Full Text Available One of the main pillars of the academic sphere is publication of articles, the scientific purity of which should be as higher as possible. Allegedly, scientists may prefer to cite journal editors more frequently than they would do when those personae are not in editors′ position, and quite a few of the formers in quite a few instances do not seem to refuse to go along with. The viability of this sort of assertion is supported by an exploratory examination through a cross-disciplinary scanning of long-term empirical evidence from leading journals in 11 research fields. This analysis covered a total of 337 journal editors from 35 top disciplinary journals spanning 40 years. The findings seem to support the alleged trend called "editor citation". Three psychology journals appear less susceptible to such desirability. Possible accounts are suggested with a special reference to the hypothesis of moral/social modularity. [1
Iffley, Roché Shandré
This study focuses on the skills and needs of forensic social workers, working with alleged child sexual abuse in the Western Cape. Forensic social work is based on specialised knowledge drawn from established principles and their application within proven methodology of training, familiarity with the law, evaluation and objective criteria associated with treatment outcomes. The scope of forensic social work thus includes a specialised skill where human service systems communicate the languag...
Full Text Available Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused-and more skeptical of the accuser-than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404, the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church.
Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda
Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused–and more skeptical of the accuser—than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546
Brask, Josefine Bohr
Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression and...... four separate studies. In the first study, we propose a simple framework that may be used as a base when studying the link between social structure and fitness. We furthermore review current evidence for fitness effects of social structure, and find good support for such effects. In the second study...... evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated in...
The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.
Anderson, Gwendolyn D
When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535
A summary of a report in Psychologie Heute by C. Perincioli of the social effects of the Three Mile Island accident is given. It is based on interviews with some people who left their homes, and others who stayed. Their responses are analysed by sex, and by profession. Effects of evacuation on children are considered. (G.M.E.)
Abagail McWilliams; Siegel, Donald S.; Patrick M. Wright
We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda.
Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states
Dhas, Albert Christopher; Helen, Mary Jacqueline
The globalisation process, which aimed at integration of economies and global development, is basically a reflection of neo-imperialism ideas. The question addressed in this paper is: what are the social implications of the neo-imperialism (globalisation) process in India, particularly on the social security aspects of the working population? Accordingly, an attempt is made in this paper to examine changes in the social security status of the working population that have been brought ab...
Kłak, Anna; Raciborski, Filip; Samel-Kowalik, Piotr
Social consequences of a disease constitute limitations in performing roles relating to working life as well as family and social life caused by the disease, mainly chronic. The aim of the study was to analyze the social consequences of rheumatic diseases in the aspect of disability pensions with respect to incapacity for work and quality of life. The occurrence of rheumatic diseases is related not only to increased risk of different types of organic changes, but above all disability. In Euro...
This article analyzes the implications of a particular conception of social justice in education for the policies that have led to significant political controversies in contemporary communities in the United States. Many of these controversies have arisen from the collision between the increasingly multicultural reality in those communities and…
Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa
Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349
Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.
Kurian, N J
India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time
QAA Subject Benchmark 5.9 requires social work students to demonstrate the ability to have a critical understanding of the social impact of ICT, including an awareness of the impact of the 'digital divide'. In the twenty-first century, the implications of digital exclusion may become increasingly relevant for the social work profession with its values of empowerment and anti-oppressive practices. As governments and organisations move closer to the provision of online services, the social work...
Full Text Available This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise should be converted into the ecosystem oriented or each business oriented getting out of the labor cost oriented and should emphasize on the follow up management and evaluation. Second, the certification program that bothers the expansion of social enterprises should be changed. That is, the government should change a policy into the direction that leaves the activities of social enterprise to the market function while easing the criteria of certification. Only by this, can more activities and job creation effects of social enterprise be expected. Third, the directions of governmental policies related to social entrepreneur fostering should be corrected and complemented. To resolve this so called problem, a standard model including the policy of standardized programs and contents for each business, type and local autonomous entity needs to be suggested. The educational programs and contents composed of such a standard model can enhance the professionalism and efficiency in social entrepreneur fostering. Finally the concept of social economy is needed to be more wide spread. That is, as a base of social enterprise activity, systematic and professional educational programs through university or graduate school are required. In Korea, for social enterprise to develop, excessive governmental involvement in the market should decrease. That is, the certification requirement for social enterprise should be eased much and a direct support for social enterprise should
Bradley, Joshua M.; Werth, James L., Jr.; Hastings, Sarah L.
The professional literature related to social justice has increased, but there has been little discussion of the practical issues and implications associated with social advocacy. However, adding new roles will result in new considerations for counseling psychologists. The need to be attuned to how the practical aspects of advocacy intersect with…
McPartland, James C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
Social disability represents a unifying feature in the diverse group of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social neuroscience is the study of brain mechanisms supporting interpersonal interaction. In this paper, we review brain imaging studies of the social brain and highlight practical applications of these scientific insights.…
Carlos A. Vegh; Guillermo Vuletin
This paper studies the social implications of fiscal policy responses to crises in Latin America over the last 40 years and in the Eurozone during the aftermath of the global financial crisis. We focus on the behavior of four social indicators: the poverty rate, income inequality, unemployment rate, and domestic conflict. We find a causal link from counteryclical (procyclical) fiscal policy responses to reductions (increases) in all four social indicators. These results call into question rec...
Freestone, D. S.; Mitchell, H
There is increasing evidence of fraud in clinical research, and one aspect concerns trading in pharmaceutical company shares by people who may have confidential information about the results of clinical trials. Plainly this has implications for honest investigators, who may find themselves exposed to such allegations. In this paper Dr D S Freestone and Mr H Mitchell, QC, identify three interlinked issues which they think underlie the potential for these allegations. They are pressure for prem...
Ridlen, Sylvia; Dane, Elizabeth
Presents a conceptual framework for understanding individual and group differences. Identifies biological, societal, and intrapsychic origins of difference. Discusses valuation of differences as a source of social status and power, and the psychological uses of differences by individuals. Suggests applications of the model in social work practice…
Bainbridge, William Sims
Nanotechnology will have very broad applications across all fields of engineering, so it will be an amplifier of the social effects of other technologies. There is an especially great potential for it to combine with three other powerful trends - biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science - based on the material unity of nature at the nanoscale and on technology integration from that scale. Technological convergence highlights such existing issues as the treatment of the disabled, communication breakdowns, economic stagnation, and threats to national security. Nanotechnology itself may possibly raise distinctive ethical and social issues in the future, but much of the public discussion to this point has been misdirected and misinformed, lacking a firm social scientific basis. Thus it will be important to integrate social and ethical studies into nanotechnology developments from their very beginning.
Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s ...
The current world energy situation is the result of the combination of diverse economic, political, technological, social and environmental tendencies that conform a crisis panorama for the high price of the hydrocarbons and especially in the petroleum. Under the current conditions the necessity of a global energy restructuring is imposed that changes the current patterns of generation and energy consumption significantly
Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Clark, Janet
Social work students have few guidelines to help them evaluate the implication of their posted information on Internet-based social networking sites (SNSs). There is a national trend among employers of human services to cross-check publicly available online information on applicants. Based on data from a survey of 105 baccalaureate and master's…
Egor Grigoryevich Gaynzev
The paper examined the Internet that turned to be the main communication gear and information transfer tool round the world. Every year a growing number of Internet users appear, many people thereof are prone to Internet addiction. The Internet addiction involves multiple social challenges namely the family issues, workplace constraints, proneness to conflict, negligence in daily pursuits and many other issues. The number of Internet users over the past 10 years grew from 10 million users to ...
Full Text Available Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.
Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, itâs necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.
The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident
Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other extreme, one finds those who lament the harms and disadvantages of the Internet, and who consider it a grave danger to existing social structures and institutions, to culture, morality and human r...
In recent years organically-grown produce for local markets has become more popular with consumers, and re-localising food chains has been put forward as a strategy for sustainable consumption due to the apparent benefits to local economies, communities, and environments. Notions of 'sustainable consumption' are contested, however, and can represent competing ideologies and perspectives about the environment and society. In order to examine the social implications of sustainable consumption, ...
A January 1982 monthly newsletter from the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP) was entirely devoted to the presentation of a broad-ranging series of allegations that the transportation of spent fuel in particular, and other high-level radioactive materials by inference is currently being conducted in this country in an unsafe manner. This newsletter preceded the release of a book authored by Marvin Resnikoff on the same subject by over a year. This book titled The Next Nuclear Gamble contained substantially the same allegations as the newsletter, although the book devoted space to a greatly increased number of specific examples. This paper reduces those allegations contained in the executive summary and the recommendations contained in the last chapter of the book to a manageable number by combining the many specific issues into a few topics. Each of these topics is then addressed. As such, this is an abbreviated analysis of The Next Nuclear Gamble and does not address much of the fine detail. In spite of that, it would be possible to address each of the details within the book on a similar basis. The intent of this document is to provide background information for those who are questioned on the validity of the allegations made by the CEp
The fourteen-page document anonymously submitted to the Office of Government Ethics makes five allegations concerning Mr. Leslie Daly. These allegations fall into three categories: (1) three allegations concerning Mr. Daly's relationship with Northrop Corporation, his former employer; (2) an allegation concerning Mr. Daly's travel to California while a DOE employee; and (3) a final allegation concerning the hiring of Mr. Daly's daughter by the International Energy Agency in Paris. Investigative efforts addressed all allegations but found no substantive violations. (PSB)
D'Eon, Marcel; Overgaard, Valerie; Harding, Sheila Rutledge
What we believe about the nature of teaching has important implications for faculty development. In this article we contrast three different beliefs about the nature of teaching and highlight the implications for faculty development. If teaching were merely a technical enterprise where well trained teachers delivered packaged lessons, a very directive style of faculty development might be appropriate. If teaching were primarily a craft where teachers made personal judgments daily about how and what to teach, then faculty development which encouraged individual reflection and artistry might be more suitable. This article advances the argument that teaching generally (and teaching in medical schools in particular) is best characterized as a type of social practice. Social practices (such as parenting, being polite, and going to university) are purposive, rational, moral, communal, and are identified by their activities. The communal aspect of teaching means, among other things, that the prevailing social norms of faculty at particular institutions of higher education have a large role to play in shaping the practice of teaching. This being the case, faculty development needs to provide teachers the opportunity to address and reshape these powerful social norms where necessary. PMID:12386471
Otten, G L
It is now fact that there is a commitment to the implementation of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) at the federal level. In all likelihood, the adoption of the zero-based approach will have unique implications for the administration and administrators of social service agencies. The following article explores the impetus behind budgetary reform, with a primary focus on the current appeal of ZBB. The author strongly suggests that there are similarities between the now passé Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System and ZBB that permit inferences about any implementation difficulties that ZBB may experience. It is further suggested that ZBB will present social workers with situations and opportunities that will severely challenge many on their current approaches to social service administration. PMID:10308609
Kala Chakradhar; Victor Raj; Arabella Raj
Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs). This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA) and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey adminis...
"This article analyzes the continued popular support for Lula and Dilma in the face of multiple corruption allegations throughout their respective presidencies. What explains their ability to survive corruption? And what are the implications of this - at first sight - lack of electoral punishment for Brazilian democracy? In searching for answers to these questions, this article looks at four mechanisms that help explain the continued popularity of politicians amid allegations of corruption: t...
This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice. PMID:12125780
Full Text Available EnglishSocial cohesion can be viewed in terms of common projects and networks of social relations that characterize families, communities and society. In the past decades, the basis for family cohesion has shifted from organic to mechanical or from breadwinner to collaborative model. As in many Western countries, data on family change in Canada point to a greater flexibility in the entry and exit from relationships, a delay in the timing of family events, and a diversity of family forms. After looking at changes in families and in the family setting of individuals, the paper considers both intra-family cohesion and families as basis for social cohesion. Implications are raised for adults, children and publicp olicy.FrenchLa cohésion sociale peut se voir à travers les projets communs et les réseaux desrelations sociales qui caractérisent les familles, les communautés et les sociétés.La base de cohésion familiale est passée d’organique à mécanique, pour utiliserles termes de Durkheim, ou vers un modèle de collaboration plutôt qu’unepartage asymétrique de tâches. Comme dans d’autres sociétés orientales, lafamille au Canada est devenue plus flexible par rapport aux entrées et sortiesd’unions, il y a un délais dans les événements familiaux, et une variété deformes de familles. Après un regard sur les changements dans les familles etdans la situation familiale des individus, nous considérons la cohésion intrafamilialeet la famille comme base de cohésion sociale. Nous discutons desimpacts sur les adultes, les enfants et la politique publique.
Falcão, Vera; Jardim, Patrícia; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa
Sibling incest is a serious form of intrafamilial sexual abuse with health, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of forensic medical reports of the alleged sibling incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 68) from 2004 to 2011 as well as the respective judicial outcomes. Results demonstrated that sibling's sexual abuse is associated with several circumstances that might exacerbate its severity such as vaginal, anal, and/or oral penetration. Moreover, the victim's young age, the proximity between victim and abuser, and the fact that it is committed at the victim's and/or abuser's home and by using physical violence and verbal threats justify a late detection of these cases. PMID:25085386
Kohls, Gregor; Chevallier, Coralie; Troiani, Vanessa; Schultz, Robert T
Most behavioral training regimens in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) rely on reward-based reinforcement strategies. Although proven to significantly increase both cognitive and social outcomes and successfully reduce aberrant behaviors, this approach fails to benefit a substantial number of affected individuals. Given the enormous amount of clinical and financial resources devoted to behavioral interventions, there is a surprisingly large gap in our knowledge of the basic reward mechanisms of learning in ASD. Understanding the mechanisms for reward responsiveness and reinforcement-based learning is urgently needed to better inform modifications that might improve current treatments. The fundamental goal of this review is to present a fine-grained literature analysis of reward function in ASD with reference to a validated neurobiological model of reward: the 'wanting'/'liking' framework. Despite some inconsistencies within the available literature, the evaluation across three converging sets of neurobiological data (neuroimaging, electrophysiological recordings, and neurochemical measures) reveals good evidence for disrupted reward-seeking tendencies in ASD, particularly in social contexts. This is most likely caused by dysfunction of the dopaminergic-oxytocinergic 'wanting' circuitry, including the ventral striatum, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Such a conclusion is consistent with predictions derived from diagnostic criteria concerning the core social phenotype of ASD, which emphasize difficulties with spontaneous self-initiated seeking of social encounters (that is, social motivation). Existing studies suggest that social 'wanting' tendencies vary considerably between individuals with ASD, and that the degree of social motivation is both malleable and predictive of intervention response. Although the topic of reward responsiveness in ASD is very new, with much research still needed, the current data clearly point towards problems with incentive
Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Coplan, Robert J.; Matheson, Adrienne
A social surrogate is a person who helps a shy individual deal with the stresses of a social situation. Previous research has only investigated social surrogate use in adults. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new self-report measure of social surrogacy in middle childhood and to explore the implications of this…
The paper tracks recent changes in the components of social protection in Latin America, the reforms to social insurance in the 1990s and the growth of social assistance in the 2000s, and assesses their effects on poverty and inequality and implications for welfare institutions in the region. The analysis focuses on public subsidies to social protection and their rebalancing. The paper concludes that the expansion of social assistance in the region will result in social protection institution...
Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Grossman, L S; Wasyliw, O E; Hardy, D W
Cleric sexual misconduct with minors is a problem receiving increased attention from the media, victims groups, and church authorities. Mental health professionals are increasingly being asked to assist church and civil authorities to help better understand the problem of cleric sexual misconduct with minors. In the current study we compared self-reported sexual functioning among cleric alleged child molesters, noncleric alleged child molesters, and normal control subjects. We hypothesized clerics would differ from nonclerics and normals in reported sexual functioning. Our sample included 30 Roman Catholic clerics and 39 nonclerics who were alleged to have engaged in sexual misconduct with minors, and 38 normal control subjects, all of whom took the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) as part of their forensic psychiatric evaluation. Our results indicated clerics were more likely to report fewer victims, older victims, and victims of male gender than noncleric alleged child molesters. Clerics differed from nonclerics and normal control subjects on several dimensions of self-reported sexual functioning. Lower offense rate histories among clerics suggest that, as a group, clerics may be less seriously psychologically disordered than noncleric child molesters. Low DSFI scores among Roman Catholic clerics may be accounted for in part by their unique training and socialization process. Future studies should attempt to study the influence of social desirability on DSFI scores. Normative data from nonoffending celibate clergy are needed. PMID:8800527
Calvert, Clay; Bunker, Matthew D.; Bissell, Kimberly
This article examines the implications of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2011 ruling in Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association for the future use of social science evidence and communication research to supply legislative facts supporting laws that target harms allegedly caused by media artifacts. The Brown majority set the bar for the ...
Full Text Available Academic literature about torture has addressed a wide range of questions. An important facet, however, has not yet received sufficient attention. Given that torture tends to occur in secrecy, how does the lack of information that is perceived to be objective and authoritative affect the societal response to allegations of torture and the social consequences of such allegations? In this article, the controversy about torture allegations in Spain is used to examine this issue and explore the insidious effects the uncertainty has on society. The Spanish state is unable to provide a generally accepted account in response to the continuous torture allegations from Basque prisoners accused of terrorism or street violence. Based on ethnographic research, this article describes how Spanish and Basque society can be divided in believers, non-believers and people who do not care about torture allegations. Because of the centrality of such allegations in many criminal cases, this division also polarizes public perceptions of the entire criminal justice system. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1838392
J S Thakur
Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. In this paper, we review the social and economic impact of NCDs in India. We outline this impact at household, health system and the macroeconomic level. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs figure at the top among the leading ten causes of adult (25-69 years deaths in India. The effects of NCDs are inequitable with evidence of reversal in social gradient of risk factors and greater financial implications for the poorer households in India. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. Study in India showed that about 25% of families with a member with CVD and 50% with cancer experience catastrophic expenditure and 10% and 25%, respectively, are driven to poverty. The odds of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditure were nearly 160% higher with cancer than the odds of incurring catastrophic spending when hospitalization was due to a communicable disease. These high numbers also pose significant challenge for the health system for providing treatment, care and support. The proportion of hospitalizations and outpatient consultations as a result of NCDs rose from 32% to 40% and 22% to 35%, respectively, within a decade from 1995 to 2004. In macroeconomic term, most of the estimates suggest that the NCDs in India account for an economic burden in the range of 5-10% of GDP, which is significant and slowing down GDP thus hampering development. While India is simultaneously experiencing several disease burdens due to old and new infections, nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and injuries, individual interventions for clinical care are unlikely to be affordable on a large scale. While it is clear that "treating our way out" of the NCDs may not be the efficient way, it has
Alfred, Mary V.
This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.
Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W.; Darren P Croft
Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experien...
Sage, Kara D; Baldwin, Dare
It seems self-evident that human responsiveness to social input enhances learning, yet the details of the social forces at play are only beginning to come into focus. Recent research on language and cognitive development in preschoolers and infants illuminates mechanisms such as social gating and natural pedagogy, and specific ways in which they benefit learning. We review such advances and consider implications of this research for designing robotic systems that can harness the power of social forces for learning. PMID:20951335
Plagens, Gregory K.
Scholarly work on student and school performance poses a variety of explanations for observed variations. One explanation receiving too little attention is social capital, an intangible resource argued to grow out of social relations and social structure. The seedbed of social capital is argued to reside with John Dewey, who in 1900 used the term…
Guan, Shu-Sha Angie
Social relationships have great implications for well-being. Positive interpersonal exchanges, such as social support, can be beneficial in buffering the detrimental effects of distress on physiological systems (neuroendocrine, immune, cardiovascular) implicated in the development of chronic diseases. However, characteristics of the support recipient (age, culture), provider (parent vs. peers, Study 1), and context (face-to-face vs. computer-mediated, Study 2) may play a role in shaping the...
Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed
Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…
This note provides an overview of demographic changes and their policy implications in Armenia, with particular reference to the poor. Armenia is currently experiencing a significant aging of the population and decrease in the size of the population, these changes have far-reaching implications. The fertility rate in Armenia has fallen dramatically, from about 4.5 children per woman in the...
Olutokunbo, Adekalu Samuel; Suandi, Turiman; Cephas, Oluwaseyitan Rotimi; Abu-Samah, Irza Hanie
Social mobilization is a proactive measure for community development that salvages the society from destruction and disaster. From sociological perspective, this paper discusses the concept of social mobilization and its implications for cross-cultural research. To do this, the study uses the "Bring Back Our Girls" Global Campaign, as…
Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne
The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…
On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC's program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC's overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC's involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area
PRASNNA G. DESHMULH.
Full Text Available The concepts of social marketing are active borrowing from social sciencediscipline, such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, marketing and communicationstheory. Its practical roots stem from disciplines such as advertising, public relations andmarket research, as well as to the work and experience of social activists, advocacygroups and community organizers. These interdependences among different conceptsand theories are usually reciprocal.Although relationship metaphor dominates marketing practice, the field ofsocial marketing is lagging behind. Little empirical work and theoretical developmenthas been conducted on relational phenomena in Social Organizations that are striving toachieve behavioral change among consumers. This paper argues for validity andimportance of customer relationship management in social marketing contexts,including a debate as to the legitimacy of the social organizations as an activerelationship partner. The author tries to draw a framework for better understanding therelationship that the consumers form with the social organization and how it affects theintended behavioral change.
Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegat...
Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly
Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed. PMID:27092856
Hans, Jason D; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Frey, Laura M
Judges and attorneys often request professional assessments from child custody evaluators when allegations of adult domestic violence (DV) have been made, but it is unclear whether and how evaluators' recommendations are impacted by these allegations. Custody evaluators (N = 607) in the United States responded to a multiple-segment factorial vignette designed to examine the effects of 2 key factors in DV allegations: type of alleged violence (conflict-based, control-based) and counterallegations (none, mutual, and female-initiated). Effects of control- versus conflict-based DV allegations by the mother on custody recommendations were small and the majority of evaluators recommended joint custody regardless of violence type. Reported confidence in making a recommendation increased once the father responded to the allegation, but to a smaller degree when a counterallegation of mutual or female-initiated violence was made. Evaluators were no more skeptical about the potential motive of a counterallegation in the context of controlling behavior than in the context of conflict-based behavior. Overall, results indicate that most custody evaluators are not sufficiently sensitized to distinguish between situational couple violence and coercive controlling behavior, and the postseparation safety of mothers and their children may therefore be jeopardized. PMID:25180469
Sustainable design faces challenges at a scale and level of complexity that are ill at ease with design’s mainstream focus on products and users. Recently, social practice theory has been suggested as a promising theoretical framework to inform new ways of designing. In social practice theory, practices – socially shared entities such as cleaning, cooking and playing – are taken as the fundamental unit of analysis. So far, however, design research in this area has been scattered and varying s...
Tromp, N.; Hekkert, P.P.M.
The role of design in changing people’s behaviour and causing social implications has been referred to as an inherent aspect of design. In taking responsibility for this influence of design, emphasis is often placed on the prevention of undesired consequences rather than the realization of desired o
Bowen, Elizabeth A.
This article reviews themes and changes in the teaching of HIV/AIDS content in social work programs over the first three decades of the epidemic. Social work education in the first decade of the epidemic was largely focused on helping clients in the death and dying process, while medical and pharmaceutical advancements in the mid-1990s drastically…
Ostrove, Joan M.; Long, Susan M.
This study addressed the extent to which social class position structures a sense of belonging at college, and the ways in which belonging informs adjustment to college. Among 322 liberal arts college students, social class background was significantly associated with a sense of belonging at college and was marginally related to academic…
Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder
This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all, to cr...
The resilience approach is rooted in ecology and is being advanced as a means to understand change in social-ecological systems. How can resilience be applied to understanding change in social systems, including in environmental education? In probing this question the main resilience approaches are described, the manner in which they may be…
Ho, Simon S. M.; Chan, Raymond S. Y.
This study aims at ascertaining how Hong Kong people perceive Hong Kong as a harmonious society. It also identifies the elements that are most conducive to social harmony in Hong Kong, so that the government could take reference when formulating new policies. 1,062 adults residents were asked to rate their perceived level of social harmony and…
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…
Curry, Katherine A.; Adams, Curt M.
Family-school partnerships are difficult to initiate and sustain in ways that actually promote student learning, especially in high-poverty communities. This quantitative study was designed to better understand how social forces shape parent responsibility in education. Based on social cognitive theory as the conceptual framework, the…
Unmanned aerial vehicles, or 'drones', appear to offer a flexible, accurate and affordable solution to some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement. However, little attention has been given to their possible social impacts. In this paper, I review the possible social impacts of using drones for conservation, including on safety, privacy, psychological wellbeing, data security and the wider understanding of conservation problems. I argue that negative social impacts are probable under some circumstances and should be of concern for conservation for two reasons: (1) because conservation should follow good ethical practice; and (2) because negative social impacts could undermine conservation effectiveness in the long term. The paper concludes with a call for empirical research to establish whether the identified social risks of drones occur in reality and how they could be mitigated, and for self-regulation of drone use by the conservation sector to ensure good ethical practice and minimise the risk of unintended consequences. PMID:26508350
Full Text Available This paper aims to advance the empirical understanding of global social entrepreneurship. Specifically, this paper aims to provide a new social entrepreneurship model, particularly on a global scale, introducing and examining two distinctive cases: Ashoka and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC. The ‘hybrid value chain’ suggested by Ashoka demonstrates that how business organizations and citizen-sector organizations can help each other in developing partnerships for various markets and communities in the world, addressing a variety of social needs. Presenting the ‘holistic approach to development,’ BRAC has been transferring its sustainable model, based on insights from Bangladesh but adapted to the local contexts of the countries, to several countries by creating prospects for the most disadvantaged people to overcome extreme poverty. This paper contributes to the current literature by highlighting how entrepreneurial efforts can create opportunities and launch ventures to satisfy social needs, balancing economic and social imperatives, on a global scale.
I began my social work career in England in the early 1970s shortly after a major national reorganization of social work services. Formerly separate local authority Children’s and Welfare Departments – the latter primarily dealing with adults in need of social work and other welfare services - had been merged to form unified social work agencies. For the last thirty years these Social Services Departments have provided the main organizational basis for the provision of social w...
Mayo, L. H.
The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.
IORDACHE CARMEN MARIA
Full Text Available Appeared in the realization of convergence concerns of the collective welfare - as a necessary, but not sufficient - with the political process of asserting fundamental human rights, in which was included the right of resting and leisure, social tourism emerged as a distinct form of tourism, conducted by well-defined social measures to facilitate the vacation of those with the most limited access to relaxation, the extent of this participation is conditional on economic development and the importance that each country attaches social life in order to increase its quality. This paper tries to analyze several attempts to define social tourism to submit its specificity and show how this form of tourism participating in quality of life.
Individuals experience simultaneous exposure to pollutants and social factors, which cluster to affect human health outcomes. The optimal approach to combining these factors is unknown, therefore we developed a method to model simultaneous exposure using criteria air pollutants, ...
Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Roland S. Moore
This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to th...
The present compiled dissertation explores culture jamming as a social movement in late capitalist information society. Culture jamming embraces groups and individuals practicing symbolic protest against the expansion and domination of large corporations and the logic of the market into public and private life. The central aim is to understand the meaning of culture jamming; its “model” of collective identification, and its protest and mobilizing strategies. International social movement rese...
Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…
This note provides an overview of demographic changes in Azerbaijan and their policy implications. Azerbaijan's population is younger than the populations of most countries in the region. It is estimated that the population in Azerbaijan will increase from about 7.2 million in 1990 to 10.6 million by 2050. Nevertheless, Azerbaijan is beginning to experience the aging of its population, aft...
The article discusses consumption as a social process that is a part of social provisioning and is in an evolutionary interplay with other social processes. The discussion is grounded in, but is not limited to the contributions of Thorstein Veblen. The first section delineates social provisioning as a framework for consumption inquiry. This section emphasizes that social provisioning is a part of collective life process embedded in culture and nature, and that it is comprised by two general s...
This study has been conducted to determine the opinions of school managers and National Education social science inspectors about the priorities of social science instruction in primary schools and what sort of studies could be carried out in order to train social science teachers. The aim of this study is to find out the priorities for more effective social science instruction and in line with this to determine the necessers qualitications required for social science teachers and put forward...
Evans, David W; Lazar, Steven M; Boomer, K B; Mitchel, Aaron D; Michael, Andrew M; Moore, Gregory J
The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.These findings extend the brain-behavior links observed in neurodevelopmental disorders to the normal distribution of traits in a healthy sample. PMID:24788335
Mullally, Brenda; Stapleton, Larry
Studies show that Information Systems Development (ISD) projects do not fulfil stakeholder expectations of completion time, quality and budget. (2005) study shows that development is more about social interaction and mutual understanding than following a prescribed method. Systems development is a social process where interactions help to make sense of the reality within which the system is developed (Hirschheirn et al., 1991). Research concentrates on methodology when in fact method may not be the primary problem. Authors have called for further research to investigate the true nature of the current systems development environment in real organisational situations (Fitzgerald, 2000).
"Refugees, Capitalism and the British State: Implications for Social Workers, Volunteers and Activists." Tom Vickers. Ashgate. 2012. --- In this period of economic crisis, public sector cuts, and escalating class struggles, Marxist theory offers social workers and service users important tools to help understand the structures of oppression they face and to devise effective means of resistance. This book uses Marxism’s lost insights, reinterpreting them for the current context by focusing ...
Xie, Yu; Greenman, Emily
Segmented assimilation theory has been a popular explanation for the diverse experiences of assimilation among new waves of immigrants and their children. While the theory has been interpreted in many different ways, we emphasize its implications for the important role of social context: both processes and consequences of assimilation should depend on the local social context in which immigrants are embedded. We derive empirically falsifiable hypotheses about the interaction effects between s...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of an open access, graduate education course where openness, connectivism, and social learning are guiding principles. The described experience aims to offer insight into developing courses that respond to changes in the manner in which individuals learn, connect, and…
Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.
We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…
Gerlich, R. Nicholas; Browning, Leigh; Westermann, Lori
In recent years, males and females have demonstrated fairly equal amounts of internet usage, but females have demonstrated higher usage of social media sites. These observed differences served as the impetus for the current study. A survey was conducted in early 2010 among college students to assess whether differences still occur between males…
Brandth, Berit; Haugen, Marit S.
This article deals with how diversification and transformation of farming into tourism may influence the social identity of farmers. Based on a study of 19 farms run by couples engaged with agritourism, it shows how the development of tourism on the farms can be understood in a perspective of repeasantization; and how the couples draw on their…
Full Text Available The paper aims at questioning some theoretical and methodological issues of relevance of social capital concept for children and its policy implications. The evidence for the analysis comes from the small-scale survey and eight focus group interviews with 13 - 14 year old schoolchildren in three Belgrade urban settings. By using the operationalisation developed by V. Morrow (2003, the author explores the validity in the case of children of social networks, sense of belonging and local identity community, and civic engagement as features and components of social capital. The evidence shows that each of these features has its particularity when children and young people are concerned, which has to be kept in mind when using social capital as theoretical concept and methodological tool. The validity of the concept of social capital in its broader terms for children is questioned in the paper. Considering different kinds of social constraints, one could ask whether it would be more helpful to think about the defined components as "social resources" than as "capital" when we consider children as a social group. This argument has also specific policy implications.
Oetting, E R
This fifth and final paper in the series on primary socialization theory includes discussion of issues raised by participants in a forum on the theory. The theory states that drug use and deviant behaviors occur as an outcome of bonding with primary socialization sources and the transmission of norms through those sources. Personal traits and secondary socialization sources influence drug use and deviance indirectly and through their effects on the primary socialization process. Developmentally, the only primary socialization source for the preschool child is the family. In early grade school years, the primary socialization sources are the family and school. Peer clusters emerge as a primary socialization source later, with their greatest effect occurring during adolescence. Adults have varied primary socialization patterns. Levels of ego development among adults may alter the primary socialization process. Spirituality is defined, and its influence on drug use is discussed. Government institutions, such as the criminal justice system, welfare, and child protective services, are now included among secondary socialization sources. The fact that the general theory of primary socialization is not ethnocentric or temporocentric is discussed. Implications of the theory for understanding existing or potential risk and protective factors for deviance, and for improving the effectiveness of prevention and treatment are discussed. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.] PMID:10359215
DeBrenna LaFa Agbényiga; Lihua Huang
Gendered immigration is a frame of reference for contextualizing the need for gender-specific immigrant services. Like other immigration societies, the United States disproportionately pays less attention to immigrant women. This article is a conceptual examination of the critical challenges faced by immigrant women from a global perspective. Special attention is given to the importance of social work education regarding service delivery structures for an increasing number of immigrant women ...
While media critics maintain that war coverage has a strong bias toward promoting conflict escalation, their opponents claim that the concept of distorted reality cannot be upheld. What seems to be a media-political dispute results from an epistemological issue that tangles the very roots of cultural studies in general: the question of whether the social construction of reality implies the arbitrariness of opinions. The present paper discusses this proposition from a constructivist point o...
Augsburg, Britta; Rodríguez-Lesmes, Paul
Poor sanitation is an important policy issue facing India, which accounts for over half of the 1.1 billion people worldwide that defecate in the open [JMP, 2012]. Achieving global sanitation targets, and reducing the social and economic costs of open defecation, therefore requires effectively extending sanitation services to India's citizens. The Indian Government has shown strong commitment to improving sanitation. However, uptake and usage of safe sanitation remains low: almost 50% of India...
Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in European countries is characterized by greater and greater ageing of the population, as a result of the decline in the rate of natural increase and the rise in life expectancy. Europeans have less and less children, they live longer and face the problems how to ensure a safe old age. Noticed trends of change will be intensified till the middle of the new millennium (2050, when the following situation is expected: the decline in the number of children (0-14 years for almost 20% and the active-working population (15-64, while there will be more "old persons" (65-79 for more than 44%, and "the oldest" persons (80 or more for even 180%. Ageing of the population characterizes all regions, but is specially pronounced in the countries in the south and countries in transition. Faced with the challenges of the disturbances in the demographic structure, the members of the European Union (25 developed an entire spectrum of measures and activities to prevent the negative social-economic consequences. Creation of "the policy of ageing" at the Union level develops within the co-ordination (OMC of the process of modernization of the social security system (old-age pension insurance, health insurance, social and child protection; it also implies the creation of conditions for "the active old age" (increase in employment and staying as long as possible on the job market, the development of "the new forms of solidarity" between generations (as a consequence of the increase of the coefficient of dependency between active working and supported population, preventing poverty and social exclusion, etc. Strategic documents, directions and national action-plans determined the concrete measures needed to face the demographic challenges.
Conlon, Annemarie; Aldredge, Patti A.
In April 2010, President Obama issued a directive to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding patient visitation, advance directives, and other initiatives to improve the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their families. The HHS response to this directive has implications for hospital social workers. The…
Zarefsky, David, Ed.
This journal issue is devoted to the critical social theory of the German philosopher Jurgen Habermas and its implications for argumentation theory and practice. Topics discussed in the six articles are: the main themes of Habermas' research and their relevance to argumentation, Habermas and the dialectical perspective on argumentation, a…
Recent scholarship challenges the celebratory discourse surrounding Web 2.0. This paper engages with this scholarship to examine critically the implications of academic libraries' presence within commercially owned social media spaces. It considers the apparent contradiction between work to promote the principles of open access and the idea of the…
The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)
... and Operating Rules for Satellite Services, Proposed Rules, 77 FR 67172 (Nov. 8, 2012). c. License... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Allegations of Anticompetitive Behavior in Satellite Industry AGENCY:...
Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.
Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…
Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin
All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Litigation alleging individual liability. 516.18 Section 516.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.18 Litigation...
Cleemput, Irina; Kind, Paul; Kesteloot, Katrien
As applied in cost-utility analysis, generic health status indexes require that full health and dead are valued as 1 and 0, respectively. When social preference weights for health states are obtained using a visual analogue scale (VAS), their raw scores often lie on a scale with different endpoints (such as "best" and "worst" health). Re-scaling individual raw scores to a 0-1 scale leads to the exclusion of respondents who fail to value dead or full health. This study examined alternative approaches that do not impose such strict exclusion criteria. The impact of a different timing of re-scaling (before or after aggregation) and a different measure of central tendency (median or mean) is measured. Data from a postal valuation survey (n=722) conducted in Belgium are used. The following models are considered: (a) re-scaling values for EQ-5D health states on a within-respondent basis and using mean re-scaled values as proxies for social preference values, (b) using median re-scaled values as proxies for social preference values, (c) computing the median raw VAS values and then re-scale, and (e) re-scaling mean raw VAS values. Exclusion rates, health state rankings and valuations and incremental value differences between pairs of states are computed for each model. Models that use a different timing of re-scaling, are compared ceteris paribus to evaluate the importance of timing of re-scaling and models that use a different measure of central tendency are compared ceteris paribus to evaluate the importance of the measure of central tendency. The exclusion rates are above 20% in the models that re-scale valuations before aggregation and less than 5% in the models that re-scale after aggregation. Health state valuations are found to be different in all two by two comparisons. Although in some comparisons the incremental values are statistically significantly different between models, they are never clinically significantly different. Differences in health state rankings
Bolin, Kristian; Lindgren, Björn; Lindström, Martin; Nystedt, Paul
This paper develops a theoretical model of the family as producer of health- and social capital. There are both direct and indirect returns on the production and accumulation of health- and social capital. Direct returns (the consumption motives) result since health and social capital both enhance individual welfare per se. Indirect returns (the investment motives) result since health capital increases the amount of productive time, and social capital improves the efficiency of the production technology used for producing health capital. The main prediction of the theoretical model is that the amount of social capital is positively related to the level of health; individuals with high levels of social capital are healthier than individuals with lower levels of social capital, ceteris paribus. An empirical model is estimated, using a set of individual panel data from three different time periods in Sweden. We find that social capital is positively related to the level of health capital, which supports the theoretical model. Further, we find that the level of social capital (1) declines with age, (2) is lower for those married or cohabiting, and (3) is lower for men than for women. PMID:12742602
Freestone, D S; Mitchell, H
There is increasing evidence of fraud in clinical research, and one aspect concerns trading in pharmaceutical company shares by people who may have confidential information about the results of clinical trials. Plainly this has implications for honest investigators, who may find themselves exposed to such allegations. In this paper Dr D S Freestone and Mr H Mitchell, QC, identify three interlinked issues which they think underlie the potential for these allegations. They are pressure for premature or inappropriate communication of research results; trading in pharmaceutical company shares by academic clinical investigators; and the possibility that clinical investigators might succumb to temptation. Dr Freestone and Mr Mitchell suggest that whenever possible results of clinical studies should be published in appropriate medical journals without prior public disclosure. This conflicts with Stock Exchange rules, which require that price sensitive information should be published at the earliest opportunity and preclude priority of publication in medical journals. Freestone and Mitchell believe that rarely rapid public disclosure is acceptable if it is to protect patients' interests but that it must not prejudice publication in the medical or scientific press. When rapid public disclosure is needed, they say, every attempt should be made to inform prescribers before patients. Dr Freestone and Mr Mitchell warn that academic clinical investigators who have access to unpublished price sensitive information about pharmaceutical companies whose shares they trade in will almost certainly be in breach of the Company Securities (Insider Dealing) Act 1985. Furthermore, disclosing such information to third parties, they say, exposes those people also to potential criminal liability. Freestone and Mitchell advise that when potential for allegations of conflict of interest exists clinical investigators should consider declaring their position to ethics committees and any
There is a decades-old debate in social work regarding the appropriateness of the use of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) by clinicians in this profession. Despite often contentious perspectives, there has been very little study regarding clinical social workers' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs…
Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard
The perceived wisdom in the social work education community, based on empirical research from the 1990s and the early part of this century, says that the master of social work (MSW) degree is not competitive with the master of business administration or the master of public administration to obtain top-level administration jobs in nonprofit…
Full Text Available While media critics maintain that war coverage has a strong bias toward promoting conflict escalation, their opponents claim that the concept of distorted reality cannot be upheld. What seems to be a media-political dispute results from an epistemological issue that tangles the very roots of cultural studies in general: the question of whether the social construction of reality implies the arbitrariness of opinions. The present paper discusses this proposition from a constructivist point of view and shows that it is based on an inadequate and logically incorrect understanding of truth and reality, and on a lack of differentiation between facts and meanings, between truth and beliefs and between objective and subjective realities. Defining a third path between cultural imperialism and a naïve understanding of cultural relativism, the paper finally discusses the methodological basis on which media criticism can build.
With the rapid global proliferation of the Internet and telecommunication networks, online education, one form of distance education is currently becoming the fastest growing trend of domestic and international education. A major challenge to designing online learning is the development of appropriate means to facilitate the social environment that is critical for higher order learning in many disciplines. In many online learning designs, the majority of resources are channeled to web interface design and technology, while little or no resources are devoted to facilitating the teaching and learning process, the negotiation of meaning and the validation of knowledge among peers and instructors that depends on a conducive socio-cultural environment and adequate learner support.
Electrification programmes and projects are usually planned and evaluated on the basis of their economic (financial) and socio-economic performance. It is not usually recognised that electrification is often carried out for social objectives of poverty alleviation and political effect. Examination of electrification in South Africa reveals clearly that initial electrification was to meet economic objectives, later socio-economic objectives were adopted, and recently the objectives were social. Social electrification, particularly rural electrification, is not viable according to usual assessment methods, which are frequently distorted to provide the justification for a project to proceed. The technology of network electrification changed to meet the constraints, challenging usual perceptions about the relative costs of urban and rural electrification and the potential for photovoltaic electrification. Adopting a specification for social electrification allows suitable tariffs for electrification to be identified, indicates how capital investment decisions might be modified for social electrification, and identifies implications for electricity industry restructuring. A better understanding of electrification's social objectives has implications for projects and programmes in other developing countries
Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian
The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health. PMID:25870392
Gvishiani, Jermen; Livschits, Veniamin; Orlova, Elena; Smetanina, Marina; Zimin, Igor (AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Systems Analysis)
The present paper is a review of research activities extending over the past two years, centred on social problems and processes bearing upon and being the consequences of energy systems development. Special emphasis has been placed on the interrelated development of society and energy systems with specific focus on global and universal socioeconomic problems such as: uneven socioeconomic growth in different countries; substantial differences in the availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weapons (including nuclear weapons) and their proliferation across the world, and the marked contribution this makes to the ever-greater tensions in a number of regions; changes in morality, ethics, and value systems. Aggravation of these problems and their frequently menacing metamorphoses can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and nontrivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. (author)
Full Text Available This article starts from a systematic analysis of specialized literature on the subject of health care services and networks integration, trying to offer relevant explanations to better understand the organization system of services within the network.To begin with, the article brings forward the institutional and spatial dynamics that leads to the network type configurations. Then, there is an analysis of the processes and measures which can serve as planning instruments available to the policies,shaping some principles for the management of networks within the health area.Finally, the article presents some configuration models of the health networks,recorded by the specialized literature and discusses the link between the natural evolution towards these new management organization forms and the new principles of social economy as a systematic evolution of the state`s organization. From the methodology point of view, the article has resulted from searching, selecting,evaluating and summarizing some works focused on the health systems economy and policies within the area of health.
Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri
Philosophers commonly define knowledge as justified true beliefs. A heated debate exists, however, about what makes a belief justified. In this article, we examine the question of belief justification from a psychological perspective, focusing on the subjective confidence in a belief that the person has just formed. Participants decided whether to accept or reject a proposition depicting a social belief, and indicated their confidence in their choice. The task was repeated six times, and choice latency was measured. The results were analyzed within a Self-Consistency Model (SCM) of subjective confidence. According to SCM, the decision to accept or reject a proposition is based on the on-line sampling of representations from a pool of representations associated with the proposition. Respondents behave like intuitive statisticians who infer the central tendency of a population based on a small sample. Confidence depends on the consistency with which the belief was supported across the sampled representations, and reflects the likelihood that a new sample will yield the same decision. The results supported the assumption of a commonly shared population of representations associated with each proposition. Based on this assumption, analyses of within-person consistency and cross-person consensus provided support for the model. As expected, choices that deviated from the person's own modal judgment or from the consensually held judgment took relatively longer to form and were associated with relatively lower confidence, presumably because they were based on non-representative samples. The results were discussed in relation to major epistemological theories--foundationalism, coherentism and reliabilism. PMID:22995400
Residential electrical demand response (DR) offers the prospect of reducing the environmental impact of electricity use, and also the supply costs. However, the relatively small loads and numerous actors imply a large effort: response ratio. Residential DR may be an essential part of future smart grids, but how viable is it in the short to medium term? This paper reviews some DR concepts, then evaluates the propositions that households in cool temperate climates will be in a position to contribute to grid flexibility within the next decade, and that that they will allow some automated load control. Examples of demand response from around the world are discussed in order to assess the main considerations for cool climates. Different tariff types and forms of control are assessed in terms of what is being asked of electricity users, with a focus on real-time pricing and direct load control in energy systems with increasingly distributed resources. The literature points to the significance of thermal loads, supply mix, demand-side infrastructure, market regulation, and the framing of risks and opportunities associated with DR. In concentrating on social aspects of residential demand response, the paper complements the body of work on technical and economic potential. - Highlights: ► Demand response implies major change in governance of electricity systems. ► Households in cool temperate climates can be flexible, mainly with thermal loads. ► DR requires simple tariffs, appropriate enabling technology, education, and feedback. ► Need to test consumer acceptance of DR in specific conditions. ► Introduce tariffs with technologies e.g., TOU tariff plus DLC with electric vehicles.
McCoy, Monica L
These studies explored attitudes toward maternal culpability in cases of alleged fetal abuse. In experiment one, general culpability for the use of various substances during pregnancy was assessed as well as the impact of other potentially relevant factors. One hundred and twenty students completed the survey. Participants overwhelmingly supported treating drug use by pregnant women as a criminal offense. With regard to the assessment of more specific questions, the lack of consensus regarding what factors effect culpability is striking. Experiment two examined the possible impact of the mothers' race (White or Black) and social class (Poor or Middle class) on the assessment of culpability. One hundred and sixty-four community members responded to a survey sent to randomly selected persons in upstate South Carolina. The results indicate that at least in response to a brief, written, case scenario, neither race nor social class make a large impact on participants' sanction recommendations. PMID:15022861
Brand, Michael W.; Weiss, Eugenia L.
This article illustrates the types of situations that U.S. uniformed social workers have experienced in combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan with the purpose of preparing current and future social workers to effectively serve military and veteran clients in either military or civilian settings. Vignettes demonstrate the application of the…
Sze, Julie; Prakash, Swati
A conference titled "Human Genetics, Environment, and Communities of Color: Ethical and Social Implications" and a workshop symposium titled "Human Genetics and Environmental Justice" were held by West Harlem Environmental Action, Inc., with cosponsorship by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the Community Outreach and Education Program of the NIEHS P30 Center for Environmental Health at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, New York, and th...
This dissertation examines the extent to which individual-level and social network-level factors explain disparities in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) and considers the moral implications. Paper One examines whether patient characteristics explain racial disparities in the rate of donor presentation and LDKT in a sample of 752 potential kidney recipients and 654 potential kidney donors. Propensity score matching and subclassification were used to balance the patient characteristic...
Archana Venkataraman; Duncan, James S.; Daniel Y.-J. Yang; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) studies reveal a complex pattern of hyper- and hypo-connectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whereas rsfMRI findings tend to implicate the default mode network and subcortical areas in ASD, task fMRI and behavioral experiments point to social dysfunction as a unifying impairment of the disorder. Here, we leverage a novel Bayesian framework for whole-brain functional connectomics that aggregates population differ...
Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in...
Nziramasanga, Caiphas T.
This paper briefly examines the historical background to political independence in African nations, highlighting the control of the colonial masters on those nations. The "hangovers" describes how early colonial control has had serious influence on the development of social studies curriculum in Zimbabwe. The paper concludes by narrating the…
Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen
Introduction As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Methods Questionnaires and key-informan...
Kiselica, Mark S.
In reaction to the pioneering model of social justice education in counseling psychology described by Goodman, Liang, Helms, Latta, Sparks, and Weintraub, several implications of social justice work for policy, education, and practice in the mental health professions are suggested. Specifically, it is recommended that mental health scientists and…
Full Text Available For students who are actively engaged in social justice efforts on their college/university campuses, the transition from a relatively easy platform for engagement to the “real world” can pose significant challenges and create new realities for negotiation. Little is known, however, about the nature of these transitions into post-graduate social justice experiences. Drawing on an open-ended survey of recent graduates (92 respondents, 50% response rate from a social justice minor in a school of social work, we explore the ways in which respondents described their transitions into social justice work, focusing on a set of key challenges that emerged from our analysis and reflecting on the implications of these challenges for social work practice and future research. Understanding some of the challenges in making this transition will help social work and non-profit administrators to better support this population’s future volunteer, service, and employment needs.
The article presents original research findings on informal financial assistance for hematological patients; that is, the gifts from family, friends, and communities that help patients cope with the financial hardship associated with cancer. The qualitative study involved interviews with 45 hematology patients that were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and then thematically analyzed. The findings examine the differing perspectives that individuals and families bring to the notion of informal financial aid, provide examples of individuals who require and receive informal financial assistance, and conclude with descriptions of those who require informal financial assistance but it is not available. The implications of the findings for oncology social work practice are explored. PMID:26671243
van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan
This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.
Full Text Available Using social media Web sites is among the most common activities of today’s children and adolescents. Such sites offer today’s youth a portal for entertainment and communication, and have grown exponentially in recent years. Parents and teachers become aware of the nature of social media sites, thus they do not know that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. This field is important because pedagogists, psychologists and pediatrics need to understand how youth lives in a new, massive, and complex virtual universe, even as they carry on their lives in the real world. In the article I have presented a discussion of a few empirical research carried out by different authors to show various aspects of child and adolescent development in this virtual universe and to present the methodological implications of such types of studies.
Full Text Available The 2000s witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend of crop plantation expansion. This trend has been spurred by policies in the European Union, United States, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance energy security and reduce carbon emissions, as well as by the desire of governments in developing countries to harness the stimulus that new commercial investments provide to the agricultural sector and to national economies. Despite these potential benefits, a number of concerns have been raised about the local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion. We shed light on this debate through a synthesis of findings from case studies in six biofuel producer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and a seventh paper exploring the implications of the land-use changes observed in these case studies for the climate mitigation potential of biofuels. We also explore the implications for governing the environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock production, protecting the rights of customary land users, and enabling smallholder-inclusive business models. Our analysis suggests that better governance of the sector’s impacts is not the exclusive preserve of unitary sets of actors, but instead requires concerted and coordinated efforts by governments of producer and consumer countries, investors, civil society, and the financial sector to better capture the sector’s potential while minimizing its social and environmental costs.
Full Text Available Animal conservation practices include the grouping of captive related and unrelated individuals to form a social structure which is characteristic of that species in the wild. In response to the rapid decline of wild African lion (Panthera leo populations, an array of conservational strategies have been adopted. Ex situ reintroduction of the African lion requires the construction of socially cohesive pride structures prior to wild release. This pilot study adopted a social network theory approach to quantitatively assess a captive pride's social structure and the relationships between individuals within them. Group composition (who is present in a group and social interaction data (social licking, greeting, play was observed and recorded to assess social cohesion within a released semi-wild pride. UCINET and SOCPROG software was utilised to represent and analyse these social networks. Results indicate that the pride is socially cohesive, does not exhibit random associations, and the role of socially influential keystone individuals is important for maintaining social bondedness within a lion pride. These results are potentially informative for the structure of lion prides, in captivity and in the wild, and could have implications for captive and wild-founder reintroductions.
Abell, Jackie; Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Gordon, Yvonne; Kirk, Jacqui; Kokeŝ, Rae; Lynas, Kirsty; Mandinyenya, Bob; Youldon, David
Animal conservation practices include the grouping of captive related and unrelated individuals to form a social structure which is characteristic of that species in the wild. In response to the rapid decline of wild African lion (Panthera leo) populations, an array of conservational strategies have been adopted. Ex situ reintroduction of the African lion requires the construction of socially cohesive pride structures prior to wild release. This pilot study adopted a social network theory approach to quantitatively assess a captive pride's social structure and the relationships between individuals within them. Group composition (who is present in a group) and social interaction data (social licking, greeting, play) was observed and recorded to assess social cohesion within a released semi-wild pride. UCINET and SOCPROG software was utilised to represent and analyse these social networks. Results indicate that the pride is socially cohesive, does not exhibit random associations, and the role of socially influential keystone individuals is important for maintaining social bondedness within a lion pride. These results are potentially informative for the structure of lion prides, in captivity and in the wild, and could have implications for captive and wild-founder reintroductions. PMID:24376544
Yehia Hassan Wazeri
Full Text Available Abstract The Farthest Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem has been associated in the consciousness of the Muslims, with The Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah through a spiritual bond since the event of Isra’ (Night Journey and Mi`raj (Ascension to Heaven. The objective of this study is to determine the orientation of the Farthest Mosque and illustrate the similarity in geometric shape (plan and proportions, between the Farthest Mosque in Jerusalem and the sacred mosque (Al-Ka`bah in Makkah, in the first part of the research. The second part of the research involves a study of some texts from the Old Testament that address the architectural and structural descriptions of the alleged temple, with the purpose of exposing whether glaring contradictions exist between the texts of the Old Testament themselves or between them and the real architectural and structural facts acknowledged by specialists in this field. Keywords: The Farthest mosque, the Alleged Temple, Al-Ka`bah, geometric similarity Abstrak Masjid tertua (Masjid al-Aqsa di Jarusalem telah dihubungkan dalam kesadaran umat muslim, dengan masjid suci (Masjidil Haram di Mekah melalui ikatan spiritual sejak kejadian Isra’ (perjalanan malam dan Mi’raj (kenaikan ke surga. Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan orientasi masjid tertua and menggambarkan kesamaan bentuk geometri (denah dan proporsi, antara masjid tertua di Jarusalem dan masjid suci (Ka’bah di Mekah, di bagian pertama penelitian. Bagian kedua penelitian melibatkan kajian beberapa tulisan dari surat wasiat kuno yang mengarah kepada deskripsi arsitektural dan struktural kuil, dengan tujuan mengekspos baik kontradiksi yang mencolok antara tulisan surat wasiat kuno itu sendiri maupun di antara mereka, dan fakta arsitektural dan struktural yang nyata diakui oleh spesialis di lapangan Kata kunci: masjid tertua, kuil, ka’bah, kesamaan geometri
Felipe Livert Aquino
Full Text Available Efforts to promote infill development and to raise densities are growing in many cities around the world as a way to encourage urban sustainability. However, in cities polarized along socio-economic lines, the benefits of densification are not so evident. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the contradictions of densification in Santiago de Chile, a city characterized by socio-spatial disparities. To that end, we first use regression analysis to explain differences in density rates within the city. The regression analysis shows that dwelling density depends on the distance from the city center, socioeconomic conditions, and the availability of urban attributes in the area. After understanding the density profile, we discuss the implications for travel and the distribution of social infrastructures and the environmental services provided by green areas. While, at the metropolitan scale, densification may favor a more sustainable travel pattern, it should be achieved by balancing density rates and addressing spatial differences in the provision of social services and environmental amenities. We believe a metropolitan approach is essential to correct these spatial imbalances and to promote a more sustainable and socially cohesive growth pattern.
Xie, Yu; Greenman, Emily
Segmented assimilation theory has been a popular explanation for the diverse experiences of assimilation among new waves of immigrants and their children. While the theory has been interpreted in many different ways, we emphasize its implications for the important role of social context: both processes and consequences of assimilation should depend on the local social context in which immigrants are embedded. We derive empirically falsifiable hypotheses about the interaction effects between social context and assimilation on immigrant children's well-being. We then test the hypotheses using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analyses yield two main findings. First, for immigrant adolescents living in non-poverty neighborhoods, we find assimilation to be positively associated with educational achievement and psychological well-being but also positively associated with at-risk behavior. Second, there is little empirical evidence supporting our hypotheses derived from segmented assimilation theory. We interpret these results to mean that future research would be more fruitful focusing on differential processes of assimilation rather than differential consequences of assimilation. PMID:21572546
Arndt, Jamie; Cox, Cathy R; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Vess, Matthew; Routledge, Clay; Cooper, Douglas P; Cohen, Florette
In 4 studies, the role of extrinsic esteem contingencies in adjusting to shifting health-relevant standards when managing existential fears was examined. Study 1 demonstrated that after reminders of death, higher dispositional focus on extrinsic self-esteem contingencies predicted greater interest in tanning. Using a more domain-specific approach, Study 2 showed that, after being reminded of death, the more individuals smoke for social esteem reasons, the more compelling they find an antismoking commercial that exposes adverse social consequences of smoking. Study 3 explored how situational factors (i.e., priming a contingent relational schema) that implicate extrinsic contingencies facilitated the impact of shifting standard primes on tanning intentions after mortality salience. Finally, Study 4 found that mortality salience led to increased endorsement of exercise as a basis of self-worth when participants who derive self-esteem from extrinsic sources visualized someone who exercises. Together, these studies demonstrate that reminders of death interact with prevalent social standards to influence everyday health decisions. PMID:19469596
Full Text Available Abstract Most behavioral training regimens in autism spectrum disorders (ASD rely on reward-based reinforcement strategies. Although proven to significantly increase both cognitive and social outcomes and successfully reduce aberrant behaviors, this approach fails to benefit a substantial number of affected individuals. Given the enormous amount of clinical and financial resources devoted to behavioral interventions, there is a surprisingly large gap in our knowledge of the basic reward mechanisms of learning in ASD. Understanding the mechanisms for reward responsiveness and reinforcement-based learning is urgently needed to better inform modifications that might improve current treatments. The fundamental goal of this review is to present a fine-grained literature analysis of reward function in ASD with reference to a validated neurobiological model of reward: the ‘wanting’/’liking’ framework. Despite some inconsistencies within the available literature, the evaluation across three converging sets of neurobiological data (neuroimaging, electrophysiological recordings, and neurochemical measures reveals good evidence for disrupted reward-seeking tendencies in ASD, particularly in social contexts. This is most likely caused by dysfunction of the dopaminergic–oxytocinergic ‘wanting’ circuitry, including the ventral striatum, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Such a conclusion is consistent with predictions derived from diagnostic criteria concerning the core social phenotype of ASD, which emphasize difficulties with spontaneous self-initiated seeking of social encounters (that is, social motivation. Existing studies suggest that social ‘wanting’ tendencies vary considerably between individuals with ASD, and that the degree of social motivation is both malleable and predictive of intervention response. Although the topic of reward responsiveness in ASD is very new, with much research still needed, the current data
Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.
Developmental differences in references to temporal attributes of allegedly experienced events were examined in 250 forensic interviews of 4- to 10-year-old alleged victims of sexual abuse. Children's ages, the specific temporal attributes referenced, and the types of memory tapped by the interviewers' questions significantly affected the quantity…
It is argued that a Jean Piaget anecdote about an alleged memory implanted in a young child leading to both a visual and semantic memory that persists despite disconfirming evidence is entirely different than the recovered memory debate, which is about the alleged introduction of memories to grown adults. (CR)
... abuse. 0.29b Section 0.29b Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29b Reporting allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse. Employees shall report evidence and non-frivolous allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse relating to...
... allegations of waste, fraud, and abuse? 101.301 Section 101.301 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., fraud, and abuse? The Office of Inspector General should receive all information or allegations of waste, fraud, or abuse regarding SBA programs and operations....
Full Text Available Under the Obama administration, approximately 1.2 million undocumented immigrants have been deported, (around 400,000 in 2011, placing children (who are often American citizens at risk of unnecessary mental anguish as well as financial hardship. With republican and democratic leadership tied up in ideological debates addressing the issue of comprehensive immigration reform, many states are left in a dire position and we as a nation end up with draconian anti-immigrant legislation that places more Latino immigrant families at risk. Enforcement-only initiatives leave children and families of immigrants in our country vulnerable. Comprehensive immigration reform is necessary. This article discusses the prevalence of such policy initiatives and their implications for social work education, practice, research, and policy.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and describe skills, characteristics and support networks needed by keystone Life Orientation (LO teachers in six Gauteng schools. In this study "keystone" refers to LO teachers who make a positive impact in their schools. A qualitative research design was used to collect data through interviews, class observations, and questionnaires. Data were analysed through content analysis. The results indicate that keystone LO teachers must be skilled counselors, career guides and diverse role players. They should also be open, approachable, have integrity, be trustworthy, resolve conflict and make good use of internal and external support within the context of schools. More importantly, it was found that keystone LO teachers are determined by their ability to deal with challenges, such as child abuse, substance abuse, poverty, and HIV/AIDS within their school communities. Based on the findings, the implications for keystone LO teachers in the educational, social and cultural contexts are discussed.
Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L
Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding. PMID:24810518
Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA from maternal blood has recently entered clinical practice in many countries, including Canada. This test can be performed early during pregnancy to detect Down syndrome and other conditions. While NIPT promises numerous benefits, it also has challenging ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI. This paper reviews concerns currently found in the literature on the ELSI of NIPT. We make four observations. First, NIPT seems to exacerbate some of the already existing concerns raised by other prenatal tests (amniocentesis and maternal serum screening such as threats to women’s reproductive autonomy and the potential for discrimination and stigmatization of disabled individuals and their families. This may be due to the likely upcoming large scale implementation and routinization of NIPT. Second, the distinction between NIPT as a screening test (as it is currently recommended and as a diagnostic test (potentially in the future, has certain implications for the ELSI discussion. Third, we observed a progressive shift in the literature from initially including mostly conceptual analysis to an increasing number of empirical studies. This demonstrates the contribution of empirical bioethics approaches as the technology is being implemented into clinical use. Finally, we noted an increasing interest in equity and justice concerns regarding access to NIPT as it becomes more widely implemented.
Today's school social workers are facing unique challenges in the workplace. The results of the 2009 New Mexico School Social Work Survey reinforced the idea that school social workers must be able to prove their effectiveness. Building on the school social work literature on practice outcomes evaluation, a more extensive statewide survey of…
Cho, Yoonyoung; Margolis, David N.; Newhouse, David; Robalino, David A.
This paper reviews labor market trends throughout the developing world, identifies issues and policy priorities across groups of countries, and derives implications for the World Bank's new social protection and labor strategy. Five key issues are identified: a high and growing share of the labor force that is self?employed or working in household enterprises, exposure to income shocks wit...
Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275
Full Text Available Current research has postulated that judicial inferencing and judgement-making are subject to biased appraisals. This study assessed the factors reported in the literature associated to the appraisal of criminality in a mock case of a battered woman standing trial for murdering her husband, and who pleaded legitimate self-defence in response to an instance of intimate partner violence. A nationwide sample of 169 police officers from different cities in Spain freely volunteered to participate in the study. Using a mock trial design, the defendant´s prototypicality (prototypical vs. non-prototypical, and physical attractiveness (attractive vs. unattractive were manipulated. Participants were required to assess the criminality (credibility, responsibility, and controllability of a battered woman accused of murdering her husband, and who alleged legitimate self-defence in response to an incident of intimate partner violence. The results showed that a defendant perceived as the prototype of a battered woman was judged as having less or no control of the situation; physical attractiveness increased the perception of the defendant´s responsibility in committing the crime; and an interaction between prototypicality and attractiveness in assigning credibility to the defendant´s testimony. Moreover, hostile sexism mediated the relationship between the defendant´s prototypicality and controllability. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for judicial judgement making in cases of battered women who kill their aggressors.
This reports the procedure and findings of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate's investigation into allegations of welding and radiography malpractice at Hinkley Point-B power station. These concerned welds and their radiographic testing made on pipework carrying water or steam associated with one of the main electricity turbo generators, during construction in 1971. The water or steam is not radioactive and pipe failure would have no nuclear safety significance. Both the Central Electricity Generating Board and the NII investigated the allegations. Both investigations concluded that there was no evidence to support the allegations. (U.K.)
Full Text Available One of the widespread childhood chronic illnesses, which is seldom talked about is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The discussion on T1DM is often missed because the emphasis is majorly on the adult DM or type 2 DM which is a lifestyle disorder. T1DM occurs at an early age and is a lifelong insulin deficiency. The treatment and the strict regime lead to numerous psychological and social repercussions for the child (patient and the caregivers. The implications vary from issues in family, at school, at social gatherings, often creating behavioural disorders. These implications further affect the patient’s health, DM self-care tasks, glycaemic control, and adherence to treatment. It is important to create awareness among people that chronic illness often causes negative psychological and social consequences but one needs to learn to cope with them. T1DM is not just about insulin shots and blood tests; but much beyond it. It requires proper understanding and support which has to be provided by professionals other than doctors. This paper looks at the prevalence of the disease, the implications for the child and the caregivers, and discusses T1DM as an emerging challenge for social work profession.
... alleged crime and, for contractor personnel seeking whistleblower protection, where to seek assistance... entities. DoD invites comments from small business concerns and other interested parties on the...
On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.
Wilhelm J. Wessels
Full Text Available In the brief passage of Jeremiah 9:22�23, wisdom, might and riches are explicitly rejected as reasons for boasting. The only true reason for boasting is if a person �knows Yahweh�. In verse 23, this is linked with three other concepts: steadfast love, justice and righteousness. Jeremiah described the society of his day as corrupt in every sense of the word. People were stubborn, refused to acknowledge Yahweh and showed no signs of truly knowing him. They had, in fact, deserted the Torah of Yahweh. To know Yahweh has social implications. The rhetorical appeal of Jeremiah 9:22�23 to readers and hearers of this oracle is quite clear. To know Yahweh is not to claim to be wise or be the strongest or have the most possessions but to respond to Yahweh�s way of acting. This implies an understanding of his loving�kindness and acting in a morally correct way.
Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth; Morbey, Hazel; Araoz, Gonzalo
Carlisle in northwest England suffered its worse floods for more than 180 years in 2005. A study, reported here, was undertaken to assess the health and social impacts of these floods via in-depth, taped individual and focus-group interviews with people whose homes had been flooded and with agency workers who helped them. Respondents spoke of physical health ailments, psychological stress, water health-and-safety issues related to the floods, and disputes with insurance and construction companies, which they felt had caused and exacerbated psychological health problems. Support workers also suffered from psychological stress. Furthermore, it was found that people had low expectations of a flood and were not prepared. The findings are presented in five sections covering flood risk awareness, water contamination issues, physical health, mental health, and impact on frontline support workers. The discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for policy and practice vis-à-vis psychological health provision, contamination issues, training and support for frontline support workers, matters relating to restoration, and preparation for flooding. PMID:20618385
During the last decade, a series of valuation studies have made attempts at estimating the external environmental costs of various power generation sources. The purposes of this paper are: (a) to explore some of the ethical limits of the economic valuation of environmental impacts; and (b) to analyze what the implications are of these limits for the social choice between different electric power sources. Environmental valuation based on welfare economic theory builds on restrictive behavioral foundations and can only partly model moral values, although such values are an essential part of people's preference towards the environment. In addition, public preferences are seldom exogenously given as is commonly assumed in economic theory, but are instead formed in public discourse. For this reason, the range of electricity externalities where economic valuation (and thus cost-benefit analysis) should be applied is likely to be narrower than often assumed. After analyzing the scope, methodology and the results of the so-called ExternE project, the paper concludes that many power generation externalities are either inherently 'new' or inherently 'complex'. In these cases, the initial challenge lies not in 'discovering' private preferences, but in specifying the conditions for public discourse over common ways of understanding what the pertinent issues are about. This implies that research on the environmental externalities of power generation must, in addition to refining the theory and the applications of existing non-market valuation techniques, also address the instruments and content of political and moral debate
Beatriz Casais; Proença, João F.
This paper discusses celebrity participation in social marketing programs focusing on public health, especially on HIV programs. The research identifies the inhibitions of celebrity people and implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. The paper analysis data from in-depth interviews made to twenty-seven Portuguese celebrities from arts, show business and sports. The results show absence of prejudice against HIV. Famous people feel motivated to join public health and HIV ca...
Van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan
This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attende...
Cho, Yoonyoung; Margolis, David N.; Robalino, David A.
This paper reviews labor market trends throughout the developing world, identifies issues and policy priorities across groups of countries, and derives implications for the World Bank's new social protection and labor strategy. Five key issues are identified: a high and growingshare of the labor force that is self?employed or working in household enterprises, exposure to income shocks with limited access to risk management systems, low female participation rates, high youth unemployment rates...
Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca
This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…
The role of social capital in development has in recent years received increasing attention. Social capital seems to have evolved into panacea for the problems affecting poor communities. The question is how social capital produced in social networks is used, generated and maintained in a context of
Social presence is a theory derived from social psychology to explain social interactions in a mediated communication and is defined as the degree to which interlocutors in a communications medium perceive each other as real. This study investigates the effect of computer-mediated communication on the social presence of international students who…
Delgado Domenech, Beatriz; Cándido J. Inglés; García Fernández, José Manuel
This study analyses the relationship between self-reported social anxiety and academic performance in a sample of 1,616 Spanish students (52.1% males) in compulsory secondary education, aged 12 to 16 years old. Social anxiety was assessed by the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) and academic performance was measured with school grades and failing grades. Results reveal that adolescents with social anxiety show a similar academic performance to adolescents without social anxiety. Alth...
Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI studies reveal a complex pattern of hyper- and hypo-connectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Whereas rsfMRI findings tend to implicate the default mode network and subcortical areas in ASD, task fMRI and behavioral experiments point to social dysfunction as a unifying impairment of the disorder. Here, we leverage a novel Bayesian framework for whole-brain functional connectomics that aggregates population differences in connectivity to localize a subset of foci that are most affected by ASD. Our approach is entirely data-driven and does not impose spatial constraints on the region foci or dictate the trajectory of altered functional pathways. We apply our method to data from the openly shared Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE and pinpoint two intrinsic functional networks that distinguish ASD patients from typically developing controls. One network involves foci in the right temporal pole, left posterior cingulate cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus. Automated decoding of this network by the Neurosynth meta-analytic database suggests high-level concepts of “language” and “comprehension” as the likely functional correlates. The second network consists of the left banks of the superior temporal sulcus, right posterior superior temporal sulcus extending into temporo-parietal junction, and right middle temporal gyrus. Associated functionality of these regions includes “social” and “person”. The abnormal pathways emanating from the above foci indicate that ASD patients simultaneously exhibit reduced long-range or inter-hemispheric connectivity and increased short-range or intra-hemispheric connectivity. Our findings reveal new insights into ASD and highlight possible neural mechanisms of the disorder.
Kirby, E G; Sebastian, J G
Drawing on institutional theory, this study examines how adherence to a number of "institutional" and "technical" environmental forces can influence the business success of managed care organizations (MCOs). The standards studied include: (1) institutional forces: socially accepted procedures for delivering care (access to quality care, availability of information, and delivery of care in a personal manner); and (2) technical forces: industry standards for cost control and efficient use of financial and medical resources. The most significant finding is that successful MCOs must conform to both institutional and technical forces to be successful. MCOs that conform to either one or the other type of standard were no more successful than those that conformed to neither. These findings have several important implications for MCO strategy. First, to be successful, MCO executives must understand the external environment in which they operate. They must anticipate and respond to shifts in that environment. Second, this understanding of the external environment must place equal emphasis on societal demands (e.g., for accessible care and information) and on technical demands (e.g., for cost-efficient care). These findings may well reflect that once managed care penetration reaches relatively high levels, marketshare can no longer be gained through cost-efficiency alone; rather, enrollee satisfaction based on societal demands becomes a key factor in maintaining and gaining marketshare. Institutional theory provides' some strategies for accomplishing these goals. Cost-containment strategies include implementing policies for cutting costs in areas that do not affect the quality of care, such as using generic drugs and reducing administrative excesses and redundancies. At the same time, MCOs must implement strategies aimed at improving conformity to prevailing societal perceptions of appropriate care, including providing patients more freedom to choose their physicians and
Wim van Zanten
Full Text Available Collective representations of “time” do not passively reflect time, but time and space are mediated by society. By our social practices, such as making music and dancing, we create time. Different cultural groups may experience and perceive time in different ways, and also within one cultural group the quality of time is not always experienced in the same way. Anthropological studies have shown that in each cultural group different perceptions of time co-exist. For instance, time generally tends to be perceived as both a linear flow and as repetitive. We should not confuse metaphysical and sociological arguments about time: time in music and other performing arts operates at the social and not at the metaphysical level. The essay discusses a variety of social qualities of time and space as it becomes manifest in some performing arts of West Java and the implications for their safeguarding.
Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii’s longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.
Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis
For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions. PMID:24397599
Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hunt, Yvonne M.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W.
Background Given the rapid changes in the communication landscape brought about by participative Internet use and social media, it is important to develop a better understanding of these technologies and their impact on health communication. The first step in this effort is to identify the characteristics of current social media users. Up-to-date reporting of current social media use will help monitor the growth of social media and inform health promotion/communication efforts aiming to effec...
Rudolf R Sinkovics; Penz, Elfriede
This paper uses the social distance concept and employs a revised version of Bogardus' [Bogardus, E. S. (1933b). Social problems and social processes: Selected papers from the proceedings of the American sociological society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press] social-distance scale, to explore cognitive structures of Austrian residents towards Japanese and German tourists. The removal of conflicts between residents and international tourists is vital to improve the economic outcomes of...
Mayo, L. H.
An anticipatory project assessment is discussed which is characterized as the capacity to perform, and the disposition to take into account in relevant decisional areas, the following operations: identification of the significant effects which will result from the introduction of a specified project configuration into alternative projected future social environments during the planning, implementation, and operational states; evaluation of such effects in terms of social impacts on affected participants and social value-institutional processes in accord with specified concepts of social justice.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.
Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…
Bowen, Natasha K.; Lee, Jung-Sook; Weller, Bridget E.
Social environmental assessments can play a critical role in prevention planning in schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of conducting social environmental assessments, demonstrate that complex social environmental data can be simplified into a useful and valid typology, and illustrate how the typology can guide…
Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco
In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others"--that is, their "social value orientation"--with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were…
The SRP held a very interesting meeting in June at the Daresbury Laboratory in Warrington on the social and political implications of communicating radiation risk. In today's risk-aware society, effective communication is just as important as the control measures introduced to prevent or restrict exposure. In relation to radiation protection, risk communicators had a hard job because of: Public dread Likelihood of risk intensification Perceived inequitable distribution of risks. The higher the uncertainty, the more wary people were likely to be. Julie cited the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) as a possible tool for promoting a consistent message across all publics. This was because it aimed to put events into proper perspective and provide a common understanding amongst the nuclear community, the media and the public. Julie summed up by saying that the risk communication was not just any form of communication and the issue of communicating radiation risks involved special consideration. Further research established that the more information given to the local population, the more likely that they would deny that there was a problem. Denial could moderate beliefs or emotional reactions to a situation. This then affected their dose as they were more likely to adopt risky behaviour by eating contaminated food and entering contaminated areas. Avoiding the need to undertake safe behaviour reduced stress levels. Furthermore, people adopted beliefs to suit their situation. For example, some inhabitants of the affected areas became adapted to the radiation and actually felt worse outside the contaminated area. There was strong pressure for the maintenance of a situation which actually prevented appropriate precautions being taken. Peter concluded that there was often confusion over the details of technical information that sometimes might not help to prevent a course of action being taken. However on a positive note the research did find credence and positive
Determining the veracity of a rape allegation in the absence of incontrovertible evidence is highly problematic and complicated by vagaries of surrounding issues. The purpose of the present study was to utilise a unique, multi-faceted approach with a representative US complete dataset (n=351) to identify the most prominent, distinguishing characteristics between genuine and false allegations. There are reasons to suggest that false allegations will be distinguishable from genuine rapes. Th...
Christina Hoff Sommers and Sally Satel, a philosopher and a psychiatrist, now both policy analysts at the American Enterprise Institute, write in their recent book One Nation Under Therapy: How the Helping Culture Is Eroding Self-Reliance that empirically unsupported psychological theories ultimately descended from the cultural upheavals of the 1960s have slowly wormed their way into the educational and social scientific mainstream. These theories, the authors argue, promote a view of the human person as someone who is ‘too fragile for this world’, and in need of ceaseless counseling and coddling from the cradle to the grave. The case the authors make for their thesis is, I argue, uneven strong in specific cases, but weak and overwrought in many others. In the end, I argue, they misidentify the main cause of the increasing shallowness that, to a growing number of critics, is slowly infesting contemporary social science and education.
Matthew C Metz
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding how kill rates vary among seasons is required to understand predation by vertebrate species living in temperate climates. Unfortunately, kill rates are only rarely estimated during summer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For several wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park, we used pairs of collared wolves living in the same pack and the double-count method to estimate the probability of attendance (PA for an individual wolf at a carcass. PA quantifies an important aspect of social foraging behavior (i.e., the cohesiveness of foraging. We used PA to estimate summer kill rates for packs containing GPS-collared wolves between 2004 and 2009. Estimated rates of daily prey acquisition (edible biomass per wolf decreased from 8.4±0.9 kg (mean ± SE in May to 4.1±0.4 kg in July. Failure to account for PA would have resulted in underestimating kill rate by 32%. PA was 0.72±0.05 for large ungulate prey and 0.46±0.04 for small ungulate prey. To assess seasonal differences in social foraging behavior, we also evaluated PA during winter for VHF-collared wolves between 1997 and 2009. During winter, PA was 0.95±0.01. PA was not influenced by prey size but was influenced by wolf age and pack size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that seasonal patterns in the foraging behavior of social carnivores have important implications for understanding their social behavior and estimating kill rates. Synthesizing our findings with previous insights suggests that there is important seasonal variation in how and why social carnivores live in groups. Our findings are also important for applications of GPS collars to estimate kill rates. Specifically, because the factors affecting the PA of social carnivores likely differ between seasons, kill rates estimated through GPS collars should account for seasonal differences in social foraging behavior.
Vonasch, Andrew J; Baumeister, Roy F
Greater belief in free will is associated with greater empathy towards the working poor, support for social mobility, greater desire for socio-economic equality, and less belief that poor people are fated to live in poverty. We found no sign that belief in free will led to prejudice or discrimination against poor people or undercut justice. These findings from an online survey flatly contradict the claims made by James Miles (2013). Belief in a just world did produce many of the patterns Miles attributed to belief in free will. We also question the reasoning and the strength of the purported evidence in his article, and we recommend that future writers on the topic should cultivate cautious, open-minded consideration of competing views. Miles' article is a useful reminder that to some writers, the topic of free will elicits strong emotional reactions. PMID:22747648
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Chung, Sulki; Way, Ineke; Jolley, Jennifer
Despite the fact that the goal of child welfare is to impact the caregiver’s behavior rather than the child’s, research on recurrence at the alleged perpetrator level is scant compared to research on child level recurrence. No prior studies both controlled for services participation by the caregiver and explored whether a recurrence happens with the same child. This study helps fill the gap by analyzing caregivers who are alleged perpetrators and later recurrence of abuse or neglect. In-home ...
Horton, Joanne; Millo, Yuval; Serafeim, Georgios
Using a sample of 4,278 listed UK firms, we construct a social network of directorship-interlocks that comprises 31,495 directors. We use social capital theory and techniques developed in social network analysis to measure a director's connectedness and investigate whether this connectedness is associated with their compensation level and their firms overall performance. We find connectedness is positively associated with compensation and with the firm's future performance. The results do not...
Nadia Albu; Cătălin Nicolae Albu; Maria Mădălina Gîrbină; Maria Iuliana Sandu
Corporate social responsibility and sustainability are key issues in the current business environment. Accountants play a crucial role in organizations in areas closely related to corporate social responsibility such as reporting, transparency, ethics, legal compliance, communication with stakeholders, and resource consumption. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of accountants within the corporate social responsibility, with an emphasis on the Romanian case. Via literature review an...
Youyou Baende Bofota, Raouf Boucekkine and Alain Pholo Bala
We propose a multisector endogenous growth model incorporating social capital. Social capital only serves as an input in the production of human capital and it involves a cost in terms of the final good. We show that in contrast to existing alternative specifications, this setting assures that social capital enhances productivity gains by playing the role of a timing belt driving the transmission and propagation of all productivity shocks throughout society whatever the sectoral origin of the...
Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Jobson-Ahmed, Lauren; Tarrier, Nicholas; Malaspina, Dolores; Gross, James J.
Successful social functioning requires adaptive forms of emotion awareness and regulation. However, despite well-documented deficits in social functioning in individuals with schizophrenia, little is known about emotion awareness and regulation in this population. Therefore, we compared emotion awareness and regulation in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and then, within the schizophrenia group, we examined their impact on social functioning. Forty-four individuals with sc...
Trevor Gates; Alice Walters
Higher education continues to evolve responding to technological advances and growing economic challenges. Social work education has been slower to embrace emergent technologies than other fields in higher education. Contributing to this cautious approach may be historical controversy surrounding social work professionalization and practice. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an important trend gathering recent attention in higher education. The contribution of MOOCs to social work educa...
Intense competition and a world-wide market have led to social evils, such as child labour in various industries. As the developed world's social conscience becomes more acute, marketing initiatives have been developed of which the most prominent is to affix appropriate labels to products, guaranteeing that child labour is not used or is used only under controlled conditions. This issue of social labelling with its modalities and consequences is studied in the article.
Sprenger, Michaela; Blondiau, Andre; Rohner, Peter; Mettler, Tobias
Social technologies are increasingly adopted across industries as they incorporate potential business value. Also the healthcare industry could profit from social technologies as the members of healthcare institutions have to be connected and collaborate with each other in order to reach their ambitious efficiency targets. Existing social networking sites like Facebook address the need of communication and information exchange but at the same time they are posing a challenge with regard to me...
Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo
A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the 'Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)'. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens' social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the 'high social capital' category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences.The results of this study suggest that
The paper presents an analysis of the social science development concept of Immanuel Wallerstein. In general terms we can say that the development of social sciences was based on a process of emancipation of individual subjects of research and validation of research methods. I. Wallerstein drew attention to the process of emancipation of individual disciplines, therefore we can talk about the separation of philosophy, followed by social sciences and, negatively evaluated by I. Wallerstein, ap...
Crandall, James E.
Describes the development and validation of a new, short measure of social interest and examines its relations to a variety of measures of adjustment and psychological well-being. Also summarizes the meaning of Adler's concept of social interest and his theorizing concerning its influence on adjustment. (Author/SS)
Hill, Lori Diane; Baxen, Jean; Craig, Anne T.; Namakula, Halima
Access to education is one of a range of social citizenship rights that are intended to afford members of a society an opportunity to share in a basic level of social, economic, and cultural well-being and to mitigate societal inequalities. The idea that every individual has a right to education is deeply entrenched in the international discourse…
Full Text Available Now more than ever we live in a society saturated with technology and media. We are captured by the technology whirlwind such as the internet, instant messages, emails, and social media such as Twitter and Facebook. Technologies not only are changing the way people live, work, and interact with each other but also the way companies conduct their businesses. Social media no doubt is one of such technologies that enables companies to market their products and services in new and unique dimensions. Beyond marketing, social media is also changing the way human resource professionals recruit and select employees. Recruiting and selecting potential new employees using social media, is gaining popularity. There are even software programs that capitalize on the information available on social media sites to assist human resources professionals to source, screen, and track job applicants. Although there are many advantages in using social media networks to assist HR to select and filter job candidates, there are reasons for concerns. In this paper, we’ll examine the legal and ethical consequences of using social media in the area of human resource management. Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Human Resources, Management.
Livingstone, Sonia; Brake, David R
Social networking sites have been rapidly adopted by children and, especially, teenagers and young people worldwide, enabling new opportunities for the presentation of the self, learning, construction of a wide circle of relationships, and the management of privacy and intimacy. On the other hand, there are also concerns that social networking…
Purpose: The purpose of my paper is to examine how to overcome corporate and social enterprise vulnerability and explore some of the more important factors that profit-making enterprise and social enterprise have used to ensure their businesses remain resilient.
Gearing, Robin Edward; Saini, Michael; McNeill, Ted
This phenomenological study's purpose was threefold: to detail the experiences of social workers practicing in a hospital environment affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to describe essential themes and structures of social work practices within this crisis environment, and to explore recommendations for better preparedness to…
Lundahl Philpot, Eva
This sequential, mixed methods research addressed emerging social media use practices among IT professionals and explored lived experiences of senior IT leaders relative to successful organizational social media adoption and use. The study was informed by structuration theory and elements from the universal technology adoption and use (UTAUT)…
Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)
Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry
School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…
Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel
This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…
Rui F Oliveira
Full Text Available Within vertebrates teleost fish are the most diverse and plastic taxa in terms of social behavior. With over 29,000 species described so far, one can find all different types of social organization, mating systems and parental care types. Moreover, it is relatively common to find variation of these characters within closely related species, which makes them suitable for comparative studies on the evolution of social behavior (e.g. variation in mating systems and parental care type in African cichlids. Fish are also champions of social plasticity, as can be illustrated by the flexible patterns of sexual expression, as in the case of protrandrous and protogynous sex-change, simultaneous hermaphroditism and intra-sexual variation in the form of discrete alternative male phenotypes. Complex cognitive abilities used in social interactions have also evolved in fish, such as individual recognition, transitive inference and social learning. Therefore, teleosts offer unique opportunities to study both the evolution and the function of social behavior and cognition. In this talk I will summarize the work that our lab has been doing to establish zebrafish as a model organism for the study of social behavior and cognition and I will illustrate how knowledge on this are can be applied to fish welfare and to conservation issues.
O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet
This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…
Park, Namsu; Lee, Hyunjoo
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between motives of smartphone use, social relation, and psychological well-being. The correlation analysis shows that the motives of smartphone use were positively related to bonding relations but negatively related to bridging relations. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis finds the associations among motives of smartphone use, social relations, perceived social support, and variables of psychological well-being. The results demonstrate that needs for caring for others were negatively related to loneliness and depression and positively related to self-esteem. However, the communication motives are not a significant predictor to determine self-esteem, loneliness, and depression. In addition, bonding and bridging social relations and social support significantly increase self-esteem and decrease loneliness and depression. PMID:22817650
... Information The OIG Hotline Allegation System (EPA-30) will be changed to the Inspector General Enterprise... Administrator and Chief Information Officer. EPA-30 System Name: Inspector General Enterprise Management System... access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide...
Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Matteoli, Sara; Wilhjelm, Jens E;
assessment of alleged torture victims. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to test the accuracy of two experienced investigators in determining whether a heel pad model was soft, medium or hard. The skin-to-bone distance in the models varied within the human range. METHOD: Two blinded investigators independently...
Haselschwerdt, Megan L.; Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Hans, Jason D.
Approximately, 20% of divorcing couples in the United States require judicial intervention to reach a custody agreement. In such cases, courts often call on child custody evaluators to conduct comprehensive evaluations and recommend custody agreements and services that meet children's best interests. Estimates suggest that allegations of domestic…
Lorin de la Grandmaison, G; Houssaye, C; Bourokba, N; Durigon, M
A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the frequency of traumatic lesions found in individuals alleging police brutality during official custody in the département of Hauts-de-Seine, located in the west suburbs of Paris. All medical certificates relating to the examination of 11,653 individuals detained during the year 2004 were analysed. From this population, there were 119 cases where victimized individuals alleged police assault and 245 revealed aggressive police manhandling, as indicated by traces of tight handcuffs. Among the individuals alleging police violence, most of them showed recent traumatic lesions (n=91). The majority of lesions were superficial contusions frequently located in the cervico-cephalic area. All traumatic lesions were compatible with the allegations of police assault. Neurological complications secondary to the application of handcuffs were encountered in less than 2% of the cases. Although no death was recorded in police custody during the period of the study, approximately 5% of the population that had encountered some form of police violence was found to require emergency hospitalization. PMID:17631458
Lindahl, Mary W.
In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves…
An analysis of the sources of profit growth for China’s state-owned industry since 1999 indicates that the key source of profit growth is not the high productivity of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) but rather their monopoly position and pricing power in some basic industries. From an overall social perspective, such high profitability means an inefficient allocation of industrial resources and a potential loss of social welfare. Therefore, further expanding and deepening the reform of SOE property rights, encouraging the development of non-SOEs and boosting the competitiveness of basic industries will significantly improve the resource allocation efficiency of the Chinese industry and enhance overall social welfare.
One of the main tasks of the transition economies is to catch up with the advanced levels of highly developed economies. The lack of social capital is a major impediment to this process, as it does not allow taking advantage of the comparatively high level of human capital in these countries. The purpose of the current paper is to study the interrelationships between human capital and social capital, with the main emphasis on how social capital affects the accumulation of human capital. In ge...
Schwartz, Jonathan P; Lindley, Lori D
Sexism in our society leads to multiple negative outcomes for women. Although traditional therapeutic approaches as well as preventive interventions address the specific negative outcomes of sexism, they rarely utilize a social justice approach. The deleterious effects of sexism occur complexly; sexist interpersonal events often occur within family systems that may endorse traditional gender roles, which exist within a societal and cultural context that contains sexist norms and formalized sexist policies. These multifaceted, ingrained circumstances delineate the need for preventive social justice to address sexism on multiple levels. A prevention/social justice model will be used to critique existing interventions and identify avenues for change in research and practice. PMID:19051035
The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate have investigated allegations of poor quality control in the manufacture and installation of pipework carrying cooling water for the reactor vessel and various auxiliary systems and gas, mainly carbon dioxide, for treatment. After considerable investigation of each allegation it was concluded that none provided a cause for concern over the safety standards at Heysham-2 reactor. (U.K.)
Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world’s poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589
Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.
Mirre eStallen; Alan eSanfey
The development of closer ties between researchers and practitioners in the domain of behavior and behavioral change offers useful opportunities for better informing public policy campaigns via a deeper understanding of the psychological processes that operate in real-world decision-making. Here, we focus on the domain of social conformity, and suggest that the recent emergence of laboratory work using neuroscientific techniques to probe the brain basis of social influence can prove a useful ...
Livingstone, Sonia; Brake, David R.
Social networking sites have been rapidly adopted by children and, especially, teenagers and young people worldwide, enabling new opportunities for the presentation of the self, learning, construction of a wide circle of relationships, and the management of privacy and intimacy. On the other hand, there are also concerns that social networking increases the likelihood of new risks to the self, these centring on loss of privacy, bullying, harmful contacts and more. This article reviews recent ...
Stephen M. Mutula
Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1) describe the types of social networks, (2) examine global penetration of th...
Background. Consumer engagement with brands in social media has become an increasingly important challenge for companies to create and to measure. Building fan engagement with brands turns out to be one of the most important promotional objectives for social media, and a preferred brand performance indicator. Despite a growing demand, it has received little academic consideration and there exists no universally accepted measurement of this phenomenon. Research aims. This pap...
Korn, D A
Canada experienced a dramatic increase in legalized gambling in the 1990s, primarily because of governments' need to increase revenue without additional taxation. This article examines gambling from a public health perspective. The major public health issues include gambling addiction, family dysfunction and gambling by youth. Debates have emerged about the health, social and economic costs and benefits of gambling. Stakeholder and social policy groups have expressed concern about the impact ...
In the presentation at the ‘International symposium on Informed Design of Educational Technologies - Enhanced Learning and Teaching', I will discuss the following: the design process for teaching and learning innovations involving social media, challenges for educators in the design, development and evaluation of social software initiatives, the diverse roles that the educators have to perform for efficient and sustainable use of these tools, how knowledge management models can guide the des...
Renate Ysseldyk; Miki Talebi; Kimberly Matheson; Irene Bloemraad; Hymie Anisman
Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual), civic involvement (including individual and collect...
Andrew G. Biggs; Brown, Jeffrey R.; Glenn Springstead
This paper explains four methods of "price indexing" initial Social Security retirement benefits, and discusses the effect of each method on the fiscal sustainability of Social Security, benefit levels and replacement rates, redistribution, and sensitivity of system finances to demographic and economic shocks. Of these methods, Primary Insurance Amount (PIA) Factor Indexing would generate the largest cost savings while reducing benefit growth at approximately an equal rate for all income leve...
Campellone, Timothy Ryan
The outcomes of decisions we make are integral for guiding our behavior. In this study, we investigated if and how people with and without schizophrenia use positive and negative social outcomes and social partners’ emotional displays to inform decisions to trust as well as whether they could detect reversals in behavior even as emotion displays remained unchanged. Thirty-two people with schizophrenia and 29 control participants completed a task where they decided how much trust to place in s...
Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda
The adoption of multi-agency working is a key component of the Government’s agenda for the reconfiguration of children’s services. This study examines multi-agency working from the perspective of social workers within an early intervention family support team. Qualitative methods were used, involving individual interviews as well as focus groups with a total of 29 professionals within the early intervention social work team and its partner agencies. Thematic analysis of transcripts showed a n...
Stephen M. Mutula
Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.
Stephen M. Mutula
Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.
Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to (abnormal functioning of) internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result in disease, making it a risk factor for disease, but not a disease per se. According to several social conceptions of disease, however, obesity clearly is a disease. Obesity can conflict with aesthetic, moral, or other social norms. Making obesity a "social disease" may very well be a wise health policy, assuring and improving population health, especially if we address the social determinants of obesity, such as the food supply and marketing system. However, applying biomedical solutions to social problems may also have severe side effects. It can result in medicalization and enhance stigmatization and discrimination of persons based on appearance or behavior. Approaching social problems with biomedical means may also serve commercial and professionals' interests more than the health and welfare of individuals; it may make quick fix medical solutions halt more sustainable structural solutions. This urges health insurers, health care professionals, and health policy makers to be cautious. Especially if we want to help and respect persons that we classify and treat as obese. PMID:25822670
Full Text Available With the future of New South Wales (NSW regional train services under question, concern has been expressed that replacement of trains with coaches will diminish levels of mobility and raise social exclusion for some people. Provision has been made on coaches for people considered to be disabled, but without recognition of the needs of people who do not fit either able or disabled categorisation. All train services offer better accessibility and therefore mobility to all people. The issue of regional train service cessation and replacement raises questions regarding the reliability of existing Australian studies about train service replacement, the degree to which health and illness are affected, as well as the potential for the exacerbation of existing social exclusion. An examination of the literature and some historical investigation undertaken by the authors highlights these limitations amid the ableism/disablism dualism in existing research and rural transport policy. The paper further suggests that the absence of Australian evidence of mobility loss should not be taken to indicate the reality of regional mobility and social inclusion. Instead the paper argues that further independent mobility loss and social exclusion may occur if coaches are further substituted for regional train services. Keywords: Public transport, disability, rural Australia, regional Australia, social inclusion, social policy, transport history
Full text: In the environmental, and consequently in many social debates about industrial activities, there are groups and movements that oppose progress and expansion, sometimes even the essence of the activity itself, based on mostly hardly acceptable, even doubtful argumentation. They do this, regardless of the beneficial effects that these industries have on the general well-being of modern society. They obviously do not consider any adverse effect that their actions can have on the local scale either. The methods that are used are the exploitation of heavily emotional argumentation, and based on non-up-to-date scientific arguments, one-sided and incomplete science, amalgamation of scientific approaches, and a lot of carefully chosen axioma, if not dogmatic premises. This methodology is put into practice by media seduction and strong political lobbying, and even by trying to divide the industry itself. Media are used through spectacular stunt-work, ensuring higher sales, and thus a wider public spread of the emotional approach. In certain industries this phenomenon has gone so far that workers have decided to gather forces in order to counter these tactics in their own way, and with their own means. Amongst these groups there are members of very diverse functional entities within the industry itself, from the store-keeper to the researcher, from the commercial manager to the financial expert, passing by the lawyer and the worker on the production line. This diversity of people, with their own expertise and personal experience, who often have been involved themselves in the strong environmental improvement of their own activities (at work and sometimes even in their own neighbourhood), and also with the health and safety assurance in their factories, ensures a wealth of possibilities for such a workers organisation on the general communication side. Their creativity ensures 'action and counter-action' possibilities that can be as mediatic as necessary. They have
Menezes Paulo R.
Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.
Vyas, Amita; Turner, Monique; Glick, Sara; Wood, Susan
Background Trends in social media use, including sending/receiving short message service (SMS) and social networking, are constantly changing, yet little is known about adolescent’s utilization and behaviors. This longitudinal study examines social media utilization among Latino youths, and differences by sex and acculturation. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine Latino adolescents’ social media utilization and behavior over a 16-month period, and to assess whether changes in use differed by sex and acculturation. Methods This study included 555 Latino youths aged 13-19 who completed baseline and 16-month follow-up surveys. Prevalence of social media utilization and frequency, by sex and acculturation categories, was examined using generalized estimating equations. Results Women are more likely to use SMS, but men are significantly more likely to SMS a girl/boyfriend (P=.03). The use of Internet by men and women to research health information increased over time. Facebook use declined over time (PSocial media is ubiquitous in Latino adolescents’ lives and may be a powerful mode for public health intervention delivery. PMID:26420553
Gersick, Andrew; Kurzban, Robert
According to signaling theory and a large body of supporting evidence, males across many taxa produce courtship signals that honestly advertise their quality. The cost of producing or performing these signals maintains signal honesty, such that females are typically able to choose the best males by selecting those that produce the loudest, brightest, longest, or otherwise highest-intensity signals, using signal strength as a measure of quality. Set against this background, human flirting behavior, characterized by its frequent subtlety or covertness, is mysterious. Here we propose that the explanation for subtle and ambiguous signals in human courtship lies in socially imposed costs that (a) vary with social context and (b) are amplified by the unusual ways in which language makes all interactions potentially public. Flirting is a class of courtship signaling that conveys the signaler's intentions and desirability to the intended receiver while minimizing the costs that would accompany an overt courtship attempt. This proposal explains humans' taxonomically unusual courtship displays and generates a number of novel predictions for both humans and non-human social animals. Individuals who are courting should vary the intensity of their signals to suit the level of risk attached to the particular social configuration, and receivers may assess this flexible matching of signal to context as an indicator of the signaler's broader behavioral flexibility and social intelligence. PMID:25299992
Herrera-Yagüe, C; Couronné, T; Smoreda, Z; Benito, R M; Zufiria, P J; González, M C
The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25 million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive sim...
Full Text Available The explanations of phenomena belonging to the domain of social reality have usually clustered around two opposing poles. Some authors considered them a mere reflection of the individual psychological characteristics of the society's members, while others considered them as being exclusively collective, thus transcending the level of individualistic psychology and explanation. Only a few authors, like G. H. Mead (1997/1934, saw that phenomena of social reality concurently shape the psychological characteristics of individuals and are produced in the process of their interaction. Such views were, however, condemned to misunderstanding, because the conceptual apparatus required for an efficient approach to the understanding of dynamical, self-organising systems, evolved only in the last decades. The aim of the article is to show how it is possible to explain the origin and the existence of the phenomena of social reality on the basis of some fundamental individual characteristics, while avoiding the pitfall of reductionism and not overlooking their transcendental nature.
Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation has often been discussed in the context of large renewable technology projects, acceptance having been seen as rather passive consent by the public. The potential importance of micro-generation technologies in the future energy supply mix and policymakers' increasing attention to these technologies requires a different approach to the social acceptance of renewable energy innovation and energy infrastructure technologies. Instead of mere consent to an infrastructure project, domestic micro-generation requires active acceptance by homeowners, whereby individual households become part of the electricity supply infrastructure. Acceptance may therefore be expressed in various forms: attitudes, behaviour and - most importantly - investments. This paper argues that different deployment models with varying degrees of company and consumer involvement will have a significant influence on the social acceptance of domestic micro-generation and therefore the market uptake of these technologies. Three deployment models are elaborated and briefly situated in the current UK energy policy context. (author)
Mayo, L. H.
An attempt was made to identify social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which would or could flow from the introduction of advanced civil aviation systems. A broad range of social impact areas was investigated which included economic, environmental, political, sociological, psychological, legal, and urban/regional developmental factors. Data are arranged into two major parts. In the first part, a series of Major Policy Issues are identified and discussed which appear, on the basis of the social impact study, to merit serious consideration. The discussion of each "Issue' is presented both to explain its relevance and to raise considerations which will bear on its satisfactory resolution. The second part views the same overall body of information in a different manner: a series of "Findings' are pointed out from which more concrete guidance for R and D policy can be derived, and a set of "Candidate Basic Federal Undertakings' thus derived are presented.
Stephanie M. BENNETT
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine elementary social studies methods texts, specifically focusing on literacy content (reading comprehension strategies, vocabulary strategies, and literacy activities for the general education population and English Language Learners (ELLs. Eight elementary social studies methods texts were examined. Analysis of the texts found that while a limited number of reading comprehension and vocabulary strategies and activities were found in each text, half of the texts did not detail how to use the strategies in the classroom or how to differentiate instruction for ELL’s. Thus, collaboration between social studies educators, literacy educators and ESOL educators is needed in order to fully prepare our pre-service teachers to teach across content areas.
Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Blahova, Michaela
and profit alike. As such socially equitable, ecologically sensitive, and economically sound enterprise strategy that can be translated into socially responsible, environmentally neutral or positive, and financially profitable performance and impact is a critical weapon of wicked warfare. A clear......-ecological innovation that also delivers positive economic impact. Models for social-ecological innovation (SEI) and sustainable enterprise excellence, resilience and robustness (SEER2) are briefly presented prior to their deeper consideration within organizational contexts and in light of wicked global challenges that...... contributions are presented along with a roadmap for their use. Successful application of these tools hold the potential to render an enterprise sustainable, excellent, resilient, robust and responsible at economic, societal, and ecological levels....
Lewis, Megan A.; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.; Levis, Denise M.; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia
Purpose To understand couples’ notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. Approach/Design We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P’s. Setting Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. Participants A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Method Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples’ experience with PCH and the four social marketing P’s. Results Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P’s for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Conclusion Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships. PMID:23286659
Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy
To ensure acceptable practice standards both doctors and social workers should draw on relevant legal rules when reaching professional judgements concerning, for instance, children requiring protection, people with severe mental distress and adults at risk, information sharing, consent to intervention and service user involvement in their care and treatment. Many practitioners use the law to maintain high standards of professionalism. However, research has uncovered limited awareness of legal rules and poor standards of health and social care. Academic benchmarks and practice requirements for health and social care professions centrally position legal knowledge for secure decision-making. Model curricula exist. However, the outcomes of the taught curriculum on students' confidence in their legal knowledge and skills have been relatively overlooked. This article introduces the concept of legal literacy, a distillation of knowledge, understanding, skills and values that enables practitioners to connect relevant legal rules with their professional practice, to appreciate the roles and duties of other practitioners and to communicate effectively across organisational boundaries. It presents the outcomes for a 2006-2009 study of 1154 UK medical and 638 social work students of their law learning for practice, response rates of 46% and 68%. Significant differences were found between medical and social work students' attitudes towards the law, and in their self-ratings of legal knowledge and skills. Confidence levels were low and anxiety high, especially among medical students, although law teaching had some positive outcomes on knowledge and skill development. Social work and medical students associated different themes with the law, the latter especially foregrounding ethics, negligence and liability, which could affect inter-professional working. Students are not fully prepared for legally literate practice, with a consequent need to review the time allocated for, and
Darr, A. R.
This thesis is about the experience of Muslim British Pakistani families coping with thalassaemia (a chronic, inherited blood disorder) and the implications for service delivery. Its central concern is to illustrate that simplistic and culturally-biased assumptions are an unsatisfactory base on which to devise health service delivery for minority populations, and that with careful study it is possible to deliver culturally sensitive and appropriate services. The the...
Carvalho, Viviana Maria Costa
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia (área de especialização em Psicologia Escolar e da Educação) A inteligência social tem vindo a ser associada ao sucesso escolar, profissional e social (Almeida, 1998; Gardner, 1999; Goleman, 2006; Stenberg & Gricorenko, 2003), parecendo adequar-se às mudanças sociais e culturais em torno da educação, do emprego ou do desempenho, em termos mais latos (Candeias, 2008). Os jovens, na adolescência, procuram integrar critérios ideológicos, soci...
Now more than ever we live in a society saturated with technology and media. We are captured by the technology whirlwind such as the internet, instant messages, emails, and social media such as Twitter and Facebook. Technologies not only are changing the way people live, work, and interact with each other but also the way companies conduct their businesses. Social media no doubt is one of such technologies that enables companies to market their products and services in new and unique dimen...
Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…
Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man
The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.
Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.
Objective: The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a "priori" measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate…
Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcon-del-Amo, Maria-del-Carmen
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study factors affecting the acceptance of social networking sites (SNS), analyze users' practices and behavior in these environments and assess the degree of acceptance of SNS in The Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach – An extended technology accepta
Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.
The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) working-class students have fewer friends at university than middle-class students and (b) this social class difference occurs because working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students. A sample of 376 first-year undergraduate students from an Australian university completed an…
Full Text Available Of the many opportunities and affordances that mobile technologies bring to our day-to-day lives, the ability to cheat physical separation and remain accessible to each other—in an instant—also brings pressure to bear on well-established social conventions as to how we should act when we are engaged with others in shared spaces. In this paper we explore some ethical dimensions of mobile communication by considering the manner in which individuals in everyday contexts balance interpretations of emergent social conventions with personal desires to connect in the moment. As we later discuss, the decisions made in response to a ringing mobile phone or flashing text message emerge from consequential versus deontological ethical frames used to determine what to do versus what we ought to do. This is particularly true in western and North American cultural contexts from which our data are collected. Using Goffman's dramaturgy, we suggest that these conflicts occurring on an individual level provide evidence of social structure, and are simultaneously entwined with our less obvious ruminations on the maintenance of social order.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1760
Gilbert, Sam J.; Burgess, Paul W.
In this article, we discuss the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) in two domains relevant to education: executive function (particularly prospective memory, our ability to realize delayed intentions) and social cognition (particularly our ability to reflect on our own mental states and the mental states of others).…
Frauenknecht, Marianne; Black, David R.
This paper makes a case that decision making (DM) is not social problem solving (SPS) and DM is subordinate and subsumed within SPS. Both terms are defined and distinguished. Confusion between SPS and DM is widespread and has occurred for at least four decades. DM, not SPS, has been established as one of the seven National Health Education…
Atweh, Bill; Brady, Kate
This paper discusses an approach to mathematics education based on the concept of ethical responsibility. It argues that an ethical approach to mathematics teaching lays the theoretical foundations for social justice concerns in the discipline. The paper develops a particular understanding of ethical responsibility based on the writings of Emanuel…
Whiteley, John M.
Uses a social ecological perspective to discuss six components that affect the potential for peace: (1) government; (2) religion; (3) business; (4) education; (5) family; and (6) human nature. Charges that the current psychology of human beings is a threat to peace. (JAC)
This study examines the linkage between corporate social responsibility and stock market returns in the USA, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Concentrating on corporate disclosure and corporate eco-efficiency, we find mostly mixed results by employing factor performance attribution models. A theoretical framework to model the real underlying relation is presented.
Almquist, Ylva; Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca
While research into educational inequalities emphasizes childhood socio-economic status, this study adds another dimension of status into the analysis; namely, the child's own social position among its peers. The aim was to examine whether socio-economic status and peer status can both be linked to educational transitions and, if so, whether they…
Richards, P.; Amara, J.; Ferme, M.C.; Kamara, P.; Mokuwa, E.; Sheriff, A.I.; Suluku, R.; Voors, M.J.
The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through humanto- human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, bu
Mehta, Sandhya Rao
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic…
Herman, Daniel B.; Mandiberg, James M.
Relatively little attention has been paid to the dimension of time in the design of social work interventions. Critical time intervention (CTI), an empirically supported psychosocial intervention intended to reduce the risk of homelessness by enhancing continuity of support for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) during the transition…
Desouza, Josephine M. Shireen; Czerniak, Charlene M.
A 2-year ethnographic study focused on social behaviors and gender differences among preschoolers engaging in science activities. Findings indicated that boys exhibited curiosity, spontaneity, extensive prior knowledge about nature, and tended toward aggressive, competitive, and sometimes violent behavior. Girls displayed a submissive countenance,…
There is an increasing demand for social work students to be prepared to work with a wide range of involuntary groups including the more traditional court-ordered programs in domestic abuse and chemical dependency, as well as groups in mental health and schools that provide outreach to high-risk client populations. This paper introduces three…
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.
This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…
A growing body of literature is focused on hypertechnology in curriculum and culture. This article contributes to that literature. Taking the perspective of social work education that human reality emerges from the interaction of biological, psychological, and socio-cultural forces, the reader is invited to consider the possibility that in this…
Colvin, Alex Don; Bullock, Angela N.
The exponential growth and sophistication of new information and computer technology (ICT) have greatly influenced human interactions and provided new metaphors for understanding the world. The acceptance and integration of ICT into social work field education are examined here using the technological acceptance model. This article also explores…
Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…
Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna
This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…
Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler
This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…
Elia, John P.; Tokunaga, Jessica
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how school-based sexuality education has had a long and troubled history of exclusionary pedagogical practices that have negatively affected such populations as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer (LGBTQ) individuals, people of color, and the disabled. The social ecological model is introduced as a…
Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan
Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…
Valtonen, Teemu; Dillon, Patrick; Hacklin, Stina; Vaisanen, Pertti
This paper takes as its starting point assumptions about use of information and communication technology (ICT) by people born after 1983, the so called net generation. The focus of the paper is on social networking. A questionnaire survey was carried out with 1070 students from schools in Eastern Finland. Data are presented on students' ICT-skills…
Susan K. Walker
Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.
Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is
Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.
Arge, Sára Oladóttir; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
BACKGROUND: Clinical forensic examinations of alleged torture victims have been performed by forensic pathologists at the University of Copenhagen since 1995. In 13.2%/33 of these cases the examinations were supplemented by a forensic odontological clinical examination. In this study the forensic...... odontological cases from the years 1997-2011 are presented and discussed. METHODS: This study includes 33 reports from alleged torture victims (4 females, 29 males) who have been examined by a forensic odontologist at the Copenhagen School of Dentistry in the years 1997-2011.The material available consisted...... of copies of medical forensic reports and the forensic odontological reports including x-rays. BACKGROUND data, anamnestic data and results of the forensic odontological clinical examinations were registered as well as the conclusion of the clinical examinations. FINDINGS: The forensic odontological...
Weaver, Betsy; Lindsay, Bill; Gitelman, Betsy
Electronic patient education and communications, such as email, text messaging, and social media, are on the rise in healthcare today. This article explores potential uses of technology to seek solutions in healthcare for such challenges as modifying behaviors related to chronic conditions, improving efficiency, and decreasing costs. A brief discussion highlights the role of technologies in healthcare informatics and considers two theoretical bases for technology implementation. Discussion focuses more extensively on the ability and advantages of electronic communication technology, such as e-mail, social media, text messaging, and electronic health records, to enhance patient-provider e-communications in nursing today. Effectiveness of e-communication in healthcare is explored, including recent and emerging applications designed to improve patient-provider connections and review of current evidence supporting positive outcomes. The conclusion addresses the vision of nurses' place in the vanguard of these developments. PMID:23036059
This study sought to learn from Latino immigrant families what services they need to promote their families' well-being within a context of stringent anti-immigrant legislation. Fifty-two Latino immigrant parents participated in focus groups. Focus groups took place following the passage of Senate Bill 1070. Findings reveal five major categories of need: mental health, physical health care, education, information and support services, and community efforts. Participants' experiences as immigrants played a significant role in their narratives. The narratives reveal that families need assistance navigating systems of care, coping with discrimination and oppressive environments, strengthening ties among community members, and advocating for policy change. Social workers are called to address the needs of this community and advocate for human rights and social justice. PMID:24640227
Nelson, Helen; Kendall, Garth; Shields, Linda
Children entering school need to build healthy peer relationships; school, however, is the central place for bullying. School nurses have a growing focus on providing care for students with social, emotional and behavioural problems. We examined the relational development of children at school entry in regard to aggression and empathy, showing that teacher-reported aggression decreased between Pre-primary and Year One, while empathy increased between Year One and Year Two classes. No gender difference was found in teacher-reported total, or covert aggression. Understanding how development of empathy can be supported in children at school entry is important, thereby supporting development of pro-social behaviour and decreasing bullying. School nurses must understand the importance of surrounding children with safety in relationships as they begin school. PMID:23455873
Andreea Simona SÃSEANU; Cristian-Silviu BANACU; Cristina PANA
Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept that refers to the debt that companies (such as social actors) have to all parties involved in the conduct of their alleged economic activity. The concept refers to all categories of companies, from micro enterprises to multinationals. Debt companies' corporate social responsibility refers to the fact that the company must act with the consequences, positive or negative, on their activities on society, the company having a duty to minimize negative...
Cornwall, Tom; Kessler, Anke
The paper presents evidence on the effect of voter demobilization in the context of the Canadian 2011 federal election. Voters in 27 ridings (as of February 26, 2012) allegedly received automated phone calls (`robocalls') that either contained misleading information about the location of their polling station, or were harassing in nature, claiming to originate from a particular candidate in the contest for local Member of Parliament. We use within-riding variation in turnout and vote--share f...
Cosima Rhein; Christiane Mühle; Johannes Kornhuber; Martin Reichel
Loss-of-function mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene are associated with decreased catalytic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and are the cause of the autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A and B. Currently, >100 missense mutations in SMPD1 are listed in the Human Gene Mutation Database. However, not every sequence variation in SMPD1 is detrimental and gives rise to NPD. We have analysed several alleged SMPD1 mis...
Gavins, Joanna; Simpson, Paul
This article explores the conformation in discourse of a verbal exchange and its subsequent mediatised and legal ramifications. The event concerns an allegedly racist insult directed by high profile English professional footballer John Terry towards another player, Anton Ferdinand, during a televised match in October 2011. The substance of Terry’s utterance, which included the noun phrase ‘fucking black cunt’, was found by a Chief Magistrate not to be a racist insult, although the fact that t...
Grodner, Andrew; Kniesner, Thomas J.
Our research fleshes out econometric details of examining possible social interactions in labor supply. We look for a response of a person's hours worked to hours worked in the labor market reference group, which includes those with similar age, family structure, and location. We identify endogenous spillovers by instrumenting average hours worked in the reference group with hours worked in neighboring reference groups. Estimates of the canonical labor supply model indicate positive economica...
Social responsibility of hotel and tourism industries becomes a significant issue during the last decade. Observations within the hospitality sector during the last 10 years confirm that hoteliers have already started to incorporate CSR and the online reporting in their businesses. The international hotel chains with strong brands like Marriott, Hilton, Radisson, Hyatt etc. have special CSR sections on their websites where they report all activities and initiatives related to their policy in ...
Kohls Gregor; Chevallier Coralie; Troiani Vanessa; Schultz Robert T
Abstract Most behavioral training regimens in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) rely on reward-based reinforcement strategies. Although proven to significantly increase both cognitive and social outcomes and successfully reduce aberrant behaviors, this approach fails to benefit a substantial number of affected individuals. Given the enormous amount of clinical and financial resources devoted to behavioral interventions, there is a surprisingly large gap in our knowledge of the basic reward mech...
The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of ...
The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of ...
SELLAMI, Sana; Verhaest, Dieter; NONNEMAN, Walter; VAN TRIER, Walter
We investigate the role of four motives to participate in higher education – investment, educational consumption, student life consumption and social pressure – on field of study choices and academic performance and on three labour market outcomes – over-education, wages and job satisfaction. We use data on three cohorts of about 3000 Flemish individuals documenting the transition from education to work. Principal components are used to identify the four study motives. Effects of study motive...
Amaeshi, K.; Nnodim, P.; Osuji, O.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is increasingly becoming a popular business concept in developed economies. As typical of other business concepts, it is on its way to globalization through practices and structures of the globalized capitalist world order, typified in Multinational Corporations (MNCs). However, CSR often sits uncomfortably in this capitalist world order, as MNCs are often challenged by the global reach of their supply chains and the possible irresponsible practices inher...
This article examines the use of Facebook by social movement organizations (SMOs) and the ramifications from that usage for their organizational form. Organizational forms have been viewed to be in flux as networked communication becomes embedded in mobilization repertoires. In what follows, it is shown that the utilization of Facebook by networked heterarchical organizations is seen to grant them access to a hitherto untapped demographic for the purpose of mobilization. Concurrently, questio...
Wilson Ozuem; Jason Prasad
Gambling has been a part of humanity for a long time, and references to it have been found in some of the earliest dated records. Literature on the topic has been accumulating since ancient times. The advent of Internet technology along with its typical subsets provides a new approach to how gambling is conducted in postmodern times. Drawing on qualitative research and utilising a single case study strategy, this study examines online social gambling and real money gambling marketing communic...
Tiwari, Rajnish; Fischer, Luise; Kalogerakis, Katharina
The topic of frugal innovation is increasingly gaining relevance in social as well as scholarly discourse. Frugal innovations have been perceived by many to be a phenomenon generally confined to emerging economies where there are large groups of unserved consumers with unmet needs. But there is increasing evidence that this phenomenon is getting relevant also in the industrialized nations potentially affecting the long-term competitiveness of domestic firms not only overseas but also at home....
Becker, T; S. Boschert; L. Hempel; S. Höffken; Obst, B.
Cities can be seen as complex systems of heterogeneous processes with a high variety of different influences (e.g. social, infrastructural, economic, and political impacts). This especially applies for tasks concerning urban development of existing assets. The optimization of traffic flows, reduction of emissions, improvement of energy efficiency, but also urban climate and landscape planning issues require the involvement of many different actors, balancing different perspectives, a...
Taylor, Mark B.
The United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework,developed by the U.N. Special Representative JohnRuggie, brings together social expectations and law into anemerging policy framework of direct relevance to corporatesocial responsibility, CSR. The principle source of theFramework’s significance for the policy and practice of CSRis its definition of the theory of business responsibility forhuman rights as arising from business activities and relationships,and its deployment of due dil...
Ian Gray; Merrilyn Crichton
With the future of New South Wales (NSW) regional train services under question, concern has been expressed that replacement of trains with coaches will diminish levels of mobility and raise social exclusion for some people. Provision has been made on coaches for people considered to be disabled, but without recognition of the needs of people who do not fit either able or disabled categorisation. All train services offer better accessibility and therefore mobility to all people. The issue of ...
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Michelle P. Warren
This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage=11.84, SD=0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these associations. Cortisol samples were collected from saliva samples during in-home visits, and the YSR was used to assess psychopathology. Interestingly, pu...
Horobet, Alexandra; Lucian BELASCU
This paper presents the authors’ views on the meaning of the academic debate highlighted by the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature about the strategy and efficient management of companies. In the last years, the number of academic contributions on the relationship between the CSR and financial performance has significantly grown, being either theoretical, offering plausible explanations regarding this relationship, according to the economic theory, either empirical, by using var...
Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu
The ethanol tariff is one of the instruments used by the government to encourage domestic ethanol production. Existing literature analyzing the market and welfare effects of the US ethanol tariff has concluded that removing the tariff would increase social surplus and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, due to the replacement of corn ethanol with lower cost and lower GHG intensive sugarcane ethanol. This paper re-examines these findings in the presence of a domestic cellulosic ethanol indu...
Wesley R. Hartmann
This paper develops a model for the estimation and analysis of demand in the context of social interactions. Decisions made by a group of customers are modeled to be an equilibrium outcome of an empirical discrete game, such that all group members must be satisfied with chosen outcomes. The game-theoretic approach assists estimation by allowing us to account for the endogeneity of group members' decisions while also serving as a managerial tool that can simulate equilibrium outcomes for the g...
Full Text Available The development of closer ties between researchers and practitioners in the domain of behavior and behavioral change offers useful opportunities for better informing public policy campaigns via a deeper understanding of the psychological processes that operate in real-world decision-making. Here, we focus on the domain of social conformity, and suggest that the recent emergence of laboratory work using neuroscientific techniques to probe the brain basis of social influence can prove a useful source of data to better inform models of conformity. In particular, we argue that this work can have an important role to play in better understanding the specific mechanisms at work in social conformity, in both validating and extending current psychological theories of this process, and in assessing how behavioral change can take place as a result of exposure to the judgments of others. We conclude by outlining some promising future directions in this domain, and indicating how this research could potentially be usefully applied to policy issues.
Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.
Full Text Available The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of this corpus is based on the particular imagined encounter of a listener responding to an idealised ‘work’. Although this problem of essentialism has been identified within mainstream musicology, the lingering effects may spill over into interdisciplinary, empirical research. This paper defines the situation according to its legacy of individualism, and offers an alternative sketch of musical activity as performance event, a model that highlights the social interaction processes at the heart of musical behaviour. I describe some recent empirical work based on interaction-oriented approaches, arguing that this particular focus – on the social interaction process itself – creates a distinctive and promising agenda for further research into embodied music cognition.
The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of this corpus is based on the particular imagined encounter of a listener responding to an idealized “work.” Although this problem of essentialism has been identified within mainstream musicology, the lingering effects may spill over into interdisciplinary, empirical research. This paper defines the situation according to its legacy of individualism, and offers an alternative sketch of musical activity as performance event, a model that highlights the social interaction processes at the heart of musical behavior. I describe some recent empirical work based on interaction-oriented approaches, arguing that this particular focus – on the social interaction process itself – creates a distinctive and promising agenda for further research into embodied music cognition. PMID:25101011
The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of this corpus is based on the particular imagined encounter of a listener responding to an idealized "work." Although this problem of essentialism has been identified within mainstream musicology, the lingering effects may spill over into interdisciplinary, empirical research. This paper defines the situation according to its legacy of individualism, and offers an alternative sketch of musical activity as performance event, a model that highlights the social interaction processes at the heart of musical behavior. I describe some recent empirical work based on interaction-oriented approaches, arguing that this particular focus - on the social interaction process itself - creates a distinctive and promising agenda for further research into embodied music cognition. PMID:25101011
Casais, Beatriz; Proença, João F
This article discusses motivations and inhibitions among celebrities to participate in health-related social marketing. The research identifies the implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. Results from in-depth interviews with 27 Portuguese celebrities show that they expect a fee for endorsements of commercial and government social marketing, despite the positive image they may gain from endorsing public health. The results demonstrate an absence of celebrity prejudice against HIV because of its serious nature and the social stigma attached to AIDS. This research suggests there is a positive bias and presents helpful information for negotiations between institutions and celebrities. PMID:22905943
Sommerfeld, J; Oduola, A M J
The African continent is disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. Malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and more "neglected" diseases including African trypanosomiasis, Buruli ulcer, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma continue to dramatically impact social and economic development on the continent. Health biotechnologies provide potential to develop effective strategies for the fight against the vicious circle of poverty and infections by helping in the development and improvement of novel affordable drugs, diagnostics and vaccines against these diseases. As the prospects of this emerging biotechnology research and deployment of its products become a reality in Africa, there is a need to consider the ethical, legal and social implications of both the scientific and technological advances and their use in the communities. The article provides a short overview of the potential values of biotechnology, issues involved in its transfer and presents the rationale, design and recommendations of the international workshop/symposium held in April 2005 at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria. PMID:17703556
Volkova, Svitlana; Bachrach, Yoram
Social media services such as Twitter and Facebook are virtual environments where people express their thoughts, emotions, and opinions and where they reveal themselves to their peers. We analyze a sample of 123,000 Twitter users and 25 million of their tweets to investigate the relation between the opinions and emotions that users express and their predicted psychodemographic traits. We show that the emotions that we express on online social networks reveal deep insights about ourselves. Our methodology is based on building machine learning models for inferring coarse-grained emotions and psychodemographic profiles from user-generated content. We examine several user attributes, including gender, income, political views, age, education, optimism, and life satisfaction. We correlate these predicted demographics with the emotional profiles emanating from user tweets, as captured by Ekman's emotion classification. We find that some users tend to express significantly more joy and significantly less sadness in their tweets, such as those predicted to be in a relationship, with children, or with a higher than average annual income or educational level. Users predicted to be women tend to be more opinionated, whereas those predicted to be men tend to be more neutral. Finally, users predicted to be younger and liberal tend to project more negative opinions and emotions. We discuss the implications of our findings to online privacy concerns and self-disclosure behavior. PMID:26652673
The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination found probable cause to believe that Dr. [name removed] denied [name removed] reproductive services because [name removed] is gay, which [name removed] associates with being at high risk for HIV. [Name removed] claimed that the doctor refused to bank and transport his semen for artificial insemination. [Name removed], the father of one, tested negative and possesses no risk of infecting the would-be mother. The Commission will hold a conciliation session to try and resolve the dispute. If the session is not successful, the Commission will conduct an evidentiary hearing. PMID:11366047
An integrative-psychodynamic theory of criticism in self and relationships is presented (Shahar, 2015). My theoretical starting point is the tension between Authenticity (A; our inherited potential, tantamount to Winnicott's True Self) and Self-Knowledge (SK; what we [think] we know about ourselves). Self-criticism, a formidable dimension of vulnerability to a wide array of psychopathologies, is construed as a distorted form of self-knowledge, reducing internal confusion at the expense of widening the gap between A and SK. Amalgamated by a genetic and neuroanatomic makeup, criticism of the self quickly translates into criticism-based interpersonal exchanges across the life span, culminating in an Axis of Criticism (ACRIM). A psychodynamic-integrative psychotherapy of malignant criticism in self and relationships is described. The article is concluded with some broad reflections on the implication of this work to the theory development and therapeutic action. PMID:27603804
Full Text Available The Galapagos Islands are among the most renowned natural sites in the world. Unlike other oceanic archipelagos, the ecological and evolutionary processes characteristic of Galapagos have been minimally affected by human activities, and the archipelago still retains most of its original, unique biodiversity. However, several recent reports suggest that the development model has turned unsustainable and that the unique values of the archipelago might be seriously at risk. In response to international concern, UNESCO added Galapagos to the list of World Heritage in Danger in 2007. Our goal was to provide new insights into the origins of the present-day crisis and suggest possible management alternatives. To this end, we re-examined the Galapagos situation from a broad systems perspective, conceptualizing the archipelago as a complex social-ecological system. Past, present, and possible future trends were explored using the resilience theory as a perspective for understanding the dynamics of the system. Four major historical periods were characterized and analyzed using Holling’s adaptive cycle metaphor. The current Galapagos situation was characterized as a prolonged series of crisis events followed by renewal attempts that have not yet been completed. Three plausible future scenarios were identified, with tourism acting as the primary driver of change. The current tourism model reduces the system’s resilience through its effects on the economy, population growth, resource consumption, invasive species arrival, and lifestyle of the island residents. Opportunities to reorganize and maintain a desirable state do exist. However, strong political and management decisions are urgently needed to avoid an irreversible shift to a socially and environmentally undesirable regime. Key measures to achieve a new sustainability paradigm for Galapagos include modifying traditional practices to produce a more adaptive resilience-based co-management model
Sharpe, Ruth V; Avilés, Leticia
There are many benefits of group living, but also substantial costs, one of which is competition for resources. How scarce food resources are distributed among different members of a population or social group - whether via scramble or contest competition - can influence not only the variance in individual fitness, but also the stability and therefore survival of the group or population. Attributes of the food resources themselves, such as their size, may influence the type of intraspecific competition that occurs and therefore the intrinsic stability of a group or population. By experimentally manipulating the size of prey fed to artificial colonies of the social spider Anelosimus eximius, we investigated whether prey size could alter the degree of scramble vs. contest competition that takes place and, thus, potentially influence colony population dynamics. We found that large prey were shared more evenly than small prey and that individuals in poor condition were more likely to feed when prey were large than when prey were small. Additionally, we show that individuals participating in prey capture are also more likely to feed on the captured prey. We developed a simple mathematical model to explore the prey sizes that would be energetically worth defending, i.e. prey that are 'economically defendable'. The model shows that neither very small prey, nor prey above a certain size is worth monopolizing, with only intermediate size prey being 'economically defendable'. We therefore suggest the small and large prey in our experiment corresponds to our model's intermediate and large prey categories, respectively. As the size of prey captured by social spider colonies increases with colony size, our findings suggest that scramble competition may predominate in large colonies. Scramble competition, combined with the fact that prey biomass per capita declines as colonies grow beyond a certain size, would then explain why extremely large colonies of this social spider may
Saltzstein, H D
The findings of Turiel, Hildebrandt, and Wainryb's study of reasoning and judgement on nonprototypical issues that seem to span domains are discussed. Opinions were obtained from high school and college students on 1-4 nonprototypical issues (abortion, pornography, homosexuality, and incest), and compared with judgments and reasoning on 2-3 moral issues (killing, rape, and theft), and 1-3 personal issues (nudity at a public beach, smoking marijuana, and men wearing makeup). Those evaluating the nonprototypical issues negatively were placed in 1 group, and those positively in another group. The goal was to determine how opposite positions on nonprototypical issues related to judgments and reasonings on moral and personal issues. 5 explanations are given for nonprototypical thought which are based on Turiel and the author's constructs. 1) Issues like abortion and pornography are of a type where moral principles clash and lead to different judgments, and thus, require higher level moral principles. 2) The greater cognitive complexity of these nonprototypical issues yields domain differences which are manifestations of a decalage in judgement. 3) Nonprototypical issues may be ambiguous as to their proper moral, conventional, or personal category. Judgments are predictable once the proper category is made. Categories may be complex or ambiguous. 4)Ambiguity involves rational determinism, where reasoning on nonprototypical issues derives from the reasoner's understanding and interpretation of the situation, "social construals." 5)Complexity involves different supraordinate structures within which , e.g., morality and social convention operate. The results indicate that judgments on nonprototypical issues could not be predicted on moral or personal positions. The importance of this finding about how group and individual differences cannot be explained is in its exploration of the limits of moral theory and the preeminent need to place moral theory in a broader and deeper
Mr.Taylor's paper has the following section headings: preface; my relevant experience; the problem of controversy; the nature of the nuclear power controversy; the role of argument; paranoia and repression; structural inertia and conflict; the internationalisation of the opposition; the place of THORP in the context of an environmental revolution; the effect on THORP; the disposal controversy; the safety controversy; the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy; nuclear power and symbolic representation; my own view as a social anthropologist (fledgling). (U.K.)
Full Text Available The estimation of corruption and its effects on the social and economic development of a country is a difficult task. A series of studies have estimated the effects of corruption on the economic development of a sector of activity. This article presents the results obtained at the level of a sample with regard to a series of aspects related to the measurement of corruption and the identification of its causes and of the role played by certain institutions in the growth or reduction of corruption. The statistical information was obtained by means of a statistical questionnaire intended for public administration employees. The data were processed in SPSS.
Yesley, M.S. [comp.
This second edition of the ELSI Bibliography provides a current and comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Since the first edition of the ELSI Bibliography was printed last year, new publications and earlier ones identified by additional searching have doubled our computer database of ELSI publications to over 5600 entries. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography reflects this growth of the underlying computer database. Researchers should note that an extensive collection of publications in the database is available for public use at the General Law Library of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).
Zaĭtseva, M A
The present analysis of blood traces on the clothes of the alleged criminals is based on the results of 109 medical criminalistic expertises. They are illustrated by examples from practical work. PMID:23888508
Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A
The aim of this study was to examine how students' perceptions of the class climate influence their basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, social goals and outcomes such as boredom, enjoyment, effort, and pressure/tension. 507 (267 males, 240 females) secondary education students agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Spanish validated versions of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2), Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise (BPNES), Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC), Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), and several subscales of the IMI. A hierarchical cluster analysis uncovered four independent class climate profiles that were confirmed by a K-Means cluster analysis: "high ego", "low ego-task", "high ego-medium task", and "high task". Several MANOVAs were performed using these clusters as independent variables and the different outcomes as dependent variables (p responsibility and relationship, as well as low levels of amotivation, boredom and pressure/tension. Students' perceptions of a performance class climate made the positive scores decrease significantly. Cluster 3 revealed that a mastery oriented class structure undermines the negative behavioral and psychological effects of a performance class climate. This finding supports the buffering hypothesis of the achievement goal theory. PMID:25012581
Full Text Available The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.
Insurance contracts are founded upon the doctrine of utmost good faith which, inter alia, requires the prospective insured to disclose material circumstances within its knowledge. This article examines the extent to which rumours in relation to, and false allegations of, dishonesty, criminality or misconduct by a business insured fall within the scope of its pre-contractual disclosure duties. If every false allegation must be disclosed, the insured may be placed in a situation where he must p...
Handballing (fist fucking) has long been practiced by male homosexual partners with few evident consequences of a medically serious nature. In recent years, however, medical and surgical risks have risen as handballing has come to be practiced in groups. The potential for physical harm (e.g., rupture of the anal sphincter, perforation of the colon, the spread of anorectal and colon disease, and disturbance of heart rhythms due to vagovagal response), although widely understood, has not been studied statistically. Only three articles in medical journals have commented on the subject and then only as recorded observations. This article describes: (1) how club-sponsored social events function, (2) the medical and surgical risks to those who choose handballing as a sexual life-style, and (3) the precautions to be taken if risks are to be minimized. PMID:7341668
This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:870557
This three-part article presents an analysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies, and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories drawn from the area of medicine. PMID:856745
This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:1022803
This study aimed to study the SR (social representation) regarding the 'Nuclear Energy' (NW) and 'Nuclear Chemistry' (NC) of students of Science - Bachelor of Federal University of Sao Paulo - UNIFESP. Individual questionnaires to research the topic, followed by the presentation of seminars with the focus of the research were applied. The methodology used was the technique of free word (Abric ,1994) which gives the frequency of each element that was mentioned and their average order of evocation, as well as semi -structured questionnaire with questions. Among the first results, it was found that the words 'Bomb' and 'Reactor' were the most mentioned by the group when asked evocations related to 'NE', while the terms 'Health' and 'Safety' are among the least mentioned. When referring to 'NC' the most frequent terms were 'Chemistry' and 'Atoms/Elements and 'Reactor' and 'Development' were less frequent. However, even though as a possible central core elements that match a negative SR theme, these students indicated Nuclear Energy as a strong option/option for diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix
Bee, Mark A.
Acoustic signals provide a basis for social recognition in a wide range of animals. Few studies, however, have attempted to relate the patterns of individual variation in signals to behavioral discrimination thresholds used by receivers to discriminate among individuals. North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) discriminate among familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on individual variation in advertisement calls. The sources, patterns, and magnitudes of variation in eight acoustic properties of multiple-note advertisement calls were examined to understand how patterns of within-individual variation might either constrain, or provide additional cues for, vocal recognition. Six of eight acoustic properties exhibited significant note-to-note variation within multiple-note calls. Despite this source of within-individual variation, all call properties varied significantly among individuals, and multivariate analyses indicated that call notes were individually distinct. Fine-temporal and spectral call properties exhibited less within-individual variation compared to gross-temporal properties and contributed most toward statistically distinguishing among individuals. Among-individual differences in the patterns of within-individual variation in some properties suggest that within-individual variation could also function as a recognition cue. The distributions of among-individual and within-individual differences were used to generate hypotheses about the expected behavioral discrimination thresholds of receivers. .
Becker, T.; Boschert, S.; Hempel, L.; Höffken, S.; Obst, B.
Cities can be seen as complex systems of heterogeneous processes with a high variety of different influences (e.g. social, infrastructural, economic, and political impacts). This especially applies for tasks concerning urban development of existing assets. The optimization of traffic flows, reduction of emissions, improvement of energy efficiency, but also urban climate and landscape planning issues require the involvement of many different actors, balancing different perspectives, and divergent claims. The increasing complexities of planning and decision processes make high demands on professionals of various disciplines, government departments, and municipal decision-makers. In the long term, topics like urban resilience, energy management, risk and resource management have to be taken into account and reflected in future projects, but always related to socio-spatial and governmental aspects. Accordingly, it is important to develop models to be able to understand and analyze the outcomes and effects of governmental measures and planning to the urban environment. Thus, a more systematic approach is needed - going away from welldefined city models to city system models. The purpose is to describe urban processes not only quantitatively, but to grasp their qualitative complexity and interdependencies, by modeling and simulating existing urban systems. This contribution will present the City System Model (CSM) concept closely related to an Urban Energy Planning use case, will highlight the methodology, and focus on first results and findings from an ongoing interdisciplinary research project and use case to improve the basis of information for decision-makers and politicians about urban planning decisions.
Mark B. Taylor
Full Text Available The United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework,developed by the U.N. Special Representative JohnRuggie, brings together social expectations and law into anemerging policy framework of direct relevance to corporatesocial responsibility, CSR. The principle source of theFramework’s significance for the policy and practice of CSRis its definition of the theory of business responsibility forhuman rights as arising from business activities and relationships,and its deployment of due diligence for humanrights risk as the core operational concept of this theory ofresponsibility. The article considers the responsibility torespect human rights in light of theories about polycentricregulatory regimes and draws the conclusion that the RuggieFramework creates a regulator dynamic in which bothvoluntarism and law have relevant and reinforcing roles toplay in governing business behavior. In the wake of theadaptation of the Framework by the UN, the challenge forthe field of CSR will be to adapt to an emerging reality inwhich business responsibility for ‘the social’ is increasinglya question of compliance and beyond.
Wong, V C; Chiu, S W
Analyses the features, strategies and characteristics of health-care reforms in the People's Republic of China. Since the 14th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party held in 1992, an emphasis has been placed on reform strategies such as cost recovery, profit making, diversification of services, and development of alternative financing strategies in respect of health-care services provided in the public sector. Argues that the reform strategies employed have created new problems before solving the old ones. Inflation of medical cost has been elevated very rapidly. The de-linkage of state finance bureau and health service providers has also contributed to the transfer of tension from the state to the enterprises. There is no sign that quasi-public health-care insurance is able to resolve these problems. Finally, cooperative medicine in the rural areas has been largely dismantled, though this direction is going against the will of the state. Argues that a new balance of responsibility has to be developed as a top social priority between the state, enterprises and service users in China in order to meet the health-care needs of the people. PMID:10351255
Fillary, Rose; Pernice, Regina
This research investigated elements of workplace culture across eight New Zealand workplaces where people with intellectual disability were employed. Using a semi-structured interview format, eight employers were surveyed, and variations in job entry procedures, orientation and training, company policies, job design, customs and practice, and social opportunities were examined. Factors influencing inclusion in the workplace culture of a total of 16 employees, eight supported employees and eight co-workers without disabilities, were identified and compared. The findings indicated that supported workers had a lower level of inclusion than co-workers. Several factors influencing inclusion of employees in the workplace culture were identified; full-time vs. part-time, level of employment support, limiting expectations and employer/co-worker attitudes. The use of a workplace culture survey by supported employment professionals has several benefits, including the identification of potentially inclusive workplaces, the facilitation of a good person and workplace environment match, the possibility of monitoring inclusion levels, encouragement of full work shift placements, and the provision of effective support on the job. PMID:16432387
Yesley, M.S.; Ossorio, P.N. [comps.
This report updates and expands the second edition of the ELSI Bibliography, published in 1993. The Bibliography and Supplement provides a comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. The Bibliography and Supplement are extracted from a database compiled at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the support of the Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography was dated May 1993 but included publications added to the database until fall 1993. This Supplement reflects approximately 1,000 entries added to the database during the past year, bringing the total to approximately 7,000 entries. More than half of the new entries were published in the last year, and the remainder are earlier publications not previously included in the database. Most of the new entries were published in the academic and professional literature. The remainder are press reports from newspapers of record and scientific journals. The topical listing of the second edition has been followed in the Supplement, with a few changes. The topics of Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington`s Disease, and Sickle Cell Anemia have been combined in a single topic, Disorders. Also, all the entries published in the past year are included in a new topic, Publications: September 1993--September 1994, which provides a comprehensive view of recent reporting and commentary on the science and ELSI of genetics.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.
Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.
Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.
Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Sams, S.; Small, C.
The tidal channel network in southwest Bangladesh has been undergoing major adjustment in response to anthropogenic modification over the past few decades. Densely inhabited, agricultural islands that have been embanked to protect against inundation by tides, river flooding, and storm surges (i.e., polders) preclude tidal exchange and sedimentation. Studies reveal this results in elevation deficits relative to mean high water, endangering local communities when embankment failures occur (e.g., during storms, lateral channel erosion). In addition, many studies suggest that the decrease in tidal prism and associated change in hydrodynamics from poldering causes shoaling in remaining tidal channels, which can cause a disruption in transportation. The widespread closure and conversion of tidal channel areas to profitable shrimp aquaculture is also prevalent in this region. In this study, we quantify the direct closure of tidal channels due to poldering and shrimp aquaculture using historical Landsat and Google Earth imagery, and analyze the morphologic adjustment of the tidal channel network due to these perturbations. In the natural Sundarbans mangrove forest, the tidal channel network has remained relatively constant since the 1970s. In contrast, construction of polders removed >1000 km of primary tidal creeks and >90 km2 has been reclaimed outside of polders through infilling and closure of formerly-active, higher order conduit channels now used for shrimp aquaculture. Field validation confirm tidal restriction by large sluice gates is prevalent, favoring local channel siltation at rates up to 20cm/yr. With the impoundment of primary creeks and closure of 30-60% of conduit channels in the study area, an estimated 1,400 x 106 m3 of water has been removed from the tidal prism and potentially redirected within remaining channels. This has significant implications for tidal amplification in this region. Further, we estimate that 12.3 x 106 MT of sediment annually
D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Liccardi, G; Pellegrino, F; D'Amato, M; Sofia, M
The Internet and, in particular, social networks are an increasingly important part of daily life for both adolescents and adults who maintain a virtual relationship with others sharing interests and goals. Very often, they disclose more about themselves online than they do in person. However, cyberbullying and cyberostracism can be problematic for adolescents and sensitive individuals, who might be negatively affected by social networks. Some studies have shown an increased risk of depression, whereas others suggest beneficial effects through enhanced communication, social connection, and self-esteem. Bronchial asthma is an increasingly frequent disease in the industrialized world, and psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing its severity. One year after the case report of an asthma exacerbation that may have been triggered by Facebook, it seems reasonable to analyze the effects of social networks on bronchial asthma. PMID:23101183
Gurudeo Anand Tularam
Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the last ten years there has been a phenomenal growth in the amount of funds placed in SRI globally estimated to be around US$6.5 trillion while around US$55 billion in the Australian market. Accurate knowledge of correlation of the Australian SRI market with other SRI markets overseas is crucially important for Australian (SRI investors for international portfolio diversification since portfolio diversification theory posits that the lower (higher the correlation between markets, the higher (lower the gains to be made. The study examines the relationship of the Australian SRI market with fourteen other markets-Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States. Approach: The relationships of the Australian Socially Responsible Investment (SRI market with other SRI markets worldwide during the period 1994-2009 are examined based on the dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCCMVGarch. In the DCC method, the multivariate conditional variance estimation is simplified by estimating univariate GARCH models for each market. Using the transformed residuals resulting from the first stage, the authors can estimate a conditional correlation estimator. The standard errors for the first stage parameters remain while the standard errors for the correlation parameters are modified. Results: Our results showed that the Australian market experienced a surge in correlation with all other markets during the global financial crisis. During the period of study, the correlation of Australia with Canada, Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom increased over time while its correlation with other countries remained stationary. This implies that the Australian SRI market is becoming more integrated with those of Canada, Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom. Therefore, these overseas markets provide less
Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie
Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940
Jennifer B McCormick
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research ethics consultation programs are being established with a goal of addressing the ethical, societal, and policy considerations associated with biomedical research. A number of these programs are modelled after clinical ethics consultation services that began to be institutionalized in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine biomedical science researchers' perceived need for and utility of research ethics consultation, through examination of their perceptions of whether they and their institutions faced ethical, social or policy issues (outside those mandated by regulation and examination of willingness to seek advice in addressing these issues. We conducted telephone interviews and focus groups in 2006 with researchers from Stanford University and a mailed survey in December 2006 to 7 research universities in the U.S. FINDINGS: A total of 16 researchers were interviewed (75% response rate, 29 participated in focus groups, and 856 responded to the survey (50% response rate. Approximately half of researchers surveyed (51% reported that they would find a research ethics consultation service at their institution moderately, very or extremely useful, while over a third (36% reported that such a service would be useful to them personally. Respondents conducting human subjects research were more likely to find such a service very to extremely useful to them personally than respondents not conducting human subjects research (20% vs 10%; chi(2 p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that biomedical researchers do encounter and anticipate encountering ethical and societal questions and concerns and a substantial proportion, especially clinical researchers, would likely use a consultation service if they were aware of it. These findings provide data to inform the development of such consultation programs in general.
Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Abraham, Zulema
We report the discovery of a small cluster of massive stars embedded in a NIR nebula in the direction of the IRAS15411-5352 point source, which is related to the alleged planetary nebula W16-185. The majority of the stars present large NIR excess characteristic of young stellar objects and have bright counterparts in the Spitzer IRAC images; the most luminous star (IRS1) is the NIR counterpart of the IRAS source. We found very strong unresolved Brgamma emission at the IRS1 position and more d...
Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson
It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of...
Makhubele, J C
The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion. PMID:24066633
This paper seeks to critically examine the likely economic and social implications of the recent amendments to the ‘Anti-Money laundering and countering the Financing of Terrorism (Amendment) Act 2015’ (AML-CFTA 2015 Act) on a small, developing, open economy, Guyana. This paper examines the amendments to original 2009 Bill and whether this new act, given the complexities of the small, developing country, would serve to promote the best economic interest of its people who, are at critical junc...
Ranieri, Maria; Manca, Stefania; Fini, Antonio
To date, little empirical research on professional use of social network sites has been conducted, particularly with reference to groups of teachers on Facebook. The paper presents the results of two surveys addressed to the founders of five Italian Facebook groups and their members (n = 1107), with the aim of investigating mechanisms underlying group membership and reflecting on their implications for professional development. A number of hypotheses were tested in order to explore the nature...
Lainpelto, Katrin; Isaksson, Johan; Lindblad, Frank
This study aimed at investigating if attitudes toward children with neuropsychiatric disorders influence evaluations concerning allegations of child sexual abuse. Law students (n = 107) at Stockholm University, Sweden, were presented a transcript of a mock police interview with a girl, 11 years of age. This interview was based on a real case, selected as a "typical" example from these years concerning contributions from the interviewer and the alleged victim. After having read the transcript, the students responded to a questionnaire concerning degree of credibility, if the girl talked about events that had really occurred, richness of details, and if the narrations were considered truthful and age-adequate. Fifty-four of the students were also told that the girl had been given the diagnoses of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Students who were informed about the diagnoses gave significantly lower scores concerning credibility of the interviewee. To a lesser degree they regarded her narrations as expressions of what had really occurred and considered her statements less truthful. Furthermore, they found that the narrations contained fewer details. Finally, they found the girl less competent to tell about abuse. We conclude that a neuropsychiatric disorder may infer risks of unjustified skeptical attitudes concerning trustworthiness and cognitive capacity. PMID:27135382
Foelix, Rainer; Erb, Bruno; Rast, Bastian
Several studies on tarantulas have claimed that their tarsi could secrete fine silk threads which would provide additional safety lines for maintaining a secure foot-hold on smooth vertical surfaces. This interpretation was seriously questioned by behavioral experiments, and more recently morphological evidence indicated that the alleged spigots ("ribbed hairs") were not secretory but most likely sensory hairs (chemoreceptors). However, since fine structural studies were lacking, the sensory nature was not proven convincingly. By using transmission electron microscopy we here present clear evidence that these "ribbed hairs" contain many dendrites inside the hair lumen - as is the case in the well-known contact chemoreceptors of spiders and insects. For comparison, we also studied the fine structure of regular silk spigots on the spinnerets and found them distinctly different from sensory hairs. Finally, histological studies of a tarantula tarsus did not reveal any silk glands, which, by contrast, are easily found within the spinnerets. In conclusion, the alleged presence of silk spigots on tarantula feet is refuted. PMID:23474440
In February 2009, the Office of Inspector General received a letter from Congressman Mark Steven Kirk of Illinois, which included constituent allegations that an exclusive technology licensing agreement by Argonne National Laboratory was tainted by inadequate competition, conflicts of interest, and other improprieties. The technology in question was for the Program for Response Options and Technology Enhancements for Chemical/Biological Terrorism, commonly referred to as PROTECT. Because of the importance of the Department of Energy's technology transfer program, especially as implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act matures, we reviewed selected aspects of the licensing process for PROTECT to determine whether the allegations had merit. In summary, under the facts developed during our review, it was understandable that interested parties concluded that there was a conflict of interest in this matter and that Argonne may have provided the successful licensee with an unfair advantage. In part, this was consistent with aspects of the complaint from Congressman Kirk's constituent.
Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.
Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…
James E. Hunton; Jacob M. Rose
A total of 83 experienced audit committee members participated in an experiment in which they evaluated the credibility of and allocated investigative resources towards a whistle-blowing allegation of financial reporting malfeasance by corporate executive officers. We manipulated whether the whistle‐blowing allegation was made through anonymous or non‐anonymous channels and whether the allegation posed a relatively high or low threat to the personal reputation of the audit committee member wh...
Full Text Available The individual act of registering to vote is a first and exceedingly important step toward the full realization of each citizen’s participation in our democracy. A person registering to vote may elect to do so by mail-in form, contemporaneous to completing an application for a driver’s license, or by interaction with a representative of any number of voter-mobilization organizations active in this country. This Note focuses on the latter method of registration by examining third-party voter mobilization organizations, with specific reference to allegations of fraud perpetrated by one such group, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN. While acknowledging genuine instances of fraud, the Note seeks equally to address the function of partisanship in animating allegations of fraud and the deleterious impact that politically motivated allegations have on the franchise and our elections.
Social impact evaluation : Some implications of the specific decisional context approach for anticipatory project assessment with special reference to available alternatives and to techniques of evaluating the social impacts of the anticipated effects of such alternatives
Mayo, L. H.
The implications are explored of the specific decision context approach to anticipatory project assessment. More specifically, it is hypothesized that with respect to any given effect of a proposed project or action (mobility, job opportunities, air pollution, population distribution, etc.) such effect will likely differ in probability and/or magnitude from one decisional context to another; that the social desirability or undesirability of a given effect is a function (will differ with) each specific decisional context; that therefore the social impact of such effect will in all likelihood differ with each specific decisional context; and that the social significance of even the dame social impact of a given effect will vary from one decisional context to another when such social impact interacts with (competes with or reinforces) the social impacts of other effects. It also follows from this analysis that the respective roles of scientific method (demonstrable data) and adversarial system will not only differ with each specific decisional context but with each alternative course of action available to the decisional entity in each specific context.
Sheila Weremchuk Ida
Full Text Available Based on the concept of eating disorders, this paper aims on the investigation of our relation with body, discussing the normative practices that constitute our ways of life. From an aesthetic standard that relates body to beauty and success, we intend to put in question the social context where eating disorders have been produced. To achieve this objective, we base our study on anorexia and bulimia analysis. The symptoms of these psychopathologies have difficult treatment and reflect an excessive worry about weight, corporal image and fattening up. Our interest is to contribute to this discussion, avoiding an individualized perspective, focused on anorexic and/or bulimic young boy or girl and on the dysfunctional interactions of his/her familiar system, but shifting the focus on eating disorders as devices that denunciate the extremism of the way of thinking, feeling and experiencing body in our society. Therefore, our objective is to present some subsidies that allow us to dislocate this matter from the exclusive scope of individual experience to an analysis of the social practices of our relation with body that reside contemporary experience, considering eating disorders in the present time as the exacerbation of a social symptom.
Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1 gene are associated with decreased catalytic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM and are the cause of the autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease (NPD types A and B. Currently, >100 missense mutations in SMPD1 are listed in the Human Gene Mutation Database. However, not every sequence variation in SMPD1 is detrimental and gives rise to NPD. We have analysed several alleged SMPD1 missense mutations mentioned in a recent publication and found them to be common variants of SMPD1 that give rise to normal in vivo and in vitro ASM activity. (Comment on Manshadi et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 6668–6676.
Román-Lopes, A; Abraham, Zulema; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre
We report the discovery of a small cluster of massive stars embedded in a NIR nebula in the direction of the IRAS15411-5352 point source, which is related to the alleged planetary nebula W16-185. The majority of the stars present large NIR excess characteristic of young stellar objects and have bright counterparts in the Spitzer IRAC images; the most luminous star (IRS1) is the NIR counterpart of the IRAS source. We found very strong unresolved Brgamma emission at the IRS1 position and more diluted and extended emission across the continuum nebula. From the sizes and electron volume densities we concluded that they represent ultra-compact and compact HII regions, respectively. Comparing the Brgamma emission with the 7 mm free-free emission, we estimated that the visual extinction ranges between 14 and 20 mag. We found that only one star (IRS1) can provide the number of UV photons necessary to ionize the nebula.
International audience Social evolution has influenced every aspect of contemporary honey bee biology, but the details are difficult to reconstruct. The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution proposes that central regulators of the gonotropic cycle of solitary insects have been co-opted to coordinate social complexity in honey bees, such as the division of labor among workers. The predicted trait associations between reproductive physiology and social behavior have been id...
Agarwal, Shailja; Mital, Monika
Social networking Web sites (SNWs) are online tools that have transformed the virtual encounters of the past that were technical and impersonal to today's virtual socialization that is truly nontechnical, social, and interpersonal. This article presents an exploratory study of Indian University students' use of SNWs. The results indicated that…
Davis, Charles H. F., III.; Deil-Amen, Regina; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; González Canché, Manuel Sacramento
The boundaries between on-line and "real-world" communities are rapidly deteriorating, particularly for the generation of young people whose lives are pervaded by social media. For this generation, social media exchanges are a primary means of communication, social engagement, information seeking, and possibly, a central component of…
Bijl, S. (Suzanne)
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of chronic non-pathological drinking, i.e., social drinking, on brain functioning. While ERPs were recorded, social drinking participants were assessed on cognitive tasks, which were chosen because normal functioning in these tasks allegedly
This paper overviews and re-interprets accident causation in the British Building and Construction Industry (BCI), chosen because its accident rate is high. The paper, a preliminary report of ongoing work, suggests why incidences vary widely between different sites and workgroups. Explanation appears to lie not in variant technical complexity but variant social organisation. Four archetypal forms of organisation are identified derived from Cultural Theory via social anthropology that avoid personality explanations, and focus on micro social organisation. Different kinds of micro social organisation are known to differentially influence attitudes to authority and risk-taking, views of time, filtering of information and deviance. This approach focuses on the social side of socio-technical systems when most commentators over-emphasise the technical and it is also appropriate to more technologically complex industries. The paper concludes with a plea to collect accident statistics with emphasis on micro social components and offers a method - LISTORG - to order the social dimensions involved. (author)
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
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... Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT... follow up in writing within five business days. (b) If records have allegedly been damaged, removed, or... receiving any credible information that records are at risk of actual, impending, or threatened...
Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson
entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved by...
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…
This study has utilised multiple methods that incorporate the use of ‘innovative’ communicative technology to provide an extensive exploration of students with social communication difficulties’ (SCD) social support networks whilst attending university. Ten semistructured online interviews were carried out with educational support workers (ESWs). Their analysis provides original and valuable insights into student disability support and the views of ESWs are further pursued in a series of seve...
This study aims to understand what relationship exists between the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) orientation of a firm and the innovative capabilities that shape its ability to prosper in its environment. To analyze these relationships, Social Business Joint Ventures (SBJV) were chosen as demonstration of a firm’s CSR orientation, as they are recognized in related literature as source of creativity and flexibility. A review of relevant literature revealed a gap between ...
The history and reasons for launching the Human Genome project and the current uses of genetic human material; Identifying and discussing the major issues stemming directly from genetic research and therapy-including genetic discrimination, medical/ person privacy, allocation of government resources and individual finances, and the effect on the way in which we perceive the value of human life; Discussing the sometimes hidden ethical, social and legislative implications of genetic research and therapy such as informed consent, screening and preservation of genetic materials, efficacy of medical procedures, the role of the government, and equal access to medical coverage.
This report provides the results of the South Texas Project Allegations Review Team of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This team was formed to obtain and review allegations from individuals represented by three attorneys who had contacted Congressional staff members. The allegers were employed in various capacities at South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, licensed by Houston Lighting and Power Company, et al.; therefore, the allegations are confined to this site. The South Texas Project Allegations Review Team reviewed, referred, and dispositioned concerns related to discriminatory issues (harassment and intimidation), falsification of records and omission of information, and various technical issues. The team was able to substantiate certain technical issues of minor safety significance or regulatory concern at the South Texas Project facility, but it did not find widespread discriminatory practices such as harassment and intimidation
Kokajko, L.; Skay, D.; Wang, H.; Murphy, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
This report provides the results of the South Texas Project Allegations Review Team of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This team was formed to obtain and review allegations from individuals represented by three attorneys who had contacted Congressional staff members. The allegers were employed in various capacities at South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, licensed by Houston Lighting and Power Company, et al.; therefore, the allegations are confined to this site. The South Texas Project Allegations Review Team reviewed, referred, and dispositioned concerns related to discriminatory issues (harassment and intimidation), falsification of records and omission of information, and various technical issues. The team was able to substantiate certain technical issues of minor safety significance or regulatory concern at the South Texas Project facility, but it did not find widespread discriminatory practices such as harassment and intimidation.
Akmal Hudaykulov; Xu Hongyi; Mostak Ahamed Galib
The aim of the investigation was to identify and explain impact of performance orientation and learning orientation on the elements of social capital. A research model was based on goal orientation and social capital theory. A critical literature review on cooperation, social capital and goal orientation was conducted and the foundation for research was built. Ultimately cooperation within research and development teams in textile industry in Uzbekistan was assessed. Findings suggest there is...
Communication students at Simon Fraser University were surveyed and interviewed to deduce perceptions and behaviour of news consumption over social and traditional media. Both social media and traditional media are used to consume news with traditional media acting as the primary news source and as more accessible and reliable than social media. News stories considered important or having various perspectives were verified the most, especially world news. Extent of accessibility of sources an...
In the past more than ten years,social assistance as the direct social protection measure has been given much attention and developed fast in the developing countries with serious poverty issue.Through examining policy designs,objectives,practice experiences,anti-poverty effects and challenges of social assistance in the developing countries,relative implications can be gained for China.The view on poverty should be changed and it needs to understand and measure poverty from multi-dimensions.The construction of social assistance should be given more attention in China and make it play the basic role in the whole social security system.In addition,the administration and capacity construction of social assistance should be strengthened.%在过去十多年里，社会救助作为直接针对贫困群体的社会保护手段，在贫困问题严重的发展中国家受到了高度重视并得到迅速发展。通过考察发展中国家社会救助的制度设计和目标、实践中的有益经验以及效果和面临的挑战等方面，可以获得对我国社会救助发展的相关启示。我国需要转变对贫困问题的认识，从多维角度理解和测量贫困；应当更加重视社会救助制度建设，使其在我国社会保障体系中发挥基础性作用；此外，还要加强我国社会救助的管理和能力建设。
Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.
In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…
Ai, Amy L.; Carrigan, Lynn T.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise in the aging population of the United States. Heart disease is the leading cause of death, hospital bed use, and social security disability. Enhancing knowledge about CVD may improve social work's professional role in the health care system. This article focuses on a pressing CVD-related issue that needs…
Gorski, Paul C.
Activist burnout, which causes activists to disengage from their activism, is a formidable barrier to the sustainability of social justice movements, including those focused on social justice in educational contexts. However, the cultures of these movements often disregard the importance of self-care, seeing it as self-indulgence, putting…
Catalina Mitra Crisan; Anca Borza
This article emphasizes the meaning of social entrepreneurship and that of corporate social responsibility and the role held in social value creating process. There are several opinions regarding the distinctions between social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility considering the implications, the impact and the stimulus. This article will point out our approach regarding Social Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility based on our research made in Cluj County from...
vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M
In the United States, adolescent childbearing is disproportionately higher among Latino youth, a growing population facing substantial social exclusion. Exploring the relationship between the social environment and sexual health outcomes among Latino youth may offer insights into the development of novel interventions. In this study, Latino youth in partnerships were recruited from neighborhood venues in San Francisco and completed in-depth interviews. Youth reported a desire to complete higher education goals prior to starting a family to improve future opportunities and further personal development. Youth stated that social network members, family and partners, were supportive of their individual childbearing expectations. Social environment barriers tied to poverty, immigration status, and gang violence hindered educational attainment. Some differences were noted by gender and immigrant generation. Building on protective social ties and creating avenues in poor, urban neighborhoods for Latino youth to fully access educational opportunities may counter early childbearing and improve sexual health. PMID:27271070
CARMEN ALICIA ALGARÍN BLANCO
Full Text Available AbstractIn the Small and Medium Enterprises (PYME, the issue of social responsibility is new and unclear. This fact does not allow us to visualize it as a factor for competitiveness and sustainability; therefore, it causes fear and rejection, demanding reorganization in its current management model. To provide tools that promote a social responsible action into the PYME Enterprises, there is a program posed as a strategy in order to strengthen human talent management, the area responsible for sustainable human development, therefore, a basicaspect of corporate social responsibility. A training program was carried out, articulating theoretical and practical elements that would encourage a self participative diagnosis, as well as making managers aware of this need; after a change of perception and a process of opening, trust and respect towards it.ResumenEn la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa (PYME, el tema de la responsabilidad social es incipiente y poco claro. Esto impide visualizarlo como factor de competitividad y sostenibilidad, y genera temor y resistencia, pues en últimas exige replantear su actual modelo de gestión. Con el fin de proporcionar herramientas que promuevan la acción social responsable al interior de estas empresas, se planteó como estrategia un programa encaminado a fortalecer la gestión deltalento humano, área responsable del desarrollo humano sostenible y, por tanto, un aspecto básico de la responsabilidad social empresarial. Concretamente, se ejecutó un programa de capacitación articulando elementos teórico-prácticos que estimularan un autodiagnósticoparticipativo y que, además, sensibilizara a un grupo de pequeños empresarios frente al tema, en pos de un cambio de percepción y un proceso de apertura, confianza y respeto hacia el mismo.
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Risbey, James S; Oreskes, Naomi
Recent public debate and the scientific literature have frequently cited a "pause" or "hiatus" in global warming. Yet, multiple sources of evidence show that climate change continues unabated, raising questions about the status of the "hiatus". To examine whether the notion of a "hiatus" is justified by the available data, we first document that there are multiple definitions of the "hiatus" in the literature, with its presumed onset spanning a decade. For each of these definitions we compare the associated temperature trend against trends of equivalent length in the entire record of modern global warming. The analysis shows that the "hiatus" trends are encompassed within the overall distribution of observed trends. We next assess the magnitude and significance of all possible trends up to 25 years duration looking backwards from each year over the past 30 years. At every year during the past 30 years, the immediately preceding warming trend was always significant when 17 years (or more) were included in the calculation, alleged "hiatus" periods notwithstanding. If current definitions of the "pause" used in the literature are applied to the historical record, then the climate system "paused" for more than 1/3 of the period during which temperatures rose 0.6 K. PMID:26597713
Roman-Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.
We report the discovery of a small cluster of massive stars embedded in a NIR nebula in the direction of the IRAS 15411-5352 point source, which is related to the alleged planetary nebula W16-185. The majority of the stars present large NIR excess characteristic of young stellar objects and have bright counterparts in the Spitzer IRAC images; the most luminous star (IRS 1) is the NIR counterpart of the IRAS source. We found very strong unresolved Brγ emission at the IRS 1 position and more diluted and extended emission across the continuum nebula. From the sizes and electron volume densities we concluded that they represent ultracompact and compact H II regions, respectively. Comparing the Brγ emission with the 7 mm free-free emission, we estimated that the visual extinction ranges between 14 and 20 mag. We found that only one star (IRS 1) can provide the number of UV photons necessary to ionize the nebula. Based on observations made at Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia, Brazil.
As P. L. Berger and T. Luckmann argue, what the public regards as social reality is a construction to which each member contributes by selecting from all available information to develop a picture of the world. To do so, people negotiate with other people regarding the meaning of the information provided. A logical extension of this theory is that…
Berthon, Pierre; Pitt, Leyland; Plangger, Kirk; Shapiro, Daniel
The 21st century has brought both opportunities and challenges in our global, boundaryless world. Importantly, managers face a dynamic and intercon- nected international environment. As such, 21st century managers need to consider the many opportunities and threats that Web 2.0, social media, and creative con- sumers present and the resulting respective shifts in loci of activity, power, and value. To help managers understand this new dispensation, we propose five axioms: (1) social media are...
Younger, A J; B. H. Schneider; Daniels, T.
Children's peer assessments of aggressive and withdrawn behavior are fundamentally related to developmental changes in their understanding of others. This article synthesizes research relevant to the thesis that peer assessments are dependent on children's ability both to recall the previous behavior of their peers and to predict their likely future behavior. Social schema theory, borrowed from adult social psychology, is highly relevant to such recall and prediction. Age differences, affecti...
Williams, S K; Johns, J M
Drug abuse during pregnancy is a major public health concern, with negative consequences throughout development. Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in rats produces social behavior deficits with corresponding changes in neuroendocrine and monoaminergic signaling. The relevance of parental care in social behavior maturity cannot be ignored, and gestational exposure to cocaine severely disrupts parental care, thus impacting the early environment of the offspring. Oxytocin (Oxt) is critical in regulating social behaviors and central levels are disrupted following acute and chronic cocaine (CC) treatment in postpartum rat dams, coincident with deficits in maternal care. We will discuss studies aimed to determine the relative contribution of PCE and CC-induced deficits in maternal care to social behaviors and Oxt signaling across development. PCE results in decreased social (including parental) behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. PCE is also associated with increased aggression in adults. Rearing by CC-exposed mothers synergistically increases the behavioral effects of PCE. Rearing by CC-exposed mothers, but not PCE, disrupts Oxt levels and mRNA in regions relevant to social behavior, but does not affect receptors in postpartum adult offspring. Preliminary work indicates that PCE/CC rearing has dynamic effects on Oxt levels and receptors in neonatal rat pups, suggesting very early regulation of Oxt signaling. This work highlights how the interactive role of Oxt signaling and behavioral context throughout development can be derailed by drug abuse during pregnancy. The relevance of disrupted Oxt to intergenerational transmission of addiction is briefly discussed. PMID:23880214
Full Text Available Community based natural resource management groups contribute to landscape scale ecological change through their aggregation of local ecological knowledge. However, the social networks at the heart of such groups remain invisible to decision makers as evidenced in funding cuts and strategic policy documents. Our research is a pilot study of the social networks in two peri-urban landscapes in Victoria, Australia. We describe the social network analysis undertaken with regard to natural resource management issues. The findings are assessed against the qualities of resilience: diversity, modularity, connectivity, and feedback loops. A social network analysis tool is discussed with participants to assess its usefulness on-ground and with agency staff involved in the project. We concluded that the sociograms are useful to the groups, however, the management of the tool itself is complex and calls for agency personnel to facilitate the process. Overall, the project did make visible the networks that contribute to a multiscalar social and ecological resilience in these landscapes, and in this regard, their use is of benefit to policy makers concerned with supporting networks that build social resilience.
Sani Alhaji Garba
Full Text Available The influence of digital technology in society has made ICT literacy a basic requirement needed by all to survive the challenge of living in the 21st. The education industry is now faced with the challenge of helping learners to acquire this literacy. Coping with this challenge requires breeding teachersâ€™ with high level of proficiency in ICT literacy and competence. This study investigates the readiness of Nigerian Colleges of Education toward breeding social studies teachers with ICT literacy and competence. It is an exploratory conceptual study that is literature-based (document-based qualitative study approach. The study therefore explore literature to find out the benefit of ICT integration in social studies teacher education; the preparedness of Nigerian Colleges of Education for ICT integration; and the implications of the current state of technology integration on social studies objectives. Findings from this study indicated that, Colleges of education in Nigeria are not readily prepared for effective technology integration; much is still needed in terms of infrastructure and manpower development.
The rapid expansion of biofuel production and consumption has raised concerns over the social and environmental sustainability of biofuel feedstock production, processing and trade. The European Union (EU) has thus balanced its commitment to biofuels as one option for meeting its renewable energy targets with sustainability criteria for economic operators supplying biofuels to member states. Seven voluntary “EU sustainability schemes” were approved in July, 2011 as a means to verify compliance. While mandated sustainability criteria have a strong environmental focus, a number of these voluntary schemes have social sustainability as a significant component of the requirements put forward for achieving certification. As several of these voluntary schemes are incipient, thereby limiting evidence on their effectiveness in practice, this analysis is based on a comparative analysis of the substantive content or ‘scope’ of these schemes and the likely procedural effectiveness of the same. Findings show that while some schemes have considerable coverage of social sustainability concerns, poor coverage of some critical issues, the presence of schemes lacking any social sustainability requirements, and gaps in procedural rules are likely to undermine the likelihood that social sustainability is achieved through these schemes or the EU sustainability policies lending credibility to them. - Highlights: ► Among 7 voluntary schemes approved by EC-RED for biofuel, social sustainability is sorely lacking. ► 2 Schemes lacking any social sustainability criteria collectively cover all feedstock/regions. ► The strong climate metric effectively sidelines development aspirations of southern producers. ► Only one of 7 standards will leverage the industry's potential as a stimulus to rural development. ► Policies in consumer markets are critical to give teeth to industry-led sustainability schemes.
Thomsen, Rie; Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Sommerlund, Charlotte
, conclusions and implications for practice/ future research The findings suggest two major foci of change in future guidance practices. Firstly, future guidance practitioners should be seen more like social architects who are capable of instigating social practices in which young people can exchange...
Herron, Patrick D
Identifying sources of and eliminating social stigma associated with the promotion and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of sexually acquired HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is both a moral imperative and necessary requirement to ensure that public health objectives of HIV prevention can be met. This article will examine and address ethical concerns and criticisms regarding the use of PrEP, barriers to its promotion, and use among MSM and examine the types of social stigma associated with PrEP. An ethical justification for both healthcare and LGBT communities to address and overcome social stigma regarding the use of PrEP among MSM is offered. PMID:26859191
Aucoin, Michael William; Wassersug, Richard Joel
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) via either surgical or chemical castration is the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). In North America, it is estimated that more than 40,000 men start ADT each year. The side effects of this treatment are extensive and include gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, and reduced libido. These changes strongly challenge patients' self-identity and sexuality. The historical term for a man who has been castrated is 'eunuch', now a pejorative term implying overall social and sexual impotence. In this paper, we review key historical features of eunuch social performance and sexuality from a variety of cultures in order to assess the validity of contemporary stereotypes of the androgen-deprived male. Data were taken from secondary sources on the history of Byzantium, Roman Antiquity, Early Islamic societies, the Ottoman Empire, Chinese Dynasties, and the Italian Castrati period. This cross-cultural survey shows that castrated men consistently held powerful social positions that yielded great political influence. Many eunuchs were recognized for their loyalty, managerial style, wisdom, and pedagogical skills. Furthermore, rather than being consistently asexual and celibate, they were often sexually active. In certain cultures, they were objects of sexual desire for males, or females, or both. Collectively, the historical accounts suggest that, given the right cultural setting and individual motivation, androgen deprivation may actually enhance rather than hinder both social and sexual performance. We conclude that eunuch history contradicts the presumption that androgen deprivation necessarily leads to social and sexual impotence. The capabilities and accomplishments of eunuchs in the past gives patients on ADT grounds for viewing themselves in a positive light, where they are neither socially impotent nor sexually chaste. PMID:16989928
Iliffe, S; Kharicha, K.; Harari, D.; Swift, C.; Gillmann, G.; Stuck, A.E.
Background Social isolation is associated with poorer health, and is seen by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as one of the major issues facing the industrialised world.Aim To explore the significance of social isolation in the older population for GPs and for service commissioners.Design of study Secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal.Setting A total of 2641 community-dwelling, non-disabled people aged 65 years and over in suburban ...
Interacting with others is crucial for human fitness. In the past decade, there has been a growing interest for oxytocin (OXT) and its implication in social behavior. In the first section of this work we show that peripheral and central concentrations of OXT are correlated. Peripheral and central OXT are also correlated with subjects’ extraversion and with the volume of amygdala and hippocampus, two brain regions important for the regulation of social behavior. Interestingly, we show that OXT...
National audience Illustrating an example of persuasive communication applied to marketing, the article shows how research in public health communication can help social marketing to change health behaviors and increase campaign's effectiveness. According to a both scientific and operational objective, the article considers, after a presentation of the recent persuasive models, their contributions to social marketing as well as useful implications for practitioners. Illustrant un exempl...
The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy was adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2006. Preventing and responding to attacks using WMD were identified amongst the key areas of activities covered by the strategy. The Secretary-General's mechanism to carry out prompt investigations in response to allegations brought to his attention concerning the possible use of chemical and bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons was developed in the late 1980s. Triggered by a request from any member State, the Secretary-General is authorized to launch an investigation including dispatching a fact-finding team to the site of the alleged incident(s) and to report to all UN Member States. This is to ascertain in an objective and scientific manner facts of alleged violations of the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which bans the use of chemical and biological weapons. Member States encouraged the Secretary-General in September 2006 to update the roster of experts and laboratories, as well as the technical guidelines and procedures, available to him for the timely and efficient investigation of alleged use. The roster of experts and laboratories and the guidelines and procedures constitute the key elements of the special mechanism available to the Secretary-General for investigation of reports by Member States of alleged use of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. The Office for Disarmament Affairs has been working with Member States since March 2007 to update the roster of experts and laboratories and the technical appendices of the guidelines and procedures so that they fully correspond with the rapid and substantial developments that have occurred in the biological area since the 1980s and also to take into account the fact that an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has since been established. Currently, the roster of experts and laboratories has been updated and includes experts from more than 50 countries. The information available in
Measuring social values for landscapes is an emerging field of research and is critical to the successful management of urban ecosystems. Green open space planning has traditionally relied on rigid standards and metrics without considering the physical requirements of green spaces that are valued for different reasons and by different people. Relating social landscape values to key environmental variables provides a much stronger evidence base for planning landscapes that are both socially desirable and environmentally sustainable. This study spatially quantified residents' values for green space in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia by enabling participants to mark their values for specific open spaces on interactive paper maps. The survey instrument was designed to evaluate the effect of spatial scale by providing maps of residents' local area at both suburb and municipality scales. The importance of open space values differed depending on whether they were indicated via marker dots or reported on in a general aspatial sense. This suggests that certain open space functions were inadequately provided for in the local area (specifically, cultural significance and health/therapeutic value). Additionally, all value types recorded a greater abundance of marker dots at the finer (suburb) scale compared to the coarser (municipality) scale, but this pattern was more pronounced for some values than others (e.g. physical exercise value). Finally, significant relationships were observed between the abundance of value marker dots in parks and their environmental characteristics (e.g. percentage of vegetation). These results have interesting implications when considering the compatibility between different functions of green spaces and how planners can incorporate information about social values with more traditional approaches to green space planning.
Poole, Wendy; Fallon, Gerald
This paper examines increasing privatisation of education in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Conceptually, the paper is informed by theories of privatisation and social justice; and methodologically, it uses policy analysis to examine documents and financial records obtained from government departments. The paper critically analyses…
Catoe, Stephanie Denise Lewis
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the cultural competence of social studies teachers in a South Carolina suburban public high school. With increasing numbers of racially, ethnically and culturally diverse student populations in public schools, and decreasing numbers of racially, ethnically and…
Reviews values evident in early discussions about the social effects of distance education in New Zealand. Public debates and emergent literature are characterized by extreme positions indicating deep value conflicts. Most discussions were driven by ideological commitment to principles, such as egalitarianism, communitarianism, and…
Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.
The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…
Baker, Vicki L.; Pifer, Meghan J.; Flemion, Blair
This article reports on an exploratory study that examined the transition to independence in Stage 2 of the doctoral student experience in two applied social science fields. We rely on an interdisciplinary framework that integrates developmental networks and sociocultural perspectives of learning to better understand the connection between the…
Kwan, Becky S.C.
One indispensable task in the doctoral undertaking in the humanities and social sciences is that of reviewing the literature. To many graduate students, finding the "right" direction of reviewing is a particularly grueling experience, a practical concern seldom addressed in thesis manuals and studies of the doctoral thesis. This paper is an…
Homer, Bruce D.; Solomon, Todd M.; Moeller, Robert W.; Mascia, Amy; DeRaleau, Lauren; Halkitis, Perry N.
The highly addictive drug methamphetamine has been associated with impairments in social cognitions as evidenced by changes in users' behaviors. Physiological changes in brain structure and functioning, particularly in the frontal lobe, have also been identified. The authors propose a biopsychosocial approach to understanding the effects of…
Andrews, Arlene Bowers
When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…
Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick
Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…
Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter D.
This article examines the impact of childhood obesity upon the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. The four components of the American School Counselor Association's (ASCA) delivery model, (classroom guidance, consultation, responsive services, and system support), are utilized to offer suggestions to the professional…
... Misconduct by Administrative Law Judges, 57 FR 49186 (October 30, 1992). DATES: Effective Date: January 29..., or discrimination undermine public trust and confidence in our administrative process. Our ALJs perform an essential role in ensuring that our administrative process is fair to claimants by...
This report reflects the activities of the Harvard Health Caucus at Harvard Medical School that were supported, in part, by the Department of Energy. The following policy roundtables and panels were held: Spring 2001 Policy Roundtable Series: The social implications of the Human Genome Project; Spring 2002 Policy Roundtable Series: Managing globalization to improve health; 13 February 2002 Keynote Address: The globalization of health; 25 February 2002 Healthier or Wealthier: Which comes first in the new global era?; 28 February 2002 The crisis of neglected diseases: Creating R&D incentives for diseases of developing countries; 7 March 2002 Health care education in the developing world: Bridging global and local health care practices; 20 March 2002 Building a legal framework for global health: How can the US and UN work to reduce global disparities?; 25 April 2002 The role of mass media and tobacco control efforts. Caucus organizational information is also included.
Cheryl L Russell
Full Text Available Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45-65.79 or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001. Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020, increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022, and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23-0.78. The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions.
Catalina Mitra Crisan
Full Text Available This article emphasizes the meaning of social entrepreneurship and that of corporate social responsibility and the role held in social value creating process. There are several opinions regarding the distinctions between social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility considering the implications, the impact and the stimulus. This article will point out our approach regarding Social Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility based on our research made in Cluj County from northwestern part of Romania, by highlighting their characteristics and the way that both processes influence the social environment. The research was made using two types of questionnaires which were applied to commercial enterprises and NGO’s with social purpose.
The growing sex abuse scandal plaguing the Roman Catholic Church has spread to many facets of the secular world, and the healthcare community is also coping with the crisis. At least six hospital chaplains have been relieved of their duties because past allegations of abuse came to light. Catholic healthcare officials are concerned that a few alleged abusers could tarnish the image of chaplains. PMID:12038165
Sayama, Hiroki; Yammarino, Francis J
Collective, especially group-based, managerial decision making is crucial in organizations. Using an evolutionary theory approach to collective decision making, agent-based simulations were conducted to investigate how collective decision making would be affected by the agents' diversity in problem understanding and/or behavior in discussion, as well as by their social network structure. Simulation results indicated that groups with consistent problem understanding tended to produce higher utility values of ideas and displayed better decision convergence, but only if there was no group-level bias in collective problem understanding. Simulation results also indicated the importance of balance between selection-oriented (i.e., exploitative) and variation-oriented (i.e., explorative) behaviors in discussion to achieve quality final decisions. Expanding the group size and introducing non-trivial social network structure generally improved the quality of ideas at the cost of decision convergence. Simulations with ...
Huffman, Heather Mary Willihnganz
An enduring puzzle for anthropology is specifying the interaction between persons and culture. Through a person-centered, process-oriented, and historically situated ethnography of the education of students in a two-year Master's program of social work in Los Angeles, this dissertation argues persons are the primary sculptors of culture, creating and using resources to fulfill human motivations and mediate relationships through cultural developmental processes. This dissertation contributes...
Gómez, Juan Carlos
This paper argues against both lean and rich interpretations of early social cognition in infants and apes using as an illustration the results of a longitudinal study comparing the emergence of joint attention and tool use patterns in an infant gorilla. In contrast with tool use (where well-formed manipulations resulted in near perfect rates of reward obtention) the emergence of well-formed acts of communication with eye contact not only had no effect upon the rewards obtained, but increased...
Full Text Available The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP plays important roles in fluid regulation and vascular resistance. Differences in AVP receptor expression, particularly mediated through variation in the noncoding promoter region of the primary receptor for AVP (AVPR1a, may play a role in social phenotypes, particularly social monogamy, in rodents and humans. Among primates, social monogamy is rare, but is common among New World monkeys (NWM. AVP is a nonapeptide and generally conserved among eutherian mammals, although a recent paper demonstrated that some NWM species possess a novel form of the related neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin. We therefore characterized variation in the AVP and AVPR1a genes in 22 species representing every genus in the three major platyrrhine families (Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae. For AVP, a total of 16 synonymous substitutions were detected in 15 NWM species. No non-synonymous substitutions were noted, hence, AVP is conserved in NWM. By contrast, relative to the human AVPR1a, 66 predicted amino acids (AA substitutions were identified in NWM. The AVPR1a N-terminus (ligand binding domain, third intracellular (G-protein binding domain, and C-terminus were variable among species. Complex evolution of AVPR1a is also apparent in NWM. A molecular phylogenetic tree inferred from AVPR1a coding sequences revealed some consensus taxonomic separation by families, but also a mixed group composed of genera from all three families. The overall dN/dS ratio of AVPR1a was 0.11, but signals of positive selection in distinct AVPR1a regions were observed, including the N-terminus, in which we identified six potential positive selection sites. AA substitutions at positions 241, 319, 399 and 409 occurred uniquely in marmosets and tamarins. Our results enhance the appreciation of genetic diversity in the mammalian AVP/AVPR1a system, and set the stage for molecular modeling of the neurohypophyseal hormones and social behavior in
It is unknown how Yoruba women textile traders organize their textile enterprises, despite the vagaries of informal economy. However, in an informal economy, trade in every commodity has its own social organizational structures and politics. Scholars have argued that commodity needs to be separately studied so to detangle the various structures and politics associated with each commodity so that behavioural patterns that lead to entrepreneurial development can be determined. The focus of this...
Linda M. D'Anna
Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is often positioned as an adaptive alternative to traditional resource industries, but the social and cultural effects of expanding production on coastal/marine social-ecological systems are unclear. Reporting on a multimethods study, we present perceptions about shellfish aquaculture collected through interviews, participant-employed photography, and a household survey in British Columbia, Canada. With an approach focused on local preferences for social-ecological conditions and the ways in which those conditions may be enhanced or diminished, we indicate that perceptions of the effects of aquaculture on the environment, economy, and lived experience are composed of both objective and subjective components. Interview responses and survey opinions varied widely and included bimodal responses. Industry interviewees tended to focus on environmental and economic benefits while acknowledging concerns about the environment and lived experience. Nonindustry interviewees typically questioned the environmental effects while underscoring economic benefits and negative effects on experience. Most survey participants felt positively about the effects on the economy, expressed negativity and uncertainty about effects on the environment, and demonstrated the greatest variability in opinions about effects on lived experience. Findings revealed uncertainty and alienation across all dimensions. Our findings, used as an analytical lens, support the usefulness of the concept of well-being in attempts like this one to understand the dynamics of coastal communities by providing a framework for deciphering what is important to individuals and societies experiencing change and considering adaptations.
A. Cecile J.W. Janssens
Full Text Available Multifactorial diseases such as type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease are caused by a complex interplay of many genetic and nongenetic factors, each of which conveys a minor increase in the risk of disease. Unraveling the genetic origins of these diseases is expected to lead to individualized medicine, in which the prevention and treatment strategies are personalized on the basis of the results of predictive genetic tests. This great optimism is counterbalanced by concerns about the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomic medicine, such as the protection of privacy and autonomy, stigmatization, discrimination, and the psychological burden of genetic testing. These concerns are translated from genetic testing in monogenic disorders, but this translation may not be appropriate. Multiple genetic testing (genomic profiling has essential differences from genetic testing in monogenic disorders. The differences lie in the lower predictive value of the test results, the pleiotropic effects of susceptibility genes, and the low inheritance of genomic profiles. For these reasons, genomic profiling may be more similar to nongenetic tests than to predictive tests for monogenic diseases. Therefore, ethical, legal, and social issues that apply to predictive genetic testing for monogenic diseases may not be relevant for the prediction of multifactorial disorders in genomic medicine.
Westera, W. (2013, 14 October). Social Media and Big Data – Cracks in the Crystal Ball? Invited e-paper at ESOMAR RW Connect. http://rwconnect.esomar.org/using-social-media-for-market-analysis-cracks-in-the-alleged-crystal-ball/
Durfee, David A.
Discusses a strategy for unifying and improving the social studies curriculum through an "outcomes sought" approach. Outlines eight measurable qualities students completing social studies should have achieved. Discusses implications of this approach. (LP)
Jane RW Fisher; Karin Hammarberg
Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men.The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research.A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis,assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties.The studies are diverse in conceptualisation,design,setting and data collection,but the findings were reasonably consistent.These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition,diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety,and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness.However,rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population.Infertile men who are socially isolated,have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming,are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics.Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals,self-help support groups or friends.Nevertheless,structured,facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial.There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking,persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility-related grief and shame among
URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/CESFramDP2009.htmClassification JEL : D21, M14, M37, I28. Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2009.18 - ISSN : 1955-611X This article analyzes the behavior of a producer of a legal addictive good (tobacco, alcohol or gambling) facing a demand with social interactions, especially a deterrence effect of heavy use on initiation. We simulate an epidemic model to estimate at what conditions it could be intere...
Press Release: Terrorism in Southeast Asia: An Interview with Abu Bakar Ba'asyir 10/03/2005 - In August, Dr. Scott Atran travelled to Southeast Asia and conducted extensive research on terrorist groups operating in the region. This interview with Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, alleged leader of the Jemaah Islamiyah organization, was conducted on August 13 and 15, 2005 from Cipinang Prison in Jakarta. Questions were formulated by Dr. Atran and posed for him in Behasa Indonesian by Taufiq Andrie. The inte...
Howells, John; Katznelson, RD
It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of...
Md Golam Abbas
Full Text Available Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r-/- mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r-/- mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behaviour and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.
Cătălina Silvia MITRA (CRIŞAN); Borza, Anca
The authors are preoccupied with analyzing the process of social entrepreneurship and the implications and the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on social entrepreneurial process. We will base our researches on two perspectives of social entrepreneurs and of founds. This study was inspired from a model developed by Professor Rob John in collaboration with Skoll Center for Social Entrepreneurship and Oxford Said Business School. Our research has as a main purpose to identify t...
Green, P.S.; Steinberger, M.F.
The early stages of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley have been characterized by an emphasis on the technological expertise of private developers and government officials. Government officials have created a complex array of Federal, state and county regulations to monitor the development. Local control is under the jurisdiction of the Imperial County government. The County has as its responsibility the protection of the general welfare of its residents, including any potentially adverse social, economic, or environmental impacts caused by geothermal resource development. Private developers and government officials are interested in the resources as a source of water desalination and electric power generation. An assessment of the interests and concerns of the public was made early in the development stage. In view of all these interests, it is essential in a democratic society that the various interests be identified so government can be representative of, and responsive to, those interests. Therefore, the four issues discussed in the paper are: (1) regulatory problems faced by local government officials in determining the course of development; (2) the social and political context in which the development is taking place; (3) the potential of geothermal development as perceived by community leaders and local government officials; and (4) the desirability of expanding citizen participation in geothermal decision-makingduring a period in which, as public opinion polls indicated, many citizens feel separated from government actions which may significantly affect their lives. Recommendations for regulations of geothermal resources and recommendations for improving public input into geothermal regulation are summarized in depth. (MCW)
Hochberg Michael E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their functions to others in the group. In addition to the necessity of reducing conflict over effecting specialized tasks, differentiating groups must control the exploitation of the commons, or else be out-competed by more fit groups. Results We propose that two forms of conflict – access to resources within groups and representation in germ line – may be resolved in tandem through individual and group-level selective effects. Specifically, we employ an optimization model to show the conditions under which different within-group social behaviors (cooperators producing a public good or cheaters exploiting the public good may be selected to disperse, thereby not affecting the commons and functioning as germ line. We find that partial or complete dispersal specialization of cheaters is a general outcome. The propensity for cheaters to disperse is highest with intermediate benefit:cost ratios of cooperative acts and with high relatedness. An examination of a range of real biological systems tends to support our theory, although additional study is required to provide robust tests. Conclusion We suggest that trait linkage between dispersal and cheating should be operative regardless of whether groups ever achieve higher levels of individuality, because individual selection will always tend to increase exploitation, and stronger group structure will tend to increase overall cooperation through kin selected benefits. Cheater specialization as dispersers offers simultaneous solutions to the evolution of cooperation in social groups and the origin of specialization of germ and soma in
Schuurs, A; Exterkate, R; ten Cate, J M; ten Cate, B
The aim of the study was to explore multivariately the relationship between subjective symptoms allegedly due to amalgam and mercury measurements before and after administration of a chelator. Of 120 participants, the mercury concentrations in urine (U-Hg) and plasma (P-Hg) before and after a chelating agent or placebo were determined as were the numbers of fillings and symptoms allegedly due to subjective symptoms. The dental status was charted. Blood was analysed on 13 parameters. The analysis revealed neither the parameters in blood nor the subjective symptoms to be associated with a dimension dominated by 'mercury indicators'. The final analysis was therefore performed with 'number of subjective symptoms' and enabled to distinguish two subsamples. One subsample was characterised by > 2 subjective "symptoms", highest scores for U-Hg, P-Hg and filled surfaces, and chewing gum for > 1 h a day. The other subsample comprised the subjects with few filled surfaces and low U-Hg and P-Hg, but was not characterised by "no subjective symptoms". The chelator was considered neither to invalidate nor to improve these findings and was concluded not to be helpful in diagnosing "symptoms". The chelator caused side effects in 42% of the subjects and the placebo in 27%. A relationship between amalgam fillings and subjective symptoms could not be shown. Therefore, the mere fact of knowing to have amalgam fillings was assumed to be the reason why subjective symptoms were attributed to amalgam and side effects were ascribed to the treatment. PMID:11153926
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillén, Christina D.
Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possib...
Dickinson, Natalie; Macpherson, Gordon; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Atkinson, John
It is well documented that micronutrient malnutrition is of increasing concern in the developing world, resulting in poor health and high rates of mortality and morbidity. During pregnancy, deficiency of iron and zinc can produce cognitive and growth impairment of the foetus, which may continue into infancy. Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for both plant growth and human nutrition. Despite significant work in the areas of soil fertility, crop biofortification and dietary interventions, the problems of micronutrient deficiencies persist in Africa. There is a need to examine why communities have not embraced intervention strategies which may offer health benefits. Bottom-up, interdisciplinary approaches are required to effectively study the relationships between local communities and their environment, and to assess the impact their behaviour has on the cycling of micronutrients within the soil-plant-human system. From a detailed consideration of diverse influencing factors, a methodological model is suggested for studying the barriers to improving micronutrient uptake within rural communities. It combines environmental understanding with health and social factors, emphasising the need for and potential benefits of understanding and coherence in true interdisciplinary working. PMID:18953657
Nidiffer, Marcella D; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana
The degree of genetic relatedness among group members is influenced by dispersal, group formation and composition, mating systems, and other socioecological factors. Making inferences about differences between species in their socio-genetic structure is difficult because studies rarely compare multiple species. In this study, we use multilocus microsatellite genotype data to analyze intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra). We test the prediction that their patterns of intragroup genetic relatedness will be distinct based on expectations derived from their distinct social systems. Alouatta palliata is expected to have low levels of intragroup relatedness, given that both males and females are reported to disperse from their natal groups, and to join groups with no close kin. Levels of relatedness among A. pigra group members are expected to be variable according to the history of group formation, with new groups formed by unrelated individuals and well-established groups having close kin due to female nepotism and sometimes by takeovers by coalitions of related males. Our results indicate that in both species, most groups contain closely related same-sex and/or inter-sex dyads. This suggests that philopatry in A. palliata may be more common than reported or that individuals are using alternative strategies to reside with close kin. We found greater variation among groups in female-female relatedness in A. palliata than in A. pigra, implying that these species have distinct socio-genetic structures. Further studies including both long-term observational and genetic data are necessary to understand the mechanisms that determine the degree of variation in intragroup genetic relatedness within and among populations for both species. Ecological and demographic data are also necessary to determine the importance of other factors, especially habitat loss and fragmentation, in determining the degree of relatedness in
Shane, Matthew S; Peterson, Jordan B
The present study investigated whether passive avoidance learning was retarded by defensive coping strategies designed to minimize exposure to negatively valenced stimuli. High-anxious individuals, low-anxious individuals, and defensive copers completed a computerized go/no-go task, in which they learned when to press or not to press a button, in response to contingent positive and negative feedback. The duration that feedback remained onscreen was self-regulated. Defensive copers showed preferential reflection away from negative feedback, committed more passive-avoidance errors, and were characterized by impaired learning, overall. Further, the ratio of reflection on negative feedback to reflection on positive feedback directly mediated both passive-avoidance errors and overall learning. Defensive coping strategies, therefore, appear to interfere with passive avoidance learning, thereby fostering perseverative, dysfunctional action patterns by reducing knowledge gained from previous mistakes. Implications for the learning of effective socialization strategies, and for psychopathy-which is commonly characterized by similar passive-avoidance deficits-are subsequently considered. PMID:15335333
Octavian-Dragomir Jora; Mihaela Iacob
This paper starts from the faith and conviction that the intellectual adventured in the social sciences who is not supported by a logically consistent and naturally realistic (political) “philosophy”, a logically consistent and naturally realistic “ethics”, will enter “unarmed” the arena of scientific knowledge, while he will enter, if interested, the political arena with an entire “rack” of vicious judgments. If praxeology (the pure logic of human action, as developed by L. Von Mises, the “d...
Ibouh, Hassan; Michard, André; Charrière, André; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah; Rhoujjati, Ali
The scenic lakes Tislit and Isli of the Imilchil area in the central High Atlas of Morocco have been recently promoted to the rank of "dual impact crater" by a group of geoscientists. This was promptly denied by a group of meteorite specialists, but the first team reiterated their impact crater interpretation, now restricted to Lake Isli. This alleged 40-kyr-old impact crater would be associated with the Agoudal meteorite recognized further in the southeast. Here, we show that the lake formed during the Lowe-Middle Pleistocene in a small Pliocene (?) pull-apart basin through additional collapsing due to karst phenomena in the underlying limestones. This compares with the formation of a number of lakes of the Atlas Mountains. None of the "proofs" produced in support of a meteoritic origin of Lake Isli coincides with the geology of the area.
Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa
This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus. PMID:22558827
Full Text Available The universality, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelatedness of all rights have been universally acclaimed since the drafting in 1948 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. However, despite the doctrine of indivisibility, civil and political rights (CPRs have for a long time been treated as being enforceable judicially at the national, regional and international levels, while socio-economic rights (SERs have not. With the elaboration and adoption of an Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (OP-ICESCR, which mandates the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR to consider individual communications detailing the violations of SERs, the justiciability of SERs was also fully recognised at the international level. This paper undertakes an analysis of the importance and implications of the individual communications procedure under the OP-ICESCR and details some of the reasons why it would be beneficial for South Africa to accede thereto. The argument for accession by South Africa to the OP-ICESCR departs from the premise that South Africa's ratification of the ICESCR is imminent. Having signed the ICESCR on 3 October 1994, the South African Cabinet on 10 October 2012 decided that South Africa should ratify the Covenant. The authors argue that acceding to the OP-ICESCR will complement domestic protection and will confirm South Africa's global leadership in the field of justiciable SERs. Logic dictates that South Africa should confirm at the international level its position as a world leader on the national justiciability and legal enforcement of SERs, as indeed it has done during the drafting process of the OP-ICESCR. Accession to OP-ICESCR, the argument continues, will not detract from the country's sovereignty, especially in the light of the requirement of the exhaustion of domestic remedies, including the condition that applicants must show that they have suffered a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several phytoplasmas, wall-less phloem limited plant pathogenic bacteria, have been shown to contain extrachromosomal DNA (EcDNA molecules encoding a replication associated protein (Rep similar to that of geminiviruses, a major group of single stranded (ss DNA plant viruses. On the basis of that observation and of structural similarities between the capsid proteins of geminiviruses and the Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, it has been recently proposed that geminiviruses evolved from phytoplasmal EcDNAs by acquiring a capsid protein coding gene from a co-invading plant RNA virus. Results Here we show that this hypothesis has to be rejected because (i the EcDNA encoded Rep is not of phytoplasmal origin but has been acquired by phytoplasmas through horizontal transfer from a geminivirus or its ancestor; and (ii the evolution of geminivirus capsid protein in land plants implies missing links, while the analysis of metagenomic data suggests an alternative scenario implying a more ancient evolution in marine environments. Conclusion The hypothesis of geminiviruses evolving in plants from DNA molecules of phytoplasma origin contrasts with other findings. An alternative scenario concerning the origin and spread of Rep coding phytoplasmal EcDNA is presented and its implications on the epidemiology of phytoplasmas are discussed.
Gentry, Richard H.
In January 1983, the American public read or saw hard-hitting allegations of leftist bias by the National Council of Churches (NCC) in the largest circulation magazine, "Reader's Digest," and on the top-rated television program, "60 Minutes." A study examined the extent to which the media set the agenda for debate on this issue. It was…
Loriente Zamora, Cristóbal
Full Text Available Social facilitation theory is one of the most paradigmatic examples of social psychology, understood as an experimental science. However, in this paper we intend to demonstrate that the research that allegedly supports it suffers from a number of defects. It uses biased population samples, and the tasks it sets its experimental subjects are limited to the practical or productive, ignoring the broader range of everyday activities such as conversing or, indeed, urinating. Social facilitation theory, far from being objective, is a microcosm of American social psychology ideology insofar as it ignores basic human functions, and fails to include stigmatized communities such as stutterers and people with bladder problems.
Koehler, Elizabeth M.
Contributes to scholarship on defamation, legal interpretation, and social norms by examining 59 state and federal cases decided during the last 150 years involving allegedly false accusations of homosexuality. Finds 15% of the cases resulted in a determination that it was not defamatory to call someone gay, 35% that it was defamatory, and 50%…
Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.
National surveys of graduate and social science deans showed that teaching is alleged to be the primary factor in all personnel and resource allocation decisions. However, there is much less support for teaching in practice. Reasons include inadequate funding, the imperfect institutionalization of teaching support structures, and the lack of a…
This paper outlines the main problems and issues facing the world today and describes the potential relevance of nuclear energy to them. Five themes are chosen: the new world order, instability of the former communist bloc, the exploding world population, the ecological balance and the enfeebled capacity of the West. It is hoped that governments in the West can be persuaded to increase the nuclear capacity in order to cope with problems that will arise in the future. (Author)
Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Inoue, Mariko; Muto, Shinsuke; ,
Study Objectives This study aimed to investigate the role of social factors, especially social support for sleep, among victims living at home around 1–2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. Design A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between May and December 2012 (14–21 months after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors, including social su...
William P Wan; Daphne W Yiu; Hoskisson, Robert E.; Heechun Kim
We propose a social perspective emphasizing the opportunities and constraints of bank–firm relationships to understand the determinants of relationship banks' performance, using Japanese banks to test our theory. Using social exchange and role theories, we found banks that have strong social relationships performed differently during Japan's macroeconomic expansion and contraction cycles. However, our results indicate that social exchange and role relationships are context-specific: banks ben...
Jones, Alan Wayne; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan
Results of toxicological analysis of blood and urine specimens from 1806 female victims of alleged non-consensual sexual activity are reported. After making contact with the police authorities, the victims were examined by a physician for injuries and biological specimens were taken for forensic toxicology and other purposes (e.g. DNA). Urine if available or otherwise on an aliquot of blood after protein precipitation was screened for the presence of drugs by enzyme immunoassay methods (EMIT/CEDIA). All positive results from screening were verified by more specific methods, involving isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for illicit drugs. A large number of prescription drugs were analyzed in blood by capillary column gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorous (N-P) detector. Ethanol was determined in blood and urine by headspace gas chromatography and concentrations less than 0.1g/L were reported as negative. The number of reported cases of alleged sexual assault was highest during the warmer summer months and the mean age of victims was 24 years (median 20 years), with approximately 60% being between 15 and 25 years. In 559 cases (31%) ethanol and drugs were negative. In 772 cases (43% of total) ethanol was the only drug identified in blood or urine. In 215 cases (12%) ethanol occurred together with at least one other drug. The mean, median and highest concentrations of ethanol in blood (N=806) were 1.24 g/L, 1.19 g/L and 3.7 g/L, respectively. The age of victims and their blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) were positively correlated (r=0.365, p<0.001). Because BAC decreases at a rate of 0.10-0.25 g/(Lh), owing to metabolism the concentration in blood at time of sampling is often appreciably less than when the crime was committed several hours earlier. Licit or illicit drugs were identified in blood or urine in N=262 cases (15%). Amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol were the most common illicit drugs at mean (median) concentrations in
Riddell, Sheila; Baron, Stephen; Wilson, Alastair
Outlines social capital theories in functionalist and Marxist traditions and their implications for people with learning difficulties. Identifies multiple factors influencing their ability to access social capital, including ability/inability to conform to social norms and economic inequities. (SK)
Araux, Jose Luis
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the conduct implications of qualified immunity in allegations of deprivation of civil rights by public school administrators regarding the First Amendment-student speech. Methodology: Data were collected using the LexisNexis and JuriSearch online legal research systems, which…
Carmen V. Ramos
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as alegações para o desmame entre mulheres assistidas em uma maternidade Amiga da Criança, em Teresina, Piauí. METODOLOGIA: Adotou-se os preceitos metodológicos da pesquisa qualitativa em saúde, utilizando como referencial teórico a teoria das representações sociais. Ao todo, entrevistou-se 24 mulheres que se encontravam em processo de desmame antes do 4º mês de vida do bebê. RESULTADOS: A análise compreensiva permitiu revelar que a tomada de decisões que leva as mulheres ao desmame se dá de maneira complexa e carregada de culpa. Dentre os motivos alegados, figuraram leite fraco ou pouco, intercorrências de mama puerperal, falta de experiência, inadequação entre as suas necessidades e as do bebê, interferências externas, trabalho, ambigüidade entre o querer/poder amamentar e entre o fardo/desejo. CONCLUSÕES: A solidão/isolamento da mulher-mãe e a necessidade de obter apoio para a consecução dessa prática, não só por parte do serviço de saúde como também dos outros segmentos da sociedade, se fizeram presentes de forma uniforme nas entrevistas. Nesta perspectiva, vale atentar para a necessidade de reformulações do modelo assistencial ora vigente, no sentido de considerar a amamentação como um ato que precisa ser aprendido pela mulher e protegido pela sociedade.OBJECTIVE: To study the reasons for weaning given by women receiving care at a Baby-Friendly Maternity in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: The methodological principles of qualitative research were applied, supported by the social representation theory. Data were collected from 24 women who were in the process of weaning their babies before the 4th month of life. RESULTS: The decision-making process that leads women to wean their babies is complex and guilt-ridden. The following reasons for weaning were mentioned: having weak or little milk; puerperal problems affecting the breasts; lack of experience; disparity between the
Ariyamuni Priyanthi Silva; Aminah Ahmad; Zoharah Omar; Roziah Mohd Rasdi
Women middle managers aspiring for senior management execute their career choices in a unique career context. They experience the influence of personal social support and non-support in executing their aspirations towards senior management. Yet, it is observed that measures available to capture personal social support and non-support of this cohort of careerist are not adequately comprehensive. It was felt that there is a considerable space to develop a measure on personal social support and ...
Nikulina, E.M.; Lacagnina, M.J.; Fanous, S.; Wang, J.; Hammer, R P
Intermittent social defeat stress exposure augments behavioral response to psychostimulants in a process termed cross-sensitization. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates synaptic plasticity and cellular responses to stress and drugs of abuse. We previously showed that repeated social defeat stress persistently alters BDNF and activates ΔFosB expression in mesocorticolimbic regions. Here, we hypothesized that social defeat stress would increase ΔFosB expression in BDNF-containing ...
Story, William T
Research on the linkage between social capital and health has grown in recent years; however, there is a dearth of evidence from resource-poor countries. This review examines the association between social capital and physical health (including health behaviours) in the least developed countries (LDCs). Citations were searched using three databases from 1990 to 2011 using the keyword ‘social capital’ combined with the name of each of the 48 LDCs. Of the 14 studies reviewed, 12 took place in A...
"Against the background of the alleged democratic deficit of EU institutions, this case study explores how politicization and emerging transnational public spaces in European protest movements innovate existing practices of discursive or grassroots deliberative democracy in national social movements. I studied the European Social Forum (ESF) process, a transnational participatory democracy platform created by civil society groups and social movement organizations. I explored discourse and dec...
Sjöberg, Rickard L
Demographic characteristics of 79 women who were accused of satanist child abductions in the parish of Rättvik, Sweden, in 1670-1671; 53 adults who promoted such accusations by bringing children to interrogations; and samples from the general population of Rättvik were compared. Results indicate that men were more likely to promote allegations of satanism than women and that these men were more likely to be married than the average Rättvik male. Promoters of allegations were older than average parishioners, and land-owning people who were involved in the panic owned more land than landowners who were not involved. People who were involved in the panic knew less about Luther's catechism than members of the general population. It is suggested that most of these findings may reflect a tendency of people who lived in the proximity of children to become involved in the panic. PMID:12696561
Sjöberg, Rickard L
During recent decades, interpretation of mass allegations fo Satanist child abductions have challenged psychiatrists and mental health professionals in the Western world. It has been argued that a useful perspective on this phenomenon ay be gained from a study of historical parallels from countries such as Spain, Germany and Sweden. The texts translated below are an eyewitness account of the witch panic in Rättvik 1670-71 and a letter of 1671, both written by the Reverend Gustav Elvius. PMID:15630789
社会化媒体因其界面直观友好、及时互动响应的特点正成为一支重要的广告媒介力量。在阐述社会化媒体特征的基础上，分析社会化媒体对品牌营销的优势和劣势，结合奢侈品的消费特点和营销方式，提出基于社会化媒体的奢侈品品牌营销的建议。%Because of its intuitive, friendly interface and timely interactive response characteristics, social media is becoming an important advertising medium strength. Based on the elaborate social media features, this paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of social media on brand marketing. Combined with consumer characteristics and marketing of luxuries, the suggestions of brand marketing implications and recommendations of social media on luxury brands will be proposed.
Because of its intuitive, friendly interface and timely interactive response characteristics, social media is becoming an important advertising medium strength. Based on the elaborate social media features, this paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of social media on brand marketing. Combined with consumer characteristics and marketing of luxuries, the suggestions of brand marketing implications and recommendations of social media on luxury brands will be proposed.%合理教师权威的特点是“育人”、促进学生自主发展，尽可能给学生一个自由开放的空间，具有内隐性、暂时性，情境性；其构成要素包括榜样力量、文化先知、人文关怀。合理教师权威的类型从权威的操作层面上划分为形式权威和实质权威；从精神层面上划分则包括合理行使的理性权威和充满魅力的人格权威。
Social impacts of a nuclear waste repository are described. Various case studies are cited such as Rocky Flats Plant, the Feed Materials Production Center, and Love Canal. The social impacts of toxic contamination, mitigating environmental stigma and loss of trust are also discussed
Freudenburg, W.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Carter, L.F.; Willard, W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Lodwick, D.G. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States); Hardert, R.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Levine, A.G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Sociology; Kroll-Smith, S. [New Orleans Univ., LA (United States); Couch, S.R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Edelstein, M.R. [Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ (United States)
Social impacts of a nuclear waste repository are described. Various case studies are cited such as Rocky Flats Plant, the Feed Materials Production Center, and Love Canal. The social impacts of toxic contamination, mitigating environmental stigma and loss of trust are also discussed.
Mackie, Paul Force-Emery
An 11-month long analysis of social work faculty position advertisements examined differences in job descriptions between past and present findings, rural- and urban-located social work programs, doctorate and nondoctorate conferring institutions, and public and private institutions. Additionally, this investigation addressed 2008 Educational…
Martins, Eliana Bolorino Canteiro
Full Text Available A vertente temática do presente artigo refere-se ao desafio da materialização dos princípios ético-políticos do Serviço Social na efetivação do trabalho profissional desenvolvido, especificamente nos espaços sócio-ocupacionais do Serviço Social no âmbito da Política de Educação Pública. Inicialmente, traz uma breve referência teórica sobre a ética e a ética profissional do assistente social; em seguida, aborda a relação deste conhecimento com a experiência profissional desenvolvida pela autora no Projeto de Extensão Universitária intitulado Serviço Social na área da Educação, promovido pela Faculdade de Serviço Social da Fundação Educacional “Antônio Eufrásio de Toledo” – Presidente Prudente/SP. O principal objetivo desta reflexão é provocar o debate sobre a concretização dos princípios ético-políticos do Serviço Social no trabalho efetuado neste campo de atuação profissional do assistente social. The thematic slope of the actual article refers to the challenge of materialization of the ethic-political principles of the Social Service in the realization of the professional work developed, specifically, in the social-occupational spaces of the Social Service in the Public Education Politics extent. Initially brings a brief theoretical reference about the Social Assistant ethics and Professional ethics, following, approaches the relation between this knowledge and the Professional experience developed by the author in the University Extension Project titled: Social Service in the Education area, promoted by the Social Service University of the Educational Foundation “Antonio Eufrâsio de Toledo” – Presidente Prudente/SP. The main aim of this reflection is to provoke the debate about the realization of the ethic-political principles of the Social Service in the work, accomplished in this social assistant professional acting field.
马克思恩格斯科学的社会公平理论为社会发展提供了愿景，经典作家的社会实践和社会公平理论丰富并发展了这一理论。针对我国社会不公平现象突显，其危机令人堪忧问题，根据马克思主义经典作家的社会公平理论提出“转变经济发展方式是解决社会公平的基本前提、还富于民是解决社会公平问题的根本”的思路。%Marx and Engels put forward the scientific theory on social justice, which provides a vision for social development. The social practice and the theory on social justice by classical writers have greatly enriched and developed the theory. Based on the worrying problem embodied in social inequities in China, and on the theories on social justice by the classical writers specialized in Marxism, the present paper puts forward the view that ＂ the transformation of economic development pattern is the basic premise to achieve social equity ; while dividend to the community is the fundamental issue to achieve this goal. ＂
Reader, S.M.; Lefebvre, L.
Sociality may not be a defining feature of social learning. Complex social systems have been predicted to favour the evolution of social learning, but the evidence for this relationship is weak. In birds, only one study supports the hypothesis that social learning is an adaptive specialisation to social living. In nonhuman primates, social group size and social learning frequency are not correlated. Though cetaceans may prove an exception, they provide a useful group with which to test these ...
I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion of a...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....
Cargill, B. F.
The fruit and vegetable industry is on the road to total mechanization. The scientific and social communities need to collaborate as technological innovations influence manpower development and utilization. An awareness of the implications of technological advancement and manpower problems is required so that the U. S. fruit and vegetable grower…
This contribution explores a range of social spaces where unions and workers have played or potential can play a role in the local social shaping of IT and work. It will mainly be based on the authors own research and experiences within Scandinavian research on technology and working from the past...... 30 years. The paper provides an overview of Scandinavian research within technology and working life form a Danish perspective. A major contribution is con-cerned with a variety of strategies employed by social actors involved in action research pro-jects and their role in the social shaping...... of technology. The point is made that no single strat-egy have proved to provide an uncontested route for union or workers influence. Instead the Scandinavian experiences indicate, that a range of spaces, players and positions have been developed, providing opportunities for addressing questions related...
Waber, Benjamin Nathan; Williams, Michele; Carroll, John Stephen; Pentland, Alex Paul
While self-report measures are often highly reliable for field research on trust (Mayer and Davis, 1999), subjects often cannot complete surveys during real time interactions. In contrast, the social signals that are embedded in the non-linguistic elements of conversations can be captured in real time and extracted with the assistance of computer coding. This chapter seeks to understand how computer-coded social signals are related to interpersonal trust.
McInnis, Opal A.; McQuaid, Robyn J.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie
Oxytocin is a hormone that is thought to influence prosocial behaviors and may be important in modulating responses to both positive and negative social interactions. Indeed, a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been associated with decreased trust, empathy, optimism, and social support seeking, which are important components of coping with stressors. In the current study, conducted among undergraduate students (N = 225), it was shown that parent...
Flores, Walter; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Funchal, Denise Phe
Social participation has been understood in many different ways, and there are even typologies classifying participation by the degree of a population's control in decision making. Participation can vary from a symbolic act, which does not involve decision making, to processes in which it constitutes the principal tool for redistributing power within a population. This article argues that analyzing social participation from a perspective of power relations requires knowledge of the historical, social, and economic processes that have characterized the social relations in a specific context. Applying such an analysis to Guatemala reveals asymmetrical power relations characterized by a long history of repression and political violence. The armed conflict during the second half of the 20th century had devastating consequences for a large portion of the population as well as the country's social leadership. The ongoing violence resulted in negative psychosocial effects among the population, including mistrust toward institutions and low levels of social and political participation. Although Guatemala made progress in creating spaces for social participation in public policy after signing the Peace Accords in 1996, the country still faces after-effects of the conflict. One important task for the organizations that work in the field of health and the right to health is to help regenerate the social fabric and to rebuild trust between the state and its citizens. Such regeneration involves helping the population gain the skills, knowledge, and information needed in order to participate in and affect formal political processes that are decided and promoted by various public entities, such as the legislative and executive branches, municipal governments, and political parties. This process also applies to other groups that build citizenship through participation, such as neighborhood organizations and school and health committees. PMID:20845849
Opal Arilla Mcinnis
Full Text Available Oxytocin is a hormone that is thought to influence prosocial behaviors and may be important in modulating responses to both positive and negative social interactions. Indeed, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR has been associated with decreased trust, empathy, optimism and social support seeking, which are important components of coping with stressors. In the current study, conducted among undergraduate students (N=225, it was shown that parental and peer social support was related to fewer depressive symptoms through elevated problem-focused coping and lower emotion-focused coping, and these effects were independent of the OXTR polymorphism. Unsupportive social interactions from parents were associated with more severe depressive symptoms through the greater use of emotion-focused coping, and this relation was moderated by the OXTR genotype. Specifically, individuals who carried the polymorphism on one or both of their alleles demonstrated increased emotion-focused coping following unsupportive responses compared to those without the polymorphism. Likewise, lower problem-focused coping mediated the relation between parental and peer unsupportive responses to depressive symptoms, but this mediated relation was only evident among carriers of the polymorphism. These findings suggest that carrying this OXTR polymorphism might favor disadvantageous coping styles in the face of negative social interactions, which in turn are linked to poor mood. Regardless of genotype, parental and peer social support are fundamental in determining stress-related coping and well-being.
With specific reference to the Aboriginal situation in Australia, and in the context of the Australian federal government's current policy regarding Aboriginal self-management, this document addresses the need for alternatives to traditional Aboriginal training (education) programs and the implications of these alternative programs for the…
I consider some arguments of social science and humanities researchers about the challenge that Big Data presents for social science methods. What they suggest is that social scientists need to engage with Big Data rather than retreat into internal debates about its meaning and implications. Instead, understanding Big Data requires and provides an opportunity for the interdisiciplinary development of methods that innovatively, critically and reflexively engage with new forms of data. Unlike d...
This work attempts to highlight the unique characteristics of SNS and explore some of the social externalities of SNS and how these sites are influencing the dynamics of social networking and everyday communication practices. Social networking sites (SNS) have been with us for a few years. Throughout this time, these sites have evolved and are having significant social implications especially, amongst young people. This work analyses these application against social and media theory, mainl...
Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate
Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response. PMID:26499335
"This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract
Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.
Berkovic, SF; Harkin, L; McMahon, JM; Pelekanos, JT; Zuberi, SM; Wirrell, EC; Gill, DS; Iona, [No Value; Mulley, JC; Scheffer, IE
Background Vaccination, particularly for pertussis, has been implicated as a direct cause of an encephalopathy with refractory seizures and intellectual impairment. We postulated that cases of so-called vaccine encephalopathy could have mutations in the neuronal sodium channel alpha 1 subunit gene (
Martins, Eliana Bolorino Canteiro
A vertente temática do presente artigo refere-se ao desafio da materialização dos princípios ético-políticos do Serviço Social na efetivação do trabalho profissional desenvolvido, especificamente nos espaços sócio-ocupacionais do Serviço Social no âmbito da Política de Educação Pública. Inicialmente, traz uma breve referência teórica sobre a ética e a ética profissional do assistente social; em seguida, aborda a relação deste conhecimento com a experiência profissional desenvolvida pela autor...
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.
Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…
Davies, Mark R.; Lee, Barbara A.
This paper provides a comparative snapshot of the current state of the law in the US and UK with respect to potential liability of university and college students for use (and misuse) of social networking sites. It reviews the limited case law on this topic, highlights the differences in the two nations' laws of defamation and the various possible…
Jen, Enyi; Wu, Jiaxi; Gentry, Marcia
This exploratory study investigated the social and affective concerns of 280 high-ability students in Grades 5 through 12 who participated in a summer residential program. Content analysis of responses from an open-ended survey indicated that high-ability adolescents expressed concerns regarding feelings and emotions, future aspirations, and…
GAO accompanied Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors to the North Anna nuclear powerplants in Virginia to observe their investigation of allegations of poor construction practices. The inspectors found 32 instances where the owner of the powerplants and its contractors failed to meet acceptable construction criteria. GAO found that the inspectors were very thorough and aggressive in the investigation at North Anna. But, the Commission's investigation report did not justify its conclusion that the items found did not have direct safety significance. GAO made several recommendations to the Commission aimed at assuring that the powerplants are constructed in accordance with prescribed criteria
Kahveci, Nihat Gürel
The use of social media is tremendously increasing trend for personal use. At the same time, social media are penetrating to the educational settings as well. Thus purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service social studies teachers' conceptions on use of social media in social studies education; it is possible implications on social…
José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández
Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the meaning of social policy for social development. It takes into account the relationships and implications of social policy to the State as well as the strategies to combat poverty, the economic globalization processes, citizen participation, the metrópolis and urban development and their implications for environmental policy.
Boonzaaier, Hester Susanna
Background: Child sexual abuse is a problem that manifests in all spheres of our society, a social problem that often crosses the desk of a social worker rendering services to children and families. The researcher can still remember how daunting her first experience was when she dealt with an allegation of child sexual abuse. Now, in hindsight she believes that if she had more in-depth knowledge when dealing with children who has been sexually abused and their disclosure thereof, it would ...
Reilly, Philip; Wertz, Dorothy C.
The GeneLetter (http://www.geneletter.org) is an Internet newsletter on ethical, legal, and social issues in genetics, designed for a wide and varied audience, some of whom may not be familiar with genetic science. It appears every two months, with a variety of long and short feature articles on ethics and on genetic disorders, a section on new federal and state legislation, an international section, a student corner, book and video reviews, a summary of genetics in the news, and a list of upcoming conferences. Feature articles have ventured into an area of wide general concern, behavioral genetics. The newsletter also has an interactive chatbox and the opportunity of more private communications with the editors via email. The purpose of the GeneLetter is to help fill a communication and knowledge gap on ethical, legal and social issues surrounding genetics.
Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.
Few studies have investigated school-based, positive development for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) youth, despite knowledge of their heightened negative school experiences compared to heterosexual youth (e.g., school victimization). This study examines associations among participation in Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA)–related social justice activities, GSA presence, and GSA membership with victimization based on sexual orientation and school-based well-being (i.e., school safety, scho...
Many students believe that drinking alcohol is part of the collegiate experience and showing that one consumes alcohol is an important part of establishing that one fits into this atmosphere. Facebook is one means in which college students present the appearance of social conformity in order to gain peer approval; yet, in accordance with Privacy Calculus Theory, students also need to weigh the potential cons of non-peer disapproval for drinking disclosures. However, for the process of Privacy...
Sani Alhaji Garba; Termit Kaur Ranjit Singh; Najeemah Binti Mohammad Yusuf; Azidah Abu Ziden
The influence of digital technology in society has made ICT literacy a basic requirement needed by all to survive the challenge of living in the 21st. The education industry is now faced with the challenge of helping learners to acquire this literacy. Coping with this challenge requires breeding teachersâ€™ with high level of proficiency in ICT literacy and competence. This study investigates the readiness of Nigerian Colleges of Education toward breeding social studies teachers with ICT lite...
Foley, Kelly A; MacFabe, Derrick F; Vaz, Alisha; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin
Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in immune functioning, behavioral regulation and neurodevelopment. Altered microbiome composition, including altered short chain fatty acids, and/or immune system dysfunction, may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with some children with ASD exhibiting both abnormal gut bacterial metabolite composition and immune system dysfunction. This study describes the effects of prenatal propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid and metabolic product of many antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria, and of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic and microbiome component, on social behavior in male and female neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were injected once a day with either a low level of PPA (500 mg/kg SC) on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 μg/kg SC) on G12, or vehicle control on G12 or G12-16. Sex- and age-specific, subtle effects on behavior were observed. Both male and female PPA treated pups were impaired in a test of their nest seeking response, suggesting impairment in olfactory-mediated neonatal social recognition. As well, adolescent males, born to PPA treated dams, approached a novel object more than control animals and showed increased levels of locomotor activity compared to prenatal PPA females. Prenatal LPS produced subtle impairments in social behavior in adult male and female rats. These findings raise the possibility that brief prenatal exposure to elevated levels of microbiome products, such as PPA or LPS, can subtly influence neonatal, adolescent and adult social behavior. PMID:24747144
Representações sociais de mulheres mastectomizadas e suas implicações para o autocuidado Representaciones sociales de mujeres sometidas a mastectomía y las implicaciones para el autocuidado Social representations of women submitted to mastectomy and the implications for self-care
Sílvio Éder Dias da Silva
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos identificar as representações sociais de mulheres mastectomizadas sobre a mama e analisar as implicações dessas representações sociais no autocuidado. Tratou-se de um estudo qualitativo segundo o referencial Teoria das Representações Sociais. Para coleta de dados empregou-se duas técnicas: a associação livre de idéias e a observação livre. Para a análise das informações empregou-se a técnica de análise temática. A pesquisa teve como resultado duas unidades temáticas: a mama e suas representações sociais de mudança no corpo e representações sociais de mulheres mastectomizadas: implicações sobre o cuidado de si. No estudo, observou-se que as mulheres objetivaram o cuidado das mamas por meio da realização do autoexame.Esta investigación tuve como objetivos: identificar las representaciones sociales de las mujeres después de la mastectomía de mama y analizar las implicaciones de estas representaciones sociales en el autocuidado. Este es un estudio cualitativo que utilizó la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Para la recolección de datos se emplearon dos técnicas: la libre asociación de ideas y la observación. Para análisis de datos la técnica de análisis temático fue utilizada. La investigación presentó dos unidades temáticas: el de mama y sus representaciones del cambio social en el cuerpo y las representaciones sociales de las mujeres mastectomía: implicaciones para el cuidado personal. En el estudio, mostraron que las mujeres se opuso el cuidado de los senos a través de la realización de la autoexploración.The purposes of this research was to identify the social representations of women on breast mastectomy and to analyze the implications of these social representations to care for self-care. This is a qualitative study using the Theory of Social Representations as theoretical reference. For data collection it was employed two techniques: the free
Petra F.A. Dilling
As corporate social responsibility receives increased attention by company stakeholders, researchers are also increasingly exploring corporate social responsibility, its causes and implications. However little is known about the perception of corporate social responsibility. This study explores the link between stakeholder perception of corporate social responsibility and its relationship with underlying factors. The findings suggest that age of the corporation, community involvement, and cul...
Kraus, Michael Warren
Social class (socioeconomic status, SES) is a primary determinant of rank in the human social hierarchy, and in the present research I examined lay theories about social class categories and their implications for social policy. Lay theories about social categories (e.g., race, sexual orientation) differ to the extent that they are essential--based on internal, inherent, and stable characteristics--or socially constructed. Theory and research argue that high-ranking individuals in society jus...
Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Feldman, Ruth
As a social species, humans evolved to detect information from the social behavior of others. Yet, the mechanisms used to evaluate social interactions, the brain networks implicated in such recognition, and whether individual differences in own social behavior determine response to similar behavior in others remain unknown. Here we examined social synchrony as a potentially important mechanism in the evaluation of social behavior and utilized the parenting context, an evolutionarily salient s...
Rod Knight; Will Small; Anna Carson; Jean Shoveller
Background HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices) may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultura...
Dodik Setiawan Nur Heriyanto
This paper will analyze conflicting contents between Kutai Kartanegara’s Local Law No. 10, Year 2013, on Corporate Social Responsibility with the upper legislation on CSR In Indonesia and also will make short recommendations on how to challenge the local law. By using legal normative approach as the research methodology, this study found that none of higher law regulating CSR giving a mandate to enact local law on CSR and some of its substance contradict with the basic values of CSR as busine...
Ana Maria Baima Cartaxo
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a formação profissional continuada crítica no campo do exercício profissional de Serviço Social. Fundamenta-se em uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental que procura identificar e apontar estratégias para esse processo de formação. Aborda criticamente a utilização do termo, tendo como referência autores da área de educação. Problematiza a formação continuada como um processo constante e necessário ao exercício profissional, imbricado na relação teórico-prática, na qualidade da produção documental, na apropriação das novas tecnologias para auxiliar a organizar os dados da realidade que se apresentam no cotidiano profissional. A partir do método crítico-dialético, enfatiza a necessária atitude investigativa e propõe estratégias teórico-políticas de formação continuada para o fortalecimento do projeto ético-político do Serviço Social.The purpose of this article is to reflect on continuous and critical professional education in the field of the professional exercise of Social Work. It is based on bibliographic and documental research that sought to identify and indicate strategies for this educational process. It critically analyzes the use of the term, using as a reference authors from the field of education. It problematizes continuous education as a constant and necessary process for professional exercise that is imbricated in the relationship between theory and practice, in the quality of document production and in the appropriation of new technologies to assist in organizing the data about reality that is presented in the daily work of professionals. Based on a critical-dialectic method, it emphasizes the need to have an investigative attitude and to propose theoretical-political strategies for continuing education to strengthen the ethical-political project of Social Work.
Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.
Gonzalez, Francisco M.
We propose a theory of the welfare state, in which social transfers are chosen by a governing group interacting with non-governing groups repeatedly. Social demands from the non-governing groups are credible because these groups have the ability to generate social conflict. In this context social insurance is supplied as an equilibrium response to income risks within a self-enforcing social contract. When we explore the implications of such a view of the social contract, we find four main det...
Full Text Available This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how state policies in relation to immigration and social security reinforce inequalities in gendered power relations. Despite attempts to improve the social security and immigration systems, the findings from a Northern Ireland study show how recent policy changes have not addressed the systemic institutional racism and institutionalised patriarchy in these agencies. Where avenues for action are undermined by such practices, the policies raise concerns about the safety and protection of minoritized women living in abusive relationships. We argue that the UK is failing to meet its human rights responsibilities to provide adequate support and assistance to minoritized women in abusive relationships and conclude that delivering state accountability alongside a human rights framework based on security, autonomy, liberty and equality is what is needed. Este artículo analiza las complejidades del proceso de búsqueda de ayuda en Irlanda del Norte para mujeres pertenecientes a minorías (principalmente solicitantes de asilo e inmigrantes que sufren violencia doméstica. El término 'minoritarizadas' se utiliza aquí para hacer hincapié en que la situación de "minoría" no es un rasgo estático o innato de ciertos grupos, sino que es el resultado de un proceso de ser posicionado como una minoría. El artículo aborda las intersecciones de origen étnico, nacionalidad, clase y género y muestra cómo las políticas estatales en relación a la inmigración y la seguridad social
Koen Peeters Grietens
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIHs are being evaluated as an additional malaria prevention tool in settings where standard control strategies have a limited impact. This is the case among the Ra-glai ethnic minority communities of Ninh Thuan, one of the forested and mountainous provinces of Central Vietnam where malaria morbidity persist due to the sylvatic nature of the main malaria vector An. dirus and the dependence of the population on the forest for subsistence--as is the case for many impoverished ethnic minorities in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A social science study was carried out ancillary to a community-based cluster randomized trial on the effectiveness of LLIHs to control forest malaria. The social science research strategy consisted of a mixed methods study triangulating qualitative data from focused ethnography and quantitative data collected during a malariometric cross-sectional survey on a random sample of 2,045 study participants. RESULTS: To meet work requirements during the labor intensive malaria transmission and rainy season, Ra-glai slash and burn farmers combine living in government supported villages along the road with a second home at their fields located in the forest. LLIH use was evaluated in both locations. During daytime, LLIH use at village level was reported by 69.3% of all respondents, and in forest fields this was 73.2%. In the evening, 54.1% used the LLIHs in the villages, while at the fields this was 20.7%. At night, LLIH use was minimal, regardless of the location (village 4.4%; forest 6.4%. DISCUSSION: Despite the free distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and LLIHs, around half the local population remains largely unprotected when sleeping in their forest plot huts. In order to tackle forest malaria more effectively, control policies should explicitly target forest fields where ethnic minority farmers are more vulnerable to malaria.
The sexual abuse of children in South–Africa, and across the world, is becoming a daily phenomenon. Such abuse of children takes place in every class, culture and race. Forensic social workers are appointed for sexual abuse cases to assess the alleged victims of sexual abuse in order to determine the likelihood that sexual abuse actually took place. The problem in South–Africa is two–fold: first, only a few social workers are qualified forensic social workers and second, most of the forensic ...
Statement on access to relevant medical and other health records and relevant legal records for forensic medical evaluations of alleged torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
Alempijevic, D.; Beriashvili, R.; Beynon, J.;
full disclosure of all medical and other health records, as well as legal documents, in any case in which an individual alleges that they have been subjected to torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of punishment. A broad definition of what must be included in the terms...... professionals in acts of torture and other ill-treatment is discussed. A summary of international law and medical ethics surrounding the right of access to personal information, especially health information in connection with allegations of torture is also given....