major mountain ranges and rivers that mainly extend in a south-north direction. There is an increasing trend of turnover toward the higher-elevation zones. Most of the variation in the Jaccard similarity could be explained by the pure effect of geographic distance and the joint effects of geographic distance, environmental distance, and average elevation difference. Our study indicates that dispersal, niche, and isolation processes are all important determinants of the spatial turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains. The spatial configuration of the landscape and geographic isolation can strongly influence the rate of species turnover in mountainous regions at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26941938

  17. Regional tectonic deformation setting before the Ms8.1 earthquake in the west of the Kunlun Mountains Pass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Zaisen; (江在森); ZHANG; Xi; (张; 希); ZHU; Yiqing; (祝意青); ZHANG; Xiaoliang; (张晓亮); WANG; Shuangxu; (王双绪)

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a preliminarily study of the regional tectonic deformation setting before the Ms8.1 earthquake that occurred in the west of the Kunlun Mountains Pass; in the study, the data of the velocity field of crustal horizontal movement during 1991-2000 observed by GPS in and around the Qinghai-Tibet block and those of gravity reiteration in 1998 and 2000 were used. Analysis shows that the preparation and occurrence of this large earthquake are related to the horizontal movement and deformation setting in a large region and might be attributed to the block activity on a relatively large scale. Within the Qinghai-Tibet block, the region of left-lateral shear deformation is of a very large extent. This large earthquake occurred right in such a place where the left-lateral shear strain along the fault strike had the highest rate and the planar dilatation strain was tensile, which was on the margin of negative value region of abnormal gravity variation. The regional tectonic deformation setting can help the huge left-lateral strike-slip rupture to develop.

  18. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  19. Assessment of Mountain Ecosystems Changes Under Anthropogenic Pressure in Latorica River Basin (Transcarpathian Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Olena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian mountain ecosystems have been changed under anthropogenic pressure during last decades. The different types of anthropogenic pressure affect the ecosystem characteristics and functioning. The species composition, species richness and ecological indicator values of 12 ecological factors were compared among 14 habitats: natural, semi-natural, degraded and ruderal ecosystems in different altitude zones. The results show that anthropogenic pressure and altitude gradient influence indices of edaphic and climate conditions. The anthropogenic pressure also affects biodiversity: the highest species richness and Shannon-Wiener index are observed in habitats with ‘intermediate’ disturbances level, while high level of disturbances cause decrease in bio-diversity. The disturbances cause the ecosystem to become susceptible to invasion of alien species, while native species, especially rare, become vulnerable and can disappear.

  20. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  1. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions. PMID:27030353

  2. Atmospheric deposition of polybromodiphenyl ethers in remote mountain regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Arellano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs were analyzed in bulk atmospheric deposition collected in four European remote mountain areas over a period of two years (2004–2006: Lake Redon (Pyrenees, Gossenköllesee (Alps, Lochnagar (Grampian Mountains and Skalnate (Tatras. In all sites, the PBDE distributions were dominated by BDE209. BDE47 and BDE99 were the major low-brominated congeners, followed by BDE100 and BDE183. This composition is consistent with predominant inputs from the commercial mixtures decaBDE and pentaBDE. The total congener site-averaged fluxes ranged between 100 ng m−2 mo−1 (Alps and 190 ng m−2 mo−1 (Tatras. Significant correlations between PBDE deposition and percent of North Atlantic backwards air mass trajectories in the collected samples of the westernmost sites, Lochnagar and Redon, suggested an impact of transcontinental transfer of these pollutants from North American sources into Europe. Skalnate and, to a lower extent Redon, recorded another main PBDE source from central Europe corresponding to secondary emissions of the penta BDE commercial mixture. The fluxes of these secondary emissions were temperature dependent and correlated to total particle deposition and rainfall. Higher PBDE fluxes were observed at increasing temperature, particle deposition and precipitation. Another specific PBDE source was observed in United Kingdom and recorded in Lochnagar. Photolytic degradation during transport decreased the relative abundance of BDE209 and modified the emitted pentaBDE technical mixtures by depletion of the relative composition of BDE99 and, to a lower extent, BDE47. The transformations were more intense in the sites located above 2000 m, Redon and Gossenköllesee, and, particularly, during the warm periods.

  3. Landscape pattern and diversity of natural secondary forests in the eastern mountainous region, northeast China: A case study of Mao'ershan region in HeUongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-juan; SUIYu-zheng; FENGHai-qing; WANGFeng-you; LIYu-wen

    2004-01-01

    Mao'ershan region is a representative natural secondary forested region in the eastern mountainous region, northeast of China. Under the support of ARC/INFO, the landscape pattern and landscape diversity of Mao'erhshan region were sudied by combining the forest type map (1:10 000), which was drawn from the aerial photographs (1999), field investigation and land utilization map (1:10 000). The selected indices included patch number, patch size, patch density index, richness index,dominance index, evenness index and diversity index. The results showed that the landscape dominant forest type in Mao'ershan region was softwood broad-leaved forest. In all landscape types, the average patch area of natural secondary forests was bigger than that of artificial forest. The patch density index of each landscape formed in artificial forest was higher than that of natural secondary forest. The landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index of natural forest were highest, the landscape heterogeneity was also, but the landscape dominance was lower. In natural forest, the control effects of landscape elements on landscape-structure, function and its change were weakened. The artificial forest was on the contrary.

  4. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  5. Integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in small watershed in cold regions of Qilian Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Liu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Heihe Qilian Mountain station is located at QingHai Province, northeast of Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Source Region of Heihe River Basin at latitude 38° 15¢542 N and longitude 99° 52¢ 532 E. The research objective of this station is to find the mutual mechanisms of eco-hydrological processes and to predict the runoff with high precision in cold watershed in China under global warming. Hulugou watershed, with a total area of 23.1 km2 and elevation fluctuating from 2960m to 4820m, has obvious vertical landscape and all types of typical underlying surface of cold regions. Thus, it was chosen as the researched watershed for integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in cold regions. In 2008, four ENVIS (Environmental Information System) were built along different altitude gradient in Hulugou experiment watershed to measure heat and water flux of the frozen soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer systems. Besides, many apparatus measuring snow, frozen soil, glacier, evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff were built on various typical underlying surfaces. Through the observation net in Hulugou experiment watershed, various hydrological and meteorological data was obtained for hydrological processes research in cold regions.

  6. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, N. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Preusse, W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Degering, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Unterricker, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-03-01

    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  7. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of Nitrogen Cycling Associated with Agricultural Production and Environmental Load in a Mountain Region, in Hokkaido, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; JIN Datian; HU Ning

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the nitrogen cycling associated with agricultural production and environmental load in central Hokkaido. The nitrogen (N) budget analysis model offers a new set of tools for evaluating N cycling in agro-ecosystems. The cycling index (CI) is a useful tool for estimating optimal N flows in farmlands. The fertilization index (FI) is a useful indicator for characterizing the N flows related to farms. Using these parameters, we analyzed all farm systems to estimate the optimal N cycling for minimizing N pollution in groundwater and maximizing agricultural production in mountain regions of Japan. The results showed that the critical N application rate (chemical fertilizer + manure) was 143.3 kg N ha-1 y-1. The critical inter-system input (chemical fertilizer N, imported food and feed N, and natural supplied N) was 169.9 kg N ha-1y-1.

  9. Environmental improvement and conservation of useful pastures for wild herbivores in a Regional Park on the Apennines mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Leo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate some effects of the environmental management with faunistic purpose on pastures located on the Apennines mountains, in open areas subjected to bracken fern (Pteridium aqulinum infestation, samples of vegetation were taken for three years on an open area in the Regional Park of “Laghi di Suviana e Brasimone” (BO. Experimental samples, taken before and after the agronomical works, showed the effects of the pasture improvement on botanical composition, richness and biodiversity. The agronomical pasture management produced a considerable decrease in bracken density and an increase on biodiversity, and the final average value of the Pastoral Value index was quadruplicate. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the actions carried out and the importance of maintaining a continuous programme of pasture management through annual clearing of vegetation.

  10. National Wildlife Refuge System Inventory & Monitoring Regional Annual Report : Mountain-Prairie Region 6 FY 2011 [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report for Region 6 discusses the goals and objectives of the Inventory and Monitoring IM program for fiscal year 2011. The introduction discusses goals...

  11. National Wildlife Refuge System Inventory and Monitoring Regional Annual Work Plan : Mountain-Prairie Region 6 Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual work plan for Region 6 discusses the goals and objectives of the Inventory and Monitoring IM program for fiscal year 2012. The introduction includes the...

  12. Optimizing The Energy Consumption Toward Sustainable Development: A Case Study In Mountainous And Cold Region

    OpenAIRE

    SAMARI, Arman; ZAKI, Saeid Farshbaf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Azarbaijan is a cold region and an appropriate designing is required to reduce energy consumption and using local material. Therefore , the local culture of region, aesthetic and respect to the nature should be focused. The main purpose of this study is to focus on the green architecture in relation to design building in the cold region toward sustainable development and issues including form of building, kind of material, using green architecture and parks and how to place the buil...

  13. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2013-06-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  14. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA) from MODIS data in mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, A.; Dumont, M.; Dedieu, J.-P.; Durand, Y.; Sirguey, P.; Milhem, H.; Mestre, O.; Negi, H. S.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA) from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg-1 and the bias is -0.6 m2 kg-1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.

  15. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA from MODIS data in mountainous regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mary

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg−1 and the bias is −0.6 m2 kg−1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.

  16. EVALUATION OF EROSION PRODUCTIVITY IMPACT CALCULATOR (EPIC) MODEL FOR MIDDLE MOUNTAIN REGION OF NEPAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sohan Kumar GHIMIRE; Mukand Singh BABEL

    2004-01-01

    This study verifies the applicability of EPIC model for an erosion plot (61.2 m2) and anupland terraced watershed (72 ha) using a total of 94 rainfall events over a study period of two years.In order to analyze the effect of storm size on runoff and soil loss processes,rainfall events are divided into three groups:small (<25mm),moderate (25-50mm) and large (>50mm).Results indicate that the model could predict reasonably well the runoff and soil loss from the erosion plot and the watershed for the moderate and large rainfall events.However,the runoff and soil loss prediction for the small rainfall events is found to be poor.On annual basis,both surface runoffand soil loss predictions match well the observations.In light of the importance of the moderate and large rainfall events in producing most of the annual runoff and soil loss in the study area,the EPIC model is applied to assess the impacts of erosion on agricultural productivity and to evaluate management practices to protect watersheds in the middle mountainous area of Nepal.

  17. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 and 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  18. Regionalization of soil base cation weathering for evaluating stream water acidification in the Appalachian Mountains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of base cation supply from mineral weathering (BCw) is useful for watershed research and management. Existing regional approaches for estimating BCw require generalized assumptions and availability of stream chemistry data. We developed an approach for estimating BCw using regionally specific empirical relationships. The dynamic model MAGIC was used to calibrate BCw in 92 watersheds distributed across three ecoregions. Empirical relationships between MAGIC-simulated BCw and watershed characteristics were developed to provide the basis for regionalization of BCw throughout the entire study region. BCw estimates extracted from MAGIC calibrations compared reasonably well with BCw estimated by regression based on landscape characteristics. Approximately one-third of the study region was predicted to exhibit BCw rates less than 100 meq/m2/yr. Estimates were especially low for some locations within national park and wilderness areas. The regional BCw results are discussed in the context of critical loads (CLs) of acidic deposition for aquatic ecosystem protection. - Highlights: ► Base cation weathering (BCw) estimates are needed to model critical load of acidity. ► Estimating BCw formerly required generalized assumptions and stream chemistry data. ► We describe a high-resolution approach for estimating BCw for regional application. - A new approach is described for deriving regional estimates of effective base cation weathering using empirical relationships with landscape characteristics.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas

  20. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  1. Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with hyperspectral remote sensing over a large mountain region of the Italian Western Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Rota Nodari, Francesco; Dalla Via, Giorgio; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  2. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF FIELDS OF STRESSES ASSOCIATED WITH AFTERSHOCK PROCESSES IN THE ALTAI-SAYAN MOUNTAINOUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kuchay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cataclastic method developed by Yu.L. Rebetsky is applied to reconstruct the recent field of stresses related to aftershock sequences of earthquakes that occurred in the Altai-Sayan mountainous region, specifically the Altai earthquake of 27 September 2003 (М=7.3; φ=50.061o; λ=87.966o and the Busingol earthquake of 27 December 1991 (М=5.0; φ=51.1o; λ=98.13o. Upon reconstruction of the field of stresses from data on aftershocks of different magnitudes, it is revealed that orientations of maximum stresses are misaligned, and this may suggest a lack of similarity of fields of stresses in different scale ranks. The fields of stresses reconstructed from data on sequences of weak aftershocks of the Altai and Busingol earthquakes show changes in orientations of major stress axes at opposite sides of the shear faults under study. The orientation of the maximum deviation stress axes due to strong aftershocks is consistent with the regional field of stresses and does not change in the vicinity of the fault plane associated with the strong earthquakes the Altai and Sayan regions.

  3. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk Region (Ural Mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition, as well as other toxic elements, in the Chelyabinsk Region (the South Ural Mountains) characterized by intense anthropogenic impact from various industries including plutonium production - the source of radionuclides of great potential hazard. A two years' summer field work followed by the applying two most appropriate analytical techniques to the analyses of the collected moss - NAA and AAS - allowed us to determine the atmospheric deposition of about 40 elements over the examined areas. One on them is considered to be the most polluted place in the world, the copper mining and reprocessing centre of the Russian Federation in Karabash, and the other adjacent area is of no less ecological stress, the area to the north of the Mayak complex for plutonium production, next to the city of Ozersk. The element concentrations in moss samples from the Urals are compared with those available for the Copper Basin in Poland, Tula Region (Russia), Germany and Norway, obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. Information on radionuclides in soils collected during the same fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is given. Plans for moss and soil-survey-2000 are reported. (author)

  4. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and relationship to the regional stress field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, J.M.; Healy, J.H.; Hickman, S.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1985-09-10

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and acoustic borehole televiewer logs were run in holes USW G-1 and USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations for the U. S. Department of Energy. Eight tests in the saturated zone, at depths from 646 to 1288 m, yielded values of the least horizontal stress S/sub h/ that are considerably lower than the vertical principal stress S/sub v/. In tests for which the greatest horizontal principal stress S/sub H/ could be determined, it was found to be less than S/sub v/, indicating a normal faulting stress regime. The borehole televiewer logs showed the presence of long (in excess of 10 m), vertical, drilling-induced fractures in the first 300 m below the water table. These are believed to form by the propagation of small preexisting cracks under the excess downhole fluid pressures (up to 5.2 MPa) applied during drilling. The presence of these drilling-induced hydrofractures provides further confirmation of the low value of the least horizontal stresses. A least horizontal principal stress direction of N60{sup 0}W--N65{sup 0}W is indicated by the orientation of the drilling-induced hydrofractures (N25{sup 0}E--N30{sup 0}E), and the orientation of stress-induced well bore breakouts in the lower part of USW G-2 (N65 {sup 0}W). This direction is in good agreement with indicators of stress direction from elsewhere at the Neva da Test Site. The observed stress magnitudes and directions were examined for the possibility of slip on preexisting faults. Using these data, the Coulomb criterion for frictional sliding suggests that for coefficients of friction close to 0.6, movement on favorably oriented faults could be expected.

  5. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and relationship to the regional stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and acoustic borehole televiewer logs were run in holes USW G-1 and USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations for the U. S. Department of Energy. Eight tests in the saturated zone, at depths from 646 to 1288 m, yielded values of the least horizontal stress S/sub h/ that are considerably lower than the vertical principal stress S/sub v/. In tests for which the greatest horizontal principal stress S/sub H/ could be determined, it was found to be less than S/sub v/, indicating a normal faulting stress regime. The borehole televiewer logs showed the presence of long (in excess of 10 m), vertical, drilling-induced fractures in the first 300 m below the water table. These are believed to form by the propagation of small preexisting cracks under the excess downhole fluid pressures (up to 5.2 MPa) applied during drilling. The presence of these drilling-induced hydrofractures provides further confirmation of the low value of the least horizontal stresses. A least horizontal principal stress direction of N600W--N650W is indicated by the orientation of the drilling-induced hydrofractures (N250E--N300E), and the orientation of stress-induced well bore breakouts in the lower part of USW G-2 (N65 0W). This direction is in good agreement with indicators of stress direction from elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site. The observed stress magnitudes and directions were examined for the possibility of slip on preexisting faults. Using these data, the Coulomb criterion for frictional sliding suggests that for coefficients of friction close to 0.6, movement on favorably oriented faults could be expected

  6. Acidity Regimes of Soils Under Different Vegetations in the Changbai Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUTIANREN; GAOZIQIN; 等

    1997-01-01

    The acidity regimes of representative soils on the north slope of the Changbai Mountains were examined through determinations of pH and pCa of the soil paste as well as in-situ determinations,For soils under broad-leaf forest or broad-leaf-Korean pine forest,the pH decreased from the litte to lower layers gradually until it did not change or decreased further slightly .For soils under coniferous of Erans birch forest,ther was a minimum in pH at a depth of 3-6 cm where the content of humus was high,The pCa increased gradually from the soil surface downward to a constant value.The lime potential(pH-0.5pCa) showed a similar trend as the pH in its distribution.For a given soil,the measured pH value of the thick paste,ranging from 4.5 to 5.5,was lower by about 0.5 units than the value determined by the conventional method with a water to soil ratio of 5:1 ,The pH determined in situ was even lower.It was found that there was a firly close relationship between soil acidity and the type of vegetation.The pH showed a trend of decreasing from soils under broda-leaf forest through broad-leaf-conifer mixed rorest and coniferos forest to Ermans birch forest,and the pCa showed an opposite trend in variation.

  7. Integrated Indicators-based Gradation of Cultivated Land Quality in Mountainous Region of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jing'an; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti; ZHOU Yan

    2006-01-01

    The gradation of cultivated land is to assess the suitability of cultivated land for agricultural production in terms of natural and economic properties of land. It can be used to evaluate sustainability of land use and soil management practices. Formal and informal surveys, Delphi and comprehensive index method are adopted to identify appropriate integrated indicators, and measure the gradation of cultivated land quality. The determination of integrated indicators presents three basic features of cultivated land quality: stable plant productivity, social acceptability and maintenance of environmental quality.Pronounced concentration-dissipation law of total function score value occurs in paddy field units, with three ranges, I.e., 79-68.5, 68.5~59 and 59-51. Total function score value in dryland units mainly ranges from 40 to 70, but slight concentration-dissipation law of each unit is still observed, with four ranges, I.e., 79~68, 68~51, 51~37 and 37~15. Paddy field quality is divided into three gradations, and the scales are 18 220.9 ha, 5410.6 ha and 2890.9 ha. Dryland quality is classified into four gradations, and the scales are 1548.6 ha, 8153.8 ha, 3316.3 ha and 685.2 ha. The total function score value of every gradation unit is conformed to the results of farmers' assessment. Research results meet with the needs of accurate degree of the gradation of cultivated land quality. Integrated indicators-based gradation of cultivated land assessment accords with the characteristics of land resources and human preference in the mountains of southwestern China. This study will be useful to promote the monitoring of cultivated land quality, and to supply fine ground and knowledge for establishing appropriate cultivated land management practices in Southwestern China.

  8. Recent climate trends and implications for water resources in the Catskill Mountain region, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Klaus, Julian; McHale, Michael R.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryClimate scientists have concluded that the earth's surface air temperature warmed by 0.6 °C during the 20th century, and that warming induced by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is likely to continue in the 21st century, accompanied by changes in the hydrologic cycle. Climate change has important implications in the Catskill region of southeastern New York State, because the region is a source of water supply for New York City. We used the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test to evaluate annual, monthly, and multi-month trends in air temperature, precipitation amount, stream runoff, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in the region during 1952-2005 based on data from 9 temperature sites, 12 precipitation sites, and 8 stream gages. A general pattern of warming temperatures and increased precipitation, runoff, and PET is evident in the region. Regional annual mean air temperature increased significantly by 0.6 °C per 50 years during the period; the greatest increases and largest number of significant upward trends were in daily minimum air temperature. Daily maximum air temperature showed the greatest increase during February through April, whereas minimum air temperature showed the greatest increase during May through September. Regional mean precipitation increased significantly by 136 mm per 50 years, nearly double that of the regional mean increase in runoff, which was not significant. Regional mean PET increased significantly by 19 mm per 50 years, about one-seventh that of the increase in precipitation amount, and broadly consistent with increased runoff during 1952-2005, despite the lack of significance in the mean regional runoff trend. Peak snowmelt as approximated by the winter-spring center of volume of stream runoff generally shifted from early April at the beginning of the record to late March at the end of the record, consistent with a decreasing trend in April runoff and an increasing trend in maximum March air temperature. This

  9. Late Paleogene topography of the Central Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains region using hydrogen isotope ratios in volcanic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, G.; Fricke, H. C.; Cassel, E. J.; Evanoff, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Rocky Mountains (CRM), located in southern Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico, are characterized by the highest elevation basins (up to 2500 m) and mountains (over 4000 m) in the North American Cordillera. The timing and drivers for surface uplift of the CRM have not been conclusively determined. The goal of this study is to constrain the timing of surface uplift of the CRM by comparing hydrogen isotope ratios of hydration waters (δDglass) in late Paleogene volcanic glasses preserved in felsic tuffs deposited in CRM basins to δDglass values from glasses of similar age (34.9 to 32.2 Ma) preserved in tuffs from the surrounding Great Plains. The tuffs deposited in the Great Plains, to the north and east of the CRM, are currently at elevations of 1100-1600 m. Volcanic glass hydrates shortly after deposition, preserving the δD of ancient meteoric water on geologic timescales, and can thus be used as a proxy for ancient precipitation δD values. Volcanic glasses from the CRM have δDglass values that are an average of ~31‰ higher than δDglass values from the Great Plains, while modern day precipitation δD values in the CRM are ~25‰ lower than δD values in the Great Plains. These results suggest that the uplift of the CRM relative to the surrounding Great Plains occurred after ~32 Ma. This requires a mechanism such as mantle upwelling or differential crustal hydration, not solely Laramide tectonism, to uplift the CRM to current elevations. Elevation, however, may not have been the only control on the spatial distribution of precipitation δD values across the western US. Similar to the modern, mixing of Pacific and Gulf coast air masses likely occurred during the latest Paleogene, driving regional variability in δD values of precipitation.

  10. Moving beyond Component Research in Mountain Regions: Operationalizing Systems Integration .at Farm and Landscape Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura German

    2006-01-01

    Most research in support of agricultural development and natural resource management in densely settled mountain ecosystems continues to emphasize component over system-level goals.Research by plant breeders, foresters and animal scientists is generally designed to maximize the yield of products within their particular area of expertise(edible plant parts, tree products and livestock products, respectively), while soil scientists aim largely to increase soil nutrient stocks. At landscape level the same dynamic holds within the agronomic sciences, while water engineers work independently to conserve water through its isolation from broader landscape dynamics, and other common property resources remain largely ignored. Opportunities to foster positive synergies between system components,and to integrate livelihood with conservation goals,are generally missed.This paper presents experiences of the African Highlands Initiative, an ecoregional program of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and a network of the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), in operationalizing integrated research at farm and landscape scale.Following a discussion of the shortcomings of the conventional research paradigm that beg for stronger integration and a review of the contributions of extant research paradigms that help us move in the right direction, the paper lays a conceptual foundation for integrated research. System components at farm and landscape level are delineated, and this somewhat arbitrary conceptual partitioning of agroecological systems shown to influence the current research paradigm as well as the partitioning of institutional mandates. Diverse meanings of systems integration are then discussed to illustrate the synergies that might be built into agricultural and natural resource research programs. The distinction between the logic of maximization and optimization is then utilized to

  11. Estimation of the stress levels in the focal region before and after the 2001 M=8.1 Western Kunlun Mountain Pass earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-zhong

    2005-01-01

    A method estimating the stress level in the focal region of an earthquake is proposed here. Taking the 2001 M=8.1Western Kunlun Mountain Pass earthquake as an example, we estimate its stress level in the focal region before and after it by this method. The results show that the stress level in the focal region just prior to the initiation of this event is approximately 6.3~8 MPa, and about 5~6.7 MPa remained in the focal region after its occurrence. The stress in the focal region decreased by roughly twenty percent after this event.

  12. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  13. Erosion taken place in mountainous regions by effect of the forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first part of an investigation about the effect of the fire in the forest in a basin, which is a hydric reserve and supplies with potable water to a big region of Sierras Chicas, in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. The combination of the unprotected soil, by the lack of vegetation due to the fire, the climate conditions, the gradient and the lithology produce an increase over the processes of erosion. Different thematic maps were necessary join all the information, to determine the relation between the fires affected areas and the erosion processes, besides the regional climate conditions were considered as a fundamental factor

  14. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) captive propagation to promote recovery of declining populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is endemic to the eastern United States with local distributions restricted to rocky habitats within deciduous forests. Over the last 40 years, woodrats have declined precipitously due to an array of human-mediated pressures. There is growing interest in the captive propagation of woodrats as a tool to promote in situ conservation, but their solitary social structure, territorial behavior, and low fecundity present challenges for the attainment of levels of ex situ reproduction sufficient to support reintroduction programs. In 2009 we established a captive breeding program with 12 wild-caught individuals (4.8) collected from Indiana and Pennsylvania. Restricting breeding to wild-caught individuals, over 26 months we produced 19 litters comprised of 43 pups (26.17), of which 40 (24.16) survived to weaning. In sum, wild-caught individuals readily habituated to the captive environment and the low fecundity of woodrats was offset by high survival rates for both adults and juveniles. Therefore, when managed appropriately, captive Allegheny woodrat populations should be capable of supporting the release of surplus individuals to augment in situ conservation measures. PMID:24391017

  15. DEM-based delineation for improving geostatistical interpolation of rainfall in mountainous region of Central Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Madhuri; Singh, Chander Kumar; Bakimchandra, Oinam; Basistha, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    In mountainous region with heterogeneous topography, the geostatistical modeling of the rainfall using global data set may not confirm to the intrinsic hypothesis of stationarity. This study was focused on improving the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps by spatial stratification in complex terrain. Predictions of the normal annual rainfall data were carried out by ordinary kriging, universal kriging, and co-kriging, using 80-point observations in the Indian Himalayas extending over an area of 53,484 km2. A two-step spatial clustering approach is proposed. In the first step, the study area was delineated into two regions namely lowland and upland based on the elevation derived from the digital elevation model. The delineation was based on the natural break classification method. In the next step, the rainfall data was clustered into two groups based on its spatial location in lowland or upland. The terrain ruggedness index (TRI) was incorporated as a co-variable in co-kriging interpolation algorithm. The precision of the kriged and co-kriged maps was assessed by two accuracy measures, root mean square error and Chatfield's percent better. It was observed that the stratification of rainfall data resulted in 5-20 % of increase in the performance efficiency of interpolation methods. Co-kriging outperformed the kriging models at annual and seasonal scale. The result illustrates that the stratification of the study area improves the stationarity characteristic of the point data, thus enhancing the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps derived using geostatistical methods.

  16. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liping; Xing Shaohua; Zhao Bo; Wang Qingchun; Cui Guofa

    2006-01-01

    Based on investigations during 1998-2003,shrubs and herbs,as well as indicators of similarity and diversity in Pinus tabulaeformis forests of ten regions around Beijing were compared and analyzed,and protection measures were suggested.Generally,the shrubs and herbs in P.tabulaeformis forests of Shidu,Mutianyu,and Yunfengshan are rich in species diversity and have great similarities.The percentages of common species in each of these three paired regions are above 50%,while many peculiar plant species that could not be found in the other nine regions exist in Labagoumen.As for plant diversity indices,plants in the P.tabulaeformis forests of Baihuashan,Shidu,and Labagoumen occur more frequently than in other regions,while the number of plants in Tanjiesi and Miaofengshan are far less.Some endangered orchid species were found distributed in P.tabulaeformis forests with a clumped spatial pattern but rarely appeared in other forest types,indicating that P.tabulaeformis forests are ideal habitats for orchid species.

  18. The direct impact of landslides on household income in tropical regions: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Jacobs, L; Maes, J; Kabaseke, C; Maertens, M; Poesen, J; Kervyn, M; Vranken, L

    2016-04-15

    Landslides affect millions of people worldwide, but theoretical and empirical studies on the impact of landslides remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes and applies a method to estimate the direct impact of landslides on household income and to investigate the presence of specific risk sharing and mitigation strategies towards landslides in a tropical and rural environment. An original cross-sectional household survey is used in combination with geographical data to acquire detailed information on livelihoods and on hazards in the Rwenzori mountains, Uganda. Ordinary least square regressions and probit estimations with village fixed effects are used to estimate the impact of landslides and the presence of mitigation strategies. Geographical information at household level allows to disentangle the direct impact from the indirect effects of landslides. We show that the income of affected households is substantially reduced during the first years after a landslide has occurred. We find that members of recently affected households participate more in wage-employment or in self-employed activities, presumably to address income losses following a landslide. Yet, we see that these jobs do not provide sufficient revenue to compensate for the loss of income from agriculture. Given that landslides cause localized shocks, finding a significant direct impact in our study indicates that no adequate risk sharing mechanisms are in place in the Rwenzori sub-region. These insights are used to derive policy recommendations for alleviating the impact of landslides in the region. By quantifying the direct impact of landslides on household income in an agricultural context in Africa this study draws the attention towards a problem that has been broadly underestimated so far and provides a sound scientific base for disaster risk reduction in the region. Both the methodology and the findings of this research are applicable to other tropical regions with high

  19. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    This research aimed at investigating how an inventory of geomorphosites can foster or improve the knowledge and management of geomorphological heritages in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, a geomorphosite inventory in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia was conducted following the method of Reynard et al. (2015). The national context of geoheritage and geoconservation in Ethiopia was appraised and a road map for the management of the inventoried sites in the SMNP was elaborated. Ethiopia hosts numerous geoheritage sites, some of which of highest international significance. Therefore, geotourism has recently been promoted throughout the country (Asrat et al., 2008). Despite numerous trials of the scientific community, there is not yet a national policy for geoconservation in the country. Many parts of Ethiopia are underdeveloped in terms of economic subsistence and infrastructure, making these immediate priorities over conservation efforts. Nevertheless, this study showed that the Simen Mountains have the potential to become a UNESCO Global Geopark and that geosites could be used to develop geotourism within SMNP, and that development and conservation are not contradictory. Twenty-one geomorphosites were identified and assessed. Diverse geomorphological contexts including fluvial, structural, glacial, periglacial, anthropic and organic characterize the SMNP. The temporal stages, which allow the reconstitution of the morphogenesis of the Simen Mountains, are the Cenozoic volcanism, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene as well as historic/modern landscape modification. Four synthesis maps were elaborated to present the results of the assessment. The average scientific value of the inventoried geomorphosites is very high compared to other inventories realized using the same method. This is particularly due to the extremely high integrity of the sites. Almost all geomorphosites are in a good state of conservation and only few sites are

  20. Analysis on the Choice of Economic Development Mode for an Area with Good Ecological Environment——A Case Study of Economically Coordinated Region of Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at choosing a suitable economic development mode for an area with good ecological environment. [Method] Taking the economically coordinated region of Wuling Mountain as an object, two economic development ways existing in the region, namely the traditional and low-carbon economic development mode, were compared from development prospects, policy support and so forth. [Result] Given the development prospects and policy support, it is necessary to choose low-carbon development mode...

  1. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-03-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  2. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  3. Population data on nine STRs from Cantabria, a mountainous region in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabeitia, M T; Riancho, J A

    2001-11-01

    Allele frequencies for nine STRs loci included in the AmpFlTR Profiler Plus kit (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820) were obtained from a sample of 158 unrelated individuals living in Cantabria, a region in northern Spain. PMID:11672975

  4. To Grid or Not to Grid… Precipitation Data and Hydrological Modeling in the Khangai Mountain Region of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, N. B. H.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Adyabadam, G.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation data in semi-arid and mountainous regions is often spatially and temporally sparse, yet it is a key variable needed to drive hydrological models. Gridded precipitation datasets provide a spatially and temporally coherent alternative to the use of point-based station data, but in the case of Mongolia, may not be constructed from all data available from government data sources, or may only be available at coarse resolutions. To examine the uncertainty associated with the use of gridded and/or point precipitation data, monthly water balance models of three river basins across forest steppe (the Khoid Tamir River at Ikhtamir), steppe (the Baidrag River at Bayanburd), and desert steppe (the Tuin River at Bogd) ecozones in the Khangai Mountain Region of Mongolia were compared. The models were forced over a 10-year period from 2001-2010, with gridded temperature and precipitation data at a 0.5 x 0.5 degree resolution. These results were compared to modeling using an interpolated hybrid of the gridded data and additional point data recently gathered from government sources; and with point data from the nearest meteorological station to the streamflow gage of choice. Goodness-of-fit measures including the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency statistic, the percent bias, and the RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio were used to assess model performance. The results were mixed with smaller differences between the two gridded products as compared to the differences between gridded products and station data. The largest differences in precipitation inputs and modeled runoff amounts occurred between the two gridded datasets and station data in the desert steppe (Tuin), and the smallest differences occurred in the forest steppe (Khoid Tamir) and steppe (Baidrag). Mean differences between water balance model results are generally smaller than mean differences in the initial input data over the period of record. Seasonally, larger differences in gridded versus station

  5. Experience of developing rural surgical care in a remote mountainous region of Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    R Alvi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS) is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. A...

  6. 76 FR 4892 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC..., Pennsylvania.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, for Project No. 13740-000,...

  7. Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in soil, plant and honey of a mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey bee and the products (honey, pollen, wax, propolis) are generally considered as efficient bioindicators of the environmental pollution. Honey bee activity upon a territory is well defined both in space and time and honey bee itself is easier to control than other animal bioindicators (birds, fish, wild animals). Networks of bee hives near nuclear and industrial installations are therefore often used for, environment pollution research and control. The investigations started in 1983/84. Gamma exposure and Cs-137 activity measurements provided information on ''zero status'' of the radioecological situation in the region. During the nuclear plant accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 and afterworks through the year, over two hundred samples of honey, grass and meadow flora have been examined. Investigations of the radioactivity in soils, meadow flora and honey in the region continued up to 1991 and afterwards. The vertical distribution of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different soils provided data on the migration rate through soil and on concentration factors for different phases of the ''soil-plant-honey'' ecosystem

  8. Black Carbon Deposition on Glaciers and in the Seasonal Snowpack in Western Washington's Mountainous Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, I.; Kaspari, S.; Larrabee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon deposition on snow and ice darkens the surface of glaciers and snowpack, reducing albedo. Radiation absorbed by black carbon in snow can accelerate snowmelt and change the timing of runoff. This is particularly important in Washington State, as glaciers and seasonal snowpack have shrunk considerably in recent years and are integral to the region's water resources. However, little data exists regarding the concentration of black carbon in Washington snow, which is necessary to determine if enough black carbon is present to substantially accelerate snowmelt. From the winter through the summer of 2012, we collected snow samples from the snow surface, snow pits and snow cores (glaciers on Mt. Rainier, Blewett Pass in the central Cascades, N. Klawatti, Noisy and Sandalee glaciers in the North Cascades and Blue Glacier on Mt. Olympus. Samples were analyzed for black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and select samples were also analyzed for black carbon using a Sunset Lab OC-EC Aerosol Analyzer to compare with the SP2 method. We use the resultant data set to examine how snow accumulation, dry deposition, and proximity to emission sources (such as the Puget Sound metropolitan area) affect black carbon concentration in snow and ice. The results of this research provide insight in to 1) regional scale variation in black carbon deposition, 2) temporal trends in black carbon deposition, and 3) the persistence of black carbon in the snowpack throughout the season.

  9. The forecast of seasonal precipitation trend at the north Helan Mountain and Baiyinaobao regions, Inner Mongolia for the next 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; V. Shishov; SHI Jiangfeng; E. Vaganov; SUN Junyan; CAI Qiufang; I. Djanseitov; AN Zhisheng

    2004-01-01

    By using Caterpillar-SSA analysis method, through the process of embedding, singular value decomposition, grouping and diagonal averaging, the seasonal precipitation trend at north Helan Mountain and Baiyinaobo regions, Inner Mongolia for the next 20 years is forecasted. The results show an increasing precipitation trend from 1992 to 2004. In the subsequent decade the precipitation should reduce quickly, and it will reach a minimum near 2012 to 2014 in both regions. The drought caused by the decrease of the precipitation from May to July in the north Helan Mountain area during the period of 2013-2014 is probably quite similar to that around 1929. Further, the period of precipitation gradual increase follows in the researched regions.

  10. Multi-level landscape degradation due to tourist-oriented land use changes in Serbian mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, B.; Ristić, R.; Vasiljević, N.; Nikić, Z.; Beloica, J.; Malušević, I.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain regions are characterized by pronounced heterogeneity resulting from a wide range of altitude gradients, topography and specific microclimate. In these areas natural hazards are emphasized and additional anthropogenic activities have a catalytic effect on the degradation processes. Land use change for touristic and recreational purposes, results in the creation of artificial landscape elements that disturb the landscape structure. Skiing as a type of tourist and recreational activity strongly influences the land cover, changing the dynamics of natural ecosystems. Initially, ski resorts provoke intensive erosion processes, affecting the surrounding environment and even endangering the functionality of the built objects. The dominant disturbing activities (clear cuttings, trunk transport, machine grading of slopes, huge excavations, and access road construction) are followed by the activities during skiing and non skiing periods (skiing, usage of snow groomers, moving of vehicles and tourists, forestry activities and overgrazing). On a landscape scale, the impact of the ski resorts broadens to larger areas, which is accompanied by the degradation of the landscape visual quality. Due to the technical characteristics of the ski slopes, their volume and linear distribution evoke strong contrast in the scenery (geometrical versus bimorph edges). Such areas are losing their scenic quality and visual identity, and as such can be considered anthropogenic. The applied restoration and erosion control measures have stopped the degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  11. Pollen Morphology of Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora, a Group Endemic to the Eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Yu; Hong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a 'grex' or section and Included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature of it is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Pollen morphology of seven species In sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate) using LM, while examination with SEM made it possible to recognize three types of exine ornamentation (i.e. microscabrate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The microfoveolata exlne ornamentation was found in trisyncolpata pollen grains for the first time. Possible relationships between pollen data and the corolla types were discussed. Comparisons of floral and phyllotaxy characters of the genus Pedicularis, together with the pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, could help us to better understand the evolutionary trends in Pedicularis.

  12. Chloroplast DNA variation and phylogeography of Ligularia tongolensis (Asteraceae), a species endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng WANG; Yue-Zhi PAN; Xun GONG; Yu-Chung CHIANG; Chiaki KURODA

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we aimed to study the genetic variation and phylogeographic pattern of Ligularia tongolensis, a perennial herb endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) intergenic spacers (trnQ-5'rps 16, trnL-rpl32) in 140 individuals from 14 populations of three groups (Jinshajiang vs. Yalongjiang vs. Wumeng) within this species range. High levels of haplotype diversity (Hd= 0.814)and total genetic diversity (Ht = 0.862) were detected at the species level, based on a total of 12 haplotypes identified.Low levels of intrapopulation diversity (Hs = 0.349), high levels of genetic divergence (Gst = 0.595, Nst = 0.614,Fst = 0.597), and the absence of isolation by distance tests were also found in L. tongolensis. Furthermore, H2 and H5, the dominant haplotypes that located at internal nodes and deviated from extinct ancestral haplotype in the network, were found to be shared between Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang groups. These results indicate that past fragmentation may be the important factor responsible for the present phylogeographical pattern of L. tongolensis.Meanwhile, the locations occupied by each group might have served as independent refugia for L. tongolensis during the Quaternary glaciation. Unimodal mismatch distribution and star-like genealogies indicated this species underwent past demographic expansion events, with expansion ages of 274 ka BP.

  13. Mapping Plant Functional Types over Broad Mountainous Regions: A Hierarchical Soft Time-Space Classification Applied to the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlu Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying integrated NDVI and phenological information with topography: (i Temporal variability: a Fourier transform of a vegetation index (MODIS NDVI, 2006 to 2010. (ii Spatial partitioning: a primary image segmentation based on a small number of thresholds applied to the Fourier amplitude. (iii Classification by a supervised soft classification step is based on a normalized distance metric constructed from a subset of Fourier coefficients and complimentary altitude data from a digital elevation model. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A classification nomenclature is determined from temporally stable pixels in the MCD12Q1 time series. Overall accuracy statistics of the resulting classification reveal a gain of about 7% from 64.4% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT products.

  14. Proposed shallow drilling at the interface between the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and Ouachita fold belt, Arbuckle Mountains region, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidiak, E.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science); Denison, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two major tectonic elements in southern North America are the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Ouachita foldbelt. The Aulacogen is characterized by basement-cored high-angle fault blocks along which movement occurred throughout much of Paleozoic time. It is one of the most intensely deformed areas in the stable interior platform of the craton. The fold belt, in contrast, consists primarily of thin-skinned compressional structures that formed in Late Paleozoic time. These two prominent tectonic features strike at a high angle to one another and are juxtaposed in southeast Oklahoma where the contact is buried shallowly beneath Cretaceous rocks of the Gulf Coastal Plain. A drilling program comprised of a series of shallow holes drilled across the contact zone will establish the structural and stratigraphic relationships at this important tectonic interface. The results obtained should be critical in elucidating the effect that the transverse aulacogen structures had on the development of the Ouachita frontal zone. Proposed drilling sites are in northern Bryan and Choctaw counties, Oklahoma, along the Tishomingo--Belton anticlines southeast of the basement-cored eastern Arbuckle Mountains. Crystalline rocks in this region are massive middle Proterozoic granitoid rocks overlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Farther southeast, rocks in the frontal zone consist mainly of Late Paleozoic flysch-type sedimentary rocks. Depths to Paleozoic and older rocks beneath the coastal plain deposits are about 300--500 meters so that targeted structures can easily be reached.

  15. Measured solubilities and speciations of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in a typical groundwater (J-13) from the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility and speciation data are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are part of predictive transport models. Results are presented from solubility and speciation experiments of 237NpO2+, 239Pu4+, 241Am3+/Nd3+, and 243Am3+ in J-13 groundwater (from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site) at three different temperatures (25 degree, 60 degree, and 90 degree C) and pH values (5.9, 7.0, and 8.5). The solubility-controlling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined. The neptunium solubility decreased with increasing temperature and pH. Plutonium concentrations decreased with increasing temperature and showed no trend with pH. The americium solutions showed no clear solubility trend with increasing temperature and increasing pH

  16. Analysis of dissolved gas and fluid chemistry in mountainous region of Goaping river watershed in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Tsung-Kwei

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall in Taiwan is up to 2500 mm, about 2.5 times the average value of the world. However due to high topographic relief of the Central Mountain Range in Taiwan, groundwater storage is critical for water supply. Mountain region of the Goaping river watershed in southern Taiwan is one of the potential areas to develop groundwater recharge model. Therefore the target of this study is to understand sources of groundwater and surface water using dissolved gas and fluid chemistry. Four groundwater and 6 surface water samples were collected from watershed, 5 groundwater and 13 surface water samples were collected from downstream. All samples were analyzed for stable isotopes (hydrogen and oxygen), dissolved gases (including nitrogen, oxygen, argon, methane and carbon dioxide), noble gases (helium and radon) and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of surface water and groundwater samples aligned along meteoric water line. For surface water, dissolved gases are abundant in N2 (>80%) and O2 (>10%); helium isotopic ratio is approximately equal to 1 RA (RA is 3He/4He ratio of air); radon-222 concentration is below the detection limit (helium isotopic ratios (0.9˜0.23 RA) are lower and radon-222 concentrations (300˜6000 Bq/m3) are much higher than the surface water. Some samples have high amounts of dissolved gases, such as CH4 (>20%) or CO2 (>10%), most likely contributed by biogenic or geogenic sources. On the other hand, few samples that have temperature 5° higher than the average of other samples, show significantly high Na+ (>1000 ppm), Ca2+ (>150 ppm) and Cl‑ (>80 ppm) concentrations. An interaction between such groundwater and local hot springs is inferred. Watershed and downstream samples differ in dissolved gas species and fluid chemistry for groundwater and surface water. The higher hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios for surface water from downstream are most probably caused by evaporation. Low radon-222 concentrations of some groundwater

  17. Slope deformations in high-mountain regions as observed by InSAR: Examples from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Holger; Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Huggel, Christian; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít; Wiesmann, Andreas; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo; Plummer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Steep topography, the world's highest concentration of tropical glaciers, numerous glacial lakes and strong seismic activity combined with a densely populated valley bottom in the Rio Santa basin characterize the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. Besides glacier-related processes, a variety of landslide types and processes is present outside the glaciated areas, favoured by the steep terrain, geological conditions, sparse vegetation, intense precipitation, and strong seismicity. This combination of high hazard potentials and vulnerabilities results in a long list of natural disasters. Information on surface displacements is very valuable for early detection of emerging hazard potentials and their assessment. Interferometric processing of SAR data (InSAR) provides the possibility to remotely detect different types of surface displacement processes, also in remote locations where no other monitoring data are available. This contribution, developed under the ESA-funded S:GLA:MO project (sglamo.gamma-rs.ch), shows the potential of InSAR products for hazard assessments and glaciological investigations in high-mountain regions. We present a selection of different surface displacements as observed in the Cordillera Blanca based on InSAR data: a landslide zone near the Rampac Grande village, where in 2009 a landslide caused casualties and property loss; a landslide at the entry of the Santa Cruz Valley, northern Cordillera Blanca, where the displacement history could be reconstructed over five years; surface displacements at the interior moraine slopes surrounding Laguna Palcacocha, a major glacier lake above the city of Huaraz, which are compared to and complemented by geophysical investigations in the field; surface displacements at the moraine damming Laguna Safuna Alta, a glacier lake in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca; glacier velocities across the entire Cordillera Blanca, revealing ice flow velocities of more than 200 m yr-1 at certain locations at the end of

  18. Regional Assessment of the Relationship Between Landscape Attributes and Water Quality in Five National Parks of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M. W.; Campbell, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of pollutants threatens pristine environments around the world. However, scientifically-based decisions regarding management of these environments has been confounded by spatial variability of atmospheric deposition, particularly across regional scales at which resource management is typically considered. A statistically based methodology coupled within GIS is presented that builds on small alpine lake and sub-alpine catchments scale to identify deposition-sensitive lakes across larger watershed and regional scales. The sensitivity of 874 alpine and subalpine lakes to acidification from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur was estimated using statistical models relating water quality and landscape attributes in Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, Rocky Mountain National Park and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Water-quality data measured during synoptic lake surveys were used to calibrate statistical models of lake sensitivity. In the case of nitrogen deposition, water quality data were supplemented with dual isotopic measurements of d15N and d18O of nitrate. Landscape attributes for the lake basins were derived from GIS including the following explanatory variables; topography (basin slope, basin aspect, basin elevation), bedrock type, vegetation type, and soil type. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, probability estimates were developed for acid-neutralizing capacity, nitrate, sulfate and DOC concentrations, and lakes with a high probability of being sensitive to atmospheric deposition were identified. Water-quality data collected at 60 lakes during fall 2004 were used to validate statistical models. Relationships between landscape attributes and water quality vary by constituent, due to spatial variability in landscape attributes and spatial variation in the atmospheric deposition of pollutants within and among the five National Parks. Predictive ability, model

  19. Regional-scale Proterozoic IOCG-mineralized breccia systems: examples from the Wernecke Mountains, Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Julie; Baker, Tim; Thorkelson, Derek

    2005-12-01

    A large scale Proterozoic breccia system consisting of numerous individual breccia bodies, collectively known as Wernecke Breccia, occurs in north-central Yukon Territory, Canada. Breccias cut Early Proterozoic Wernecke Supergroup sedimentary rocks and occur throughout the approximately 13 km thick deformed and weakly metamorphosed sequence. Iron oxide-copper-gold ± uranium ± cobalt mineralization is associated with the breccia bodies and occurs as veins and disseminations within breccia and surrounding rocks and locally forms the breccia matrix. Extensive sodic and potassic metasomatic alteration occurs within and around breccia bodies and is overprinted by pervasive calcite and dolomite/ankerite, and locally siderite, alteration, respectively. Multiple phases of brecciation, alteration and mineralization are evident. Breccia bodies are spatially associated with regional-scale faults and breccia emplacement made use of pre-existing crustal weaknesses and permeable zones. New evidence indicates the presence of metaevaporitic rocks in lower WSG that may be intimately related to breccia formation. No evidence of breccia-age magmatism has been found to date.

  20. Resolving place names in Amdo and Kham: A gazetteer for the Hengduan Mountains region of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan L.KELLEY

    2006-01-01

    Perhaps no region on earth presents such a confusing array of place names as does the area made up of the former provinces of Kham and Amdo in historic Tibet (Xizang). Within these areas, cities, towns, villages, mountains, lakes and other geographic features have at least two names applied to them, one Tibetan, the other Chinese. Overlying this indigenous nomenclature are the names applied by outsiders, mostly Europeans, each of whom used their native language to transliterate the names they heard or read from Tibetan or Chinese script, and names in the languages of other ethnic minorities who live within the area. Adding to the confusion are the conflicting "standards" for transliterating Tibetan and Chinese names. To resolve the inconsistencies and uncertainties of place names in this region, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus was prepared. The gazetteer-thesaurus was compiled to be used as a tool for correlating the often radically different names assigned to a single place or feature and to provide the geographic coordinates for each. The impetus for this project was the need to assign geographic coordinates to plant specimens collected in the area since the latter part of the 19th century up until the advent and widespread use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in the 1990s. Georeferencing specimens is necessary for plotting the historical distribution of species and for more completely understanding the information contained on specimen labels. Knowing the distribution of plants is important for answering phylogenetic questions, determining local and widespread biogeographical patterns, identifying areas of unusually high diversity or endemism, and determining areas in need of special protection. The value of such a gazetteer, however, extends well beyond the field of botany. It is intended to be of use to anyone with a desire to know the nomenclatural history of places in the area and for pinpointing with a fair degree of accuracy the location

  1. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  2. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region, Northern Qiangtang depression: Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; FU XiuGen; CHEN WenXi; WANG ZhengJiang; TAN FuWen; CHEN Ming; ZHUO JieWen

    2008-01-01

    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The sents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain,as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  3. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region,Northern Qiangtang depression:Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The vitric tuff from the base of these strata gives a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 216 ± 4.5 Ma, which represents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain, as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  4. Experience of developing rural surgical care in a remote mountainous region of Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. AKMCS was established in 1992 to provide emergency and common elective surgical care. It has strengthened the primary health service through training, education and referral mechanism. It also provided an opportunity for family physicians to be trained in common surgical operations with special emphasis on emergency obstetric care. In addition it offers elective rotations for the residents and medical students to see the spectrum of diseases and to understand the concept of optimal care with limited resources. Methods and Results: The clinical data was collected prospectively using international classification of diseases ICD -9 coding and the database was developed on a desktop computer. Information about the operative procedures and outcome was separately collected on an Excel worksheet. The data from January 1998 to December 2001 were retrieved and descriptive analysis was done on epi info-6. Thirty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during this period, 53% were medical, 24% surgical, 16% obstetric and 7% with psychiatric illness. Out of 1990 surgical operations 32% were general surgery, 31% orthopedic, 21% pediatric, 12% obstetric and 4% urological cases; 42% of operations were done under general anesthesia, 22% spinal, 9% intravenous (IV ketamine, 6% IV sedation and 21% under local anesthesia. Six hundred and sixty-two were done in the main operation room including general surgery 337, obstetric 132, urological 67, pediatric 66

  5. The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa

  6. Implications of land-use change and pasture management on soil microbial function and structure in the mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Potthast, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis, implications of pasture establishment, fertilization and abandonment on soil C and nutrient dynamics were investigated for the mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Over the past decades the natural forest of the study area has been threatened by conversion to cattle pastures. However, the soil fertility of these extensively grazed pastures (active pastures) declines continuously during pasture use. The invasion of bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum) leads t...

  7. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  8. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  9. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  10. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  11. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Reinsurance companies are stating a high increase in natural hazard related losses, both insured and economic losses, within the last decades on a global scale. This ongoing trend can be described as a product of the dynamic in the natural and in the anthroposphere. To analyze the potential impact of natural hazard process to a certain insurance portfolio or to the society in general, reinsurance companies or risk management consultants have developed loss models. However, those models are generally not fitting the scale dependent demand on regional scales like it is appropriate (i) for analyses on the scale of a specific province or (ii) for portfolio analyses of regional insurance companies. Moreover, the scientific basis of most of the models is not transparent documented and therefore scientific evaluations concerning the methodology concepts are not possible (black box). This is contrary to the scientific principles of transparency and traceability. Especially in mountain regions like the European Alps with their inherent (i) specific characteristic on small scales, (ii) the relative high process dynamics in general, (iii) the occurrence of gravitative mass movements which are related to high relief energy and thus only exists in mountain regions, (iv) the small proportion of the area of permanent settlement on the overall area, (v) the high value concentration in the valley floors, (vi) the exposition of important infrastructures and lifelines, and others, analyses must consider these circumstances adequately. Therefore, risk-based analyses are methodically estimating the potential consequences of hazard process on the built environment standardized with the risk components (i) hazard, (ii) elements at risk, and (iii) vulnerability. However, most research and progress have been made in the field of hazard analyses, whereas the other both components are not developed accordingly. Since these three general components are influencing factors without any

  12. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  13. Response of soil microbial activity and community structure to land use changes in a mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Over the past several decades the mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador, a hotspot of biodiversity, is undergoing a rapid conversion to pastureland through slash and burn practice. Frequently this pastureland is invaded by the tropical bracken fern. When the bracken becomes dominant on the pasture sites the productivity decreases and the sites are abandoned. To assess the effect of these land use changes on nutrient turnover and on ecosystem functioning, a study was conducted in the area of the German research station Estación Científica San Francisco (ECSF) in Southern Ecuador. At 2000 m above sea level three adjacent sites were selected: a mountain rainforest site, an active pasture site dominated by the grass species Setaria sphacelata and an abandoned pasture site overgrown by bracken. Mineral soil samples of all three sites (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm) as well as samples from the organic layer (Oi and Oa) of the natural forest site were taken to analyze biogeochemical properties. Besides pH-value, total organic C and N contents, the amounts of microbial biomass (CFE-method), microbial activity (basal respiration, net N mineralization (KCl-extraction); gross N mineralization (15N dilution technique) rates) and microbial community structure (PLFA-analysis) were determined. 17 years after pasture establishment, twofold higher stocks of soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) as well as significant lower C:N ratios were determined compared to the natural forest including the 11 cm thick organic layer. 10 years after bracken invasion and pasture abandonment the microbial biomass (Cmic) decreased and the C:N ratio increased again to forest levels. Generally, land use change from forest to pasture and from pasture to abandoned pasture induced shifts in the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of the fast growing copiotrophic Gram(-) bacteria was positively correlated with the amounts of readily available organic carbon

  14. Heavy metals in precipitation waters under conditions of varied anthropopressure in typical of European low mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment is a dynamic system, subject to change resulting from a variety of physicochemical factors, such as temperature, pressure, pH, redox potential and human activity. The quantity and variety of these determinants cause the inflow of substances into individual environmental elements to vary in both time and space, as well as in terms of substance types and quantities. The energy and matter flow in the environment determines its integrity, which means that the processes occurring in one element of the environment affect the others. A certain measure of the energy and matter flow is the migration of chemical substances in various forms from one place to another. In a particular geographical space, under natural conditions, a specific level of balance between individual processes appears; in areas subject to anthropopressure, the correlations are different. In small areas, varying deposition volumes and chemism of precipitation waters which reach the substratum directly can both be observed. The study area is similar in terms of geological origins as well as morphological, structural and physico-chemical properties, and is typical of European low mountain regions. A qualitative and quantitative study of wet atmospheric precipitation was conducted between February 2009 and May 2011 in the Bobrza river catchment in the Holy Cross (Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Poland, at three sampling sites of varying land development and distance from sources of various acidic-alkaline emissions. Field and laboratory work was conducted over 29 months, from February 2009 to May 2011. Atmospheric precipitation measurements were carried out in a continuous manner by means of a Hellman rain gauge (200cm2. The collecting surface was placed at ground level (0m AGL. The application of a collecting funnel and an adequately prepared polyethylene collecting can in the rain gauge enabled the measurement of precipitation volume and water sampling for chemical

  15. An Assessment of Fire Regime Changes in the Northern Rocky Mountain Region Using Simulated Historical Fire Maps and Remotely Sensed Current Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Zhu, Z.; Huang, C.

    2011-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary ecosystem process that shapes the landscape of Western United States. Changes in fire regime can therefore have profound impact on ecosystem functions and services, including carbon cycling, habitat conditions, and biodiversity. This poster presents a study on current fire regime and changes in the Northern Rocky Mountain region assessed using contemporary and historical fire regimes. Contemporary fire records from 1984 to 2008 were obtained from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project. Historical (pre-EuroAmerican settlement) fire regimes and fire regime condition class (FRCC), produced by the LANDFIRE project, were simulated using a Landscape Succession Model (LANDSUM). We extracted historical fire frequency (Mean Fire Interval) and fire severity (percentage of severe fire) data from LANDFIRE, and calculated current fire frequency and severity using MTBS data by following the FRCC definition, to evaluate changes in fire regimes in Northern Rocky Mountain area. Preliminary results reveal that the current fire regime in Northern Rocky Mountains may exhibit a general pattern of longer return intervals and more severe fires. Biophysical Setting (BpS) map units from LANDFIRE are used as study units to describe environmental gradients and will be used to further examine whether the observed fire regime changes are controlled by land cover or biophysical settings. The findings of this study will help reveal contemporary fire dynamics in this region and serve for future fire studies and other forest management applications.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Constant Power Prime-Mover Driven Isolated 3-φ SEIG for Pico-Hydro Power Generation System in Remote Mountainous Region of Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Umesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental evaluation of the performance of 3-φ self-excited induction generator (SEIG suitable for pico-hydro power generation system feeding domestic load in remote mountainous region. The use of induction generators is most suitable for renewable energy conversion systems due to their enormous advantages over conventional synchronous generators. Important features of induction generators include the simplicity in construction, ruggedness, simplified control, ease in maintenance and small size per generated kW. The performance characteristics of 3-φ SEIG feeding isolated load are evaluated using MATLAB-Simulink model based on the prevalent renewable energy sources inputs and loading conditions in mountainous terrain of Himalayas. The results are validated using an experimental set-up comprising of 3-φ, 3 HP induction motor run as 3- φ induction generator driven by 5HP, 4-pole DC shunt motor acting as prime-mover.

  17. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  18. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  19. Use of passive samplers to detect organochlorine pesticides in air and water at wetland mountain region sites (S-SE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Khairy, Mohammed; Targino, Admir Créso; Galvão, Petrus Magnus Amaral; Torres, Joåo Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were deployed in upland surface waters and the overlying atmosphere during May and June 2012, to determine the transport and trends of freely dissolved and gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along altitudinal gradients in mountain regions in south and southeast Brazil. Gaseous OCP concentrations were dominated by hexachlorobenzene (3.0-29 pg m(-3)) and endosulfans (Ʃ = α-endosulfan + β-endosulfan + endosulfan sulphate, 170-260 pg m(-3)), whereas freely dissolved endosulfans were significantly higher than all other OCPs (p exchange gradients indicated net deposition of most volatile and recently banned OCPs (e.g., HCB, endosulfan) over Brazilian mountains. Moreover, the exposure of these sites to large-scale continental airflows with varying source contributions may partly explain the atmospheric deposition of selected OCPs over upland freshwaters at tropical and subtropical mountains sites in Brazil. These findings, coupled with LDPE passive air and water sampling measurements, point out the potential inputs from distant sources of semi-volatile chemicals to the two high-altitude sites. PMID:26595311

  20. Host associations and incidence of Diuraphis spp. in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, and pictorial key for their identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Hammon, Robert W; Burd, John D; Peairs, Frank B; Randolph, Terri; Cooper, W Rodney

    2010-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is an introduced species first identified in 1986 into the United States. It has since become a major pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and other small grains in the western United States. Three other Diuraphis species, Diuraphis frequens (Walker), Diuraphis mexicana (McVicar Baker), and Diuraphis tritici (Gillette), were already endemic to the United States before the introduction of D. noxia. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence and host associations of these four Diuraphis spp. in the Rocky Mountain region that borders the western Great Plains to better understand their distribution and ecological interactions. In addition, a key to these species with photographs of live or fresh preparations of specimens is presented to aid in their identification. D. noxia was the most widely distributed species in the study area spanning the Rocky Mountain areas of Wyoming, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. This species was most common in the cereal-producing areas of the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. D. frequens was found to be the predominant species in the Alpine/Aspen Mountain areas of the South Central Rockies and Colorado Rockies ecoregions. The other Diuraphis species were rarely encountered even though their plant hosts occurred in the ecoregions sampled. D. noxia shared common hosts and was found co-infesting grasses with other Diuraphis species. Therefore, the potential exists for D. noxia to impact the other native Diuraphis species. PMID:21061992

  1. Prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in habitat associated with Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) populations in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, L Kristen; Johnson, Scott A; Swihart, Robert K; Kazacos, Kevin R

    2012-04-01

    Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) populations have been in decline across their range since the late 1970s. Hypotheses proposed to explain these declines include habitat fragmentation and loss, decreased food availability, and increased mortality from infection with Baylisascaris procyonis. We investigated the prevalence of B. procyonis at raccoon (Procyon lotor) latrines in woodrat cliff habitats (n = 18) along the Ohio River in southern Indiana in 1995. We located 275 latrines (mean = 15.3/site; range, 6-34) and found B. procyonis in 13 (4.7%) latrines across all sites. When present at a site, B. procyonis occurred, on average, at 11.1%of latrines (range, 3-36%). Woodrat abundance, determined through a concurrent live-trapping program, was significantly higher (χ(2) = 5.12, df = 1, P = 0.024) at sites where B. procyonis was not found (9.5 ± 2.52) than at sites with B. procyonis (3.7 ± 2.2). Our analyses support the hypothesis that this parasite could contribute to declines in woodrat abundance. Because woodrats cache nonfood items, including raccoon feces, and are highly susceptible to the parasite, they are at increased risk for B. procyonis infection, which could be deleterious, especially to small populations. PMID:22493131

  2. Streamflow and selected precipitation data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, water years 1986--90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streamflow and precipitation data collected at and near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, during water years 1986--90 are presented in this report. The data were collected and compiled as part of the studies by the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, to characterize surface-water hydrology in the Yucca Mountain area. Streamflow data include daily-mean discharges and peak discharges at 5 continuous-record gaging stations, and peak discharges at 10 crest-stage, partial-record stations and 2 miscellaneous sites. Precipitation data include cumulative totals at 20 stations maintained by the US Geological Survey and daily totals at 15 stations maintained by the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

  3. Hydrological effects of Norway spruce and European beech on snow cover in a mid-mountain region of the Polana mts., Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Hribik, Matus; Vida, Tomas; Skvarenina, Jaroslav; Skvareninova, Jana; Ivan, Lubomir

    2012-01-01

    The paper evaluates the results of a 6-year-monitoring of the eco-hydrological influence of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus silvatica L.) forest stands on the hydro-physical properties of snow cover. The experiment was carried out in the artificially regenerated 20–25-year-old forest stands approaching the pole timber stage in the middle mountain region of the Polana Mts. – Biosphere reserve situated at about 600 m a.s.l. during the period of maximum snow sup...

  4. “Operazione Blue Mountains 2008”: la partecipazione dell’INGV all’esercitazione della Protezione Civile della Regione Marche (23-25 maggio 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Govoni, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Cattaneo, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Monachesi, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Frapiccini, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Basili, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Doumaz, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Vinci, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Lauciani, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Abruzzese, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Cardinale, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Castagnozzi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; D'Alema, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; De Luca, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Memmolo, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2010-01-01

    Dal 23 al 25 maggio 2008, la località Pian Di Pieca di San Ginesio in provincia di Macerata (Marche), è stata lo scenario della prima esercitazione sul rischio sismico, a valenza regionale, organizzata dal Dipartimento per le Politiche Integrate di Sicurezza e per la Protezione Civile (DSPC) della Regione Marche. L’esercitazione, denominata “Operazione Blue Mountains 2008”, aveva lo scopo di simulare la risposta degli enti locali nel caso di un evento sismico classificato come “se...

  5. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  6. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  7. Modelling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote sensing data in a mountainous region of semi-arid Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klinge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyse forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semi-arid Central Asia at the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan a strong relation between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the mountain border based on an analysis of the differences of climatic preconditions and present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit takes the same course from 1800 to 2900 m a.s.l. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m and maximum 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north facing-slopes, which is a common feature in semi-arid Central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analysed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  8. Modelling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote sensing data in a mountainous region of semi-arid Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, M.; Böhner, J.; Erasmi, S.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyse forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semi-arid Central Asia at the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan a strong relation between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the mountain border based on an analysis of the differences of climatic preconditions and present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit takes the same course from 1800 to 2900 m a.s.l. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m and maximum 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north facing-slopes, which is a common feature in semi-arid Central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analysed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  9. Assurance of risk assessment and protection distant transportation and fall out of pollutants under large anthropogenic on nuclear power stations due to mountainous regional peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. Problem of forecast and distant atmospheric transportation of the toxic products and corresponding risk assessment under anthropogenic damages is multi-component and depends on meteorological conditions and frontier layer of atmosphere. Generally, for real relief and basic fields the problem is not solved yet especially taking into consideration the big level and shortest time of the process being of the natural anthropogenic accidents in mountainous regions. Usually, geostropic drawing for determined relief is used. Integral differential equations taking into consideration a physical- chemical characteristic of the pollutants, their transformations, fall out, coagulations, washing out and self rectification in general cannot be solved. In last time essential success in formalization of above-mentioned equations i.e. carrying out some simplifications give possibility to establish necessary modeling on the basis of numerical calculations. In the most general case forecasting model is essentially limited because of bulky size of accounting schemes and necessity of powerful and high-speed computers. Main ways of achievement of further success is connected with so called 'seasonal typification' with applied a priory calculation of probabilistic picture of the pollutants concentration fields, as well as

  10. Community Tourism as Practiced in the Mountainous Qiang Region of Sichuan Province, China-a Case Study in Zhenghe Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianbin; LIU Kaibang

    2008-01-01

    In China, community tourism is still a relatively new phenomenon, but the villagers of a small Qiang village in the Qiang Autonomous County of Beichuan in Southwestern Sichuan have initiated tourism in a way which conforms to the basic theory of community tourism development. This demonstrates that community tourism possesses a strength and vitality that can promote the development of tourism in the rural and mountainous areas. In the district of Zhenghe Village, the tourism industry, based on the community tourism model, is the mainstay of its economy. The practice of community tourism in the village not only promotes the economic development of the village community, but also leads to the protection of the mountainous natural environment and of the culture of the Qiang people. This paper investigates the development process of community tourism in Zhenghe and shows how the local residents participate in this process. It also looks at how profits have been distributed within the community. It demonstrates that community tourism is a correct choice by the Zhenghe people as they have clearly been moving from poverty to prosperity, while the local ecology and environment have been simultaneously protected. The authors hope that other minority villages with similar local conditions and natural resources will be able to use this example to develop their own community tourism.

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  12. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  13. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1993. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median or mean water-level altitudes, and the average or standard deviation of the water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992 and 1993

  14. Sustainable permaculture systems demonstration in the high mountain desert region of New Mexico -- results of three years practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [EarthLink, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper reports on three years of results in the Permaculture restoration of a mountain drylands ranch outside Santa Fe, New Mexico which receives less than 11 inches rainfall/year. Dramatic results have been produced in the areas of erosion control, pastureland restoration, wild species propagation, aquaculture, riparian zone (wetland) restoration, edible landscape design and installation methodologies. Additionally, significant work has been performed in the area of youth education and community development. Current work includes a grant-financed (US Fish and Wildlife Service ``Partners for Wildlife`` Program) replanting and redevelopment of the entire riparian zone of the ranch and the design and development of a trout-spawning pond system that is self contained and self-purifying, with circulation through a structured wetland provided by a photovoltaic pumping system. This paper presents the design philosophy, overall design strategy and significant details of specific strategies, projects, and systems.

  15. Sustainable Permaculture systems demonstration in the high mountain desert region of New Mexico -- results of five years practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [Apache Creek Ranch, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on five years of results in the Permaculture restoration of a mountain drylands ranch outside Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dramatic results have been produced in the areas of erosion control, pastureland restoration, wild species propagation, aquaculture, riparian zone (wetland) restoration, edible landscape design and installation methodologies. Recently completed work includes a grant-financed (US Fish and Wildlife Service Partners for Wildlife Program) replanting and redevelopment of the entire riparian zone of the ranch and the design and development of a trout-spawning pond system that is self contained and self-purifying, with circulation through a structured wetland provided by a photovoltaic pumping system. The paper presents the design philosophy, overall design strategy and significant details of specific strategies, projects, and systems.

  16. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  17. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  18. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  19. Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continuing study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the mountain's suitability for isolating high-level nuclear waste. As mandated by the Congress of the United States in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as amended in 1987, DOE is studying the rocks, climate, and water table at Yucca Mountain to ensure the site is suitable before building a potential repository about 305 meters (1,000 feet) underground. The object of the scientific studies is to determine if Yucca Mountain can isolate solid radioactive materials by using natural barriers, such as the mountain itself--and engineered barriers, such as the waste package container, to isolate the waste

  20. 山区大跨度桥梁结构选型%Structural Type Selection for Long Span Bridges in Mountainous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚昌荣; 李亚东; 梁东; 王雪娇

    2012-01-01

    为了使山区大跨度桥梁设计做到结构选型合理及方案可行,在综合考虑桥址处客观条件、结构体系的受力特性和桥梁美学及景观基础上,从山区桥梁选型与造型、桥位选择方面进行分析,并对山区桥梁常用结构形式的使用条件及合理跨径进行探讨.得出以下结论:山区桥梁选型原则为大桥凭规模,中桥可造型,小桥在细节;桥位选择原则为中、小桥梁严格服从线路布设,大桥、特大桥应多方案比选,并将其作为控制点,总体上达到与线路走向一致;山区公路、铁路大跨度桥梁首选是连续梁(刚构),对于较窄的V形沟谷优先考虑拱桥,在特殊地形条件下可选择斜拉桥和悬索桥.%To make sure that the structural types for the design of long span bridges in the mountainous region can be rational and the structural schemes are feasible, the structural type selection, configuration and site selection of the bridges are analyzed and the service conditions and rational span arrangement of the structural types commonly adopted for the bridges are studied on the basis of comprehensive consideration of the existing site conditions, structural system force conditions, aesthetics and landscape functions of the bridges. In accordance with the analysis and study, the conclusions are drawn as follows: the principle of the structural type selection for a major bridge in the mountainous region is dominated by the scale, for a medium bridge is by the configuration while for a small bridge is by the details. The principle of the site selection for the bridges in the mountainous region is that the arrangement of the medium and small bridges should strictly abide by the route alignments, however, for the arrangement of the major bridges, there should multiple schemes for comparison and choice, the bridges should be regarded as the control points and generally should keep up with the route alignments. Wherever the long span highway

  1. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  2. New lakes in de-glaciating high-mountain regions - a challenge for integrative research about hazard protection and sustainable use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.

    2012-12-01

    As a consequence of rapid glacier vanishing, an increasing number of smaller and larger lakes are forming in high-mountain regions worldwide. Such new lakes can be touristic landscape attractions and may also represent interesting potentials for hydropower production. However, they more and more often come into existence at the foot of very large and steep icy mountain walls, which are progressively destabilizing due to changing surface and subsurface ice conditions. The probability of far-reaching flood and debris flow catastrophes caused by impact waves from large rock/ice avalanches into lakes may still appear to be small now but steadily increases for long time periods to come. Corresponding projects related to hazard protection and sustainable use should be combined in an integrative and participatory planning process. This planning process must start soon, because the development in nature is fast and most likely accelerating. Technical tools for creating the necessary scientific knowledge basis at local to regional scales exist and can be used. The location of future new lakes in topographic bed depressions of now still glacier-covered areas can be quite safely assessed on the basis of morphological criteria or by applying ice thickness estimates using digital terrain information. Models for ice-thickness estimates couple the depth to bedrock via the basal shear stress with the surface slope and provide a (relative) bed topography which is much more robust than the (absolute) value of the calculated ice thickness. Numerical models at various levels of sophistication can be used to simulate possible future glacier changes in order to establish the probable time of lake formation and the effects of glacier shrinking on runoff seasonality and water supply. The largest uncertainties thereby relate to the large uncertainties of (absolute) ice thickness and mass/energy fluxes at the surface (climate scenarios, precipitation and albedo changes, etc.). Combined

  3. Tactic of Using Police Dogs in Searching Mountainous Regions%警犬在山地环境搜捕的战术运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 张志

    2012-01-01

    It' s an important task of police dogs to track down certain run-away suspects in mountainous regions. In such circumstance, it will be a quite effective tactic by making advantage of police dogs' fierce bite, attack and olfaction sensitivity in running. It can help the public security organs to solve problems such as engaging too many human resource in large-scale searching. The principles and pre-arranged plans of u- sing police dogs in searching mountainous regions shall be clearly defined. This essay has made research on the conditions and requirements for applying this tactic, in order to provide some basic reference for standard operation in this field.%使用警犬在山地环境下对逃匿的犯罪嫌疑人进行搜捕,是刑侦用警犬的重要作业内容,侦破此类案件,利用警犬凶猛的咬捕和奔跑中搜索气味能力搜捕人犯是比较有效的技术手段,可以解决公安机关通过拉网式和大面积靠人力搜捕带来的诸多问题。要明确警犬山地搜捕使用的原则和处置预案,警犬山地搜捕作业的条件及要求,对警犬山地搜捕战术运用进行研究,以期为规范其操作程序提供一些基础性依据。

  4. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  5. Regional estimation of the index flood and the standard deviation of the summer floods in the Tatry mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Ján

    2003-01-01

    Regional design flood computation formulae in Slovakia were traditionally based on the regionalisation of the 100-year flood discharge. Floods with shorter return periods have usually been computed by regional frequency factors from the 100-year flood discharge. Several previous studies have indicated that a rather high safety factor is included in some of the traditional regional formulae. In this paper therefore an alternative method for the determination of the flood frequency curve in ung...

  6. Regional inhibition of cholinesterase in free-ranging western pond turtles (Emys marmorata) occupying California mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Sparling, Donald; Blumenshine, Steve

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the potential effects of cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides on western pond turtles (Emys marmorata) occupying streams in two regions of California, USA. The southern region was suspected of having increased exposure to atmospheric deposition of contaminants originating from Central Valley agriculture. The northern region represented reference ChE activities because this area was located outside of the prominent wind patterns that deposit pesticides into the southern region. Total ChE activity was measured in plasma from a total of 81 turtles from both regions. Cholinesterase activity of turtles was significantly depressed by 31% (p = 0.005) in the southern region after accounting for additional sources of variation in ChE activity. Male turtles had significantly increased ChE activity compared with females (p = 0.054). Cloaca temperature, length, mass, handling time, body condition, and lymph presence were not significant predictors of turtle ChE activity. In the southern region, 6.3% of the turtles were below the diagnostic threshold of two standard deviations less than the reference site mean ChE activity. Another diagnostic threshold determined that 75% of the turtles from the southern region had ChE activities depressed by 20% of the reference mean. The decrease in ChE activity in the southern region suggests sublethal effects of pesticide exposure, potentially altering neurotransmission, which can result in various deleterious behaviors. PMID:23341143

  7. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  8. Geology and geothermal waters of Lightning Dock region, Animas Valley and Pyramid Mountains, Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, W.E.; Deal, E.G.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    This circular covers the geology of the Pyramid Peak, Swallow Fork Peak, Table Top Mountain, and South Pyramid Peak 7-1/2-min quadrangles, which include the Lightning Dock KGRA. Hot wells (70 to 115.5/sup 0/C) seem to be structurally controlled by intersections of the ring-fracture zone of an Oligocene ash-flow tuff cauldron (Muir cauldron), a Miocene-to-Holocene north-trending basin-and-range fault (Animas Valley fault), and a northeast-trending lineament that appears to control anomalously heated underground waters and Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt cones in the San Bernardino, San Simon, and Animas Valleys. The Muir cauldron, approximately 20 km in diameter, collapsed in two stages, each associated with the eruption of a rhyolite ash-flow-tuff sheet and of ring-fracture domes. Most of the hydrothermal alteration of the Lightning Dock KGRA is related to the first stage of eruption and collapse, not to the modern geothermal system. Contrary to previous reports, no silicic volcanic rocks younger than basin-and-range faulting are known; unconformities beneath rhyolite ring-fracture domes are caused by Oligocene caldera collapse, not by basin-and-range faulting. The Animas Valley is the site of widespread post-20 My travertine deposits and near-surface veins of calcite, fluorite, and/or psilomelane, controlled by north- or northwest-trending basin-and-range faults. The fluoride-bearing waters of the Lightning Dock KGRA may be a late stage of this hydrothermal activity. Distribution of Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt suggests that deep-seated basalt near the solids may be the ultimate heat source.

  9. Regional Climate Change Influences Frequency of Frost Damage via Changes in Phenology: Effects of the North Pacific Oscillation (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on Rocky Mountain Wildflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, D. W.

    2004-12-01

    produced fewer flowers since 1998, potentially exacerbating the effects of frost. Thus this regional climate event appears to be having ecosystem-wide consequences in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Given the 50-75 year cycle length of the NPO, this area may be at the beginning of a decades-long change in snowfall that will reinforce the effects of global climate warming and result in significant ecosystem responses.

  10. Vanishing glaciers, degrading permafrost, new lakes and increasing probability of extreme floods from impact waves - a need for long-term risk reduction concerning high-mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian; Boeckli, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    As a consequence of continued global warming, rapid and fundamental changes are taking place in high-mountain regions. Within decades only, many still existing glacier landscapes will probably transform into new and strongly different landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, numerous lakes and sparse vegetation. These new landscapes are then likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended parts of this future time period, they will be characterised by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. Such disequilibria include a long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost warming and degradation. With the formation of many new lakes in close neighbourhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large rock falls into lakes is likely to increase for extended time periods. Quantitative information for anticipating possible developments exists in the European Alps. The present (2011) glacier cover is some 1800 km2, the still existing total ice volume 80 ± 20 km3 and the average loss rate about -2 km3 ice per year. The permafrost area has recently been estimated at some 3000 km2 with a total subsurface ice volume of 25 ± 2 km3; loss rates are hardly known but are certainly much smaller than for glaciers - probably by at least a factor of 10. Based on a detailed study for the Swiss Alps, total future lake volume may be assumed to be a few percent of the presently remaining glacier volume, i.e., a few km3 for the entire Alps. Forward projection of such numbers into the future indicates that glacier volumes tend to much more rapidly vanish than volumes of subsurface ice in permafrost, and lake volumes are likely to steadily increase. Already during the second

  11. Mountain research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

  12. A watershed approach to quantify the impacts of permafrost disturbances on the hydrogeochemistry of streams in the Richardson Mountains and Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, C.; Lacelle, D.; Kokelj, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Retrogressive thaw slumps are one of the most dramatic thermokarst features in ice-rich permafrost landscapes and their growth may pose significant terrestrial and aquatic impacts. In the Richardson Mountains and Lower Peel River watersheds (northwestern Canada), thaw slumps are abundant along hillslopes. Runoff from active slumps is characterized by conductivity and solute concentration nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than in pristine streams. As such, the objective of this study is to evaluate the potential cumulative impacts of thaw slumps to aquatic ecosystems and determine the watershed scale at which the impacts of slumps can be detected. This is accomplished by: i) compiling the distribution of active and stable thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains and Peel Plateau; ii) determining the hydrogeochemistry (major ions, total dissolved solids) of pristine and slump impacted streams in this region; and iii) representing this information on watershed platforms (4th to 6th order scale). The results indicate a positive relation between slump density, cumulative surface area of slumps and average ionic concentrations within the various sub-watershed scales. Solute concentrations along streams reveal that ionic content increases immediately downstream of a slump and that for slumps with surface area greater than 5ha, the solute concentrations remain significantly higher in impacted streams, even at the 4th-order watershed scale. The broad scale impacts of thaw slumps are indicated by a significant increase in solute concentrations in the Peel River (70,000 km2 watershed scale). These observations illustrate the nature and magnitude of hydrogeochemical changes that can be expected as ice-rich landscapes adjust to a rapidly changing climate.

  13. Impacts of Spatial Climatic Representation on Hydrological Model Calibration and Prediction Uncertainty: A Mountainous Catchment of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sparse climatic observations represent a major challenge for hydrological modeling of mountain catchments with implications for decision-making in water resources management. Employing elevation bands in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SWAT2012-SUFI2 model enabled representation of precipitation and temperature variation with altitude in the Daning river catchment (Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China where meteorological inputs are limited in spatial extent and are derived from observations from relatively low lying locations. Inclusion of elevation bands produced better model performance for 1987–1993 with the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE increasing by at least 0.11 prior to calibration. During calibration prediction uncertainty was greatly reduced. With similar R-factors from the earlier calibration iterations, a further 11% of observations were included within the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU compared to the model without elevation bands. For behavioral simulations defined in SWAT calibration using a NSE threshold of 0.3, an additional 3.9% of observations were within the 95PPU while the uncertainty reduced by 7.6% in the model with elevation bands. The calibrated model with elevation bands reproduced observed river discharges with the performance in the calibration period changing to “very good” from “poor” without elevation bands. The output uncertainty of calibrated model with elevation bands was satisfactory, having 85% of flow observations included within the 95PPU. These results clearly demonstrate the requirement to account for orographic effects on precipitation and temperature in hydrological models of mountainous catchments.

  14. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  15. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  16. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  17. Geophysical measures on a grassland of the high plateaus in the Vercors mountain (French Prealps): analysis of the local and regional hydroclimatic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Sylvain; Rome, Sandra; Biron, Romain; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lebel, Thierry; Dedieu, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Territorial administrators (regional parks and reserves, forestry service, national and regional environnemental services) look for precise scientific elements to understand, prevent or mitigate the consequences of climate change on the ecosystem and on the socioeconomic activities of the French Prealps. They wish for example especially to improve the environmental mapping of ecologically sensitive areas related to agro-pastoral activities and the management of water ressources in the Vercors massif. Geophysical measures at a local scale should allow scientists to validate outputs of regional climate model which are still widely improvable in mountain context. This study present an original network of hydrometeorological measuring equipment installed on a grassland (named ‘Meadow of Darbounouse', 44°58'N - 5°28'E; about 0.8 km²) and located at 1300 m asl elevation on the high plateau of Vercors. This little stony basin (3,8 km of perimeter) surrounded by forested ridge lines and located into the Biological Reserve, represents at the same time a well known grazing land and a place of huge thermal amplitude (i.e. 32°C in summer). Hydropedological variations are there also significant for this karstic catchment area, modulated by summer droughts and possible partial flooding from spring melting snow. Since 2005, an automatic weather Campbell station was installed in the North of the basin, measuring rainfall, temperatures, wind and global radiation. In 2009 several meteorological data loggers (temperature and relative humidity) were installed in suburb of the basin. In complement 24 soil moisture sensors (10HS, Decagon Devices) were buried below the surface of the ground (5 and 15 cm) to measure the dielectric constant (i.e. the volumetric water content) at 6 representative places of the basin. Finally a groundwater data logger (OTT Orpheus Mini) based on a pressure probe and for the storage of water level and temperature was settled in the well situated in the

  18. System Synergy of Farming System and Common Property Resources in Mountain Regions: A Case Study of Himachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pathania, M.S.; Sharma, K. D.; Lal, Harbans

    2008-01-01

    The study conducted in the hilly region of Himachal Pradesh has revealed that the average size of operational holding in the region is small (0.69 ha) and therefore the common property resources (CPRs) assume significant importance for sustaining the livelihood of people. The ‘kuhls’ emanating water of CPRs are the main sources of irrigation. The consumption of different products from CPR lands has been found to increase with decrease in the size of landholdings, which underlines the need...

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGY ON BATTLEFIELD TERRAIN AND IT’S AFFECTS ON MILITARY OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAINS AND KARST REGIONS: EXAMPLES FROM WW1 AND AFGHANISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zečević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I conflict between the Austrian and Italian army, Austrian engineer units constructed hallways in the karst region of Soča river. Those hallways, karst phenomena (caverns, caves and other fortifications, gave the Austrian army a tactical advantage. The construction principle of caverns is the consequence of the geological structure of the terrain. We are watching another military conflict in Afghanistan. In country where many armies in history have been defeated, where the terrain morphology condition a guerilla tactic, where the function effect of modern military technology is limited by battlefield configuration and with low military value of individual target, we are creating a "picture" of the possible view of the future battlefield. Al-Qai'da operatives in east Afghanistan take advantage of the opportunity of geological structure of the terrain and construct tunnel network across natural caves. Although the tunnel network in Afghanistan is constructed mostly in sandstones and metamorphic rocks, we may partly compare it with Austrian hallways. In that sense this work shows the influence of geological structure of the terrain on the effect of military operations in mountains and karst regions, and the analogy between military operations on the Soča river and military operations in Afghanistan.

  20. Hydrogeological approach to the regional analysis of low flow in medium and small streams of the hilly and mountainous areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the long rainless spells of the dry season, flows in medium and small streams get reduced to what is generally known as "low flow". For ungauged streams, the controlling "low flows" are determined using the regional analysis method. In the presently described exploration, the method applied was based on the assumption that dry weather discharges in medium and small rivers depended on the hydrogeological conditions. The controlling effect of hydrogeology on the natural low flow in medium and small streams of the hilly and mountainous part of Serbia was analyzed applying the theory of multiple linear regression. The thirty-day minimum mean 80 and 95 per cent exceedance flows were taken for dependent variables, and quantified hydrogeological elements as independent variables. The analysis covered streams that had small or medium size catchment areas. The treated example encompassed sixty-one gauged catchments. The resulting regional relations for the thirty day minimum mean 80 and 95 per cent exceedance flows are presented in this paper. The quality of the established relation was controlled by relevant statistic tests.

  1. 基于GIS的武陵山区洪水灾害风险评估%GIS-based flood disaster risk assessment in Wuling Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷洁; 裴志远; 陈曦炜; 易湘生; 孙丽

    2013-01-01

    Flood disasters happen frequently in recent years and causes great loss in parts of China. Wuling Mountain Region is one of fourteen Continuous Extremely Poverty Areas (CEPA), across three provinces and one municipality city (respectively is Hubei Province, Hunan Province, Guizhou Province and Chongqing City). The region is characterized with large minority population and wide poor people distribution, where annual precipitation is between 730 and 1260mm, and flood disasters occur frequently. The flood disaster threatens the communities usually, which pushes the people in worse condition. Based on the natural and social conditions, the resistance of economic development is relatively large, for the outstanding phenomenon of “disaster induced poverty and disaster recurrent poverty”in this region. In this paper, on the basis of disaster system theory, flood disaster risk indicator system was established in the varied topography and poor people wide distribution mountainous area. The flood disaster risk indicator system divided into three main components, namely hazard indicator (H), sensitivity indicator(S) and vulnerability indicator (V). In the indicator system, precipitation was driving factor of flood, belonged to hazard indicator(H), terrain, river system, soil and resistance ability were factors for flood redistribution, belonged to sensitivity indicator(S), population, crops and buildings were belonged to vulnerability indicator(V). According to geographical information system (GIS), some counties in the middle eastern of study area had higher hazard level for strong rainfall. The hazard environment was complex involving seven factors, and the result showed the higher sensitive area was in band from northeastern to southwestern. And the vulnerability was in different pattern from hazard and sensitivity, the higher sensitive areas were located in eastern and western, and the lower areas was seated on the middle part of the region. Applying risk assessment

  2. On sustainable development of interface landscape of mountainous region city's out space%山地城市外部空间界面景观可持续发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓菲

    2009-01-01

    Combining with definition and classification of interface, the paper introduces features of interface landscape of mountainous regionl city's out space, aiming at problems that exist in present construction of interface landscape of mountainous region city's out space, it states principles that must be followed in design as well as designing concepts of interface landscape of mountainous region city's out space and form so as to create beautiful out space environment of mountainous region city.%结合界面的定义和分类,介绍了山地城市外部空间界面的特征,针对山地城市外部空间界面建设现存问题,阐述了对其进行设计应遵循的具体原则及山地城市外部空间界面景观与空间形态设计理念,以期创造美好的山地城市外部空间环境.

  3. Controls on the deposition and preservation of the Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Frontier Formation and equivalents, Rocky Mountain region, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variations in thickness and facies of clastic sediments are controlled by geographic location within a foreland basin. Preservation of facies is dependent on the original accommodation space available during deposition and ultimately by tectonic modification of the foreland in its postthrusting stages. The preservation of facies within the foreland basin and during the modification stage affects the kinds of hydrocarbon reservoirs that are present. This is the case for the Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Frontier Formation and equivalent strata in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Biostratigraphically constrained isopach maps of three intervals within these formations provide a control on eustatic variations in sea level, which allow depositional patterns across dip and along strike to be interpreted in terms of relationship to thrust progression and depositional topography. The most highly subsiding parts of the Rocky Mountain foreland basin, near the fold and thrust belt to the west, typically contain a low number of coarse-grained sandstone channels but limited sandstone reservoirs. However, where subsidence is greater than sediment supply, the foredeep contains stacked deltaic sandstones, coal, and preserved transgressive marine shales in mainly conformable successions. The main exploration play in this area is currently coalbed gas, but the enhanced coal thickness combined with a Mowry marine shale source rock indicates that a low-permeability, basin-centered play may exist somewhere along strike in a deep part of the basin. In the slower subsiding parts of the foreland basin, marginal marine and fluvial sandstones are amalgamated and compartmentalized by unconformities, providing conditions for the development of stratigraphic and combination traps, especially in areas of repeated reactivation. Areas of medium accommodation in the most distal parts of the foreland contain isolated marginal marine shoreface and deltaic sandstones

  4. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ18O and -3.8% for δ2H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  5. Ecogeochemistry in Mountain Region-Definition, Progress and Prospection%山地生态地球化学——定义、进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳宏; 邴海健

    2012-01-01

    ecogeochemistry and so on, has developed on the purpose of assessment of ecosystem safety and health, based on the ecogeochemistry mapping. Mountain is the major geomorphological unit and possesses the unique ecological characteristics. The ecogeochemistry in mountain region has not been systemically launched, although a large amount of achievements have been obtained in element geochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecogeochemical assessment. For the further work in ecogeochemistry in mountain region, more theoretical research should be propelled; meanwhile impeccable method system, research system and assessment system should be established.

  6. Sediment yield along the Andes: continental budget, regional variations, and comparisons with other basins from orogenic mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Restrepo, Juan D.

    2014-07-01

    We assess the sediment yield at 119 gauging stations distributed from Colombia to Patagonia, covering the different morphotectonic and morphoclimatic settings of the Andes. The most productive areas are the Meta River basin within the northern Andes and the Bolivian and northern Argentina-Chaco systems, which produce an average of 3345, 4909 and 2654 t km2 y- 1 of sediment, respectively. The rivers of the northern and central Andes (excluding the Pacific watersheds of Peru, northern Chile, and central Argentina) have a weighted mean sediment yield of 2045 t km- 2 y- 1 and produce 2.25 GTy- 1 of total sediment. A major constraint estimating the Andean continental budget of sediment yield lies in the lack of gauging data for the Peruvian region. Using the available gauge stations, the regional sediment yield appears underestimated. Assuming a higher value of sediment yield for the Peruvian Andes, the total budget for the whole central Andes could range between 2.57 GT y- 1 and 3.44 GT y- 1. A minimum of ~ 0.55 GT y- 1 and a probable maximum of ~ 1.74 GT y- 1 of sediment are deposited in the intramontane and surrounding proximal sedimentary basins. The magnitude of sediment yield in the Andes is comparable to other rivers draining orogenic belts around the world.

  7. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  8. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  9. Groundwater resources from carbonate rocks in mountainous regions - Hydrochemical and isotopic survey of groundwaters in the Western Pyrenees (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonate rock aquifers are one of the main water supply sources for the French Western Pyrenees. The discontinuous structure of these reservoirs is a main obstacle to the development of such resources. By the way, since no other aquifer can be tapped, many communities have decided to improve their knowledge of the main springs over the whole region. Four sites have been considered from 2003 to 2006 and have been the object of multidisciplinary investigations including: geological mapping, geophysical investigations, dye tracing experiments and in situ hydrochemical survey. Stable isotopes have been analysed on both rainfall (18O, 2H) and spring's waters (18O, 2H, 13C, 34S) in order to evaluate the origin of groundwaters, their residence time within the systems and to appreciate the occurrence of exchanges with other aquifers. Finally this study provides a good example of how to include hydrogeochemistry and isotopic tools in a water supply management policy. (author)

  10. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn, coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn, crustal materials (for Al and Fe and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo. Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, the Pearl River Delta (PRD and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  11. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF MOUNTAIN FARMS IN THE NORTH CAUCASIAN REGION IN THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19th - EARLY 20th CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Alexandrovna SHEBZUHOVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The long process of joining the peoples of Central and Eastern Caucasus to the Russian Empire ended in 1859 after the capture in Gunib village of Imam Shamil, the leader of the People’s Liberation Movement. Adyghe people of the Northwest Caucasus in spring 1864, having lost independence and having joined Russia, were involved in the advanced capitalist relations characterized by a number of specific features. The article considers the problems of engaging mountain farms of the North Caucasian region in progressive capitalist relations. It identifies the main and specific features of capitalist relations in Russia which were characterized by in-depth development of capitalism and in-width development of capitalist production. The article considers the mechanisms and stages of economic conquest of the provinces of Russia in the post-reform period, gives characteristics of the complex Caucasian realities with profound social contradictions, diversity of everyday lifestyles and customs of the local population. The author analyzes implementation of the peasant reform in the Northern Caucasus, where the mechanism of liberating dependent classes was almost the same as in Russia. In conclusion, the article identifies the consequences of this reform for Adygeyanpeasantry. 

  13. Evaluation on the Risks of Agricultural Industrial Chain Based on FAHP——A Case of Regions Inhabited by Ethnic Groups in Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through recognizing the risking factors of industrial chain and selecting appropriate evaluation method, the index system on evaluating risking factors including market risk, natural risk, contact risk and efficiency risk in industrial chain is constructed,26 weighting indicators under the four layers are set up. Taking regions inhabited by ethnic groups in Wuling Mountain as an example, the risking factors of agricultural industrial chain in the area are analyzed by adopting the FAHP. The influencing degree of each risking factor on credit risks is analyzed. The results assume that with the market risk, contract risk, natural risk and efficiency risk. The natural risks become the principal risks of agricultural industrial chain and it should be paid much attention to. The low credit risk is a major factor that causes the contract between enterprise and rural households. The flood, pests, diseases and disasters also should be paid high attention to that is regarded as risking factors. The risking factors that come from the efficiency risk layer, for example, the unequal profit distribution among enterprises has little effect on enterprises in industrial chain. The research results provide evidence for stipulating risk prevention measures.

  14. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.

    2016-05-01

    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  15. Assessment and mapping of desertification sensitivity in an insular sahelian mountain region - case study of the Ribeira Seca Watershed, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present the assessment and mapping of the environmental areas sensitive to desertification in an insular sahelian mountain region, in the catchment area of Ribeira Seca, island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Desertification is a threat for the global environment and it represents a serious ecological problem in Cape Verde. To fight both successfully, it requires an evaluation of its consequences and the building of cartography of the sensitivity for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The model MEDALUS was the basis for this study with the use of six indicators of quality: climate, soil, vegetation, management, water runoff and social. Several sub-indicators were assigned to each indicator with weights variable between 1 (low) and 2 (high) according to the DESIRE Project (WB2). The geometric mean of each of the six indicators of quality was employed to produce the map of environmental sensitivity areas to desertification. The results of this study show that more than 50% of the watershed present obvious evidence of becoming a desertification area. Key words: Cape Verde, desertification, indicators, MEDALUS model, DESIRE project.

  16. Potassium, thorium, and uranium contents of upper Cenozoic basalts of the southern Rocky Mountain region, and their relation to the Rio Grande depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Bunker, Carl M.; Bush, Charles A

    1973-01-01

    Late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico was most intense near the Rio Grande rift depression but extended onto stable platforms to the west (Colorado Plateau) and to the east (High Plains). Tholeiitic rocks are largely confined to the Rio Grande depression, and the basalts become increasingly alkalic with distance from the depression. The K, Th, and U contents and the Th/K and U/K ratios consistently increase away from the depression, and Th/U ratios also tend to increase slightly. Geographically distinct suites of petrographicaUy related basalts that are very similar in major-oxide compositions are readily distinguishable by K, Th, and U contents. Sialic crustal contamination did not contribute significantly to development of these compositional variations, and the lateral change from tholeiitic to alkalic basaltic volcanism may be related to different depths of or degrees of partial melting in the mantle. The compositions and compositional ranges of basalts in the southern Rocky Mountain region are similar to those of many Pacific islands, despite the contrasting geologic settings.

  17. Impact of moisture source regions on the isotopic composition of precipitation events at high-mountain continental site Kasprowy Wierch, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz; Dulinski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Five-year record of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation events collected on top of the Kasprowy Wierch mountain (49° 14'N, 19° 59'E, 1989 m a.s.l.) located in north-western High Tatra mountain ridge, southern Poland, is presented and discussed. In total 670 precipitation samples have been collected and analysed. Stable isotope composition of the analysed precipitation events varied in a wide range, from -2.9 to -26.6‰ for δ18O and from -7 to -195 ‰ for δ2H. The local meteoric water line (LMWL) defined by single events data (δ2H=(7.86±0.05)δ18O+(12.9±0.6) deviate significantly from the analogous line defined by monthly composite precipitation data available for IAEA/GNIP station Krakow-Balice (50o04'N, 19o55'E, 220 m a.s.l.), located ca. 100 km north of Kasprowy Wierch ((δ2H=(7.82±0.11)δ18O+(6.9±1.1). While slopes of those two LMWLs are statistically indistinguishable, the intercept of Kasprowy Wierch line is almost two times higher that that characterizing Krakow monthly precipitation. This is well-documented effect associated with much higher elevation of Kasprowy Wierch sampling site when compared to Krakow. The isotope data for Kasprowy Wierch correlate significantly with air temperature, with the slope of the regression line being equal 0.35±0.02 ‰oC for δ18O, whereas no significant correlation with precipitation amount could be established. The impact of moisture source regions on the isotopic composition of precipitation events collected at Kasprowy Wierch site was analysed using HYSPLITE back trajectory model. Five-days back trajectories were calculated for all analysed precipitation events and seasonal maps of trajectory distribution were produced. They illustrate changes in the prevailing transport patterns of air masses bringing precipitation to the sampling site. Back trajectories for the events yielding extreme isotopic composition of precipitation collected at Kasprowy Wierch were analyzed in detail

  18. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk region (Ural mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the first results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk, the center of the iron steel industry of Russia. Moss samples were collected along Bannoe Lake, located 30 km north-west of Magnitogorsk, and were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithernal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna, and by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at the Geological Institute of RAS, Moscow. Results for a total of 38 elements were obtained, including Pb, Cd, and Cu determined by AAS. The element concentrations in moss samples from this area were compared with those available for the so-called 'Black Triangle' (the territory bordering Poland, Czechia and Slovakia), obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. The level of the concentrations of Fe, Cr, and V in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk was found to be 2-2.5 times higher than that of the mean values determined for the 'Black Triangle'; the level of Ni and Cd is of the same order as in the most polluted area of Europe. The concentrations of Zn and Cu tend to be higher in the 'Black Triangle'. The level of As is about 3 times higher in the Urals, whereas concentration of Pb is higher in Europe by a factor of 5. It appeared that concentration of Sb in the examined area has the highest ever published for levels in mosses from atmospheric deposition. The scanning electron microscope adjacent to the XRF analyzer (SEM-XRF) was used to examine the surface of the moss samples. Photographs of identified iron spherulas along with other aerosol particles were made at magnification of 3,500 to 5,000 times. Information on fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is reported. (author)

  19. Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-03-01

    An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.

  20. Analysis on Cloudiness Change in Qinling Mountain Region and Its Possible Reason in Past 60 Years%过去60年中国秦岭地区云量变化及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜川利; 余兴; 李星敏; 王繁强; 彭燕; 董研; 董自鹏

    2012-01-01

    利用近50年秦岭地区高山站及邻近2个地面站的气象资料、季风指数及海温资料,初步分析了云量的变化特征和原因,结果表明:(1)秦岭地区云量变化呈减少趋势,其中华山站(高山)、华县和西安站(平原)夜间的低云量分别为-1.74%·(10a)-1,-1.56%·(10a)-1和-4.23%·(10a)-1,白天的分别为-0.73%·(10a)-1,-1.94%·(10a)-1和-4.62%·(10a)-1;(2)夜间高山站总云量比平原站减少的多(-1%·(10a)-1),白天减少的少(〈-0.6%·(10a)-1);(3)高山站和平原站四季的低云量都是减少的,除了平原站夏季总云量是增加的外,其他季节均减少。云量变化的主要原因是:(1)局地气溶胶冷却作用,导致地面接收太阳辐射减少,使局地对流减弱,造成低云量减少;(2)由于西太平洋副热带高压面积增大,使秦岭地区总云量减少。%Using the different meteorological element data between mountain and plain weather stations,monsoon index and sea surface temperature(SST),the changing characteristic of cloudiness in Qinling mountain region and its reasons have been investigated.The main conclusions can be summarized as follows:(1) The trends of low and total cloudinesses in Qinling mountain region are decreasing,for low cloudiness,decreasing rate of mountain station(Hua mountain station) and plain stations(Huaxian and Xi′an stations) are-1.74%·(10 a)-1,-1.56%·(10 a)-1,-4.23%·(10 a)-1,respectively at nighttime,and-0.73%·(10 a)-1,-1.94%·(10 a)-1,-4.62%·(10 a)-1 in daytime.(2) For total cloudiness,decreasing rate mountain station is more than that at plain station.(3) For different seasons,low and total cloudinesses at mountain and plain stations are all decreasing,except for summer at plain station.(4) The change reasons for cloudiness in Qinling mountain region are: Firstly,because of the cooling effect of aerosol

  1. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  2. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Maria. Brändle; Gaby Langendijk; Simon Peter; Sibyl Hanna Brunner; Robert Huber

    2015-01-01

    Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific ...

  4. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  5. The Role of Aga Khan Rural Support Programme in Rural Development in the Karakorum, Hindu Kush & Himalayan Region: Examples from the Northern Mountainous Belt of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is predominantly a mountainous country where rural development activities are characterised by inconsistency, politically motivated short-term projects without proper feedback. Since the inception of the country, the top-down approach has been followed, and the same development plans that were formulated for the plain areas have been extended to the mountains without any modification.In doing so, neither the participation of the local communities was cared for, nor the mountain specificities were considered in the planning process.Moreover, the representation of the local inhabitants was improper and contradictory to the facts. This biased approach has been one of the main causes for the failure of development projects carried out by different agencies of the Government. Contrary to the perception of the state authorities, the mountain communities proved to be more open to accept new approaches and demonstrated the capacity and capability of being a dependable development partner.In this paper, a detailed account of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) has been presented to assess and evaluate the approach followed by this non-governmental organisation (NGO), and the response of the local inhabitants as collaborators in the development process. The achievements of the AKRSP from project planning,implementation and monitoring can be adopted as a model for rural development not only in the plains,but also in the mountainous areas of the developing countries in the world.

  6. 黄山风景区暴雨山洪灾害风险区划研究%Research on regional risk zonation of mountain torrent disasters in Huangshan scenic area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展; 许剑勇; 王胜; 田红

    2015-01-01

    Taking Huangshan scenic area as the research area, this study discusses the applicability of risk zonation of mountain torrent di-sasters in relatively closed regions. Based on natural disaster risk assessment theory and mountain torrent risk formation mechanism, the risk zoning of mountain torrent disaster was formed for Huangshan scenic area by using meteorological data, integrating factors of nature, social economy, geographic information data as well as mountain torrent-caused disaster. Results indicate that the high-risk areas are mainly dis-tributed in the northeast and southwest of scenic region, including Ciguangge, Wenquan, Yungusi, Paiyunlou, northern of Beihai, Tianhai, etc., which are dense region of tourist and essence of scenic spots. While the low risk areas are mainly distributed in the northeast and south-west of scenic region, including Fugu, Yanghu, and Fuxi, etc. Tangkou town is the base of life and tourist reception, which is located in medi-um to high risk area. Because of population and buildings being highly concentrated, the mountain torrents disaster of Tangkou should be highly vigilant. The result of regionalizing risks is consistent with the actual situation according to historically typical rainstorm torrent disas-ters. The paper introduces the technology and method of regional risk zonation of mountain torrent disasters in Huangshan scenic area, which could provide scientific basis and reference for prevention of weather disasters in mountain tourism scenic spot.%以黄山风景区为研究对象,探讨相对封闭的区域山洪灾害风险区划方法的适用性.基于自然灾害风险评价理论,利用黄山风景区气象、社会经济、地理信息以及山洪灾情等资料,开展山岳型景区暴雨山洪灾害风险区划研究.结果表明:山洪灾害高风险区主要位于景区中部及西部,包括慈光阁、温泉、云谷寺、排云楼、北海北部、天海等地.低风险区主要位于景区中部、

  7. Evaluation of the SAFRAN-ISBA-RAPID hydrometeorological chain on a mountainous catchment in a semi-arid region. Case of the Rheraya (Marrakech, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, Camille; Gascoin, Simon; Habets, Florence; Saaidi, Amina; Berjamy, Brahim; Marchane, Ahmed; Boulet, Gilles; Hanich, Lahoucine; Jarlan, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    The water content of snow pack is an important resource for many watershed in semi-arid areas where downstream plains are dominated by irrigated agriculture. As part of the ANR Amethyst, this work is to develop, adapt and evaluate a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain for quantifying streamflows at the outlet of a mountainous watershed (Rheraya wadi, Marrakech region, Morocco), a pilot basin instrumented since 2003 as part of SudMed project. Two sets of atmospheric forcing were used: (1) The first was generated by spatializing meteorological data observed on 6 stations (Asni, Aremdt, Tachedert, Oukaimeden, Imskerbour and Neltner) using the semi-physical module Micromet (Liston and Elder, 2006) on the hydrological period September 2003 - August 2012; (2) the second is provided by the SAFRAN re-analysis, implemented by the Metoffice of Morocco (Casablanca, Morocco), during the period August 2004 - July 2008. These two sets were then used as inputs for the ISBA surface model, within the modeling platform SURFEX. Finally, runoff and drainage simulations derived from ISBA were forced into the hydrological model RAPID to predict streamflows. The flows predictions and the snow covered area (SCA) were compared respectively to the observations available for the 2003-2009 period and to the daily MODIS products of SCA. Despite time unsystematic lags and low biases on flow values, the initial results are encouraging due to topographical and hydro-complexity of the studied area. Despite a slight tendency to underestimate the SCA for the "Micromet" run and to over-estimate for the "Safran" run, SCA is well reproduced with a determination coefficient of r²=0.76 and r²=0.79, respectively. Given the complex topography of the basin, a sensitivity analysis to the size of the grid point (from 8 km to 250 m) was conducted. If the different simulated series of SCA are close from a resolution to another, streamflows simulations are, by contrast, highly sensitive to the resolution

  8. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    The current global climate change is determined by changes in the structure of weather conditions, whose impact on the health of various regions of the planet has not been studied sufficiently. To study this effect on the low-altitude mountains resort of Kislovodsk (southern Russia) multi-factor assessment of the impact of the environment on human health is carried out. There were taking in account atmosphere condition, atmospheric aerosol pollution relationship with atmospheric circulation, the level of pollution matching with different types of weather, and, on the base of analysis of meteopathic reactions (MPR), the extent of their biotropism was revealed. Two sides of weather-climatic influences - specific and nonspecific - are interconnected. They manifest themselves differently in humans with different levels of regulation of vital activity and the adaptive capacity of the organism to the complex environmental effects. This complicates the precise physiological basis of quantitative criteria for the prediction of "biotropic" (adverse) weathers. Nevertheless, clinical observations have shown the existence of the "limiting" physiological bound on the size of medical-meteorological modules (MMM). The reactions of the organism to unfavorable weather factors on the results of a questionnaire monitoring surveillance of patients treated in clinics of Federal State Institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Curortology, FMBA of Russia" (PSRIC), in comparison with clinical data, have identified various MPR of the organism, the clinical manifestation of which depends on age, sex of the patient, the availability of principal and attendant pathology, reactivity, etc. Analysis of the results of clinical observation, cases of medical aid appealability to the station an ambulance at the sudden ill health, as well as the uptake of advice of sick people among immigrants during their short stay at the resort, and the local population, allowed the first approximation

  9. Mountain Weather and Climate, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    For colleagues with diverse interests in the atmosphere, glaciers, radiation, landforms, water resources, vegetation, human implications, and more, Mountain Weather and Climate can be a valuable source of guidance and literature references. The book is organized into seven chapters: 1, Mountains and their climatological study; 2,Geographical controls of mountain meteorological elements; 3, Circulation systems related to orography; 4, Climatic characteristics of mountains; 5, Regional case studies; 6, Mountain bioclimatology; and 7, Changes in mountain climates. These chapters are supported by l78 diagrams and photographs, 47 tables, and some 2000 literature references. The volume has an appendix of units and energy conversion factors and a subject index, but it lacks an author index.

  10. Late Quaternary vegetation and environments in the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (NE Asia) reconstructed from a 50-kyr fossil pollen record from Lake Billyakh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stefanie; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tütken, Thomas; Gartz, Steffi; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    Here we present a detailed radiocarbon-dated 936 cm long pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) situated in the western part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains, about 140 km south of the Arctic Circle. A set of 53 surface pollen samples representing tundra, cold deciduous forest and taiga was collected in northern and central Yakutia communities to verify the accuracy of the quantitative biome reconstruction method and to obtain a more precise attribution of the identified pollen taxa to the main regional biomes. The adjusted method is then applied to the pollen record from Lake Billyakh to gain a reconstruction of vegetation and environments since about 50.7 kyr BP. The results of the pollen analysis and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that herbaceous tundra and steppe communities dominated the area from 50.7 to 13.5 kyr BP. Relatively low pollen concentrations and high percentages of herbaceous pollen taxa (mainly Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Artemisia) likely indicate a reduced vegetation cover and/or lower pollen production. On the other hand, extremely low percentages of drought-tolerant taxa, such as Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra, and the constant presence of various mesophyllous herbaceous ( Thalictrum, Rosaceae, Asteraceae) and shrubby taxa ( Betula sect. Nanae/Fruticosae, Duschekia fruticosa, Salix) in the pollen assemblages prevent an interpretation of the last glacial environments around Lake Billyakh as extremely arid. The lowest pollen percentages of woody taxa and the highest values of Artemisia pollen attest that the 31-15 kyr BP period as the driest and coldest interval of the entire record. A relative high content of taxa representing shrub tundra communities and the presence of larch pollen recorded prior to 31 kyr and after 13.5 kyr BP likely indicate interstadial climate amelioration associated with the middle and latest parts of the last glacial. An increase in pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa around 12 kyr BP

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Brändle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific behavior anchored in the current generation of farmers at the expense of representing longer scale environmental processes or they emphasize the simulation of long-term economic and forest developments where representation of human behavior is simplified in time and space. In this context, we compare the representation of individual and aggregated decision-making in the same model structure and by doing so address some implications of choosing short or long term time horizons in land-use modeling. Based on survey data, we integrate dynamic agents into a comparative static economic sector supply model in a Swiss mountain region. The results from an extensive sensitivity analysis show that this agent-based land-use change model can reproduce observed data correctly and that both model versions are sensitive to the same model parameters. In particular, in both models the specification of opportunity costs determines the extent of production activities and land-use changes by restricting the output space. Our results point out that the agent-based model can capture short and medium term developments in land abandonment better than the aggregated version without losing its sensitivity to important socio-economic drivers. For comparative static approaches, extensive sensitivity analysis with respect to opportunity costs, i.e., the measure of benefits forgone due to alternative uses of labor is essential for the assessment of the impact of climate change on land

  12. Demographic characteristics and life satisfaction in settlements of Fruška Gora mountain region: Bešenovo case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerčan Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia has been facing an economic crisis for the last two decades, which is one of the causes of poor demographic situation in the country. Along with low or negative rates of population growth and ageing of population, the majority of municipalities in Vojvodina have a negative migration balance. Vojvodina is characterized by long-term trend in the decrease of young population and the increase of old population. These two processes are affected by low birth rate and life expectancy increase. The bad economic situation and the ageing of population are especially apparent in mountainous areas and peripherally located settlements. This situation has not bypassed Bešenovo, mountainous village of Fruška Gora. Field research and conduction of the questionnaire have found out that the population of this village is not satisfied with the basic living standard.

  13. Tectonic model for development of the Byrd Glacier discontinuity and surrounding regions of the Transantarctic Mountains during Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic

    OpenAIRE

    Stump, E.; Gootee, B.; Talarico, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Byrd Glacier discontinuity us a major boundary crossing the Ross Orogen, with crystalline rocks to the north and primarily sedimentary rocks to the south. Most models for the tectonic development of the Ross Orogen in the central Transantarctic Mountains consits of two-dimensional transects across the belt, but do not adress the major longitudinal contrast at Byrd Glacier. This paper presents a tectonic model centering on the Byrd Glacier discontinuity. Rifting in the Neoproterozoic produ...

  14. 78 FR 7852 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Rocky Mountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport, Broomfield, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... public comment on the release of land at the Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport under the provisions of..., Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Northwest Mountain Region, Airports Division, Denver...

  15. Early Winter Habitat Use by Mountain Caribou in the North Cariboo and Columbia Mountains, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, E; McLellan, B.; Watts, G.; J. Flaa

    1996-01-01

    Winter habitat use was compared between two mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) populations in British Columbia. Regional differences were apparent during November and December. Radio-collared caribou inhabiting the gentle plateaus of the northern Cariboo Mountains, near Prince George, B.C. primarily used mid-elevation balsam-spruce stands on moderate slopes (<30%). In contrast, radio-collared caribou in the North Columbia Mountains, near Revelstoke, B.C. used low elevation hemloc...

  16. Impacts of Sedimentation from Oil and Gas Development on Stream Macroinvertebrates in Two Adjacent Watersheds of the Allegheny National Forest of Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, K.; Harris, S.; Edenborn, H.M.; Sams, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fritz, Kelley'*, Steven Harris', Harry Edenborn2, and James Sams2. 'Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA 16214, 2National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236. Impacts a/Sedimentation/rom Oil and Gas Development on Stream Macroinvertebrates in Two Adjacent Watersheds a/the Allegheny National Forest a/Northwestern Pennsylvania - The Allegheny National Forest (ANF), located in northwestern Pennsy Ivania, is a multiuse forest combining commercial development with recreational and conservation activities. As such, portions of the ANF have been heavily logged and are now the subject of widespread oil and gas development. This rapid increase in oil and gas development has led to concerns about sediment runoff from the dirt and gravel roads associated with development and the potential impact on the aquatic biota of the receiving streams. We examined and compared the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in two adjacent watersheds of similar size and topography in the ANF; the Hedgehog Run watershed has no oil and gas development, while the adjacent Grunder Run watershed has extensive oil and gas development. In Hedgehog and Grunder Run, we collected monthly kicknet samples from riffles and glides at two sites from April to October 2010. At the same intervals, we measured standard water quality parameters, including conductivity and turbidity. Preliminary results have indicated much higher turbidity in Grunder Run, but little difference in the diversity and abundance of benthic macro invertebrates inhabiting the two streams.

  17. Response of alpine lakes and soils to changes in acid deposition: the MAGIC model applied to the Tatra Mountain region, Slovakia-Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Josef; Evžen TUCHLÍK; Petra ŠENÁKOVÁ; Vladimír MAJER; Kopáček, Jiří; Hardekopf, David

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic process-based model of surface water acidification, MAGIC, was applied to 31 representative alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (~50% of all alpine lakes >0.3 ha in the lake-district). The model was calibrated to observed lake chemistry for the period 1980-2002. Surface water and soil chemistry were reconstructed from 1860 to 2002, given estimates of historical acid deposition, and forecast to 2020 based on the reduction in sulphur and nitrogen emissions presupposed by the Gothenbur...

  18. Genetic conservation and utilization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. for nutritious food production: a case of sustainable agriculture responding to climate change in the mountainous region in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxtail millet a plant with high nutrient and high heavy metal content in the grain, is suitable to grow under drought conditions. Using millet grain to produce food for man is necessary and will bring higher economic impacts for farmers in the mountainous regions. In this study, a total of four varieties of foxtail millet (CM1, CM9, CM10 and CM11), collected in Vietnam, are described and their botanical characters characterized. Correlations were made between photosynthetic characters and dry matter accumulation under irrigated, drought and recovering conditions in a pot experiment. A field experiment was also conducted to estimate the effect of three ecological regions such as Gialam (Red River Delta with an altitude of 5-20 meters), Bacha (northern mountainous region with an altitude of 800-1000 meters) and Sapa (northern mountainous region with an altitude of 1500-1800 meters) on several agronomic characters viz., growth duration, dry matter accumulation, grain yield and grain quality of four cultivars. The average grain yield of all millet varieties were the highest in Sapa (2.7 ton/ha), followed by Bacha (2.0 ton/ha) and Gialam (1.1 ton/ha), mainly because of the large number spikelets per panicle and the higher 1000-grain weight. The highest grain yield was observed for CM1 in Gialam, whereas it was CM9 in Bacha and Sapa. This was due to the different varietal response to temperature, water supply and/or radiation. Protein content was highest for CM1 in Hanoi (14.44%) and Sapa (12.66%) but it was CM11 in Bacha (11.69%). CM11 showed the highest starch content in all three ecological regions. In Hanoi and Sapa, CM9 manifested the highest lipid content but in Bacha, it was CM10. Four levels of N fertilizer (0, 30, 45 and 60 kg N per ha) were applied in Gialam, resulting in highest grain yield for CM1 at 60 kg N level (2.78 ton per ha), but the highest for CM10 was at 45 kg N level (3.02 ton per ha). This was due to the higher chlorophyll content at the

  19. 秦岭北坡水源林区不同类型林分土壤水文特性%Soil Hydrological Characteristics of Different Water Conservation Forests in Mountainous Regions of North Qinling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆斌; 张胜利; 晋建霞

    2012-01-01

    在秦岭北坡水源林区选择不同针阔混交林和落叶混交林林分,对其土壤水文物理性质进行了研究。结果表明:土壤容重、非毛管孔隙度、最大持水量、毛管持水量和最小持水量均为针阔混交林大于落叶阔叶林,40cm土层土壤水分平均(非毛管)滞留贮存量为针阔混交林大于落叶阔叶林。针阔混交林地土壤的渗透性能较好,其平均渗透系数达到了6.93mm/min,是落叶阔叶林地的4.97倍,且同一林地内0-20cm土层的渗透系数均大于20-40cm土层。基于主成分分析,锐齿栎×油松(华山松)混交林地土壤的综合水文效应最优。%Different types of forest community in medium altitude of north Qinling Mountain were chosen to study the soil water physical characteristics. Result showed that in these forests, the soil bulk densities, non-capillary porosity, maximum water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity and field water holding capacity were ranked as mixed forests~deciduous broadleaved forest, while soil non-capillary porosi- ty water-holding amount of 40era layer was ranked as mixed forests~deciduous broadleaved forest. Permea- bility of raixed forest was 4.97 times higher than deciduous broadleaved forest and its mean permeability reaches 6.93 ram/rain. Permeability of 0--20 era layer was higher than that in 20--40 em layer in different types of forest soil. Based on principal component analysis, the comprehensive hydrological effect of oak and pinus tabulaeformis (Pinus armandii) was the highest.

  20. 高山林立的海涂地区道路工程施工%Mountainous regions tideland area of road construction works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康德存; 梁莉

    2014-01-01

    对高山林立的海涂地区道路工程施工的现状、道路工程施工的难点和不利的环境因素进行了分析,从适合于新方法的有利条件、操作步骤、基本原理,以及防止路基、路面开裂等方面进行了论述,提出了高山林立的海涂地区道路工程施工方法,解决了沿海软、硬土地基交接地区道路工程施工路面开裂、抗风、抗盐碱等问题。%The present situation of the mountain forest of tideland areas of road construction, road construction difficulties and unfavorable envi-ronmental factors were analyzed, from the new method is suitable for favorable conditions, the steps, the basic principles construction methods to prevent the embankment, pavement cracking and other aspects of the method are discussed, proposed construction methods tideland area lined mountain road engineering, solves the coastal soft and hard handover area of land-based road construction pavement cracking, wind, salt tolerance and other issues.

  1. The Impact of Commercially Treated Oil and Gas Produced Water Discharges on Bromide Concentrations and Modeled Brominated Trihalomethane Disinfection Byproducts at two Downstream Municipal Drinking Water Plants in the Upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species were observed in finished water at several Western Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in br...

  2. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  4. HYDROLOGY, Allegheny County, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  5. HYDRAULICS, Allegheny County, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  6. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People’s Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jie Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007- 2008 in the People’s Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH. Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%, those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%, those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%, and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999- 2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.

  7. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2012-05-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH. PMID:22639122

  8. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters

  9. The Glacial Morphology of the North of Çapans Mountains Rize

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRGEN, Gürcan

    2003-01-01

    Çapans Mountains are situated in East Black Sea Region. These mountains are between Verçenik Mountains (3709 m) and Demirkapı Mountains (3376 m). Çapans peaks have an average altitude of 3000-3300 m. These mountains are important glaciations in Northern Anatolia Mountains. The heights of Çapans Mountains are covered with perennial snow and glaciers in Pleistocene era. There are 4 glacier troughs a lot of cirques and many glacial lakes in this area. These glacier forms are 10-12 kilomete...

  10. Response of alpine lakes and soils to changes in acid deposition: the MAGIC model applied to the Tatra Mountain region, Slovakia-Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef VESELÝ

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic process-based model of surface water acidification, MAGIC, was applied to 31 representative alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (~50% of all alpine lakes >0.3 ha in the lake-district. The model was calibrated to observed lake chemistry for the period 1980-2002. Surface water and soil chemistry were reconstructed from 1860 to 2002, given estimates of historical acid deposition, and forecast to 2020 based on the reduction in sulphur and nitrogen emissions presupposed by the Gothenburg Protocol. In the 1860s, all lakes were buffered by the carbonate system and only ~6% of lakes had acid neutralising capacity (ANC 50% of the SAA change in sensitive lakes with intermediate weathering rates and little soils (low BC exchangeable capacity and elevated terrestrial export of nitrate and (3 by parallel changes in concentrations of protons and aluminium (each ~20% of the SAA change in extremely sensitive lakes, with the lowest weathering rates and soil base saturation. The full implementation of the Gothenburg Protocol will not be sufficient to allow recovery of the latter group of lakes, which will remain acidified after 2020.

  11. Application of Trimble R7-GNSS in the mountain forest regions%Trimble R7-GNSS在山地密林的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 邱龙; 张颖; 翁震勇; 王朝晖

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the application of Trimble R7GNSS receiver in Hubei Jingmen 2D geophysical prospecting. Its accuracy, reliability, high efficiency and extensity showed great advantages in field operation. Through a variety of environment test and huge data analysis, practice has proved that using Trimhle RTGNSS receiver can effectively solves the problem of single star receiver in mountain forest areas when the number of satellites is insufficient for RTK measuring. Meantime the navigation speed, accuracy and reliability can be improved.%本文主要介绍了Trimble R7-GNSS接收机在二维物探测量中的应用,其精确性、可靠性、高效性和广泛性能够在工程测量中发挥更大优势。通过各种环境下的测试及施工中的数据分析,用实践证明了采用Trimble R7-GNSS接收机能有效解决单星接收机在山地密林区RTK测量时卫星数不足的问题,提高了导航定位的速度、精度和可靠性。

  12. Mixing state of regionally transported soot particles and the coating effect on their size and shape at a mountain site in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    Soot particles influence the global climate through interactions with sunlight. A coating on soot particles increases their light absorption by increasing their absorption cross section and cloud condensation nuclei activity when mixed with other hygroscopic aerosol components. Therefore, it is important to understand how soot internally mixes with other materials to accurately simulate its effects in climate models. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an auto particle analysis system, which enables more particles to be analyzed than a conventional TEM. Using the TEM, soot particle size and shape (shape factor) were determined with and without coating from samples collected at a remote mountain site in Japan. The results indicate that ~10% of aerosol particles between 60 and 350 nm in aerodynamic diameters contain or consist of soot particles and ~75% of soot particles were internally mixed with nonvolatile ammonium sulfate or other materials. In contrast to an assumption that coatings change soot shape, both internally and externally mixed soot particles had similar shape and size distributions. Larger aerosol particles had higher soot mixing ratios, i.e., more than 40% of aerosol particles with diameters >1 µm had soot inclusions, whereas <20% of aerosol particles with diameters <1 µm included soot. Our results suggest that climate models may use the same size distributions and shapes for both internally and externally mixed soot; however, changing the soot mixing ratios in the different aerosol size bins is necessary.

  13. Density structure and growth dynamics of a Larix principis-rupprechtii stand for water conservation in the Wutai Mountain Region of Shanxi Province, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangcan ZHANG; Jiangbao XIA; Shuyong ZHANG; Zefu ZHOU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    To discover the site adaptability and density suitability of Larix principis-rupprechtii as a water con-servation forest in Wutai Mountain, Shanxi Province, the growth process and diameter distribution characteristics of 10-year-old artificial L. principis-rupprechtii forests with density structures of 2600 trees/hm2 and 3500 trees/hm2 were studied using trunk analysis of a sample tree. The results showed that: 1) The tree height increment of the two kinds of forests were the same, and it was almost not affected by density. However, the growth process of the diameter and timber volume showed a great distinction. The growth status and density structure of the low density forest were superior to the high density forest. 2) The skewness (Sk) of diameter distribution had great distinc-tion. The Sk (0.01) of the low density forest approached a normal distribution, which showed that the density structure was reasonable, while the Sk (0.45) of the high density forest was partial to a normal distribution, which showed that the density structure was on the high side. The kurtosis (K) of the two forests (one was -0.64, the other was -0.74) had little distinction and the density factor had limited function to forest polarization. 3) The increment of diameter at breast height, timber volume and trunk stock of the low density forest increased yearly without the effect of density. However, the increment of high density forests had declined from the sixth year, which was restricted by high density. 4) The reasonable density of the 10-year-old L. principis-rupprechtii artificial forest was about 2600 trees/hm2, which is also the reasonable planting density if the utilization of double cutting is not considered.

  14. Does World Natural Heritage status trigger sustainable regional development efforts?. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 6 No. 2 6 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Conradin, Katharina; Wiesmann, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Today, there are over 200 World Natural Heritage (WNH) sites. Although the original aim of the World Heritage (WH) Convention was to spark off concerted international efforts to preserve sites of outstanding and universal value, today a multitude of expectations rests on WNH sites in terms of conservation, tourism, management and regional development. This paper identifies the effects of WNH status on sustainable regional development and the driving factors behind these effects. The results a...

  15. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variation of seasonal snow accumulation in alpine catchments using airborne laser scanning : basic research for the adaptation of spatially distributed hydrological models to mountain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the spatial distribution of snow accumulation is a prerequisitefor adaptating hydro-meteorological models to achieve realistic simulations of therunoff from mountain catchments. Therefore, the spatial snow depthdistribution in complex topography of ice-free terrain and glaciers was investigatedusing airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. This thesis presents for the first time an analysis of the persistence and the variability of the snow patterns at the end of five accumulation seasons in a comparatively large catchment. ALS derived seasonal surface elevation changes on glaciers were compared to the actual snow depths calculated from ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Areas of increased deviations. In the investigated region, the ALS-derived snow depths on most of the glacier surface do not deviate markedly from actual snow depths. 75% of a the total area showed low inter-annual variability of standardized snow depths at the end of the five accumulation seasons. The high inter-annual variability of snow depths could be attributed to changes in the ice cover within the investigated 10-yearperiod for much of the remaining area. Avalanches and snow sloughs continuously contribute to the accumulation on glaciers, but their share of the total snow covervolume is small. The assimilation of SWE maps calculated from ALS data in the adaptation of snow-hydrological models to mountain catchments improved the results not only for the but also for the simulated snow cover distribution and for the mass balance of the glaciers. The results demonstrate that ALS data are a beneficial source for extensive analysis of snow patterns and for modeling the runoff from high Alpine catchments.(author)

  16. Conceptual model development for landscape management in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region: an approach for sustainable socio-ecological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nautiyal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting a conceptual model for landscape management in the Himalayan region of India, using quantitative/mathematical approach. Keeping in view the requirement, (based on fifteen years empirical field work in the Himalayan region and as well as literature survey the MODAM (Multiple Objectives Decision Support Tools for Landscape Management model along with linear programming approach was adopted with a view to presenting additional methodological perspectives on interdisciplinary landscape research. The work has stemmed out from the original research contribution, which tries to integrate interdisciplinary research planning with landscape management related research in the Himalayan region. This biodiversity hotspot has relatively high complexity in terms of sustainable socioeconomic development vis a vis conservation and management of the resources. The concepts and insights presented in this article will provide the basis for a discussion, on decisionmaking issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to sustainable socioecological development within complex environments.

  17. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  18. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  19. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  20. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  1. The situation of the wolf (Canis lupus) in the area of the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains / La situazione del Lupo (Canis lupus) nell'area del Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Verucci

    1992-01-01

    Abstract This work presents the results of a field research on the species Canis lupus in the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains. In relation to Wolf conservation, an investigation on feral and free-roving dogs was carried out. The method of snowtracking was used for Wolves and Feral dogs, the method of sighting was used for free-roving dogs. The research underlines the importance of the Simbruini Mountains for the protection of Wolf in...

  2. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species. PMID:26458759

  3. Lessons Learned and Future Challenges for Integrated and Participatory Approaches to Mountain Research——Conclusions from the Mountain Symposium and this Special Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Uwe Jens Nagel; David Thomas; Andreas Neef

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Symposium 'Towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions', held in Chiang Mai from 7-9 March 2006 (hereafter referred to as 'Mountain Symposium'),brought together a wealth of experience from mountain research and development in four continents. Some of its highlights are presented in this Special Issue.

  4. 秦岭南北地区光合有效辐射时空变化及突变特征%Distribution and change of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) in the northern and southern regions of Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 朱枫; 杨陈; 王飞; 穆兴民; 李锐

    2013-01-01

    基于秦岭南北地区47个气象站1960-2011年的逐日气象数据,通过Angstrom方程和Penman-Monteith公式计算了各站点的光合有效辐射(PAR),并借助Spline空间插值、Pettitt突变点检验和相关分析等手段对PAR的空间分布、时空演变、突变特征及其可能成因进行了分析.结果表明:①秦岭南北地区PAR的时间和空间分布特征明显,在空间上呈北高南低的分布格局;在季节分布上,夏季、春季、秋季、冬季依次减小.②52年间,该地区年PAR整体呈显著下降趋势,下降速率由南向北,由东向西递减;时间变化方面,春季PAR呈现不显著的上升趋势,其余季节均呈下降趋势,夏季减小最快,其次为冬季,秋季最小.③该地区89%的站点年PAR存在突变,突变站点中的85%发生于1979-1983年间;夏季89%的站点发生突变,突变站点中的90%发生于1979-1983年间;冬季68%的站点发生突变,但突变时间同步性和一致性较差;春季和秋季突变现象不甚明显.④气候变化(风速下降)、城市化进程加快以及工业生产导致的气溶胶增多是导致PAR显著下降的主要原因,而火山爆发引发的气溶胶增加则是PAR波动的主要原因.%Based on 52-year (1960-2011) daily data from 47 meteorological stations in the northern and southern regions of Qinling Mountains, the annual and seasonal Photosynthetically Active Radiations (PAR) were calculated with equations of Angstrom and FAO Penman-Monteith. The spatial distribution, change trends and their causes were analyzed and detected with spatial analysis method of spline interpolation, Pettitt abrupt change point detection method and correlation analysis between PAR and relative factors. The results were as followed: (1) the PAR became weaker from north part to south part, i.e. from northern region of Qinling Mountains (NQ), to southern region of Qinling Mountains (SQ), to Han River Basin (HB) and to Valleys of Ba and Wu

  5. Application of High Resolution SAR to Tobacco Growth Modeling in Karst Mountainous Region%高分辨率SAR在喀斯特山地烟草生长建模中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾龙浩; 周忠发; 李波

    2013-01-01

    Due to the status of cloudy weather, fragmented terrain and diversified crop system in karst mountain region, the conventional remote sensing is difficult to meet the requirement for tobacco growth monitoring. To overcome these problems, we proposed a tobacco growth model monitoring method based on the brightness of the high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image in karst mountain region. Based on the high resolution SAR image brightness values in karst mountain region, the coupled model of tobacco growth monitoring used regression analysis simulation was established finally. The results from the example analysis and the measured data verification suggested that the established linear regression models between brightness values of SAR and the leaf length and width in the whole growth periods could reflect the linear regression basically, except the one of length in the vigorous growing period. In addition, the tobacco growth condition monitoring was promising for the Yunyan 87 in study area. This method provides a new research thought of large scale and real-time remote sensing monitoring for the modern tobacco agriculture.%为实现现代烟草农业快速监测,针对喀斯特山地多云多雨、地形支离破碎、作物种植复杂多样,导致常规遥感手段难以满足烟草生长监测需求的现状,提出了一种将高分辨率合成孔径雷达(SAR)应用于建立喀斯特山地烟草生长监测模型的方法。运用回归分析模拟,最终建立了基于高分辨率SAR影像亮度值的喀斯特山地烟草生长耦合监测模型。通过实例分析和实测数据验证发现,除旺长期叶长的回归模型外,在SAR亮度值与烟草各生长期的叶长、叶宽回归建模中,所建立的回归模型基本上能够反映其线性回归的耦合关系,能够满足研究区内云烟87品种的烟草生长状况监测。此方法为现代烟草农业大范围实时遥感监测提供新的研究思路。

  6. A 10-Year Assessment of Hemlock Decline in the Catskill Mountain Region of New York State Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Pontius, Jennifer; Hallett, Richard

    2015-02-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid is a serious pest of Eastern and Carolina hemlock in the eastern United States. Successfully managing the hemlock resource in the region depends on careful monitoring of the spread of this invasive pest and the targeted application of management options such as biological control, chemical, or silvicultural treatments. To inform these management activities and test the applicability of a landscape-scale remote sensing effort to monitor hemlock condition, hyperspectral collections, and concurrent ground-truthing in 2001 and 2012 of hemlock condition were compared with field metrics spanning a 10-yr survey in the Catskills region of New York. Fine twig dieback significantly increased from 9 to 15% and live crown ratio significantly decreased from 67 to 56% in 2001 and 2012, respectively. We found a significant shift from 59% "healthy" hemlock in 2001 to only 16% in 2012. However, this shift from healthy to declining classifications was mostly a shift to decline class 2 "early decline". These results indicate that while there has been significant increase in decline symptoms as measured in both field and remote sensing assessments, a majority of the declining areas identified in the resulting spatial coverages remain in the "early decline" category and widespread mortality has not yet occurred. While this slow decline across the region stands in contrast to many reports of mortality within 10 yr, the results from this work are in line with other long-term monitoring studies and indicate that armed with the spatial information provided here, continued management strategies can be focused on particular areas to help control the further decline of hemlock in the region. PMID:26470138

  7. GEOMORPHOSITES AS A VALUABLE RESOURCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN A DEPRIVED AREA. THE CASE STUDY OF ANINA KARSTIC REGION (BANAT MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurențiu ARTUGYAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphosites are those landforms that in time, have acquired, a certain value, naming here scientific, cultural, aesthetic, ecological and/or economic. In many papers geomorphosites were associated with natural, relief-related tourist attractions. Those two notions, geomorphosite and natural tourist attraction are not synonymous, because a geomorphosite presents many features that give value to that landform. A geomorphosite is more than just topographic feature and that is the reason for which not all natural attractions are considered geomorphosite. Anina karstic region is synonymous with Anina Mining Area. This area was defined by Vasile Sencu (1977 as the area that is surrounded Anina town and it may be exploited by mining activities. The studied area presents many landforms specific for karst terrains. These features belong to the exokarst (sinkholes, poljies, karrens, gorges, karstic springs, but also to the endokarst (caves, shafts. The area is located in the largest and most compact area of carbonate rocks in Romania, in a typical structural area, Reșiţa-Moldova Nouă Synclinorium. Anina karstic region is an area with many socio-economical problems: poverty, unemployment and depopulation. Many landforms belonging to karst topography may be considered as geomorphosites due to their value (natural, economic, cultural. We believe that if some of these geomorphosites will be included in the touristic objectives, those landforms may generate a social-economic progress in this region, which nowadays is a deprived area. The aim of this paper is to point out that karstic geomorphosites in a deprived are may be a valuable resource.

  8. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    OpenAIRE

    M S R Murthy; Bajracharya, B.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; M. Ali; Bajracharya, S; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near ...

  9. Effects of aggregating forests, establishing forest road networks, and mechanization on operational efficiency and costs in a mountainous re-gion in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Aruga; Gyo Hiyamizu; Chikara Nakahata; Masashi Saito

    2013-01-01

    We investigated forest road networks and forestry operations before and after mechanization on aggregated forestry operation sites. We developed equations to estimate densities of road networks with average slope angles, operational efficiency of bunching operations with road network density, and average forwarding distances with operation site areas. Subsequently, we analyzed the effects of aggregating forests, establishing forest road networks, and mechanization on operational efficiency and costs. Six ha proved to be an appropriate operation site area with minimum operation expenses. The operation site areas of the forest owners’ cooperative in this region aggregated approximately 6 ha and the cooperative conducted forestry operations on aggregated sites. Therefore, 6 ha would be an appropriate operation site area in this region. Regarding road network density, higher-density road networks increased operational expenses due to the higher direct operational expenses of strip road establishment. Therefore, road network density should be reduced to approximately 200 m⋅ha-1 within average pre-yarding dis-tances on which a grapple loader could conduct bunching without winching. With larger stem volumes a larger reduction in operational expenses occurred for the mechanized operation system compared to the conventional operation system. However, with smaller stem volumes, the operational expenses for the mechanized operation system were higher than for the conventional operation system. Therefore, the appropriate operation system and machine sizes should be determined based on stem volumes.

  10. Analysis of precipitation data from in situ and large-scale source in a tropical mountain environment. Study case of the Cordillera Blanca region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourre, Lise; Junquas, Clémentine; Condom, Thomas; Lebel, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The study area, the watershed of the Rio Santa in Peru, accuses a strong longitudinal climatic gradient, from the humid Amazonian lowlands to the drier Pacific coast, associated with an altitudinal gradient, with the highest point of the watershed at 6,768 meters asl. The Cordillera Blanca situated in this area, had more than 600 km² of glacier coverage at the end of the 20th century, with more than half that belongs to the watershed of the Rio Santa. The application of a hydrological model in this area requires the analysis and regionalization of precipitation, a key variable for the establishment of a water balance. In this context, different sources of precipitation data are useful in order to catch the spatial and temporal variability: in situ meteorological stations, TRMM 3B42 and 3B43 product satellite data and outputs of WRF model (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) at 3 km of spatial resolution. Precipitations are dependent on both the large-scale atmospheric circulation and local parameters such as topography or albedo. As all these variables cannot be properly taken into account in large scale models, it is important to evaluate the contribution of regional models in the analysis and the understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation across a watershed. To investigate the spatial and temporal variability of precipitations, two approaches have been adopted in this work. In a first approach the spatial repartition of precipitation is described from station data. The second approach is focused on the assessment of a high-scale regional climate model (WRF) and the TRMM satellite data to reproduce spatially and temporally in situ observed precipitations. This comparison was carried out for different time-scale variability: on a monthly time scale with the observation of the seasonal cycle, on the daily time scale to study the occurrence of precipitation, and finally with the hourly data to study the representation of diurnal cycle. First

  11. Combined Inversion of Broadband and Short‐Period Waveform Data for Regional Moment Tensors: A Case Study in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donner, Stefanie; Krüger, Frank; Rössler, Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we suggest a novel approach for the retrieval of regional moment tensors for earthquakes with small to moderate magnitudes. The first modification is the combined inversion of broadband and short‐period waveform data. The broadband waveforms are inverted in a frequency range suitab...... successfully retrieved a stable solution from short‐period waveform data alone. Thus, our approach enables successful determination of seismic moment tensors wherever a sparse network of broadband stations has thus far prevented it....... this area, several factors exacerbate the difficulty of performing inversion for moment tensors, for example, a heterogeneous station network and large azimuthal gaps. We have demonstrated that our approach supplies reliable moment tensors when inversion from broadband data alone fails. In one case, we...

  12. Modeling changes in extreme snowfall events in the Central Rocky Mountains Region with the Fully-Coupled WRF-Hydro Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    gochis, David; rasmussen, Roy; Yu, Wei; Ikeda, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    Modeling of extreme weather events often require very finely resolved treatment of atmospheric circulation structures in order to produce and localize large magnitudes of moisture fluxes that result in extreme precipitation. This is particularly true for cool season orographic precipitation processes where the representation of landform can significantly influence vertical velocity profiles and cloud moisture entrainment rates. In this work we report on recent progress in high resolution regional climate modeling of the Colorado Headwaters region using an updated version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a hydrological extension package called WRF-Hydro. Previous work has shown that the WRF-Hydro modeling system forced by high resolution WRF model output can produce credible depictions of winter orographic precipitation and resultant monthly and annual river flows. Here we present results from a detailed study of an extreme springtime snowfall event that occurred along the Colorado Front Range in March of 2003. First an analysis of the simulated streamflows resulting from the melt out of that event are presented followed by an analysis of projected streamflows from the event where the atmospheric forcing in the WRF model is perturbed using the Psuedo-Global-Warming (PGW) perturbation methodology. Results from the impact of warming on total precipitation, snow-rain partitioning and surface hydrological fluxes (evapotranspiration and runoff) will be discussed in the context of how potential changes in temperature impact the amount of precipitation, the phase of precipitation (rain vs. snow) and the timing and amplitude of streamflow responses. It is shown that under the assumptions of the PGW method, intense precipitation rates increase during the event and, more importantly, that more precipitation falls as rain versus snow which significantly amplifies the runoff response from one where runoff is produced gradually to where runoff is more

  13. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of {sup 237} NpO{sub 2}{sup +} {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25{degrees}C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined.

  14. 山区特大桥大体积混凝土承台的施工%Construction of Mass Concrete Pile Caps of Super Large Bridge in Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培诚

    2012-01-01

    Making the construction of super large bridge in mountainous region, due to the complex geological conditions and landforms, and the lack of convenient traffic conditions, brings a lot of challenges to the technical scheme and construction organization of the mass concrete pile caps, this paper makes the pile caps construction of Chishi large bridge as an example, through massive concrete construction organization management and based on the temperature control of mass concrete analysis of the relevant problem of concrete analysis. This paper describes the construction process of material management, technology management and other preparatory works, makes the construction works smoothly.%山区建设特大型桥梁,由于复杂的地质条件及地貌,加上不便利的交通条件,给大体积承台施工的技术方案和施工组织带来很大的挑战.文中以里赤石特大桥承台施工为例,通过对大体积承台的详细施工组织管理及以基于大体积混凝土温控分析的相关问题做具体分析,阐述了施工过程中的物资管理、技术管理及其他准备工作,使施工作业顺利进行.

  15. Fire Ecology and Sustainable Mangement of Forest and Grasslands on Mountainous Region in Xinjang%火生态与新疆山地森林和草原的可持续经营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思玉

    2001-01-01

    Fire ecology is an importance branch of ecology. Fire interfere is the motive force of the maintenance and the development of some forest ecosystems in the world. This paper reviews the conception and study content of fire ecology, and fire effects were summary recounted to plants, soil, hydrology and ecosystems. The feasibility and essentiality of prescribed burning are also discussed, of which are applied to sustainable management of forest and grasslands on mountainous region in Xinjiang. In the end,some of measures and matters needing attention are emphasized especially.%火生态是生态学的一个重要分支。火干扰是地球上许多森林生态系统得以维持和发展的原始动力。本文阐述了林火生态的概念和研究内容,简单介绍了火对植物、土壤、水文和生态系统的影响。论述了把火作为工具在新疆山地森林和草原的可持续经营中应用的可行性和必要性,并提出了用火的技术措施和有关注意事项。

  16. A Study of to Activities of Helping Orphans in Poor Mountainous Minority County Regions%少数民族贫困山区县域助孤活动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学文

    2012-01-01

    The Salesian Xugu the humanitarian spirit and the traditional virtues has long featured the Chinese nation.In addition to the government level policy support,you also need the social forces to organize all kinds of help orphans activities.To do the work of helping the orphans well,it is proposed to improve the work by external organizational resources,good organization and docking work,setting up helping orphans system,strengthening the feedback tracking and dynamic adaptation to poor mountain minority county region.%中华民族素有慈幼恤孤的人道主义精神和传统美德。除了政府层面的政策性扶持外,还需要社会力量组织开展各种助孤活动。要从做好孤儿摸底工作和对外组织资源、组织好对接工作、搭建助孤体系、强化反馈跟踪和动态调适等方面开展少数民族贫困山区县域助孤活动。

  17. Coalescence of late Wisconsinan Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets east of the Rocky Mountain Foothills in the Dawson Creek region, northeast British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickin, Adrian Scott; Lian, Olav B.; Levson, Victor M.

    2016-05-01

    Geomorphic, stratigraphic and geochronological evidence from northeast British Columbia (Canada) indicates that, during the late Wisconsinan (approximately equivalent to marine oxygen isotope stage [MIS] 2), a major lobe of western-sourced ice coalesced with the northeastern-sourced Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). High-resolution digital elevation models reveal a continuous 75 km-long field of streamlined landforms that indicate the ice flow direction of a major northeast-flowing lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) or a montane glacier (>200 km wide) was deflected to a north-northwest trajectory as it coalesced with the retreating LIS. The streamlined landforms are composed of till containing clasts of eastern provenance that imply that the LIS reached its maximum extent before the western-sourced ice flow crossed the area. Since the LIS only reached this region in the late Wisconsinan, the CIS/montane ice responsible for the streamlined landforms must have occupied the area after the LIS withdrew. Stratigraphy from the Murray and Pine river valleys supports a late Wisconsinan age for the surface landforms and records two glacial events separated by a non-glacial interval that was dated to be of middle Wisconsinan (MIS 3) age.

  18. Mountain-Top Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, John P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Talcott Mountain Science Center for Student Involvement, Inc., near Hartford, Connecticut, and the programs in natural science offered at the facility and by center personnel in local schools. (SL)

  19. Education and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines a middle school social studies curriculum taught in Nevada. The curriculum was designed to educate students about issues related to the Yucca Mountain project. The paper focuses on the activities used in the curriculum

  20. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  1. A Study of the Exploitation of Mountainous region of the Yao nationality and its influence on ecological environment in Guangxi since the Song Dynasty%论宋代以来广西瑶族的山地开发及其对生态环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维宽

    2012-01-01

    The Yao nationality distributed extensively among the mountainous region through migrating frequently since the Song Dynasty,and they transformed mobile cultivation into fixed cultivation gradually.They made a living through planting coarse food crops such as Chinese yam,taro,millet,beans,and economic crops such as cotton and ramie,which remade the primordial ecological environment of mountainous region preliminarily.Along with the introduce of maize and artificial planting of China fir,tung oil tree,tea-oil tree,new ecological system substituted primordial ecological system gradually,the ecological landscape of mountainous region was rebuilt in Guangxi.Because of the effect of spontaneous ecological idea,the Yao nationality combined their own existence with ecological protection in course of exploiting mountainous region in Guangxi.%广西是中国瑶族人口的集中分布地,占全国瑶族人口的60%。但广西并不是瑶族的起源地,今天的分布格局是唐宋以来不断迁徙形成的。广西瑶族的祖先可以追溯到秦汉时期的长沙武陵蛮,又称黔中蛮或五溪蛮。随后不断南迁,南朝时到达今湘南粤北地区。隋唐时期,广西东北部已分布着较多莫瑶(1)。宋代瑶族在广西的分布更为广泛,宋人范成大记载了桂北瑶族的分布情况,他说:"瑶本五溪瓠之后,其壤接广右者,静

  2. Assessment of Metals Exposure and Sub-Lethal Effects in Voles and Small Birds Captured Near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Voles (n=6) and small ground-nesting birds (n=12) were live-captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska in 2006 to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, blood analysis, and analysis for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about 3 times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site. Barium and zinc tissue concentrations of animals collected from different sites were not remarkably different, and aluminum concentrations were below the reporting limits in most samples. There was no clear evidence of serious sub-lethal biological effects such as lesions in internal organs or DNA damage in blood in any of the animals. Accordingly, blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road generally were less than tissue concentration thresholds associated with serious biological effects reported from other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for those animals nearest the haul road. Notably, liver lead concentrations of voles and small birds at the reference location were considerably less than those previously reported for similar animals at reference sites in other parts of the United States, Canada, and Europe. Results from this reconnaissance-level study indicate that voles and small birds inhabiting this area are not suffering serious biological effects as a result of metals exposure; however, continued monitoring of lead and other metals is

  3. 秦岭南北风速时空变化及突变特征分析%Spatial-Temporal Variation and Mutation of Wind Speed in the Northern and Southern Regions of the Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 王飞; 刘焱序; 穆兴民; 李锐

    2013-01-01

    根据秦岭南北47个气象站1960~2011年逐月风速和气温资料,采用样条曲线插值法(Spline)、Pettitt突变点检验、气候倾向率和相关分析等方法对该区风速的空间分布、时空演变特征及其可能影响因素进行了分析.结果表明:①秦岭南北风速空间分布呈东高西低、北高南低格局,按其大小排序为秦岭以北>秦岭南坡>汉水流域>巴巫谷地.四季风速排序为春季>冬季>夏季>秋季,均以秦岭以北最大.②近52 a来,秦岭南北整体和各子区年平均风速呈现一致的显著下降趋势,下降最快的为秦岭南坡,最慢的为汉水流域.四季风速下降速率排序为冬季>春季>秋季>夏季.③年和季节尺度风速的突变集中出现在1969~1974、1978~1981和1990~1994年间,秦岭南北整体于1981年突变.④气象台站周边的城市化发展和风速测量仪器的更换都对风速的变化产生了一定影响,但都不是风速显著下降的主要原因,大气环流变化和气候变暖才是造成风速减小的可能原因.%Wind speed time series have been subject to far fewer trend analysis than temperature and precipitation records, in part because of data homogeneity issues. However, understanding how evolution of the global climate system has been manifest as changes in near-surface wind regimes in the past and how near-surface wind speed regimes might alter in the future is of great relevance to the insurance industry, the construction and maritime industries, surface energy balance estimation, the community charged with mitigating coastal erosion, the agricultural industry, forest and infrastructure protection communities, and the burgeoning wind energy industry. Based on the temperature and wind speed data between 1960 and 2011 in the northern and southern region of Qinling Mountains, with the methods of Spline interpolation, Pettitt abrupt change point detection as well as correlation analysis, the

  4. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  5. Isotopic evidence of enhanced carbonate dissolution at a coal mine drainage site in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shikha; Sack, Andrea; Adams, James P.; Vesper, Dorothy; J Capo, Rosemary C.; Hartsock, Angela; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes were used to determine the sources and fate of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) in the circumneutral pH drainage from an abandoned bituminous coal mine in western Pennsylvania. The C isotope signatures of DIC (δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were intermediate between local carbonate and organic C sources, but were higher than those of contemporaneous Pennsylvanian age groundwaters in the region. This suggests a significant contribution of C enriched in {sup 13}C due to enhanced carbonate dissolution associated with the release of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from pyrite oxidation. The Sr isotopic signature of the drainage was similar to other regional mine waters associated with the same coal seam and reflected contributions from limestone dissolution and cation exchange with clay minerals. The relatively high δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4} isotopic signatures of the mine drainage and the presence of presumptive SO{sub 4}-reducing bacteria suggest that SO{sub 4} reduction activity also contributes C depleted in {sup 13}C isotope to the total DIC pool. With distance downstream from the mine portal, C isotope signatures in the drainage increased, accompanied by decreased total DIC concentrations and increased pH. These data are consistent with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} dissolution of carbonate rocks, enhanced by cation exchange, and C release to the atmosphere via CO{sub 2} outgassing.

  6. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  7. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  8. Isotopic evidence of enhanced carbonate dissolution at a coal mine drainage site in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Coal mine discharge. ► Carbon, sulfur, oxygen and strontium isotopes track sources of carbon. ► Enhanced carbonate weathering due to sulfuric acid-enhanced dissolution and cation exchange. ► Carbon dioxide outgassing. - Abstract: Stable isotopes were used to determine the sources and fate of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) in the circumneutral pH drainage from an abandoned bituminous coal mine in western Pennsylvania. The C isotope signatures of DIC (δ13CDIC) were intermediate between local carbonate and organic C sources, but were higher than those of contemporaneous Pennsylvanian age groundwaters in the region. This suggests a significant contribution of C enriched in 13C due to enhanced carbonate dissolution associated with the release of H2SO4 from pyrite oxidation. The Sr isotopic signature of the drainage was similar to other regional mine waters associated with the same coal seam and reflected contributions from limestone dissolution and cation exchange with clay minerals. The relatively high δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 isotopic signatures of the mine drainage and the presence of presumptive SO4-reducing bacteria suggest that SO4 reduction activity also contributes C depleted in 13C isotope to the total DIC pool. With distance downstream from the mine portal, C isotope signatures in the drainage increased, accompanied by decreased total DIC concentrations and increased pH. These data are consistent with H2SO4 dissolution of carbonate rocks, enhanced by cation exchange, and C release to the atmosphere via CO2 outgassing

  9. Mountain weather and climate: a general overview and a focus on climatic change in the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Beniston, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Meteorological and climatic processes in mountain regions play a key role in many environmental systems, in particular the quantity and quality of water that influences both aquatic ecosystems and economic systems often far beyond the boundaries of the mountains themselves. This paper will provide a general overview of some of the particular characteristics of mountain weather and climate, to highlight some of the unique atmospheric features that are associated with regions of complex topogra...

  10. The Impact of Transportationt on Accessibility of Tourism Scenic Region of Cross-border Tourism Region: A Case Study of Dabieshan Mountain%交通方式对跨界旅游区景区可达性影响及边界效应测度——以大别山为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨效忠; 冯立新; 张凯

    2013-01-01

    The impact of transportation on accessibility of cross-border scenic area is an important aspect of research on cross-border tourism region.In this article,we focus on cross-border tourism region in Dabieshan Mountain.Through constructing regional intemal accessibility,regional external accessibility,analyzing quantitative accessibility of scenic area of cross-border tourism region in Dabieshan Mountain with GIS software,and generating spatial structure schematic drawing,we arrive some conclusions that:1) Highway plays a crucial role in improving internal global accessibility,but the impacts of ordinary railway and high speed railway on accessibility are not obvious.2) As far as single transportation way is concemed,the impacts of high speed railway,ordinary railway and highway on improving internal local accessibility are limited.This is due to the characteristics of shielding of them and the limited quantity of entrance and exit of railway station and highway,which also make them not to become universal transportation so far.3) By measuring boundary effect,we find that the shielding effect of administrative boundaries on low-rank transportation infrastructure is better than that on high-rank traffic facilities.4) The impact of universality transportation way on external global accessibility is weak,and the effect of ordinary railway and highway on improving global accessibility is greater than the effect of high speed railway.Combined with data from the survey,this article holds that:although highway is not universal traffic way in the case area at present,regional external accessibility of the whole cross-border tourism region in Dabieshan Mountain will be improved based on the continuous construction of highway network,and highway also will gradually become a ubiquitous transportation way.5) The impact of high-grade traffic facilities are mainly embodied in regional extemal accessibility.Taking typical cross-border scenic area—Tiantangzhai as an example

  11. Soil Moisture Dynamics of Different Forest Types in Xiaolong Mountain Region in Gansu Province, China%甘肃小陇山林区不同森林类型土壤水分动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑子龙; 蔺岩雄; 袁一超; 高兴红; 孟玉珂

    2013-01-01

    Five kinds of forest soil of oak and broad leaved mixed forest,Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata forest,Larix kaempferi forest,Pinus tabulaeformis forest and non-forest land were investigated in Xiaolong Mountain region.Soil water dynamics variation law of different forest types were studied through nine plot observations of the soil moisture in 2011.The results showed that atmospheric precipitation and evapotranspiration are main factors for the change of soil moisture.The seasonal variation of soil moisture content is clear.The effect of slope position on soil moisture for different forest types is not significant.There is significant difference in the soil moisture content of different soil layer (H).At 0 ≤H<20 cm,the change of soil moisture content is severe.On the whole,the soil moisture content at 0≤H<20 cm is higher than that at 20≤H<60 cm layer.Broad leaved mixed forest and Q.aliena var.acuteserrata forest have higher soil moisture content with strong soil and water conservation ability and significant water conservation function.%以小陇山林区栎类阔叶混交林、锐齿栎林、日本落叶松林、油松林及无林地5种森林土壤为研究对象,通过2011年对9个样点土壤水分长期定位观测,研究不同森林类型土壤水分动态变化规律.结果表明:大气降水和蒸散量是引起土壤含水量变化的主要因素,土壤含水量季节性变化趋势十分明显;坡位对林区不同森林类型土壤含水量无显著影响;不同层次土壤含水量差异显著,土层深(H)O≤H<20 cm的土壤含水量变化较为剧烈,但总体上其含水量大于20 cm≤H<60 cm的土壤含水量;各个时期阔叶混交林、锐齿栎林土壤平均含水量较高,具有较强水土保持能力和显著水源涵养作用.

  12. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  13. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  14. Strategies for Water-soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture of Southern Hilly and Mountainous Regions%南方丘陵山地水土保持与循环农业发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖; 罗旭辉; 钟珍梅; 曾玉荣; 翁伯琦

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most severely eroded areas in China,the hilly and mountainous regions of southern China faces an unprecedented challenge in water-soil conservation.This article shows the current situation of the serious soil erosion and degradation of the red soil lands in the regions,as well as the efforts in the past to remedy and prevent further deterioration.Based on the information,4 potentially applicable approaches for the development of a sustainable agriculture were drawn.They included (1 ) the " Theme Agriculture" that focuses on the local specialties taking the over-all planning for the regions into consideration,(2)the" Three-dimensional Agriculture"that maximize the utilization of all available resources,(3 )the " Recycling Agriculture" that surrounds the generation and utilization of methane gas,and (4)the " Tourism Agriculture" that combines leisure and ecology-oriented activities.For execution,the following measures were recommended:(1)mapping strategies to fit for the local conditions,(2 ) streamlining organizational structures to facilitate efficient operations, (3 ) encouraging cooperation between research institutions and industrial entities to foster innovation,(4)upgrading management to fully capitalize investments,and (5)providing trainings to enhance employee quality.%从南方丘陵山地水土流失现状分析入手,阐述南方丘陵红壤侵蚀退化地的水土流失特征与主要防控成效,总结4种具有示范推广意义的治理型循环农业开发模式:(1)以合理统筹兼顾为主线的特色农业开发模式;(2)以资源合理配置为核心的立体农业开发模式;(3)以沼气综合利用为纽带的循环农业开发模式;(4)以拓展生态旅游为特色的观光农业开发模式,并据此提出与南方山区农村社会、经济、生态的实际情况相适应的乡村循环农业发展对策:一是结合区域实际,制定山区科学发展规划;二是优化产业结构,

  15. Importance of mountain height and latitude for the altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants in Scandinavia: are the mountains high enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Arvid Odland

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present paper was to study regional differences in the altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants in relation to mountain height and latitudinal position. Altitudinal limits from previously studied areas were compared with the altitudinal distribution limits given by Lid and Lid (2005) as a reference. Based on these comparisons, different trend lines were used to evaluate the effects of mountain height and thereby estimate how high a mountain must be for vascular p...

  16. The behaviour of caesium in mountainous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mountainous area of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (North-Eastern part of Italy) the Cs-137 deposition, due to Chernobyl accident, ranged from 20 to 40 kBq/m2. To study the vertical migration of radionuclides in mountainous soils, ENEA-DISP and the Regional Centre for Agricultural Experimentation (C.R.S.A.) have located four sampling stations in areas selected on vegetational basis: two in deciduous forests, one in a Abies-Fagus forest and one in a natural grassland. In these sampling stations soil chemico-physical characteristics were determined (soil texture, pH and organic matter) and the meteorological parameters daily recorded. This paper presents caesium residence half times in the superficial soil horizons evaluated on the bases of results obtained from June 1987 to December 1988. (author)

  17. Regionalisation of chemical variability in European mountain lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Lluís CAMARERO; Rogora, M.; Mosello, R; Anderson, N. J.; Barbieri, A.; Botev, I; Kernan, M.; Kopacek, J.; Korhola, A.; Lotter, A. F.; Muri, G.; Postolache, C.; Stuchlík, Evzen; Hansjörg THIES; R. F. Wright

    2015-01-01

    1. We carried out a coordinated survey of mountain lakes covering the main ranges across Europe (including Greenland), sampling 379 lakes above the local tree line in 2000. The objectives were to identify the main sources of chemical variability in mountain lakes, define a chemical classification of lakes, and develop tools to extrapolate our results to regional lake populations through an empirical regionalisation or upscaling of chemical properties. 2. We investigated the mai...

  18. Rural migration decision relating to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual and family migration decisions were assessed to ascertain the degree to which the siting of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository would influence decisions to remain, leave, or leave and return to the region. Data collected in Lincoln and Nye Counties in Nevada were used. The results of the two studies show that there is little or no impact of the proposed repository on residential choice decisions

  19. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs. PMID:22206560

  20. DOE's Yucca Mountain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers thinkhigh-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies

  1. An archaeological field survey of part of the Black Mountain in south-east Dyfed: a contribution to the interpretation of economy and settlement in the region from prehistory to the early modern period

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Anthony H.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of archaeological sites was carried out across 60 km2 of the Black Mountain in south-east Dyfed, an upland common. These are described and placed in a putative chronological sequence against a palaeo-environmental backcloth. Sepulchral cairns are the earliest sites recorded, probably belonging to the early second millennium bc. House circles and homesteads may date to later prehistory and the early proto-historic period, while numerous rectangular foundations are probably the remain...

  2. Approach to Mountain Hazards in Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dongtao; TU Jianjun; CUI Peng; LU Ruren

    2004-01-01

    Tibet is located at the southwest boundary of China. It is the main body of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest and the youngest plateau in the world. Owing to complicated geology, Nco-tectonic movements, geomorphology, climate and plateau environment, various mountain hazards, such as debris flow, flash flood, landslide, collapse, snow avalanche and snow drifts, are widely distributed along the Jinsha River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River), the Nu River and the Lancang River in the east, and the Yarlungzangbo River, the Pumqu River and the Poiqu River in the south and southeast of Tibet. The distribution area of mountain hazards in Tibet is about 589,000 km2, 49.3% of its total territory. In comparison to other mountain regions in China, mountain hazards in Tibet break out unexpectedly with tremendously large scale and endanger the traffic lines, cities and towns, farmland,grassland, mountain environment, and make more dangers to the neighboring countries, such as Nepal,India, Myanmar and Bhutan. To mitigate mountain hazards, some suggestions are proposed in this paper,such as strengthening scientific research, enhancing joint studies, hazards mitigation planning, hazards warning and forecasting, controlling the most disastrous hazards and forbidding unreasonable human exploring activities in mountain areas.

  3. A theoretical study of the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A large number of cities around the world are located in or near complex terrain. In these regions, urban breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds are observed. Understanding interactions between urban breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds is important in a view of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics and urban air pollution. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds in the context of the response of the atmosphere to specified thermal forcing. Starting from linearized governing equations in two dimensions, analytical solutions for perturbation vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, buoyancy, and kinematic pressure are obtained. Then, the analytical solutions are used to examine the interactions. Urban breeze circulation and mountain slope winds evolve with time due to time-varying thermal forcing that has steady and diurnal components, and they interact with each other. Asymmetric flows are developed over the urban and mountain areas. In the daytime, low-level converging flows induced by urban heating (urban breeze) and those induced by mountain heating (upslope winds) interfere with each other, resulting in weakened flows in the mountain-side urban area and on the urban-side mountain slope. The transition from the upslope wind to downslope wind on the urban-side mountain slope occurs earlier and thus the downslope wind persists longer compared with the case that has mountain thermal forcing only. In the nighttime, flows become strong in the region between the urban center and the mountain center due to the additive interaction of the downslope wind with the urban breeze, but the flow intensity weakens with time because of weak nighttime urban heating. In the nighttime, converging flows on the plain-side urban area and the downslope wind on the rural-side mountain slope are weakened. The degree of the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds is shown to depend on

  4. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  5. 太行山区不同人工林林冠截留降水的比较研究%Canopy Rainfall Interception of Different Planted Forests in Taihang Mountainous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱金平; 王仁德; 白洁; 张广英

    2012-01-01

    林冠截留降水是林地水分循环中重要的水文过程。通过穿透降雨和树干径流自动采集系统对太行山区油松和侧柏两种典型人工林在天然降雨条件下林冠截留降水的生态水文过程进行了分析。结果表明,两种林分林冠截留和树干径流的过程都与林外降雨呈正相关关系。油松林冠截留降水的能力明显强于侧柏,而截留降水转化为树干径流流量则小于侧柏。油松林冠次降雨截留降水率约为18.9%,其中大约3.5%的截留降水转化为树干径流,大约81.7%的降水到达地面;侧柏林冠次降雨截留降水率约为13.3%,其中大约8.9%的截留降水转化为树干径流,大约88.9%的降水达地面。从林冠截留功能的角度分析,在太行山区进行人工造林时,坡度较缓山丘地区适宜种植侧柏,坡度较陡的山岭地区适宜种植油松。%Canopy rainfall interception is an important hydrological water cycle process in the forest. Canopy interception of planted pine and oriental arborvitae forests was studied in Taihang Mountain region under nat- ural rainfall conditions using a rainfall and stem flow automated acquisition system. The results show that the canopy interception and stem flow of the two forests were positively correlated with total rainfall. Canopy rainfall intercepting capacity of pine was substantially greater than that of oriental arborvitae, but the volume of flowing into the trunk from the interception precipitation is smaller than oriental arborvitae. Specifically, the canopy of pine intercepted 18.90//oo of the rainfall by average, of which about 3.5~ turned into stem flow, and approximately 81.7 % of the precipitation reached the ground. The canopy of oriental arborvitae intercep- ted about 13.30//00 of the rainfall, of which 8.9~ conversed into stem flow, and about 88.9~ of the precipita- tion fell onto the ground. With consideration of canopy interception features, oriental arborvitae is suitable for

  6. Influence of Artificial Pine Forest on the Slope Run-off and Infiltration Characteristic in Taihang Mountainous Region%太行山区人工油松林对坡面入渗产流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱金平; 王仁德; 张广英

    2011-01-01

    通过径流小区试验对太行山区人工油松林与灌草地的坡面产流入渗特征进行比较分析研究.结果表明:2种植被覆盖下的坡面产流量较小,入渗量较大.随着降雨量增加,坡面产流量和入渗量均呈增大的趋势.小降雨量时,松林小区的坡面产流量和入渗量均比荒坡小区的小;大降雨量时,松林小区的坡面产流量比荒坡小区的大,入渗量仍比荒坡小区的小.在一次降雨过程中,松林小区的出流历时长于荒坡小区的.大强度降雨时,松林小区出流的峰值流量和出流量均大予荒坡小区的;小强度降雨时则相反.土壤含水率较高是可能造成松林小区降水入渗量小,壤中流量大,出流历时长和洪峰流量暴涨暴跌的主因.%The slope infiltration and run-off characteristics of artificial pine woodlands and bush-grass lands in Taihang mountainous region was studied by runoff plot experiments. The results showed that: The slope run-off was less and the infiltration was larger in two vegetation covers. The amount of run-off and infiltration were both increased with rainfall increasing. The amount of run-off and infiltration in pine forest plot was less than that in shrub and grass plot when the rainfall was small, but the run-off in pine forest was larger than that in shrub and grass plot when the rainfall was heavy, and the infiltration was still smaller. The outflow lasted longer in pine forest plot than that in shrub and grass plot in one precipitation process. The area of the peak flow and the flow amount of pine forest plot were both larger than that of shrub and grass plot in the high-intensity rainfall, the result was adverse when the rainfall intensity was low. It was the main reason that the soil moisture content was higher for a smaller precipitation infiltration, larger soil flow, longer flow duration and spike peak flow.

  7. ARISK PHENOMENA IN THE SILVANIA MOUNTAINS, INTUITIVE AND GENETIC REFLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BOGDAN

    2014-05-01

    and on the other hand, between the latter and the Oradea hills (Plopiș Mountains. The Silvania Mountains are located in the Southwest of Sălaj County, on an area of tectonic fragmentation, which involves the risk of production of some natural and anthropic risk phenomena. We consider appropriate the elaboration of an assessment and identification strategy of these risks considering the qualitative criteria (ZERMOS which refer to three categories of risks: high, average and low and on this basis we have focused on four risk regions within the Silvania Mountains.

  8. BASEMAP, ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  9. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. PMID:27234206

  10. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  11. Early Alpine mountain bike events

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Martin, Jean; Savre, Frédéric; Terret, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    During the 1980s, the diffusion of mountain biking in France underwent its first phase in mountain territories that discovered its socio-economic value. Over and beyond the structural and organisational aspects, the mountain bike also became a favoured medium for technological and social innovation. The aim here is to reflect upon the various underlying stakes of introducing, into Alpine territory, a new physical activity that required a two-wheeled vehicle and had its roots in the spirit and...

  12. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  13. Best Practices In Responsible Marketing Of Tourism: The Case Of Canadian Mountain Holidays

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Simon; Miller, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Heli-tourism represents one of the great dilemmas and conflicts between recreational enjoyment of the wilderness and the conservation of the fragile alpine and mountain areas where the activity takes place. The question of responsibility towards the environment is one, which tourism operators generally seem reluctant to accept but one operator that appears to have taken a proactive approach to environmental issues in mountain regions is heli-operator Canadian Mountain Holidays (CMH). This pap...

  14. The responsible marketing of tourism: The case of Canadian Mountain Holidays

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, S; Miller, GA

    2005-01-01

    Heli-tourism represents one of the great dilemmas and conflicts between recreational enjoyment of the wilderness and the conservation of the fragile alpine and mountain areas where the activity takes place. The question of responsibility towards the environment is one, which tourism operators generally seem reluctant to accept but one operator that appears to have taken a proactive approach to environmental issues in mountain regions is heli-operator Canadian Mountain Holidays (CMH). This pap...

  15. Type Locality for the Great Blue Limestone in the Bingham Nappe, Oquirrh Mountains, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    The Great Blue Limestone was named originally by Spurr (1895) from exposures near the Mercur mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains, Utah. The formation was described in greater detail by Gilluly (1932) in the Ophir mining district. Neither formally established a type locality for this formation in the Oquirrh Mountains. However, the formation has since been correlated broadly with similar sedimentary rocks elsewhere in the adjoining Rocky Mountains and Great Basin regions. For the reco...

  16. ECONOMIC-UTILITARIAN AND SPIRITUAL-EXISTENTIAL BASES OF FOSTERING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS IN MOUNTAIN DWELLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Moskalets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article high lights the psychology economic-utilitarian motivation in mountain dwellers to care for nature as a basic resource in their recreation and relaxation activities – the main means of promoting the social and economic growth of mountain areas. Such motivation provides a psychological foundation for the spiritual-existential bases of ecological culture in mountain areas as well as in all natural climatic regions having recreation, relaxation, and health care potentials.

  17. Mires in the Maluti Mountains of Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P-L. Grundling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesotho is a landlocked country located in the south-eastern interior of South Africa. It is mountainous, with altitudes ranging from 1388 to 3482 m a.s.l. This article focuses mostly on mires occurring above 2750 m a.s.l. in the alpine region of Lesotho, that are characteristically devoid of trees due to the high altitude. Mountain mires in Lesotho are usually fed by groundwater and intermittent runoff from adjacent slopes. Few of them are in near-pristine condition and most have been severely degraded. Erosion has enhanced the drainage and desiccation of peat resulting in combustion of peat layers at several sites. The main threats to the mires include overgrazing and trampling by domestic animals on communal land, increased development as a result of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, and diamond prospecting and mining. Attempts at rehabilitation have met with varying degree of success.

  18. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  19. Mini Mountain Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHOTOCOME

    2005-01-01

    THE depths of the southeastern Guizhou Province mountains are inhabited by a branch of the Miao ethnic group known as the “Shortskirt” Miao. They number 50,000 to 60,000.Some live in Langdong, Kongshen, and Konglie villages of Rongjiang County, while others may be found living in the Datang area of Leishan County. Their clothing is distinct and colorful for both casual and holiday wear, which consists of a tunic top decorated with silver ornaments and handembroidered designs, and a hand-knitted skirt no more than 20 centimeters long.

  20. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  1. On Building Cooperation Model and Mechanism of"Sub-regional Economic Circle around the Altai Mountains"%构建"环阿尔泰山次区域经济圈"合作模式与合作机制的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志刚; 王彦芳

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了当前"环阿尔泰山次区域经济圈"合作现状,通过借鉴国际次区域合作模式及机制经验提出:在宏观层面上应建立"一核三翼"的边境自由贸易区合作模式;在微观层面上有5种企业跨境合作模式可供选择,并提出构建中俄蒙哈"四国六方"多层次对话机制、新疆参与"环阿尔泰山次区域经济圈"合作协商决策机制、争端解决机制、经济合作执行机制及信息交流机制.%Based on elaborating the experience of international sub -regional cooperation model and mechanisms , this paper has analyzed the current cooperation status of "Sub-regional economic circle around the Altai Mountains", proposing that Altai re-gional cooperation needs to upgrade cooperation model and improve cooperation mechanisms .So from macro-level,it puts con-cept of "a core area with three wings" border free trade zone cooperation model .From micro-level, it puts forward five kinds of cross-border cooperation mode for enterprises to choose , and suggests building the China -Russia -Mongolia -Kazakhstan"Four-country and Six-party" multi-layer dialogue mechanism , Xinjiang participating in the decision -making and consulta-tion of "Sub-regional economic circle around the Altai Mountain", in dispute settlement mechanism , in the implementation of economic cooperation mechanism and in information exchange mechanism .

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  4. Late Cretaceous paleomagnetism of the Tucson Mountains: implications for vertical axis rotations in south central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Lipman, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Tucson Mountains of southern Arizona are the site of an Upper Cretaceous caldera from which the rhyolitic Cat Mountain Tuff was erupted at about 72 Ma. Two magnetic units within the Cat Mountain Tuff are distinguished by paleomagnetic data in both the northern and southern Tucson Mountains. The available paleomagnetic data indicate that rocks in southern Arizona have not remained unrotated with respect to North America since Late Cretaceous time and that vertical axis rotations may have played an important role in the region during Laramide deformation. -from Authors

  5. Assessing climate change effects on mountain ecosystems using integrated models: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Running, Steven W.; Keane, Robert E.; Peterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Mountain systems are characterized by strong environmental gradients, rugged topography and extreme spatial heterogeneity in ecosystem structure and composition. Consequently, most mountainous areas have relatively high rates of endemism and biodiversity, and function as species refugia in many areas of the world. Mountains have long been recognized as critical entities in regional climatic and hydrological dynamics but their importance as terrestrial carbon stores has only been recently underscored (Schimel et al. 2002; this volume). Mountain ecosystems, therefore, are globally important as well as unusually complex. These ecosystems challenge our ability to understand their dynamics and predict their response to climatic variability and global-scale environmental change.

  6. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane

    2013-01-01

    Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...

  7. Bernoulli equation and flow over a mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yih; Sun, Oliver M.

    2015-12-01

    The Bernoulli equation is applied to an air parcel which originates at a low level at the inflow region, climbs adiabatically over a mountain with an increase in velocity, then descends on the lee side and forms a strong downslope wind. The parcel departs from hydrostatic equilibrium during its vertical motion. The air parcel can be noticeably cooler than the temperature calculated from adiabatic lapse rate, which allows part of enthalpy to be converted to kinetic energy and produces a stronger wind at mountain peak and a severe downslope wind on the lee side. It was found that the hydrostatic assumption tends to suppress the conversion from enthalpy to kinetic energy. It is also shown that the Froude number defined in the atmosphere is equal to the ratio of kinetic energy to the potential energy, same as in Boussinesq fluid. But in the atmosphere, the Froude number cannot be used to determine whether a parcel can move over a mountain or not, unless the vertical motion is weak and the system is near hydrostatic equilibrium. Numerical simulations confirm that except in highly turbulent areas, the potential temperature and Bernoulli function are almost conserved along the streamline, as well as the change of kinetic energy comes from the change of enthalpy instead of potential energy.

  8. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  9. The situation of the wolf (Canis lupus in the area of the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains / La situazione del Lupo (Canis lupus nell'area del Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Verucci

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents the results of a field research on the species Canis lupus in the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains. In relation to Wolf conservation, an investigation on feral and free-roving dogs was carried out. The method of snowtracking was used for Wolves and Feral dogs, the method of sighting was used for free-roving dogs. The research underlines the importance of the Simbruini Mountains for the protection of Wolf in central Apennines and the factors, at present, threatening its survival. Riassunto Nel presente lavoro vengono illustrati i risultati di una ricerca sul campo sulla specie Canis lupus nel Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini. In relazione agli aspetti riguardanti la conservazione del Lupo, è stata compiuta un'indagine sul fenomeno del randagismo canino. Per i lupi e i cani inselvatichiti è stato usato il metodo dello snowtracking, per le altre categorie di Cani è stato utilizzato il metodo dell'avvistamento. La ricerca ha messo in luce l'importanza dell'area dei Simbruini per la salvaguardia del Lupo nell'Appennino centrale e i fattori che, attualmente, ne minacciano la sopravvivenza.

  10. The fate of glacierized mountain systems in a +4oC world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J.; Harrison, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain landscapes are sensitive to climate change because glaciers, alpine permafrost and mountain ecosystems exist at or near to their temperature and precipitation limits. Most records worldwide show mountain glaciers and alpine permafrost are in retreat, particularly on mid- and low-latitude mountains, and are expected to retreat dramatically in a + 4oC world. GCMs show that global warming will produce significant albedo- and ecosystem-driven changes in heat balance over glacierized mountains which will accelerate the rate of warming and associated land surface changes. Such climate amplification will facilitate glacier retreat and permafrost warming, destabilizing rock slopes, liberating loose sediments and increasing the potential for geohazards. We argue that retreat of mountain glaciers and permafrost over the next decades will lead to a directional change in the dominant geomorphic process domain, from glacial/periglacial to paraglacial. Under + 4oC warming, a significant portion of glacierized mountains worldwide will become dominated by paraglacial processes, characterized by increased meltwater production, land surface instability, and sediment yield into mountain catchments. Mountain geohazards triggered by the onset of widespread paraglacial relaxation and more variable climatic regimes will be significant geomorphic processes and of relevance to planning and adaption in mountain regions. On medium time scales (50-100 years), decreased glacier-fed water supply will become the most significant issue, affecting large agricultural regions in precipitation-limited continental interiors. The nonlinear response of land surface processes to climate forcing means that mountain geohazards and patterns of glacier-fed water supply have low predictability. This is particularly where downscaled GCMs are too coarse to provide well-constrained inputs into land surface models. As such, the fate of glacierized mountains is a modeling, geomorphic and management

  11. Prediction of mountain stream morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Merritt, David

    2005-08-01

    We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable discriminant function using slope (S), D84, and channel width (w) produced an error rate of 24% for the entire data set. Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle and 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2 values and F tests indicate that S is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. Comparison of the eight discriminant functions developed using different data sets indicates that no single variable is present in all functions, suggesting that the discriminant functions are sensitive to the specific stream reaches being analyzed. However, the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set correctly classified 69% of the 159 channels included in an independent validation data set. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set has important implications for water resources management, such as facilitating prediction of channel morphology using regional S-w-D84 relations calibrated with minimal field work.

  12. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  13. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  14. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  16. Discussing the Future of U.S. Western Mountains, Climate Change, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Henry F.; Millar, Constance I.

    2004-08-01

    Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, and are especially vulnerable to climate effects acting on many biotic systems and the physical settings. Because mountain regions serve as sources of needed natural resources (e.g., water, forests) and as foundations for desired human activities (e.g., tourism, places to live), changes in mountain systems cascade into issues of regional and national concern. Mountains also comprise highly sensitive systems that may act as ``canaries in the coal mine'' to provide early signals of significant climate-driven changes in many of our valued resources. Why the Focus on the Western United States?. The Mountain Climate Science Symposium, held last May, arose from the recognition by a cross section of physical scientists working on western United States mountain climate and ecosystems that there is need for more and improved observations, better integration, and greater attention at all levels of society to potential vulnerability of western society to climate variability and change. An ad hoc committee was formed to promote greater understanding of the physical processes affecting western mountains and to promote better communication of scientific findings to decision makers. The group's goal is to establish a Consortium for Integrating Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), and the symposium was organized to facilitate that goal.

  17. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: Midwest, Rocky Mountains, and Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Dam, Margaret; Packard, Abbot L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principal survey results from three regions of the US (Midwest, Rocky Mountains, & Southeast) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical procedures, while significance was tested applying a…

  18. Alaskan mountain glacial melting observed by satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Wilson, C. R.

    2006-08-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) as an indication of mass change to study potential long-term mountain glacial melting in southern Alaska and West Canada. The first 3.5 yr of GRACE monthly gravity data, spanning April 2002-November 2005, show a prominent glacial melting trend in the mountain regions around the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). GRACE-observed surface mass changes correlate remarkably well with available mass balance data at Gulkana and Wolverine, two benchmark glaciers of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), although the GRACE signals are smaller in magnitude. In addition, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes estimated from an advanced land surface model show significant mass loss in this region during the same period. After correcting for the leakage errors and removing TWS contributions using model estimates, we conclude that GRACE-observed glacial melting in the GOA mountain region is equivalent to ˜ - 101 ± 22 km 3/yr, which agrees quite well with the assessment of ˜ - 96 ± 35 km 3/yr based on airborne laser altimetry data, and is consistent with an earlier estimate based on the first 2 yr of GRACE data. This study demonstrates the significant potentials of satellite gravity measurements for monitoring mountain glacial melting and regional climate change.

  19. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  20. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  1. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project's public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site

  2. Niche of ground lichens in southern mountainous region of Urumqi,Xinjiang,China%新疆乌鲁木齐南部山区地面生地衣生态位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔; 买买提·沙塔尔; 马衣拉·莫合买德; 阿不都拉·阿巴斯

    2012-01-01

    为了确定乌鲁木齐南部山区森林生态系统地面生地衣对资源的利用特征,采用Levins的生态位宽度计算公式和王刚提出的生态位重叠值公式,对该地区地面生地衣生态位宽度和生态位重叠进行了研究。同时以地面生地衣生态位重叠值为指标应用主分量分析法,对地衣群落进行了分类。研究结果显示:该地区发现地面生地衣共17种,大部分的地面生地衣生态位宽度比较窄。它们组成四种主要的地面生地衣类群。地衣植物对环境的变化特别敏感。应该重视地面生地衣植物在多资源维上的生态位重叠值和生态位宽度,以便更好的保护地衣物种多样性和揭示它们的生态适应特点。%In order to understand the resource utilization characteristics of ground floor lichens we studied the niche width and niche overlaps of ground lichens in southern mountainous area of Urumqi.The niche width and niche overlaps of lichens in different sites were calculated by Levins's and Wang's equation.The results showed that seventeen ground lichens were recorded in southern mountainous area of Urumqi.Based on their niche overlaps,the ordination plot of Principal Component Analysis were drawn.As the result shows that the main ground lichens could be divided into four ecological groups and most of the ground lichen species have narrow niche width.Lichens are very sensitive to the change of microclimate,therefore pay attention to the niche width and niche overlap characteristics in multi-resources environment is very important for protection of the lichen species diversity and to show the adaptive characteristics to environment.

  3. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  4. The European and Global Dimension of Mountain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Borsdorf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Au cours du siècle dernier, les régions montagneuses et leur système complexe sont sortis de l’ombre. La volonté de protéger ces régions a suscité de nombreuses initiatives dans le monde entier, avec pour objectif d’agir au niveau international et politique, mais également d’unir les forces disponibles pour intensifier l’inter et la transdisciplinarité des travaux scientifiques. Les défis de la recherche sur les montagnes à l’avenir seront de réussir à impliquer plus efficacement les politiciens, les parties prenantes et les habitants des régions montagneuses afin d’atténuer la pression de la mondialisation pour parvenir à un développement régional durable dans les zones montagneuses. Dresser un panorama des institutions qui représentent les régions de montagne de la planète a ainsi l’intérêt de présenter les principales préoccupations de chacune d’entre elles ainsi que les domaines dans lesquels elles travaillent.Within the last century the awareness of mountain regions and their complex system has grown and the motivation to protect these regions has yielded numerous initiatives around the globe with the aim of acting internationally and politically as well as joining forces to intensify inter– and transdisciplinarity in scientific work. The challenges of mountain research in the future will be to involve politicians, stakeholders and the mountain population more effectively in order to mitigate the pressures of globalization towards a sustainable regional development within mountain regions. The significance of providing an overview of institutions representing mountainous regions around the globe lies in showing the main focus of the different institutions and the areas they work in.

  5. Theoretical calculations of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Many big cities around the world are located near mountains. In city-mountain regions, thermally and topographically forced local winds are produced and they affect the transport of pollutants emitted into the urban atmosphere. A better understanding of the dynamics of thermally and topographically forced local winds is necessary to improve the prediction of local winds and to cope with environmental problems. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind within the context of the response of a stably stratified atmosphere to prescribed thermal and mechanical forcing. The interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds are viewed through the linear superposition of individual analytical solutions for urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing. A setting is considered in which a city is located downwind of a mountain. In the nighttime, in the mountain-side urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain cooling and mountain mechanical forcing cooperatively interact with urban breezes, resulting in strengthened winds. In the daytime, in the urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain heating are opposed to urban breezes, giving rise to weakened winds. It is shown that the degree of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds is sensitive to mountain height and basic-state wind speed. Particularly, a change in basic-state wind speed affects not only the strength of thermally and mechanically induced flows (internal gravity waves) but also their vertical wavelength and decaying rate. The examination of a case in a setting in which a city is located upwind of a mountain reveals that basic-state wind direction is an important factor that significantly affects the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds.

  6. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  7. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  8. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  9. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...... involved into long-term stability are largely unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to explore changes in: (i) SOC stocks; (ii) physical SOC fractions; and (iii) labile soil carbon components following forest expansion on mountain grasslands. A land-use gradient located in the Southern Alps (Italy) was....... Changes in labile soil C were assessed by carbohydrate and thermal analyses of soil samples and fractions. Forest expansion on mountain grasslands caused a decrease in SOC stocks within the mineral soil. The SOC accumulation within the organic layers following forest establishment could not fully...

  11. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu; LEI; Jingyong; CAI; Tao; BAI; Jianguo; JIANG; Shaoming; WANG

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection,based on the system investigation of plant flora,and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made.Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera,falling in 140families,of which 10 gymnosperm species of 8 genera fall in 5 families,while 1025angiosperm species of 526 genera in 135 families.The analysis of flora demonstrates that the region harbors 15 flora distribution types,with high complexity,paleo-flora origin,distinct trait of temperate zone,abundant ingredient of tropical zone,and close connection with the flora of East China.

  12. Numerical analysis of dispersion over a near-mountain cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local winds, of low or moderate intensity, such as sea and land breezes, have attracted the interest of many investigators, with respect to the air pollution problem. But, though in reality most coastal areas are sorrounded by mountains or hill barriers, sea-land breezes and mountain-valley flows have mostly been investigated separately. On the other hand, few studies have attempted dispersion simulation in seaside regions with pronounced terrain features. The aim of the present analysis is to examine the effect of a quite high natural barrier near shore on sea breeze and pollutant transport characteristics, in case of a prevailing calm. For this purpose, a two-dimensional mountain range, 1000 m high, adjacent to a sea surface at one side is considered, with a point source located 40 km offshore. The domain represents an idealization of the greater Athens area

  13. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; McKinnon, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io's lithosphere has been investigated in detail; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic-plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io's mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io's lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io's mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  14. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  15. An assessment of El Niño and La Niña impacts focused on monthly and seasonal rainfall and extreme dry/precipitation events in mountain regions of Colombia and México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla Herrera, María Carolina; Andrés Pinzón Correa, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The influence of El Niño and La Niña on monthly and seasonal rainfall over mountain landscapes in Colombia and México was assessed based on the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI). A statistical analysis was develop to compare the extreme dry/precipitation events between El Niño, La Niña and Neutral episodes. For both areas, it was observed that El Niño and La Niña episodes are associated with important increases or decreases in rainfall. However, Neutral episodes showed the highest occurrence of extreme precipitation/dry events. For a better understanding of the impact of El Niño and La Niña on seasonal precipitation, we did a compound and a GIS analyses to define the high/low probability of above, below or normal seasonal precipitation under El Niño, La Niña and cold/warm Neutral episodes. In San Vicente, Colombia the below-normal seasonal rainfall was identified during El Niño and Neutral episodes in the dry season JJA. In this same municipality we also found above-normal seasonal rainfall during La Niña and Neutral episodes, especially in the dry season DJF. In Tancítaro México the below-normal seasonal rainfall was identified during La Niña winters (DJF) and El Niño summers (JJA), the above-normal seasonal rainfall was found during La Niña summers (JJA) and El Niño winters (DJF).

  16. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt ( than about 7 x 10-8 events yr-1 . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption probability to the location of northeast boundaries of volcanic zones near the Yucca Mountain sit

  17. AL:PE - Acidification of mountain lakes: Palaeolimnology and ecology. Part 2 - Remote mountain lakes as indicators of air pollution and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Wathne, B.; Patrick, S.; Cameron, N

    1997-01-01

    AL:PE, funded by the European Commission is a multi-disciplinary, multi-national project coordinated by research groups in London and Oslo. It represents the first comprehensive study of remote mountain lakes at a European scale. The AL:PE project is concerned with remote mountain lake ecosystems throughout the artic and alpine regions of Europe that, dispite their remoteness are threatened by acid deposition, toxic air pollutants and by climate change. Whilst the study is directly concerned ...

  18. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  19. Anti-electromagnetic Radiation Project of Radar Station Subcamp in Mountainous Region%山地雷达站营区防电磁辐射污染规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荀平; 朱继磊; 王正刚; 陈振东

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation pollution has a deep influence on fighting capacity of radar units. Taking mountain radar station as the research subject,this paper analyzed the reason of excessive electro-magnetic radiation in radar station,found the possibilities to reduce electromagnetic radiation pollution in camp planning ways.Four camp planning ways are proposed:First centralizing building layout in camp, lower the probabilities of electromagnetic contact;second,making use of green plants to assimilate the e-lectromagnetic ;third,choosing the building location reasonable,utilizing barriers to cover electromagnet-ic;forth,building camps in radar shadow produced by radar minimum detecting distance.The four plan-ning ways are hoped to provide recommendations on radar station construction and reduce the pollution of electromagnetic radiation.%雷达站电磁辐射污染问题已经深深影响到雷达部队的战斗力,以此为切入点,通过分析我军雷达部队营区电磁辐射超标的原因,以具有山地地形特征的雷达站营区为研究对象,从营区规划的角度来思考降低山地地区雷达站营区电磁辐射的可能性。提出了降低雷达站营区电磁辐射污染的4种规划方法:集中营区建筑布局,降低雷达波直接作用于人体的几率;做好营区绿化,利用植物对波的吸收衰减作用;合理选择建筑位置,利用地形遮蔽和利用雷达最小作用距离产生的盲区来建设雷达站的规划方法。旨在能够为建设雷达站、降低雷达站营区电磁辐射提供参考。

  20. The Classification of Plant Functional Types Based on Shrub Species in the Habitat of Rocky Desertification in Karst Mountain Region%岩溶山区石漠化生境灌木层植物功能群划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李应; 杨成; 韦小平; 何成文

    2014-01-01

    The composition change of plant functional groups is widely considered as an effective approach to study the structure and functions of complicated ecosystems. It is also one of the main indicators with which ecosystems respond to environmental changes. Therefore, studying changes of plant functional groups in karst mountainous ecosystems can help scientists to understand vegetation recovery process and laws. By studying the functional groups in different degree of rocky desertification ecosystems, the authors classified the shrub layer in karst ecosystems into seven functional groups based on geographical environment characteristics and the functional relations of different plants. The study helps understanding the structure and function of plant functional groups in karst ecosystems, and provides empirical data for the restoration of the ecosystem.%植物功能群是研究复杂生态系统结构和功能的有效途径。植物功能群组成的变化情况是生态系统功能的重要表现形式,同时也是生态系统对环境因子变化响应的主要指标之一。因此,研究不同石漠化程度下,植物功能群组成的变化,对于揭示岩溶山区生态系统植被自我更新规律具有重要意义。以岩溶山区石漠化生境灌木层为研究对象,利用地理环境特征与植物适应功能关系来划分植物功能群,将岩溶地区石漠化生态系统灌木层划分为7个植物功能群。有助于了解岩溶石漠化生态系统功能群结构及功能,同时对石漠化生态系统的恢复与重建提供理论基础。

  1. SPATIAL PATTERNS OF DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SPECIES IN HIGH MOUNTAIN FORESTS AT THE REGION OF ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA PATRONES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN ESPACIAL DE ESPECIES ARBÓREAS EN BOSQUES DE ALTA MONTAÑA DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Alfonso Montañez Valencia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessed the patterns of spatial distribution of tree species along an altitudinal gradient in high mountain forests it was evaluated. The study was carried out in three 1-ha plots located in high Andean forests on the northern part of the Central cordillera of Colombia, classifying the data into two categories of size: canopy (DBH>10 cm and understory (DBHSe evaluó el patrón de distribución espacial de especies arbóreas a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal en bosques de alta montaña. El estudio se realizó en tres (3 parcelas permanentes de 1 ha ubicadas en bosques alto andinos al norte de la cordillera Central de Colombia, clasificando los datos en dos estratos arbóreos: dosel (DAP≥10cm y sotobosque (DAP<10cm. El objeto es responder si: 1. ¿Son similares los patrones de distribución entre dosel y sotobosque? 2. ¿Existen diferencias en el patrón de distribución a lo largo del gradiente altitudinal? Para definir el patrón de distribución de las especies a diferentes escalas se empleó el índice estandarizado de Morisita (Ip. El patrón de distribución predominante fue el gregario para especies de dosel y sotobosque en las tres áreas de estudio. El grado de agrupamiento de las especies de dosel aumentó a medida que incrementó la escala o el tamaño de la parcela. En contraste, en el sotobosque el gregarismo disminuyó con la escala espacial de análisis. Lo anterior sugiere que la denso-dependencia aumenta proporcionalmente con la altitud. Esta tendencia, no obstante, parece estar controlada por mecanismos reguladores contrastantes, tales como la limitación en dispersión y la especialización de hábitat, entre especies del dosel y el sotobosque respectivamente.

  2. 南水北调中线水源区"两山一水"生态旅游圈开发研究%"Two-mountain and One Water"Ecotourism Circle Exploitation in Water Source Region of Medium Route Project of Water Transfer from South to North

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白景锋; 宋松岩

    2011-01-01

    "两山一水"生态旅游圈的开发对南水北调中线工程的可持续发展有重要意义.运用文献综合法、SWOT分析法,对南水北调中线水源地丹江口水库、伏牛山、武当山(两山一水)及其周边旅游地的生态旅游资源进行综合分析.分析发现,建设该旅游圈具有明显的地缘和区位优势,同时旅游圈的生态旅游资源不但丰富,而且优势互补,特色鲜明,基础良好,极具发展潜力;劣势在于区域经济发展落后,跨区域发展协调难度大.但是,国家对水源区发展生态旅游的政策支持,不断建设的交通网为本旅游圈建设提供了难得的机遇.为此,提出发展该生态旅游圈一体化、点-环-圈、整体联合促销的发展战略,设计了6类旅游产品21条旅游线路,并针对开发的劣势和挑战提出:政府要积极发挥在生态旅游圈建设中的推动作用,培育区域旅游产业联盟,合理定位市场,联合宣传促销,开发特色产品,建立区域品牌优势等建议.%It is important to sustainable development of water transfer from south to north of the medium route project that the ecotourism circle develop of Fu-niu mountain ,Wu-dang mountain and Dan-jiang reservoir, "two-mountain and one water" ecotourism circle was build. With the methods of SWOT, the advantages and disadvantages and the opportunities challenges of the ecotourism circle faces are researched. It found that the ecotourism circle has rich and complementary ecotourism resources, obvious advantages of special-location-relationship and site. It has sound foundation and business potential for development. However, there are some weaknesses, regional economic fall behind,coordination of interregional is difficult. At the same time, the state supports ecotourism developing in water source region. Communication is more and more convenient. The paper puts forward the exploitation strategy of integration,"spot-ring-circle", whole brand image and onion sales

  3. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  4. MAP determinations of the parallaxes of stars in the regions of HD 2665, BD +68.946 deg, and Lambda Ophiuchi. [Multichannel Astrometric Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George

    1989-01-01

    The Multichannel Astrometic Photometer and new optical system of the Allegheny Observatory have been used to obtain parallaxes of stars in the regions of HD 2665, BD +68.946 deg, and Lambda Ophiuchi. HD 2665 is found to have an absolute visual magnitude of 1.6 + or - 0.4 and a distance of 149 + or - 28 pc. It is shown that the Lambda Ophiuchi system has a parallax of 23.5 + or - 2.1 mas and that its A0 V and A4 V components have masses of 2.7 + or - 0.7 and 1.5 + or - 0.4 solar masses, respectively.

  5. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain

  6. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and ...

  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  9. Job performance in the mountain metros

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Snead; Kate Watkins

    2012-01-01

    This issue of the Rocky Mountain Economist explores the labor market performance of the mountain state metropolitan areas, including recent industry trends and comparisons to state and national job performance.

  10. Thermochronology applied to the Chiapas mountains, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichau, S.; Witt, C.; Carter, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chiapas area is located at a triple junction between the Caribbean, North American and Cocos plates. It is an ideal area to investigate how tectonics influence landscape development and surface processes in the context of erosion, sediment routing and sedimentary basin evolution. At present the long-term evolution of the Chiapas Mountain is not well understood especially regarding the timing and magnitude of tectonic phases that led to formation of the Chiapas Mountains and its present-day topography. This area is mainly formed by the Permian Chiapas batholith (~250 Ma) and the Chiapas sierra. Important stratigraphic changes in nature and thickness lead authors to consider that up to six tectonic 'phases' participated in mountain formation and evolution. In this way, each major change in sediment nature, from marine to continental, has been related to uplift of the batholith and increase of sediment input. The onset of deformation along the region results from the northward migration of the left-lateral strike slip systems which is connected, further south, to the Polochic-Motagua fault system (i.e. limit between the North America and Caribbean plates). In this tectonic setting deformation along the Chiapas area results from the transpressive component of deformation related to the relative motion of the North American and Caribbean plates. A regional thermochronological study has been initiated to constrain the location, timing and magnitude of rock uplift associated with this transpressive regime. Thermochronometry will also help to constrain links to sedimentary basin development by identifying possible source areas (based on the assumption that exhumation of uplifted blocks is accompanied by erosion) and constrain sediment routing. U-Pb results obtained on the Palaeocene-Miocene series of the Sierra shows an important component from Greenvillian- type basement rocks (i.e. 0.8-1Ga) that have not been identified along the Chiapas region. The most likely

  11. Student Retention and First-Year Programs: A Comparison of Students in Liberal Arts Colleges in the Mountain South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the retention rate and 9 first-year student programs at Liberal Arts Colleges in the Mountain South, a region in the southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. Nine first-year programs were studied: Summer Bridge Programs, Preterm Orientation, Outdoor Adventure Orientation,…

  12. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  13. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  14. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  15. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  16. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  17. Humanities symposium on music, myths and mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    "Music, Myths & Mountains," a three-day humanities symposium, will be held at Virginia Tech from Oct. 28-30. This event will feature performers and scholars from all over the world, including Central Asia, Ukraine, Scotland, and Canada. Presentations will cover various topics, ranging from "Mountains in Movies" to discussions of Kentucky folk tales and the legends of Ukrainian mountain villages.

  18. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  19. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  20. Analysis of Dabie Mountain tourism industry internationalization - A case study of Huanggang in Hubei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingrui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems based on relatively backward status of Huanggang Dabie Mountain tourism internationalization: low popularity of the tourism products, insufficient international infrastructure, lack of powerful international guidance, ineffective foreign cooperation, lack of international talents and incomplete tourism product systems; according to the existing problems of Huanggang Dabie Mountain tourism internationalization, this paper puts forward the following recommendations. Huanggang Dabie Mountain tourism should open markets to break regional and industrial monopolies; actively promote regional economic cooperation of the tourism; strengthen publicity effort and broaden publicity channels; excavate universal value of the resources; guide the superior tourism enterprises to list overseas; the government needs to accelerate the international management of the tourism, in order to provide reference for further development of Dabie Mountain tourism in Huanggang.