Sample records for allanite

  1. Physicochemical aspects of allanite flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Jordens; Chris Marion; Olga Kuzmina; Kristian E.Waters


    This paper investigated the physicochemical properties of allanite, a RE-silicate, by measuring zeta potential in the absence and presence of three different flotation collectors (benzohydroxamic acid, sodium oleate and dodecylamine). This data was then verified by microflotation experiments and with bubble-particle attachment pictures. The investigated properties of allanite were com-pared to those of quartz, a common gangue mineral in many RE deposits. The results of this work indicated that only dodecylamine was able to achieve a selective separation of allanite and quartz. This was accomplished by lowering the dodecylamine dosage so that only quartz was recovered by microflotation.

  2. Allanite behaviour during incipient melting in the southern Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory, C.J.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.


    - to medium-grade regional metamorphic terranes (Finger et al., 1998 and Wing et al., 2003), and is an important host of thorium (Th), uranium (U) and light rare earth elements (LREE) in both types of occurrences (Gromet and Silver, 1983 and Janots et al., 2008). Such features have made allanite a prospective...... et al., 1995) is broadly coincident with igneous activity related to the emplacement of the Bergell Pluton (Berger et al., 1996 and Oberli et al., 2004). Zircon and allanite in the western segment of the Bergell tonalite record a protracted magmatic history lasting from 33 to 28 Ma (Oberli et al......, falls within this period (~27 Ma, Vance and O’Nions, 1992). In fact, Alpine igneous activity continued to at least ~24 Ma with the emplacement of the Novate leucogranite stocks (Liati et al., 2000). Together, these data suggest a long-lasting thermal history for the SSB. Recent ion microprobe dating...

  3. Preservation of Permian allanite within an Alpine eclogite facies shear zone at Mt Mucrone, Italy: Mechanical and chemical behaviour of allanite during mylonitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenki-Tok, Benedicte; Oliot, E.; Berger, Alfons


    This study addresses the mechanical and cehmical behavior of allanite during shear zone formation under high-pressure metamorphism. Understanding physico-chemical processes related to the retention or resetting of Pb isotopes in allanite during geological processes is essential for robust...... petrochronology. Dating of allanite in meta-granodiorite showing variable amounts of strain (from an undeformed protolith to mylonite) at Monte Mucrone (Sesia Zone, NW Italy) gave surprising results. Based on structural and petrographic observations the shear zones at Mt Mucrone are Alpine, yet allanite located......, and they were thus chemically and mechanically shielded during Alpine mylonitization. In undeformed samples (8a and 8b), two populations of epidote group minerals were found. Allanite forms either coronas around Permianmonazite or individual grains with patchy zoning. Both types yield Permian ages (208Pb/232Th...

  4. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS (United States)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.


    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  5. Crystal chemistry of volcanic allanites indicative of naturally induced oxidation-dehydrogenation (United States)

    Hoshino, Mihoko; Kimata, Mitsuyoshi; Chesner, Craig A.; Nishida, Norimasa; Shimizu, Masahiro; Akasaka, Takeshi


    The crystal chemistry of volcanic allanites from both the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT), Sumatra, Indonesia and SK100 volcanic ash beds (SK100-VAB), Niigata, Japan has been examined by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), and single-crystal structure analysis. In the FTIR study, based on the Diamond ATR accessory, YTT and SK100- VAB allanites were observed to have different OH contents, respectively: the former has 0.64 wt% H2O (OH: 0.40 apfu.), while the latter has 1.65 wt% H2O (OH: 1.00 apfu.). The crystal structures of these two allanites have been refined to individual R indices (3.64 and 4.25) based on 1350 observed reflections (|Fo| > 4sig|Fo|) measured using a single-crystal diffractometer with MoKα X-radiation. The OH-poor YTT allanite has a shorter b axis, a longer c axis, and larger β value than the relatively OH-rich SK100-VAB one. The bond valence sums of O4 (accepter oxygen for H atom) and O10 (donor oxygen for H atom) are 1.962 and 1.709 v.u. for YTT allanite (valence sum: 3.671 v.u.) and 1.754 and 1.271 v.u. for SK100-VAB one (valence sum: 3.025 v.u.). The difference from the ideal total bond valence value (4.00 v.u.) of O4 and O10 in YTT allanite (0.33 v.u.) is smaller than that in SK100-VAB (0.98 v.u.). These difference values are also broadly consistent with the corresponding differences in OH content between the YTT (OH: 0.40 apfu.) and SK100-VAB allanites (OH: 1.00 apfu.) determined by FTIR- ATR. Chemical analyses, FTIR-ATR and crystal structure refinement of YTT and SK100-VAB allanites yielded the following crystal chemical formula: YTT: (Ca0.83Mn2+ 0.06Fe2+ 0.11)(La0.24Ce0.32Pr0.04Nd0.11Sm0.02Th0.04Ca0.21)(Al0.73Fe3+ 0.19Ti0.08)(Al0.89Fe3+ 0.11)(Fe2+ 0.22Fe3+ 0.62Mg0.16)(SiO4)Si2O7O1.6(OH)0.4, SK100-VAB: (Ca0.81Fe2+ 0.13Mn2+ 0.06)(La0.22Ce0.34Pr0.05Nd0.13Sm0.02Th0.02Ca0.22)(Al0.76Fe3+ 0.19Ti0.05)Al1.00(Fe2+ 0.73Fe3+ 0.17Mg0.10)(Si0.96Al0.04O4)Si2O7O(OH). Therefore, it is concluded that

  6. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS (United States)

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.


    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  7. Common-lead problems related to allanite Th-U-Pb dating: Are muliple growth zones the problem or the solution? (United States)

    Burn, Marco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin


    Allanite Th-U/Pb dating has proved to be a powerful tool to unravel the timing of magmatic and metamorphic processes. Different techniques (ID-TIMS, LA-ICP-MS, SHRIMP/SIMS) and optimized algorithms for the calculation of ages have been concocted over the last 25 years. Major differences concern the correction of age data for the initial common lead incorporated in allanite, which is required to interpret single analyses in terms of geologically meaningful ages. Much like garnet, allanite commonly shows growth zoning. Analytical progress improving the spatial resolution is thus most welcome for dating allanite, as it allows spots in single growth zones to be measured, rather than an average of several growth zones in single grains or worse, over several grains (early ID-TIMS). Regarding the conversion of isotopic data to geological meaningful ages, spot age dating of allanite has developped from two opposite ambitions: (i) Single spot approach: Each analytical spot yields an age, which can be averaged over the same growth zone in order to obtain a more precise age; (ii) Isochron approach: Only groups of single spots analyzed together can reveal a correct age. The main differences between these approaches are the basic assumptions used for the interpretation of the ages. The single spot approach assumes that the the ratios of initial common lead incorporated in allanite is known, whereas for the isochron approach assumes that a single growth zone can be identified and hence only analyses from the same one are employed. We present an approach that combines the two ambitions to date metamorphic allanite: Th-U/Pb-data from LA-ICP-MS spot analysis, EPMA data and results of different imaging techniques are reported. The composition of initial lead incorporated in allanite is estimated from the Tera-Wasserburg and the Th-isochron diagram. Estimates of this initial lead composition in allanite show that the common lead fractions in allanite are variable. Case examples are

  8. Chemical and textural record of REE accessory phases along a well constrained prograde pelitic suite: implications for allanite and monazite petrochronology (United States)

    Robyr, M.; Goswami-Banerjee, S.; Engi, M.


    Because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over several millions of years, metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". As a consequence, interpreting radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the P-T conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite ages are interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. Consequently, to interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is crucial to determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A detailed account of the textural and chemical evolution of allanite and monazite along a well constrained prograde metamorphic suite of detrital sediments of the Greater Himalaya of Zanskar reveals that: (1) allanite is the stable REE accessory phase in the biotite and garnet zone and (2) at the staurolite-in isograd, allanite disappears abruptly from the metamorphic assemblage, simultaneously with the occurrence of the first metamorphic monazite. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. The preservation of allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet core and rim respectively allows to accurately identify the P-T conditions of the formation of the first metamorphic monazite. Thermobarometry indicates that, in both cases, monazite crystallization occurred at 600 °C. The fact that the substitution of allanite by monazite occurs spatially close, i.e. at similar P-T conditions, in all types of rocks whether they are Al-rich metapelites or more psammitic metasediments indicates that major silicate phases like staurolite or garnet do not play a significant role in the monazite

  9. Thermochemistry of monazite-(La) and dissakisite-(La): Implications for monazite and allanite stability in meta-pelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janots, E. [Univ Bern, Inst Geol Sci, CH-30012 Bern (Switzerland); Janots, E.; Brunet, F.; Goffe, B. [ENS, CNRS, UMR 8538, Geol Lab, F-75005 Paris (France); Poinssot, C. [CEA Saclay, SECR, DPC, DEN, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Burchard, M. [Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Geol Mineral and Geophys, D-4630 Bochum (Germany); Cemic, L. [Univ Kiel, Inst Geowissensch, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)


    Thermochemical properties have been either measured or estimated for synthetic monazite, LaPO{sub 4}, and dissakisite, CaLaMgAl{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH, the Mg-equivalent of allanite. A dissakisite formation enthalpy of -6,976.5 {+-} 10.0 kJ mol{sup -1} was derived from high-temperature drop-solution measurements in lead borate at 975 K. A third-law entropy value of 104.9 {+-} 1.6 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} was retrieved from low-temperature heat capacity (C{sub p}) measured on synthetic LaPO{sub 4} with an adiabatic calorimeter in the 30-300 K range. The C{sub p} values of lanthanum phases were measured in the 143-723 K range by differential scanning calorimetry. In this study, La(OH){sub 3} appeared as suitable for drop solution in lead borate and represents an attractive alternative to La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Pseudo-sections were calculated with the THERIAK-DOMINO software using the thermochemical data retrieved here for a simplified meta-pelitic composition (La = {sigma} REE + Y) and considering monazite and Fe-free epidotes along the dissakisite-clinozoisite join, as the only REE-bearing minerals. Calculation shows a stability window for dissakisite-clinozoisite epidotes (T between 250 and 550 degrees C and P between 1 and 16 kbar), included in a wide monazite field. The P-T extension of this stability window depends on the bulk-rock Ca-content. Assuming that synthetic LaPO{sub 4} and dissakisite-(La) are good analogues of natural monazite and allanite, these results are consistent with the REE-mineralogy sequence observed in meta-pelites, where (1) monazite is found to be stable below 250 degrees C, (2) around 250-450 degrees C, depending on the pressure, allanite forms at the expense of monazite and (3) towards amphibolite conditions, monazite reappears at the expense of allanite. (authors)

  10. Britholite, monazite, REE carbonates, and calcite: Products of hydrothermal alteration of allanite and apatite in A-type granite from Stupné, Western Carpathians, Slovakia (United States)

    Uher, Pavel; Ondrejka, Martin; Bačík, Peter; Broska, Igor; Konečný, Patrik


    An uncommon assemblage of primary and secondary accessory REE minerals was identified in a Permian A-type granite clast in polymict conglomerates intercalated in the Cretaceous flysch sequence of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, northwest Slovakia. A detailed electron-microprobe study of the granite reveals extensive subsolidus alteration of primary magmatic allanite-(Ce) to ferriallanite-(Ce) and fluorapatite. The Y, Ce-rich fluorapatite was replaced by the dissolution-reprecipitation process to the britholite group mineral members: fluorbritholite-(Y), britholite-(Y), fluorcalciobritholite, and its hydroxyl-dominant analogue ("calciobritholite"). Britholite-(Y) contains up to 5.2 wt.% ThO2 (0.15 apfu Th); the highest Th content yet reported in naturally occurring Y-dominant britholites. Moreover, the alteration of (ferri)allanite-(Ce) resulted to complex pseudomorphs and overgrowths, including mainly REE carbonate phases: [synchysite-(Ce) to its hydroxyl-dominant analogue "hydroxylsynchysite-(Ce)", bastnäsite-(Ce)] and calcite, rarely monazite-(Ce), epidote, clinochlore, titanite, TiO2 phase, and pseudorutile. In some cases, secondary carbonate minerals (mainly synchysite and calcite) replaced a substantial part of former allanite crystals. Moreover, primary magmatic biotite (annite) was partly transformed to acicular stilpnomelane. Textural and compositional data indicate extensive replacement and breakdown of the primary magmatic allanite and apatite by aqueous fluids rich in fluorine and carbon, liberated during a younger post-magmatic, low-temperature hydrothermal-metamorphic overprint of the granite.

  11. Monazite and allanite U-Th-Pb vs mica 39Ar-40Ar ages in equilibrated metasediments: closure behavior and closure temperatures (United States)

    Allaz, J.; Engi, M.; Berger, A.; Janots, E.; Villa, I. M.


    The art of geochronology implies identification of processes, so as to correctly interpret an isotopic age as (1) crystallization, (2) cooling, or (3) meaningless owing to inheritance and/or late mineral recrystallization. We address here a field calibration of 39Ar-40Ar ages against U-Th-Pb ages. We demonstrate that detailed petrological, micro-textural and micro-chemical investigations are a necessary prerequisite for meaningful geochronology. The Barrovian metamorphism in the Alps results from the collision of Europe and Apulia and reaches its thermal maximum (upper amphibolite facies) in the Central Alps. Age estimates for the Alpine orogeny have long been controversial, despite a multitude of studies. Based on the resetting of Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages in muscovite from polymetamorphic gneisses, Jäger [1] had proposed an age of 38±2 Ma for the Barrovian metamorphism, corresponding to a “closure temperature TC” (following [2]) of 350 °C for K-Ar in muscovite. However, a uniform Eocene age for the metamorphism in the Central Alps was in conflict already with early monazite and xenotime U-Pb ages from the same area, namely 30 Ma in the southern, and ~20 Ma in the northern part (e.g. [3]). A recent study [4] both confirmed the young monazite ages in the north (SHRIMP U-Pb of 18-19 Ma near Tmax = 570 °C), and demonstrated that ca. 30 Ma ago this part of the belt was still heating up, as allanite grew prograde near 440 °C. These results once more prove isotopic inheritance, and therefore underestimation of mica K-Ar TC, in Jäger’s [1] samples. To avoid isotopic inheritance problems we selected only Mesozoic metasediments from the northern Central Alps. We screened all samples by PTAX: many had undergone a variety of retrogression reactions and calculations show petrological disequilibrium; we favored those in near-ideal petrological equilibrium. 39Ar-40Ar ages for mica separates from equilibrium samples yield ages between 18.93±0.83 and 15.79±0.11 Ma for

  12. Experimental constraints on the monazite-fluorapatite-allanite and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote phase relations as a function of pressure, temperature, and Ca vs. Na activity in the fluid (United States)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Harlov, Daniel E.; Majka, Jarosław; Kozub, Gabriela A.


    Stability relations of monazite-fluorapatite-allanite and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote are strongly dependent on pressure, temperature and fluid composition. The increased Ca bulk content expands stability field of allanite relative to monazite towards higher temperatures (Spear, 2010, Chem Geol 279, 55-62). It was also reported from amphibolite facies Alpine metapelites, that both temperature and bulk CaO/Na2O ratio control relative stabilities of allanite, monazite and xenotime (Janots et al., 2008, J Metam Geol 26, 5, 509-526). This study experimentally defines influence of pressure, temperature, high activity of Ca vs. Na in the fluid, and high vs. moderate bulk CaO/Na2O ratio on the relative stabilities of monazite-fluorapatite-allanite/REE-rich epidote and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote. This work expands previous experimental study on monazite (Budzyń et al., 2011, Am Min 96, 1547-1567) to wide pressure-temperature range of 2-10 kbar and 450-750°C, utilizing most reactive fluids used in previous experiments. Experiments were performed using cold-seal autoclaves on a hydrothermal line (2-4 kbar runs) and piston-cylinder apparatus (6-10 kbar runs) over 4-16 days. Four sets of experiments, two for monazite and two for xenotime, were performed with 2M Ca(OH)2 and Na2Si2O5 + H2O fluids. The starting materials included inclusion-free crystals of monazite (pegmatite, Burnet County, TX, USA) or xenotime (pegmatite, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan) mixed with (1) labradorite (Ab37An60Kfs3) + K-feldspar + biotite + muscovite ± garnet + SiO2 + CaF2 + 2M Ca(OH)2 or (2) albite (Ab100) + K-feldspar + biotite + muscovite ± garnet + SiO2 + CaF2 + Na2Si2O5 + H2O. 20-35 mg of solids and 5 mg of fluid were loaded into 3x15 mm Au capsules and arc welded shut. The monazite alteration is observed in all runs. Newly formed REE-rich fluorapatite and/or britholite are stable in all experimental P-T range in the

  13. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: 207Pb-206Pb dating of magnetite, monazite and allanite in the central and northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frei, Robert


    Full Text Available Pb-isotopic data for magnetite from amphibolites in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen, central West Greenland, have been used to trace their source characteristics and the timing of metamorphism. Analyses of the magnetite define a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1726 ± 7 Ma. The magnetite is metamorphic in origin, and the 1726 Ma age is interpreted as a cooling age through the closing temperature of magnetite at ~600°C. Some of the amphibolites in this study come from the Naternaq supracrustal rocks in the northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, which host the Naternaq sulphide deposit and may be part ofthe Nordre Strømfjord supracrustal suite, which was deposited at around 1950 Ma ago.Pb-isotopic signatures of magnetite from the Arfersiorfik quartz diorite in the central Nagssugtoqidian orogen are compatible with published whole-rock Pb-isotopic data from this suite; previous work has shown that it is a product of subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism between 1920 and 1870 Ma. Intrusion of pegmatites occurred at around 1800 Ma in both the central and the northernparts of the orogen. Pegmatite ages have been determined by Pb stepwise leaching analyses of allanite and monazite, and source characteristics of Pb point to an origin of the pegmatites by melting of the surrounding late Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic country rocks. Hydrothermal activity took place after pegmatite emplacement and continued below the closure temperature of magnetite at 1800–1650 Ma. Because of the relatively inert and refractory nature of magnetite, Pb-isotopic measurements from this mineral may be of help to understand the metamorphic evolution of geologicallycomplex terrains.

  14. Experimental constraints on the relative stabilities of the two systems monazite-(Ce) - allanite-(Ce) - fluorapatite and xenotime-(Y) - (Y,HREE)-rich epidote - (Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite, in high Ca and Na-Ca environments under P-T conditions of 200-1000 MPa and 450-750 °C (United States)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Harlov, Daniel E.; Kozub-Budzyń, Gabriela A.; Majka, Jarosław


    The relative stabilities of phases within the two systems monazite-(Ce) - fluorapatite - allanite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) - (Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite - (Y,HREE)-rich epidote have been tested experimentally as a function of pressure and temperature in systems roughly replicating granitic to pelitic composition with high and moderate bulk CaO/Na2O ratios over a wide range of P-T conditions from 200 to 1000 MPa and 450 to 750 °C via four sets of experiments. These included (1) monazite-(Ce), labradorite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, SiO2, CaF2, and 2 M Ca(OH)2; (2) monazite-(Ce), albite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, SiO2, CaF2, Na2Si2O5, and H2O; (3) xenotime-(Y), labradorite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, garnet, SiO2, CaF2, and 2 M Ca(OH)2; and (4) xenotime-(Y), albite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, garnet, SiO2, CaF2, Na2Si2O5, and H2O. Monazite-(Ce) breakdown was documented in experimental sets (1) and (2). In experimental set (1), the Ca high activity (estimated bulk CaO/Na2O ratio of 13.3) promoted the formation of REE-rich epidote, allanite-(Ce), REE-rich fluorapatite, and fluorcalciobritholite at the expense of monazite-(Ce). In contrast, a bulk CaO/Na2O ratio of ~1.0 in runs in set (2) prevented the formation of REE-rich epidote and allanite-(Ce). The reacted monazite-(Ce) was partially replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite-fluorcalciobritholite in all runs, REE-rich steacyite in experiments at 450 °C, 200-1000 MPa, and 550 °C, 200-600 MPa, and minor cheralite in runs at 650-750 °C, 200-1000 MPa. The experimental results support previous natural observations and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria, which demonstrate that an increased CaO bulk content expands the stability field of allanite-(Ce) relative to monazite-(Ce) at higher temperatures indicating that the relative stabilities of monazite-(Ce) and allanite-(Ce) depend on the bulk CaO/Na2O ratio. The experiments also provide new insights into the re-equilibration of monazite-(Ce) via fluid

  15. Pegmatitas con allanita-(Ce vinculadas al ortogneispiroxénico de la Quebrada del Río Suquía, Sierras Chicas de Córdoba Pegmatites with allanite-(Ce related tothe orthopyroxene-bearing orthogneiss of the Quebrada del Río Suquía, SierrasChicas de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Locati


    /(Fe total+Mg de 0.48 a0.47], allanite-(Ce, and occasionally microcline with an orderedstructural state. Allanite-(Ce occurs as euhedral black crystals up to 16 cmlong bounded by the forms {001} and {100}. It is metamict due to its Th contentand shows optical and chemical zoning. LaN/YbN and LaN/GdNratios show a core-to-rim decrease (34-19 and 3.1-2.1 respectively, while Thincreases towards the rim (1.66-2.59% ThO2. Dominant substitutionmechanisms are Ca2+ + Fe3+ ETR3+ + Fe2+, Si4++ M2+ Al3+ + Fe3+ and probably 2ETR3+ Ca2++ Th4+ (where REE stands for rare-earth elements and M2+is a divalent cation. The pyroxenebearing orthogneiss and the pegmatitesderive from the same magma. The presence of allanite-(Ce is a consequence ofREE enrichment in the pegmatite melt induced by the delay or suppression ofmonazite crystallization, this itself being partially due to the earlyprecipitation of apatite which takes up P from the melt.

  16. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin


    This study assesses the effects of fluid, whole-rock composition and oxygen fugacity, on the texture and composition of monazite, allanite, and xenotime. For this purpose, these were investigated in 13 monometamorphic metasediments from a single locality of the Central Alps (Switzerland), which...

  17. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons;


    in the presence of early garnet, (2) zircon in equilibrium with abundant L-MREE-rich accessory phases (allanite, titanite and apatite) typical of metatonalites, and (3) zircon formed during melting of metasediments in feldspar-dominated assemblages. The distribution of zircon overgrowths and ages indicate...

  18. Dating emplacement and evolution of the orogenic magmatism in the internal Western Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Ovtcharova, Maria;


    by relics of two different pyroxenes as well as the texture of allanite. Hornblende barometry indicates pressures of similar to 0.46 GPa consistent with the presence of magmatic epidote. Field relationships between the two Plutons, the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Biella Volcanic Suite...



    KURT, Hüseyin; Kerim KOÇAK; ASAN, Kürşad; KARAKAŞ, Mustafa


    Biotite granitoid contain mainly quartz, biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, muscovite as main phases with minor amphiboles, and apatite, zircon, allanite and chlorite and serisite as accessory components. In contrast, enclaves are composed mainly of plagioclase, amphibole, augite, biotite, with accessory sphene, zircon and calcite and epidote. The granitoids including enclaves with metaluminous composition, display chemical and mineralogical characteristics of S-type granitoids, such as peralu...

  20. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia) (United States)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.


    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  1. Fluid-induced dissolution breakdown of monazite from Tso Morari complex, NW Himalayas: evidence for immobility of trace elements (United States)

    Upadhyay, Dewashish; Pruseth, Kamal Lochan


    Primary igneous monazite from the Polokongka La granite of the Tso Morari complex in the western Himalayas has been partially replaced by a three-layered corona of metamorphic fluor-apatite, allanite + U- and Th-bearing phases (huttonite + brabantite), and epidote. The alteration is related to high-pressure amphibolite-facies (10-11 kbar and 587-695 °C) fluid-induced retrogression of the ultra-high-pressure granite during exhumation after India-Asia collision. The corona textures can be explained by pseudomorphic partial replacement of the original monazite to apatite and allanite via a fluid-mediated coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process. Mass balance calculations using the volume proportions and compositions of coronal minerals show that the REE, U, Th, Pb, Ba and P were conserved and not transported outside the alteration corona. The formation of fluor-apatite, allanite, huttonite and coffinite from monazite and the immobility of REE, U and Th require an influx of alkali- and F-bearing, Ca-rich fluid having high Ca/Na into the corona. We are aware of only two other occurrences of such alteration textures, and these have several similarities in terms of geodynamic setting and P-T histories of the host rocks. We suggest that there may be a common mechanism of exhumation style, and source and composition of fluids during retrogression of granitoid rocks in collisional orogens and that such breakdown textures can be used to identify metagranites that have experienced high-P metamorphism in continental collision zones, which is otherwise difficult to constrain due to the high variance of the mineral assemblages in these rocks.

  2. REE: Alkaline intensive and carbonates complexes at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). Mineralizaciones de tierras raras: los complejos de rocas plutonicas alcalinas y carbonatitas del complejo basal de Fuerteventura (Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangas Viuela, J.; Perez Torrado, F.J.


    Alkaline intrusive complexes at Fuerteventura have been explored as potential source of REE. Two main complexes constituted by ultramafic to salic rocks and carbonatitas are present in the island: the Puerto de la Pea-Cueva de Lobos (= 60 Ma) in the western centerpoint and the Esquinzo (=30 Ma) in the northern zone. The calciocarbonatites (sovites and alwikites), formed in the last crystallization phases of these complexes, show the highest values of REE (511-7,372 ppm) and these elements mainly are associated with carbonates (synchysite), phosphates (REE apatite), silicates (allanite). (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Subduction / exhumation dynamics: Petrochronology in the Glacier-Rafray slice (Western Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Burn, Marco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin


    Petrochronology is the combination of in situ age-dating, geothermobarometry and structural geology and aims to unravel Pressure-Temperature-deformation-time (P-T-ɛ-t) paths. To link P-T conditions to deformation stages is daily business for metamorphic petrologists, but recent micro-mapping techniques (XMapTools program) provide an additional tool to achieve this goal. Absolute age is often difficult to assess in metamorphic rocks, as it is challenging to link specific P-T conditions to most of the mineral chronometers. Allanite is a common accessory phase in high-P metamorphic rocks and is a potential target to determine Th(-U)/Pb ages. Allanite from a leucocratic gneiss of the Glacier-Rafray slice in the western Alps consists of several chemically different zones: one major zone can be linked to a first high-P phengite generation. To determine the age of this high-P growth zone we used La-ICP-MS in situ techniques, which allowed us to date an appropriate growth rim per grain. Even so particular care was required when evaluating the isotope signals laser ablation leads to the excavation of a volume, which potentially can be chemically and/or age-zoned. We have developed a new method to track changes in the plasma during the ablation. This method aims to identify discrete age zones. La-ICP-MS spectra have been modeled so as to reproduce the shape of the spectra measured. These results indicate that high-P allanite first grew in equilibrium with phengite at 84 ± 4 Ma, whereas a second growth event occurred at ~40 Ma. A final epidotic rim grew at greenschist facies conditions, but this stage could not be dated. These findings have implications for our interpretation of several units in the Western Alps: In the Sesia Zone (former Adriatic margin), the earliest high-P metamorphism occurred at 85 Ma (Regis et al., 2014), precisely as the first high-P peak we discovered in the Glacier-Rafray slice. Austroalpine klippen such as this are commonly seen as extensional

  4. 西藏南部花岗岩类副成分矿物特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    More than 50 kinds of accessory minerals have been diseovered in 13 plutons along the Kangdese, Lhagoi Kangri and Himalaya petrographical belts. The features of zircon,apatite, radioactive minerals and sulphide minerals are described in more detail. From early to late, the percentages of titanium, iron, calcium and zirconium minerals decrease,while those of niobium (tantalum), beryllium, uranium and tin minerals show an opposition. The accessory mineral associations from the Kangdese belt are rich in sphene, allanite, apatite and magnetite, whereas the associations from the Himalaya belt are rich in tourmaline, and the Lhagoi Kangri belt shows intermediate features.

  5. Geology and genesis of uranium-rare earth deposits at Mary Kathleen, Northwest Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.K.; Scott, A.G.


    The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit occurs in 1740-1780 M yr-old calc-silicate metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks of the Corella Formation which have been tightly folded into the Mary Kathleen Syncline. The Corella Formation consists of mafic and felsic tuffaceous calc-silicates, quartzite, and minor marble, conglomerate and basic volcanics. Uranium-rare earth mineralisation is closely associated with certain mafic rocks and occurs within or close to garnet-rich masses. At Mary Kathleen, uraninite grains are enclosed mainly by allanite which is distributed through massive garnet as an irregular honeycomb of interconnected shoots and lenses. The mineralisation occurs along strike from dioritic rocks and conglomerate and lies close to the axis of the Mary Kathleen Syncline and adjacent to a major fault zone. At other localities allanite-uraninite mineralisation is broadly stratiform. The mineralisation is interpreted to occur at or near centres of basic volcanism. Garnet formation and uranium-rare earth concentrations are believed to be caused by the volcanism, and to be contemporaneous with it. The former is seen as alteration of a hot, saturated pile of volcano-sedimentary material and the latter as intermittent hydrothermal exhalations. Deposition, volcanism, garnet formation, uranium and rare-earth mineralisation, granite and gabbro formation, and tectonism are seen as a continuum of interrelated processes which operated throughout the period of formation of the rocks in the Mary Kathleen Syncline.

  6. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.


    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  7. Fluid components in accessory minerals of Pan-African granitoids in the S(o)r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long; CHEN Han-lin; YANG Shu-feng; TAINOSHO Yoshiaki; SHIRAISHI Kazuyuki; OWADA Masaaki


    Fluids (fluorine, chlorine, and OH) in accessory minerals (apatite, titanite and allanite) of Pan-African granitoids(Group-Ⅰ granitoids, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex) from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica were precisely measured by an electronic microprobe analyzer in this study. Apatites in the granites have commonly high fluorine contents. However, fluorine contents from the Group-Ⅰ, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex (MPC) are of important variation, which F contents (3.21~7.20 wt%) in apatite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids are much higher than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (1.22~3.60 wt%) and the MPC (3.21~4.11 wt%). Titanite in the MPC has a low fluorine content (0.23~0.50 wt%), being less than those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (2.28 wt%) and Group-Ⅱ granitoids (1.85~2.78 wt%). Fluorine in allanite in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids seems to have much lower contents than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids and the MPC. Higher fluorine contents in the titanite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids may be mainly controlled by late-magmatic fluid-rock interaction processes associated with melt, but may not be indicative of original magma contents based on its petrographic feature. Due to very lower chlorine contents from all of accessory minerals, the authors suggest that titanite and apatite with higher fluorine contents in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids have much lower H2O (OH) contents compared with those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids according to the partition among (F, Cl, OH).Fluorine contents in whole-rock samples show a variation from the higher in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids to the lower in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids and the MPC, which are consistent with the changes of those from the biotite and hornblende as well as fluorite occurred in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids reported previously. Based on the above study of fluorine in accessory minerals and combined with the previous fluorine contents from biotites and

  8. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.


    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  9. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio R.F. Vlach


    Full Text Available Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce, followed by allanite-(Ce, then epidote-ferriepidote, and an external zone with allanite-(Ce, with sharp limits, as shown in BSE and X-ray images. REE patterns show decreasing fractionation degrees of LREE over HREE from ferriallanite to epidote. The most external allanite is enriched in MREE. LA-ICP-MS data indicate that ferriallanite is enriched (>10-fold in Ti, Sr and Ga, and depleted in Mg, Rb, Th and Zr relative to the host granite. Allanite has lower Ga and Mn and higher Zr, Nb and U contents as compared to ferriallanite, while epidote is enriched in Sr, U and depleted in Pb, Zr, Hf, Ti and Ga. The formation of these minerals is related to the variable concentrations of HFSE, Ca, Al, Fe and F in fluids remaining from magmatic crystallization, in an oxidizing environment, close to the HM buffer. L-MREE were in part released by the alteration of chevkinite, their main primary repository in the host rocks.Minerais do grupo do epidoto, com albita, quartzo, fluorita, filossilicatos pobres em Al e ricos em Fe, zircão e quantidades menores de óxidos e sulfetos são fases hidrotermais típicas em álcali-feldpato granitos peralcalinos do Pluton Corupá, Província Graciosa, Sul do Brasil. Os minerais do grupo do epidoto ocorrem como cristais individuais ou agregados que preenchem interstícios e cavidades miarolíticas na rocha. Mostram zonamento complexo, recorrente, descrito por uma zona interna de ferriallanita-(Ce, seguida por allanita-(Ce, epidoto-ferriepidoto e uma

  10. Coupling thermodynamic modeling and high-resolution in situ LA-ICP-MS monazite geochronology: evidence for Barrovian metamorphism late in the Grenvillian history of southeastern Ontario (United States)

    McCarron, Travis; Gaidies, Fred; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Easton, R. Michael; Jones, Peter


    The Flinton Group is a greenschist to upper amphibolite facies package of metasediments in southeastern Ontario that was metamorphosed during the Ottawan Orogeny. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelitic mineral assemblages suggests an increase in peak conditions of metamorphism across the 40 km wide study area from 3.5 to 7.9 kbar and 540 to 715 °C. Garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the cores of compositionally zoned porphyroblasts reveals remarkably similar P-T conditions of initial crystallization at approximately 3.7-4.0 kbar and 512-520 °C, corresponding to a relatively high geothermal gradient of ca. 34-45 °C km-1. It is inferred from modeling and reaction textures that metamorphism was along Barrovian P-T paths. Major and trace element zoning in garnet from one sample records a complex growth history as evidenced by major and trace element zoning and the distribution of xenotime, allanite and monazite inclusions. High-resolution (6 μm) LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology performed on monazite in the rock matrix and included in the outer 150 μm of garnet rim-ward of a Y annulus revealed an age of 976 ± 4 Ma. The age is interpreted to reflect monazite growth at the expense of allanite and apatite late in garnet's growth history over the P-T interval 4.5-6.8 kbar and 540-640 °C. This new age estimate for near peak metamorphism fits well into the regional framework but is significantly younger than previously reported ages for Ottawan metamorphism. Based on microstructures this new age suggests that compressional tectonics were operating much later in the history of the Grenville of southeastern Ontario than previously thought.

  11. Mineralogic investigation into occurrence of high uranium well waters in upstate South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Richard, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0919 (United States); Meadows, Jason; Sojda, Scott; Price, Van; Temples, Tom [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0919 (United States); Arai, Yuji [Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0315 (United States); Fleisher, Chris [Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2501 (United States); Crawford, Bruce; Stone, Peter [Bureau of Water, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)


    Research Highlights: > Oxidative dissolution of uraninite in biotite granite is primary source of uranium in high-U well waters near Simpsonville, SC. > Uranium is chiefly transported as mixed uranyl hydroxyl-carbonate complexes. > Local reduction has resulted in secondary precipitation of uranium along fractures as coffinite. > Dissolution of uraninite and precipitation of coffinite were geologically recent. - Abstract: High levels of U (up to 5570 {mu}g/L) have been discovered in well waters near Simpsonville, South Carolina, USA. In order to characterize the mineralogical source of the U and possible structural controls on its presence, a deep (214 m) well was cored adjacent to one of the enriched wells. The highest gamma-ray emissions in the recovered core occur in coarse biotite granite at a depth just below 52 m. A slickenlined fault plane at 48.6 m and narrow pegmatite layers at depths of 113, 203 and 207 m also yield high gamma-ray counts. Thin sections were made from the above materials and along several subvertical healed fractures. Uraninite and coffinite are the principal U-rich minerals in the core. Other U-bearing minerals include thorite and thorogummite, monazite, zircon and allanite. Primary uraninite occurs in the biotite granite and in pegmatite layers. Secondary coffinite is present as tiny (<5 {mu}m) crystals dispersed along fractures in the granite and pegmatites. Coffinite also occurs along the slickenlined fault plane, where it is associated with calcite and calcic zeolite and also replaces allanite. Coffinite lacks radiogenic Pb, hence is considerably younger than the uraninite. Dissolution of partially oxidized Ca-rich uraninite occurring in the surficial biotite granite (or secondary coffinite in fracture zones) is likely the main source for the current high levels of U in nearby area wells. The high-U well waters have a carbonate signature, consistent with pervasive calcite vein mineralization in the core. Aqueous speciation calculations

  12. Mobility of major and trace elements in the eclogite-fluid system and element fluxes upon slab dehydration (United States)

    Tsay, Alexandra; Zajacz, Zoltan; Ulmer, Peter; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen


    The equilibrium between aqueous fluids and allanite-bearing eclogite has been investigated to constrain the effect of temperature (T) and fluid composition on the stability of allanite and on the mobility of major and trace elements during the dehydration of eclogites. The experiments were performed at 590-800 °C and 2.4-2.6 GPa, and fluids were sampled as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz using an improved entrapment technique. The concentrations and bulk partition coefficients were determined for a range of major (Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Ti) and 16 trace elements as a function of T and fluid composition. The results reveal a significant effect of T on element partitioning between the fluids and the solid mineral assemblage. The partition coefficients increase by more than an order of magnitude for most of the major and trace elements, and several orders of magnitude for light rare-earth elements (LREE) from 590 to 800 °C. The addition of various ligand species into the fluid at 700 °C results in distinctive trends on element partitioning. The concentrations and corresponding partition coefficients of most of the elements are enhanced upon addition of NaF to the fluid. In contrast, NaCl displays a nearly opposite effect by suppressing the solubilities of major elements and consequently affecting the mobility of trace elements that form stable complexes with alkali-(alumino)-silicate clusters in the fluid, e.g. high field strength elements (HFSE). The results further suggest that fluids in equilibrium with orthopyroxene and/or diopsidic clinopyroxene are peralkaline (ASI ∼0.1-0.7), whereas fluids in equilibrium with omphacitic pyroxene are more peraluminous (ASI ∼1.15). Therefore, natural aqueous fluids in equilibrium with eclogite at about 90 km depth will be slightly peraluminous in composition. Another important finding of this study is the relatively high capacity of aqueous fluids to mobilize LREE, which may be even higher than that of hydrous melts.

  13. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.


    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  14. Quaternary rhyolite from the Mineral Mountains, Utah, USA. Final report, Volume 77-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.H. Jr.; Nash, W.P.


    A suite of silicic volcanic rocks is associated with the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area in southwestern Utah. The volcanic sequence includes Tertiary rhyolite 8 My old and obsidian, ash and rhyolite of Quaternary age. The Quaternary lavas are characterized by high silica content (76.5% Si0/sub 2/) and total alkalies in excess of 9 percent. Obsidians commonly contain greater amounts of fluorine than water. Two older flows (0.8 My) can be distinguished from younger dome and pyroclastic material (approximately 0.5 My) by subtle differences in their chemistry. The mineralogy of the rhyolites consists of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and small amounts of Fe-Ti oxides, biotite, hornblende and rare allanite. Fe-Ti oxide temperatures are 740 to 785/sup 0/C for the flows and 635 to 665/sup 0/C for the domes; two feldspar temperatures give similar results. The phase relationships of bulk rock, glass and feldspar compositions demonstrate that the younger Quaternary rhyolites could have been derived from the earlier magma type, represented by the obsidian flows, by a process of crystal fractionation. The major phases which must fractionate are alkali feldspar, plagioclase and quartz with minor amounts of biotite, magnetite and ilmenite participating also. Trace element patterns support this scheme as well. The Tertiary lavas cannot be related to the Quaternary rhyolites and are thought to represent a separate event.

  15. The Encantada Granite: registration of a peraluminous intrusion in the Rondonian Province - San Ignacio, in SW Amazonic Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Verginassi do Nascimento


    Full Text Available The Encantada Granite occurs on the extreme southwest of the state of Mato Grosso, SW of the Amazonian Craton, near the border of Brasil/Bolívia. It corresponds to an body oriented to NNW direction that intruded metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. It consists of leucogranites with monzo- to sienogranitic composition, marked by prominent schistosity. It is characterized by equigranular to porphyritic inequigranular texture, and composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite with garnet, zircon, allanite and opaque minerals. Chlorite and epidote are the most common secondary minerals. The geochemical study allows the classification of the magmatism as having acid character, sub-alkaline, high-potassium-calc-alkaline to shoshonitic type. These rocks have alumina index saturation higher than 1, with normative corundum, and thus classified as peraluminous granite. Due to the reflection of the excess of aluminium, they have various aluminous phases, mainly muscovite, biotite and garnet; presents typical pattern of calc-alkaline rocks rich in potassium with enrichment of light ETRs over the heavy ones. The collected data allows to consider that the Encantada Granite rocks were generated from the partial melting of crustal rocks of pelitic composition.

  16. Complete Alpine reworking of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey (United States)

    Cenki-Tok, B.; Expert, M.; Işık, V.; Candan, O.; Monié, P.; Bruguier, O.


    This study focuses on the petrology, geochronology and thermochronology of metamorphic rocks within the northern Menderes Massif in western Turkey. Metasediments belonging to the cover series of the Massif record pervasive amphibolite-facies metamorphism culminating at ca. 625-670 °C and 7-9 kbars. U-Th-Pb in situ ages on monazite and allanite from these metapelites record crustal thickening and nappe stacking associated with the internal imbrication of the Anatolide-Taurides platform during the Eocene. In addition, new 39Ar/40Ar single muscovite grain analyses on deformed rocks were performed in three localities within the northern Menderes Massif and ages range from 19.8 to 25.5 Ma. These mylonites may be related to both well-known detachments, Simav to the north and Alaşehir to the south, which accommodate Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the Menderes core complex. U-Th-Pb data on monazite grains (22.2 ± 0.2 Ma) from migmatites emplaced within the Simav detachment confirm these ages.

  17. Spectroscopic study of inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia (United States)

    Zeug, Manuela; Rodríguez Vargas, Andrés Ignacio; Nasdala, Lutz


    Mineral inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia, were investigated non-destructively using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, with special focus lying on phases containing radioactive elements. Besides abundant rutile, the minerals zircon, apatite, feldspar, and an epidote-group species, most probably allanite-(Ce), were found. The latter is detected easily from its characteristic Nd3+ emission pattern, which may prove useful in future provenance studies. Zircon inclusions range from well crystalline to moderately radiation damaged [FWHM (full width at half band maximum) of the ν 3(SiO4) Raman band 1.8-10.9 cm-1]. Both the zircon inclusions and their neighbouring host corundum are affected by compressive stress, which is assigned to (1) heterogeneous volume expansion of the host-inclusion couple upon pressure release during the uplift following primary growth and (2) volume expansion of the zircon inclusion due to the accumulation of self-irradiation damage. Internal stress of zircon inclusions averages 1.1 GPa. Heat treatment of corundum leads to structural reconstitution of zircon (narrowed zircon Raman bands with FWHMs in the range 1.8-2.7 cm-1) and accompanying stress release in the adjacent corundum (indicated by downshifts of the R 1 emission of Cr3+). The observation of broadened Raman band of zircon inclusions therefore allows one to exclude high-temperature enhancement of the host corundum.

  18. Alochtónne jemnozrnné sedimenty a ich vztah ku genéze Liskovskej jaskyne (Chočské podhorie, severné Slovensko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Bónová


    Full Text Available A combination of sedimentological and mineralogical methods with emphasis on heavy mineral assemblage research applied to allochthonous sediments in the Liskovská Cave located in the western part of the Liptovská Basin (in the tectonic horst composed of Triassic limestones at foothills of the Chocské vrchy Mts. were used for the identification their provenance and sedimentary history. Allochthonous fine-grained mud was studied in three profiles (LI-1 to LI-3. The sediments originated from the suspension in slow water flow to stagnant water (slackwater facies. This material could be later redeposited during the younger flooding event and small-scale slumps and gravity flows (mudflows have been locally generated on steeper cave floors. Based on mineralogical study the cave sediments are composed of quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, K-feldspar, plagioclase and dolomite. A heavy mineral assemblage is formed by garnet, zircon, apatite, monazite, tourmaline, staurolite, amphibole, rutile, titanite, epidote, sillimanite, allanite, andalusite, pyroxene and xenotime. Opaque minerals are represented by ilmenite, pyrite, magnetite, Cr-spinel, hematite, Cu-sulfides and Feoxyhydroxides. Their mineralogical character indicates the heterogenous source material which was transported by the Váh River. The results are significant for a more accurate reconstruction of origin and development of the cave, mainly its sedimentary phases in Middle and Late Pleistocene related to floods from the adjacent river bed.

  19. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in rocks and beach sands from Ezine region (Canakkale), Western Anatolia, Turkey. (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Sahin, S Y; Güngör, Y; Gültekin, A H; Karahan, G; Karacik, Z


    This paper represents the first reports on the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Kestanbol granitic pluton and surrounding rocks, and coastal region of the Ezine town. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index were calculated, and in situ gamma dose rates were measured. The high-activity concentrations were measured in the pluton and sands, which was originated mainly from the pluton, due to the presence of zircon, allanite, monazite, thorite, uranothorite and apatite. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are 174.78, 204.69 and 1171.95 Bq kg(-1) for pluton, and 290.36, 532.04 and 1160.75 Bq kg(-1) for sands, respectively. (137)Cs in Ezine region ranged from 0-6.57 Bq kg(-1). The average absorbed dose rate for the granitic and sand samples were calculated to be 251.6 and 527.92 nGy h(-1), respectively. The maximum contribution to the total absorbed gamma dose rate in air was due to the (232)Th (52.3% for pluton and 67.1% for sands). The Raeq activities of the pluton and sands are higher than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg(-1) criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials.

  20. Sr and Nd isotopic signature of the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism of the central Ribeira belt: the Sao Pedro Granite in Lumiar, RJ; Assinatura isotopica de Sr e Nd do magmatismo calcio-alcalino de alto-K na Faixa Ribeira central: o exemplo do Granito Sao Pedro em Lumiar, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Julio Cezar; Medeiros, Silvia Regina de; Chaves, Eduardo Amorim, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) (Brazil)


    In the central-northern Ribeira belt there are many granitic to granodioritic bodies showing varied shape and size, characterizing a late- to post-collisional Ca-alkaline, cordilleran I-type province. The Sao Pedro Granite occurs in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State as small post-collisional bodies. It presents isotropic fabric, equigranular to seriate inequigranular texture, as well as local concentration of allanite, which gives discrete composition and texture variation to the rock. The granite has a high-K calcalkaline to alkali-calcic character and weakly peraluminous nature. Despite its short geochemical variation, high Ba, Zr and Th contents besides low concentrations of MgO and CaO are noticeable. High REE contents are associated with fractionated REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomalies. A crustal origin for the granite can be assumed by its very negative and positive .Nd and .Sr values, respectively, as well as by 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios ranging from 0,718 to 0,740. TDM ages point to paleoproterozoic source, which agrees with geological time of intensive crust generation. (author)

  1. Garnet cannibalism provides clues to extensive hydration of lower crustal fragments in a subduction channel (Sesia Zone, Northwestern Alps) (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin


    the expense of earlier Alpine rims. In the same samples that show porphyroclastic garnet, atoll garnet occurs, filled with quartz, and the same Alpine overgrowth zones are observed in both types of garnet. Similar features of garnet zoning are present in various lithotypes, allowing the evolution of this continental domain during subduction to be traced. Modeling the different garnet growth zones is challenging, each growth step demanding an estimate the effective bulk composition. According to the XRF analyses of the bulk sample, the core is found to have formed at 900°C, 0.9 GPa. Based on effective bulk compositions, the successive Alpine rims are found to reflect an increase from 600°C, 1.55-1.60 GPa for rim 1 to 630-640°C, 1.9-2.0 GPa for rim 2. Allanite crystals contain inclusions of Alpine garnet; in situ geochronology (U-Th-Pb by LA-ICP-MS) on allanite yields a (minimum) age of ~69 Ma for the main growth of garnet. In summary, the textures and mineral compositions clearly reflect reactive interaction of major amounts of hydrous fluids with dry protoliths. The source of these fluids responsible for converting granulites back to micaschists at eclogite facies conditions within the Sesia subduction channel is being investigated.

  2. La asociacion Monzonitica del Domo Anatectico del Tormes: geoquimica y petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Plaza, M.


    Full Text Available In certain peripheral zones of the Anatectic Tormes Dome there exists a group of rocks, which are from basic to acid as well as rich in alkali feldspar, apatite and allanite. Such an unusual mineralogy makes the rocks to be enriched in K20, P2O5, LREE and other elements of low ionic potential. Their geochemical signature is related to the volcanic shoshonites, to the vaugnerites of the French Central Massif as well as to the monzonitic series of Ballon, being, in turn, almost exceptional in the iberian variscan. The least evolved terms are rather fractionated, therefore, they are not primary melts. During the differentiation, the saturation of accessory phases such as apatite, allanite and zircon exerts an important effect in the evolution of the residual liquid giving rise to an inflection point in the Harker diagrams. From the good adjustments obtained in mass balance and Rayleigh fractionation modelling, we can infer that the process of fractional crystallization is the dominant one. In this respect, the porphyritic granitoids can be derived from a liquid of monzodioritic composition, being rocks genetically to the associated acid rocks. The corroded cores of plagioclase and the spatial relations suggest the existence of different pulses of magma from basic to acid coming from the same magmatic chamber.En dos bandas del Domo anatéctico del Tormes aparece un conjunto de rocas plutónicas desde básicas a ácidas ricas en feldespato potásico, apatito y allanita. Esta mineralogía tan particular hace que estén enriquecidas en K20, P205, LREE y otros elementos de bajo potencial iónico. Su quimismo es afín a las shoshonitas volcánicas, a las vaugneritas del Macizo Central francés y a las series monzoníticas de Ballon, siendo, a su vez, casi excepcional en el varisco ibérico. Los términos menos evolucionados están bastante fraccionados por lo que no se trata de fundidos primarios. Durante la diferenciación existen fases accesorias como

  3. Geology and Geochemistry of the Early Proterozoic Kortejärvi and Laivajoki Carbonatites, Central Fennoscandian Shield, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykänen, J.


    Full Text Available This paper provides for the first time extensive petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data on the early Proterozoic Kortejärvi and Laivajoki carbonatites, northern Finland, which form metamorphosed and highly strained bodies 2 and 4 km long within a Svecokarelian shear zone in central Fennoscandian Shield. They are not exposed, but have been penetrated by a couple of deep drill holes. In terms of modal mineralogy, both intrusions contain calcite carbonatite and dolomite-calcite carbonatite as their main rock types, but Kortejärvi also contains dolomite carbonatite and calcite-dolomite carbonatite, some glimmerite and olivine-magnetite rock and Laivajärvi tremolite-calcite carbonatite, tremolite-dolomite carbonatite, serpentine-talc-dolomite rock and glimmerite. The main country rock is an amphibolite which is not fenitized. No alkaline rocks have been detected in these intrusions. Calcite is most common mineral in both occurrences. Other carbonate minerals include dolomite with minor ankerite and occassional siderite. In addition to low-Ti phlogopite, tetraferriphlogopite is also encountered. Fresh olivine is rare, and its alteration products include titaniferous clinohumite. The amphiboles are mainly calcic amphiboles, including actinolite, tremolite and edenite. The only sodic-calcic amphibole is accessory richterite. Other essential minerals are Ti-poor magnetite with ilmenite exsolutions, fluorapatite (3.95-4.89 wt. % F, monazite, and allanite-(Ce. Geochemically, the Kortejärvi rocks are mostly magnesiocarbonatites, whereas those of Laivajärvi, due to their higher magnetite content, are ferrocarbonatites. Of the trace elements, Nb is much lower (8-30 ppm in proper carbonatites than the average for carbonatites and U and Th (<0.9 ppm and<2.4 pm, respectively lower than average. Sr is typical, but not high (1830-3480 ppm, and Ba is rather low (27-348 ppm. The REEs are hosted by allanite and monazite and their concentrations in the

  4. Origin of Miocene andesite and dacite in the Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province, central Arizona: Hybrids of mafic and silicic magma mixing (United States)

    Fodor, R. V.; Johnson, Kelly G.


    HFSE and REE with increasing SiO2, we modeled fractional crystallization of G-SVP alkalic basalt (∼50 wt.% SiO2; ∼9 wt.% MgO), dehydration melting (10-25%) of granodiorite and high-K amphibolite, and basalt-rhyolite magma mixing. Fractionation and melting each require specific modal percentages of titanite, zircon, and allanite (e.g., ⩽1%), the high ends of ranges for accessory-mineral/liquid partitioning coefficients, continual crystallization of accessory minerals from basalt to dacite (for fractionation), and specific source-melting percentages and low titanite, zircon, and allanite melting proportions (∼0.02; dehydration melting). These requirements are too stringent to be realistic. Moreover, accessory minerals are rare in these lavas, and neither fractionation nor melting accounts for the plagioclase textures observed. On the other hand, low-HFSE, -REE rhyolites (e.g., La 9-31 ppm; Zr 31-93; Nb 9-17; Y 4-10) containing Na-plagioclase are in the G-SVP and were temporally and spatially available to have mixed with G-SVP basalts. Mixing proportions of 20:80 to 90:10 for different rhyolite:basalt combinations yield hybrid compositions that overlap the G-SVP andesite-dacite compositional fields. Also, basalt invading rhyolite reservoirs containing mush zones can account for Na-plagioclase concentrations of ∼11-30 vol% formed after mush disruption and dispersal, plagioclase corroded-cores and higher-An% mantles and groundmass, and subrounded-embayed quartz. The straightforward explanation for G-SVP intermediate lavas, then, is repeated hybridization of basaltic and low-HFSE, -REE rhyolitic magmas during the early stages of G-SVP magmatism.

  5. Linking microstructures, petrology and in situ U-(Th)-Pb geochronology to constrain P-T-t-D evolution of the Greather Himalyan Sequences in Western Nepal (Central Himalaya) (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Langone, Antonio


    Last advances in forward modelling of metamorphic rocks and into the understanding of accessories minerals behaviour, suitable for geochronology (e.g. zircon and monazite), during metamorphism, bring new insights for understanding the evolution of metamorphic tectonites during orogenic cycles (Williams and Jercinovic, 2012 and reference therein). One of the best exposure of high- to medium grade- metamorphic rocks, is represented by the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Himalayan Belt, one of the most classic example of collisional orogen. Recent field work in Mugu Karnali valley, Western Nepal (Central Himalaya), identified a compressional top to the South ductile shear zone within the core of the GHS, named Magri Shear Zone (MSZ), developed in a high temperature regime as testified by quartz microstructures and syn-kinematic growth of sillimanite. In order to infer the tectono-metamorphic meaning of MSZ, a microstructural study coupled with pseudosection modelling and in situ U-(Th)-Pb monazite geochronology was performed on selected samples from different structural positions. Footwall sample constituted by (Grt + St ± Ky) micaschist shows a prograde garnet growth (cores to inner rims zoning), from ~500°C, ~0.60GPa (close to garnet-in curve) to ~580°C, ~1.2 GPa temporal constrained between 21-18 Ma, by medium Y cores to very low Y mantles monazite micro-chemical/ages domain . In this sample garnet was still growing during decompression and heating at ~640°C, ~0.75 GPa (rims), and later starts to be consumed, in conjunction with staurolite growth at 15-13 Ma, as revealed by high Y rims monazite micro-chemical/ages domain. Hanging-wall mylonitic samples have a porphyroclastic texture, with garnet preserve little memory of prograde path. Garnet near rim isoplets and matrix minerals intersect at ~700°C and ~0.70 GPa. A previous higher P stage, at ~1.10 GPa ~600°C, is testified by cores of larger white mica porhyroclasts. Prograde zoned allanite (Janots

  6. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.


    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  7. Geochemical characteristics and spectrometric prospecting in the muscovite-bearing pegmatites and granites, southeastern Aswan, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gehad M. Saleh; Mohamed M. El Galy; Mohamed A. Obeid


    Rare metal mineralization of Sn, Nb-Ta and W is encountered in the Gebel Dihmit area (GDA), southeastern Aswan, Egypt. The mineralization is related to muscovite granites and their pegmatite derivatives. The pegmatites are divided into three types according to their main mineral assemblages: K-feldspar-muscovite-tourmaline, K-feldspar-albite-muscovite and albite-K-feldspar-lepidolite veins. Petrogenetic studies indicate that Sn and Nb-Ta mineralization extends from the late-magmatic stage to the pegmatite and hydrothermal stages of the (GDA) suite. The albite-K-feldspar-lepidolite granite is composed dominantly of albite, lepidolote, and quartz, with topaz, K-feldspar and amblygonite. The accessory minerals are zircon, monazite, pollucite, columbite-tantalite, microlite and Ta-rich cassiterite. Phenocrysts of quartz, topaz and K-feldspar contain abundant inclusions of albite laths and occasional lepidolite crystals along growth zones (snowball texture), indicating simultaneous crystallization from a subsolvus, residual magma. The origin of the pegmatites is attributed to extreme differentiation by fractional crystallization of a granitic magma. The economic potential for rare metals was evaluated in the geochemical discrimination diagrams. Accordingly, some of the pegmatites are not only highly differentiated in terms of alkalis, but also the promising targets for small-scale Ta and, to a less extent, Sn. The pegmatites also provide the first example of Fe-Mn and Nb-Ta fractionation in successive generations of granites to cassiterite-bearing pegmatites, which perfectly exhibit similar fractionation trends established for primary columbite-tantalite in the corresponding categories of pegmatites. Uranium and Th of magmatic origin are indicated by the presence of thorite and allanite, whereas evidence of hydrothermal mineralization is the alteration of rock- foring minerals such as feldspar and the formation of secondary minerals such as uranophane..

  8. Foliation development and reaction softening by dissolution and precipitation in the transformation of granodiorite to orthogneiss, Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, U.S.A (United States)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yi, K.


    Textures, microstructures, and patterns of chemical zoning in minerals in a granodioritic orthogneiss in the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, lead to the interpretation that foliation development was facilitated by retrograde hydration reactions in the presence of an aqueous fluid. Incomplete replacement of the metastable magmatic minerals K-feldspar + hastingsite + magnetite produced foliation-defining biotite + epidote + quartz. These reaction products did not replace K-feldspar - hastingsite interfaces; rather, either biotite or epidote replaced the amphibole, and plagioclase replaced K-feldspar. Biotite and epidote precipitated syntectonically in discrete layers that define the foliation in the orthogneiss, whereas quartz precipitated primarily in ribbons, further enhancing the fabric. Metastable REE-rich igneous titanite also dissolved, and was incompletely replaced by REE-poor, Al-bearing metamorphic titanite. The similar concentrations of the REE in epidote and titanite show that the REE released by titanite dissolution were precipitated locally as the allanite component in adjacent grains of epidote. The entire process was syntectonic, with most grains showing multiple overgrowths in the direction of extension as defined by stretched xenoliths. Sufficient U was present in the titanite overgrowths to allow SHRIMP dating of cores, mantles, and rims. These results suggest at least three retrograde Alleghanian events of growth in a span of ???30 m.y. Thus the dissolution - transportation - precipitation process not only describes the reaction mechanism but also leads to the redistribution of reaction products into nearly monomineralic layers, thus contributing to metamorphic differentiation and to the development of the foliation. The resulting orthogneiss was much weaker that the granodiorite protolith, owing to this reaction and textural softening.

  9. Geochemistry of the Neoarchaean Volcanic Rocks of the Kilimafedha Greenstone Belt, Northeastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Messo


    Full Text Available The Neoarchaean volcanic rocks of the Kilimafedha greenstone belt consist of three petrological types that are closely associated in space and time: the predominant intermediate volcanic rocks with intermediate calc-alkaline to tholeiitic affinities, the volumetrically minor tholeiitic basalts, and rhyolites. The tholeiitic basalts are characterized by slightly depleted LREE to nearly flat REE patterns with no Eu anomalies but have negative anomalies of Nb. The intermediate volcanic rocks exhibit very coherent, fractionated REE patterns, slightly negative to absent Eu anomalies, depletion in Nb, Ta, and Ti in multielement spidergrams, and enrichment of HFSE relative to MORB. Compared to the other two suites, the rhyolites are characterized by low concentrations of TiO2 and overall low abundances of total REE, as well as large negative Ti, Sr, and Eu anomalies. The three suites have a εNd (2.7 Ga values in the range of −0.51 to +5.17. The geochemical features of the tholeiitic basalts are interpreted in terms of derivation from higher degrees of partial melting of a peridotite mantle wedge that has been variably metasomatized by aqueous fluids derived from dehydration of the subducting slab. The rocks showing intermediate affinities are interpreted to have been formed as differentiates of a primary magma formed later by lower degrees of partial melting of a garnet free mantle wedge that was strongly metasomatized by both fluid and melt derived from the subducting oceanic slab. The rhyolites are best interpreted as having been formed by shallow level fractional crystallization of the intermediate volcanic rocks involving plagioclase and Ti-rich phases like ilmenite and magnetite as well as REE-rich phases like apatite, zircon, monazite, and allanite. The close spatial association of the three petrological types in the Kilimafedha greenstone belt is interpreted as reflecting their formation in an evolving late Archaean island arc.

  10. Magnetic petrology of the Água Azul and Água Limpa granodiorites, southern portion of the Carajás Domain – Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleilson Oliveira Gabriel


    Full Text Available The Água Azul and Água Limpa granodiorites (AAGrd and ALGrd, respectively outcrop in the extreme southern of the Carajás Domain as two elongated bodies following the EW regional trend and were previously included in the Xingu Complex. The ALGrd consists mainly of biotite-amphibole granodiorites and muscovite-biotite granodiorites, with subordinate amphibole-biotite tonalites; the AAGrd contains dominant epidote-amphibole-biotite granodiorites, epidote-amphibole-biotite tonalite and restricted (amphibole-epidote-biotite monzogranites. These rocks show geochemical signatures like of archaean sanukitoids. The magnetic susceptibility (MS values obtained in the ALGrd (average 17.54 × 10-4 SIv and AAGrd (average 4.19 × 10-4 SIv are relatively low. The main opaque minerals are magnetite and hematite, and ilmenite is lacking in these rocks. The ALGrd contains titanite associated with magnetite, while the AAGrd contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, and goethite. In the ALGrd, magnetite is more developed and large than in the AAGrd, justifying its highest values of MS. The oxidation of magnetite (martitization and the alteration of sulfides to goethite, occurred at low temperatures. The positive correlation between MS values and the modal content of opaque, amphibole, epidote + allanite and quartz + K-feldspar, as well as the negative correlation of MS with biotite and mafic observed in these units, reveal a trend of MS increasing in the direction: amphibole tonalites/amphibole granodiorites à biotite granodiorites/biotite monzogranites. The geochemical data confirm this fact, with a negative correlation between the MS values and Fe2O3T, FeO, and MgO, reflecting, for the two units, an upward trend in MS values parallel to magmatic differentiation. The geochemical and mineralogical affinities between these rocks and sanukitoids of the Rio Maria Domain suggest conditions of the oxygen fugacity between HM and FMQ buffers for the studied granitoids

  11. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  12. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits (United States)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.


    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  13. Geochemistry, geochronology, and cathodoluminescence imagery of the Salihli and Turgutlu granites (central Menderes Massif, Western Turkey): Implications for Aegean tectonics (United States)

    Catlos, E. J.; Baker, C.; Sorensen, S. S.; Çemen, I.; Hançer, M.


    The Menderes Massif (western Turkey) is an important metamorphic core complex located in the Aegean region; geochemical and geochronological data from this extensional domain facilitates our understanding of large-scale extension of the Earth's lithosphere. S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude the Alasehir detachment which bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the granites range from 21.7±4.5 Ma to 9.6±1.6 Ma (±1s). The range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) imagery that document complex textures within the samples. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase (some with shocked cores consistent with magma mixing), plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, clear evidence for fluid infiltration, and multiple generations of microcracks and microfaults. The granites may have evolved from compositionally distinct magma sources, as Salihli samples in general contain allanite as the major accessory mineral, whereas Turgutlu granites contain monazite. However, the CL imagery document similar alteration textures. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate a level of complexity when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to the large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth, and multiple episodes of deformation.

  14. The Life and Times of Supervolcanoes: Inferences from Long Valley Caldera (United States)

    Simon, Justin


    Cataclysmic eruptions of silicic magma from "supervolcanoes" are among the most awe-inspiring natural phenomena found in the geologic record, in terms of size, power, and potential hazard. Based on the repose intervals between eruptions of this magnitude, the magmas responsible for them could accumulate gradually in the shallow crust over time scales that may be in excess of a million years (Smith, 1979; Spera and Crisp, 1981; Shaw, 1985). Pre-eruption magma residence time scales can also be inferred from the age difference between eruption (i.e., using 40Ar/39Ar dating to determine the time when hot erupted material cools to below its Ar closure temperature, 200 to 600 degC) and early pre-eruption crystallization (i.e., zircon saturation temperatures; Reid et al., 1997). I will discuss observations from Long Valley a Quaternary volcanic center in California. Long Valley is a voluminous, dominantly silicic caldera system. Based on extensive dating of accessory minerals (e.g., U-Th-Pb dating of zircon and allanite) along with geochemical and isotopic data we find that silicic magmas begin to crystallize 10's to 100's of thousands of years prior to their eruption and that rhyolites record episodes of punctuated and independent evolution rather than the periodic tapping of a long-lived magma. The more punctuated versus more gradual magma accumulation rates required by the absolute and model ages, respectively, imply important differences in the mass and heat fluxes associated with the generation, differentiation, and storage of voluminous rhyolites and emphasize the need to reconcile the magmatic age differences.

  15. The Use and Abuse of Th-U Ratios in the Interpretation of Zircon (United States)

    Möller, A.; ÓBrien, P. J.; Kennedy, A.; Kröner, A.


    In the interpretation of geochronological data the distinction between magmatic and metamorphic zircon is mainly based on morphology, internal zoning or Th-U ratio. This distinction is of doubtful benefit in partially molten high grade metamorphic rocks where partial melting and zircon growth or dissolution may have occurred in several phases. It is proposed that instead of classifying zircon into magmatic and metamorphic groups, differences and changes in chemistry from inherited core to overgrowth can be attributed to growth or recrystallization mechanisms. Taking the distinction literally, only zircon grown by solid state (metamorphic) reactions may be called metamorphic, whereas zircon crystallized from melt is magmatic, and zircon crystallized from fluids is hydrothermal. Trace element characteristics together with the criteria mentioned above may help to link zircon growth to these environments or to other processes altering existing zircon (i.e. metamictisation, annealing, recrystallization, dissolution-reprecipitation). In-situ ion microprobe analysis has been used to track Th-U ratios of zircon through time in polymetamorphic rocks. Several different trends can be distinguished and attributed to different growth mechanisms when combined with cathodo-luminescence and backscatter electron imaging. Unchanged Th/U through time is interpreted to reflect closed system behaviour, lower Th/U in overgrowths can indicate competition for Th with high Th minerals (monazite, allanite etc.), higher Th/U is also observed and interpreted to reflect open system behaviour, breakdown of minerals with high Th/U, or competition with high U minerals (e.g. xenotime). In summary, zircon grown during metamorphic events may not be characterized by low Th/U, and classifying zircon as "metamorphic" solely based on its Th/U as occasionally seen in the literature can lead to gross misinterpretations.

  16. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Granitic rocks within Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    KIM, T.; KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Woo, J.


    The study areas, Lichen Hills and Outback Nunatak are located in the Northern Victoria Land which is close to Pacific Ocean side of Transantarctic Mountain (TAM), Antarctica. According to the study of Zeller and Dreschoff (1990), the radioactivity values of Lichen hills and Frontier Mt. area in the Victoria Land were very high. To identify the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks in these areas, 13 samples of Lichen Hills rocks and 4 samples of Outback Nunatak rocks are analyzed. For mineralogical study, samples were observed in macroscale as well as microscale including microscope electron probe analysis. Rock samples of Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak are mainly leucogranite and granitic pegmatite. These rock samples are composed of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline like granite. In SEM-EDS analysis, the observed light colored minerals show relatively high Th, U, Dy, Ce, Nb concentration. This suggests that rock samples may contain minerals such as fergusonite, monazite, thorite, allanite, karnasurtite which are considered to be REE-bearing minerals. Samples of related rocks have been analyzed in terms of major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). As concentration of SiO2 increase, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5 concentration decrease and Na2O, K2O, MnO concentration increase. Analyzed trace elements and REE are normalized using CI Chondrite, Primitive mantle. The normalized data show that LREE are enriched compared to HREE. The distinct negative anomalies of Eu, Sr are observed, indicating that rock-forming melts are fairly processed state of fractional crystallization. It means that Th, U, Nb, Ta are much enriched in the melts.

  17. Geology and rare-earth element geochemistry of highly evolved, molybdenite-bearing granitic plutons, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The field relations, mineralogy, and major and trace elements (including REE analyses of whole-rock samples and minerals) of granites and their associated molybdenite + uranium mineralized aplites in Southeastern Desert, Egypt, have been studied. The granites are leucocratic and mostly peraluminous in nature with muscovite increasing at the expense of biotite. The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the granitic rocks indicate that their melts originated from the LILE-enriched mantle wedge by partial melting and are contaminated by crustal melts, followed by thermogravitational processes. Leucogranites with higher Na2O/K2O ratios from Um Dargag and Um Maiat crystallized under H2O-saturated equilibrium conditions in which the exsolved vapor continuously migrated away. The REE patterns of the granites studied are characterized by LREE enrichments and negative Eu anomalies. In comparison, the potassic aplites and the more sodic leucogranites are depleted in LREE, enriched in HREE and show more remarkable negative Eu anomalies. Allanite and monazite are the most important REE carriers in the granites. These minerals are strongly enriched in LREE, whereas fluorite and xenotime, which are more abundant in the aplites, are enriched in HREE. The average Lu/Ce ratio represents the fractionation trend with respect to HREE. It is 0.71 for radioactive fluorite, and it increases to 1.22 for non-radioactive fluorite. The high REE contents of molybdenite represent re-deposition of the mobilized Mo and REE. Due to the strong control of accessory minerals, the REEs are of limited use in petrogenetic modelling of highly evolved granitic systems.

  18. Zr, Hf, U, Th and REE-Fertile Lower Proterozoic Potassic Granite from Parts of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamuna SINGH


    The medium- to coarse-grained and porphyritic granitoid of Dharmawaram, Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, south India is a biotite-hornblende granite with notable contents of rare metal (Zr, Hf, Th) and rare earth (including Y) minerals like zircon, thorite, allanite, monazite and xenotime. Chemically, it is metaluminous (average A/C+N+K = 0.95)-type, potassic (ay. 5% K2O) granite, with dominantly sub-alkaline characters. It shows up to 8 times enrichment of rare metals (Zr, Hf, U, Th) and rare earths (including Y, Sc), with reference to their abundances in normal unevolved granite, and hence, fertile for some of these elements. Field, petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of potassic granite (PG) indicate involvement of silica-rich metasedimentary-basic crustal rocks (amphibole-quartzite,amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss, etc.) in its genesis, at a depth range of 30 km. Further, chondrite-normalized REE patterns demonstrate that low-degree partial melting of source rocks is the major controlling factor in the genesis of PG.Mild negative Eu-anomaiy (av. Eu/Eu* = 0.48), plots of Ba-Rb-Sr in the field of anomalous granite and K/Rb ratios (av.239) in the range that is shown by normal unevolved granite together indicate less fractionated nature of the PG. Limited fractionation of metalumination-type, involving hornblende, led to occasional weak alumina saturation. Interestingly,geochemical and petrogenetic features of the studied PG broadly match with those potassic granites which are already known to host anomalously high enrichment of rare metals and rare earths in other parts of Andhra Pradesh and adjoining Kamataka.

  19. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))


    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  20. Petrography and geochemical study of Nezam-Abad area, Southwest of Shazand, Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Jafari


    Full Text Available Nezam-Abad area is located in southwest of Shazand (Arak which is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Major intrusive rocks of Nezam-Abad are quartz diorite and minor amount of granodiorite. Leucogranitic, pegmatite dykes and quartz-tourmaline veins were intruded the quartz diorite. Quartz diorites are mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, quartz and pyroxene as major minerals. Major minerals of leucogranite are microcline, orthoclase, albite, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Accessory minerals consist of apatite, zircon, sphene, epidote, allanite, tourmaline and opaque. The presence of hydrous minerals like hornblende and biotite in these rocks indicate that the corresponding magma initially contained >3 wt% H2O (wet magma. The occurrences of garnet and andalusite minerals suggest assimilation process. Primary textures in these rocks are granular, granophyre, and poikilitic. Secondary textures are perthite, myrmekite, sericitization, chloritization and kaolinitization. Later hydrothermal activities and tectonic strains are factors for presence of perthite texture in leucogranite. K amount for sericitization of feldspars come from the K-feldspars and chloritization of biotite. Transformation of biotite to muscovite indicates the act of K rich fluid in later stages. On the basis of chemical analysis on the intrusive rocks, it is shown that the magma was calc-alkaline, metaluminous-peraluminous and medium-K to high-K. Study of major elements in Harker diagrams indicates Al2O3, FeO, Fe2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing of SiO2 and K2O and Na2O increase indicating that fractional crystallization may have played an important role in the formation of granitoid rocks from Nezam-Abad.

  1. Hf-Nd isotope and trace element constraints on subduction inputs at island arcs: Limitations of Hf anomalies as sediment input indicators (United States)

    Handley, Heather K.; Turner, Simon; Macpherson, Colin G.; Gertisser, Ralf; Davidson, Jon P.


    New Nd-Hf isotope and trace element data for Javanese volcanoes are combined with recently published data to place constraints on subduction inputs at the Sunda arc in Indonesia and assess the value of Hf anomalies (expressed as Hf/Hf* and Sm/Hf ratios) as tracers of such inputs. Hf anomaly does not correlate with Hf isotope ratio in Javanese lavas, however, Hf/Hf* and Sm/Hf ratios do correlate with SiO 2. Contrary to previous work, we show that Hf anomaly variation may be controlled by fractionation of clinopyroxene and/or amphibole during magmatic differentiation and does not represent the magnitude or type of subduction input in some arcs. Correlation of Sm/Hf with indices of differentiation for other arcs (e.g., Vanuatu, New Britain, and Mariana) suggests that differentiation control on Sm/Hf ratios in volcanic arc rocks may be a relatively common phenomenon. This study corroborates the use of Nd-Hf isotope co-variations in arc volcanic rocks to ascertain subduction input characteristics. The trajectories of regional volcano groups (East, Central and West Java) in Nd-Hf isotope space reveal heterogeneity in the subducted sediment input along Java, which reflects present-day spatial variations in sediment compositions on the down-going plate in the Java Trench. The high Sm/Hf ratio required in the sediment end-member for some Javanese basalts suggests that partial melting of subducted sediment occurs in the presence of residual zircon, and is inconsistent with residual monazite or allanite.

  2. Uranium potential of precambrian rocks in the Raft River area of northwestern Utah and south-central Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, B.A.


    A total of 1214 geochemical samples were collected and analyzed. The sampling media included 334 waters, 616 stream sediments, and 264 rocks. In addition, some stratigraphic sections of Elba and Yost Quartzites and Archean metasedimentary rock were measured and sampled and numerous radiation determinations made of the various target units. Statistical evaluation of the geochemical data permitted recognition of 156 uranium anomalies, 52 in water, 79 in stream sediment, and 25 in rock. Geographically, 68 are located in the Grouse Creek Mountains, 43 in the Raft River Mountains, and 41 in the Albion Range. Interpretation of the various data leads to the conclusion that uranium anomalies relate to sparingly and moderately soluble uraniferous heavy minerals, which occur as sparse but widely distributed magmatic, detrital, and/or metamorphically segregated components in the target lithostratigraphic units. The uraniferous minerals known to occur and believed to account for the geochemical anomalies include allanite, monazite, zircon, and apatite. In some instances samarskite may be important. These heavy minerals contain uranium and geochemically related elements, such as Th, Ce, Y, and Zr, in sufficient quantities to account for both the conspicuous lithologic preference and the generally observed low amplitude of the anomalies. The various data generated in connection with this study, as well as those available in the published literature, collectively support the conclusion that the various Precambrian W and X lithostratigraphic units pre-selected for evaluation probably lack potential to host important Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits. Moreover it is also doubted that they possess any potential to host Proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits.

  3. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the high-K Alamas calc-alkaline granitoids at the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotope constraints (United States)

    Zhang, Qichao; Liu, Yan; Huang, He; Wu, Zhenhan; Zhou, Qing


    The Alamas granitoid pluton in the eastern part of the Western Kunlun Orogen, the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, is composed of quartz diorite. Zircon separates from the pluton has SIMS U-Pb age of ∼446 Ma. Rocks from the pluton have a narrow range of SiO2 (56.84-62.57 wt%), MgO (1.76-2.94 wt%), and total alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 5.14-9.59 wt%), and are metaluminous and high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), with (La/Yb)N = 14-25, and show weakly negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are relatively enriched in Sr (472-676 ppm) and Ba (435-2388 ppm), and depleted in Nb, Ta, Th, and Ti. Their εNd(t) values range from -6.4 to -8.4, and (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7184-0.7200. Zircons from the pluton show εHf(t) values of -1.4 to -8.8, and δ18O = 6.4-9.0‰. Geochemical data indicate that the granitoids were likely derived from the reworking of an ancient, deep crustal source, influenced by a minor mantle-derived component. Magmatic differentiation was dominated by the fractional crystallization of hornblende, biotite, and accessory minerals such as apatite, allanite, and Fe-Ti oxides. In summary, the Late Ordovician Alamas pluton is an I-type granitoid that was emplaced in a post-collisional environment, suggesting that this tectonic stage had already initiated prior to ∼445 Ma.

  4. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos


    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  5. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future. (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores


    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  6. Relationship between Bajo Pobre and Chon Aike formations (Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina):a melt inclusions study (United States)

    Busà, T.; Bellieni, G.; Fernandez, R.; Hecheveste, H.; Piccirillo, E. M.


    The Deseado Massif covers the centre-east of the Santa Cruz Province, in the extra-Andean Patagonia. Although the Deseado Massif is mainly composed of silicic volcanic rocks (Chon Aike Formation, CA; 151.5 ±0.5 - 177.8 ±0.4 Ma), mafic and intermediate volcanites (Bajo Pobre Formation, BP; 152.7 ±0.5 and 164 ±0.3 Ma) outcrop largely in the central part of the Massif. In this paper quarz-trapped melt inclusions (rhyolitic in composition) from selected samples of the BP and the CA are analysed. On the basis of major elements content, for BP the sequence from andesite (BP whole rock) to ryholite (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be modelled by simple fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz and apatite. As regards trace elements, a good calculated/measured ratio (around 1 ±0.2) is obtained assuming only a relatively high apatite fractionation. Since the apatite fractionation amount is not acceptable for major elements, the evolution of BP Formation cannot be modelled by a simple process of fractional crystallisation, and a contamination process probably occurred. The sequence from BP to CA cannot be modelled by fractional crystallisation. 30% batch melting of BP andesite (BP whole rock) produces a magma from which the CA ryholites (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be obtained by Rayleigh fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, quartz, apatite and small amounts of zircon and minor allanite. Since the latter one was not observed in the analysed sample, a contamination process during magma evolution cannot be completely excluded. Finally, on the basis of the different trace elements concentration (Nb anomaly, different content in LILE, B/Be and B/Nb), it is possible to suppose that, at the time of the BP and CA emplacement, a changing in the tectonic setting, from subduction to a lithospheric extension, was active.

  7. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd( t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd( t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  8. Middle Triassic ultrapotassic rhyolites from the Tanggula Pass, southern Qiangtang, China: A previously unrecognized stage of silicic magmatism (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Shi, Ren-Deng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Zou, Hai-Bo; Liu, De-Liang; Huang, Qi-Shuai; Gong, Xiao-Han; Yi, Guo-Ding; Wu, Kang


    There is a Mid-Late Mesozoic (Jurassic-Cretaceous) arc magmatic belt in southern Qiangtang subterrane associated with the north-dipping subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean. Early Mesozoic (Triassic) magmatism, tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang subterrane, and the mechanism of its crustal growth, however, remain unclear. This paper reports zircon U-Pb age, whole-rock major, trace elemental, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic components for the Mesozoic Tanggula Pass rhyolites in southern Qiangtang subterrane. Our new data reveal a significant, previously unrecognized stage of magmatism in southern Qiangtang subterrane. The Tanggula Pass rhyolites are moderately-strongly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.09-1.54), highly fractionated (SiO2 > 73%) and ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O > 44%). Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS yields a concordant age with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 235.9 ± 0.86 Ma (n = 18, MSWD = 0.25). The large variations of major and trace element concentrations are mainly attributed to fractional crystallization of plagioclase, hornblende, Fe-Ti oxides, and accessory minerals such as apatite, allanite, monazite, and zircon in the shallow level. K-feldspar mainly occurs as cumulated mineral, resulting in high K2O contents and K2O/Na2O ratios. The rhyolites were derived by partial melting of mixed source rocks including older sedimentary rocks in the upper crust and juvenile materials, triggered by north-dipping subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. The eruption age of Middle Triassic suggests that the initiation of northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan ocean took place earlier than is currently assumed. Whole-rock Nd (ca. 1.55 to 2.34 Ga) and zircon Hf (ca. 1.77 to 2.33 Ga) data reflect the presence of the Proterozoic basement in the southern Qiangtang subterrane. Basaltic magma underplating and accretion of intra-oceanic arc complexes and oceanic plateau contributed to vertical crustal growth and lateral crustal

  9. The oxygen isotope composition of granitoid and sedimentary rocks of the southern Snake Range, Nevada (United States)

    Lee, D.E.; Friedman, I.; Gleason, J.D.


    Six diverse intrusive igneous types are exposed as discrete outcrops within an area of 900 km2 in the southern Snake Range, White Pine County, Nevada. The previously recognized variety among these igneous types is reflected in the wide range of ??18O values (-1.1 to 13.4 permil) found in these rocks. This range of ??18O values probably results from differences in source material and post-crystallization history of the different intrusive types. The Jurassic intrusive of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon area represents the chemical equivalent of a large part of a differentiation sequence, with the entire range of composition (63-76 percent SiO2) exposed over a horizontal distance of about five km. The rather regular increase of ??18O values from the most mafic to the most felsic parts of this pluton, together with ??18O values determined for constituent minerals recovered from five of the samples, supports a fractional crystallization model. The high ??18O values found (10.2-12.2 permil) indicate that the magma likely was derived from or assimilated sedimentary materials. Nine samples of the Cretaceous two-mica granite of the Pole Canyon-Can Young Canyon area have ??18O values in the range 10.6-12.1 permil. These high ??18O values, an initial87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7165, and the presence of muscovite along with an accessory mineral suite limited to monazite, apatite, zircon, and an allanite-like mineral, characterize this intrusive mass as an S-type granite. It probably formed through anatexis of late Precambrian pelitic rocks. The granitoid rock exposed in the Young Canyon-Kious Basin area is Tertiary (32 m.y.). Most of this intrusive has been cataclastically deformed as a result of late (18 m.y.) movement on the overlying Snake Range decollement. The undeformed portion of this intrusive has ??18O values of 8.7-10.0 permil. However, the deformed portion of this intrusive has ??18O values as low as -1.1 permil, apparently resulting from isotopic exchange between this

  10. Geochemistry of the Spor Mountain rhyolite, western Utah, as revealed by laser ablation ICP-MS, cathodoluminescence, and electron microprobe analysis (United States)

    Dailey, S. R.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M.; Fernandez, D. P.


    The Miocene topaz rhyolite at Spor Mountain in western Utah hosts one of the largest beryllium deposits in the world and was responsible for producing 85% of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010 (Boland, 2012). The Spor Mountain rhyolite is composed primarily of Ca-poor plagioclase (An8), sodic sanidine (Or40), Fe-rich biotite (Fe/(Fe+Mg)>0.95; Al 1.2-1.4 apfu), and Ti-poor quartz, along with several trace-element rich accessory phases including zircon, monazite, thorite, columbite, and allanite. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz show oscillatory zoning, with 80% of the examined crystals displaying euhedral edges and slightly darker rims. CL images were used to guide laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of quartz, along with analyses of plagioclase, sanidine, biotite, and glass. Ti concentrations in quartz are 20±6 ppm; there is no quantifiable variation of Ti from core to rim within the diameter of the laser spot (53 microns). Temperatures, calculated using Ti in quartz (at 2 kb, aTiO2=0.34), vary between 529±10 C (Thomas et al., 2011), 669±13 C (Huang and Audetat, 2012), and 691±13 C (Wark and Watson, 2006). Two feldspar thermometry yield temperatures of 686±33 C (Elkins and Grove, 1990) and 670±41 C (Benisek et al., 2010). Zr saturation temperatures (Watson and Harrison, 1983) average 711±28 C. Analysis of the glass reveal the Spor Mountain rhyolite is greatly enriched in rare elements (i.e. Li, Be, F, Ga, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, and Ta) compared to average continental crust (Rudnick and Gao, 2003). Be in the glass can have as much as 100 ppm, nearly 50 times the concentration in continental crust. REE partition coefficients for sanidine are 2 to 3 times higher in the Spor Mountain rhyolite when compared to other silicic magmas (Nash and Crecraft, 1985; Mahood and Hildreth, 1983), although plagioclase tends to have lower partition coefficients; biotite has lower partition coefficients for LREE and higher partition coefficients for HREE. The patterns of

  11. Diamonds from Dachine, French Guiana: A unique record of early Proterozoic subduction (United States)

    Smith, Chris B.; Walter, Michael J.; Bulanova, Galina P.; Mikhail, Sami; Burnham, Antony D.; Gobbo, Luiz; Kohn, Simon C.


    Diamonds from Dachine, French Guiana, are unique among worldwide diamond populations. The diamonds were transported to the surface in an unusual ultramafic extrusive magma with an affinity to boninite or komatiite, which was emplaced within an arc geological setting at 2.2 Ga. Dachine diamonds have internal and external morphologies indicative of relatively rapid growth from carbon oversaturated fluids or melts, and exhibit internal features consistent with residence in a high-strain environment. On the basis of nitrogen (N) defects the diamonds are categorized as Type Ib-IaA. The unusually low aggregation state of N places severe constraints on the thermal history of the diamonds, effectively ruling out derivation in convecting mantle. The carbon and N isotopic compositions of Dachine diamonds are consistent with a sedimentary source of carbon, with the majority of diamonds having δ13C values + 4‰. The primary carbon was presumably deposited on an early Proterozoic seafloor. Sulphide inclusions have low Ni and Cr and are comparable to lithospheric eclogitic-type sulphide inclusions. Three garnet and one clinopyroxene inclusion are also eclogitic in composition, and one garnet inclusion has a majorite component indicating an origin around 250 km depth. The silicate inclusions are highly depleted in many incompatible trace elements (e.g. LREE, Nb, Hf, Zr), and modelling indicates an eclogitic source lithology that contained a LREE-enriched trace phase such as epidote or allanite, and an HFSE-rich phase such as rutile. Four of the five inclusions are unusually enriched in Mn, as well as Ni and Co, and modelling suggests a protolith with a bulk composition of subducted normal MORB plus about 10% ferromanganese crust component. We suggest a model wherein Dachine diamonds precipitated from remobilized sedimentary carbon at the slab-mantle interface from liquids derived ultimately by deserpentinization of slab peridotite at depths of 200 to 250 km. These fluids may

  12. Nd Isotope and U-Th-Pb Age Mapping of Single Monazite Grains by Laser Ablation Split Stream Analysis (United States)

    Fisher, C. M.; Hanchar, J. M.; Miller, C. F.; Phillips, S.; Vervoort, J. D.; Martin, W.


    present in single rock samples. This method highlights the potential of single grain isotope mapping of LREE phases such as monazite, allanite, and titanite for understanding both igneous and metamorphic petrogenesis.

  13. Microstructural observation and chemical dating on monazite from the Shilu Group, Hainan Province of South China: Implications for origin and evolution of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district (United States)

    Xu, Deru; Kusiak, Monika A.; Wang, Zhilin; Chen, Huayong; Bakun-Czubarow, Nonna; Wu, Chuanjun; Konečný, Patrik; Hollings, Peter


    New monazite chemical U-Th-total-Pb (CHIME) ages, combined with microstructural observations, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemistry, indicate that the large-scale, banded iron formation (BIF)-type Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province, South China is a multistage product of sedimentation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration associated with multiple orogenies. Two types of monazite, i.e. "polygenetic" and "metamorphic", were identified. The "polygenetic monazite" comprises a magmatic and/or metamorphic core surrounded by a metamorphic rim, and shows complex zoning. Breakdown corona structure, with a core of monazite surrounded by a mantle of fluorapatite, allanite, and/or epidote as concentric growth rings, is commonly observed. This type of monazite yielded three main CHIME-age peaks at ca. 980 Ma, ca. 880 Ma and ca. 450 Ma. The ages which range up to ca. 880 Ma for detrital cores, record a pre-deformational magmatic and/or metamorphic event(s), and is considered to be the depositional time-interval of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs in a marine, back-arc foreland basin likely due to the Grenvillian or South China Sibao orogeny. After deposition, the Shilu district was subjected to an orogenic event, which is recorded by the syndeformational metamorphic monazite with ca. 560-450 Ma population. Probably this event not only caused amphibolite facies metamorphism and associated regional foliation S1 but also enriched the original BIFs, and most likely corresponds to the "Pan-African" and/or the South China Caledonian orogeny. The post-deformational "metamorphic" monazite occurs mostly as inclusions in garnet and shows ca. 260 Ma age. It likely represents the Late Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal and related retrograde event(s) initiated by the Indosinian orogeny due to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys. The breakdown of monazite to secondary coronal mineral phases as well as the Fe-remobilization and associated skarnization

  14. The petrogenesis of the Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Lower plate post-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England (United States)

    Simons, B.; Shail, Robin K.; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.


    The Early Permian Cornubian Batholith was generated during an extensional regime following Variscan convergence within the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England. Its component granites can be classified, using mineralogical, textural and geochemical criteria, into five main types, all of which are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1): G1 (two-mica), G2 (muscovite), G3 (biotite), G4 (tourmaline) and G5 (topaz). G1 granites formed through up to 20% muscovite and minor biotite dehydration melting of a metagreywacke source at moderate temperatures and pressures (731-806 °C, > 5 kbar). Younger G3 granites formed through higher temperature, lower pressure (768-847 °C, < 4 kbar) biotite-dominated melting of a similar source. Partial melting was strongly influenced by the progressive lower-mid crustal emplacement of mafic igneous rocks during post-Variscan extension and a minor (< 5%-10%) mantle-derived component in the granites is possible. Two distinct fractionation series, G1-G2 and G3-G4, are defined using whole-rock geochemical and mineral chemical data. Variations in the major elements, Ba, Sr and Rb indicate that G1 and G3 granites underwent 15%-30% fractionation of an assemblage dominated by plagioclase, alkali feldspar and biotite to form more evolved G2 and G4 granites, respectively. Decreasing whole-rock abundances of Zr, Th and REE support the fractionation of zircon, monazite, apatite and allanite. Subsolidus alteration in G2 and G4 granites is indicated by non-primary muscovite and tourmaline and modification of major and trace element trends for G3-G4 granites, particularly for P2O5 and Rb. Topaz (G5) granites show low Zr, REE and extreme enrichment in Rb (up to 1530 ppm) and Nb (79 ppm) that cannot be related in a straightforward manner to continued differentiation of the G1-G2 or G3-G4 series. Instead, they are considered to represent partial melting, mediated by granulite facies fluids, of a biotite-rich restite following extraction of G1 and/or G3 magmas; they do

  15. Faja de Deformación La Horqueta, sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas, NO de Argentina: petrografía, geoquímica, estructuras y significado tectónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toselli, A. J.


    Full Text Available The La Horqueta Shear Zone (LHSZ is the sixth shear zone recognized in the Sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas, NW Argentina. This shear zone separates two types of metagranitoids of contrasting petrographical and geochemical characteristics: metagranodiorites, outcropping towards the SW, consist in weakly peraluminous biotite-allanite-titanite granodiorites similar to the I-type granitoids of southern Sierra de Velasco and of neighboring ranges that are part of the Famatinian magmatic arc, while metagranites, outcropping towards the NE, consist in strongly peraluminous biotite-muscovite monzogranites identical to the Antinaco Orthogneis of northern Sierra de Velasco, which is part of an inner S-type granitoid belt. The LHSZ, developed from these two protoliths, has a thickness of 1 to 2 km and is composed of protomylonites and mylonites with strong NNW trending and E dipping mylonitic foliation. Cinematic analyses indicates a main transpressive deformational regime with an inverse-sinistral component, accompanied by a subordinate dextral transcurrent component, which possibly placed the two tectonic settings in contact.La Faja de Deformación La Horqueta (FDLH es la sexta faja de cizalla reconocida en la sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas, NO de Argentina. Esta faja separa dos tipos de metagranitoides de características petrográficas y geoquímicas contrastadas: metagranodioritas, hacia el SO, consisten en granodioritas con biotita-allanita-titanita débilmente peraluminosas que se asemejan a los granitoides tipo I del sur de la sierra de Velasco y de sierras aledañas pertenecientes al arco magmático famatiniano, mientras que los metagranitos, hacia el NE, consisten en monzogranitos con biotita-muscovita fuertemente peraluminosos idénticos al Ortogneis Antinaco del norte de la sierra de Velasco, el cual pertenece a un cinturón de granitoides tipo S interno, respecto del arco famatiniano. La FDLH, desarrollada allí a partir de estos

  16. To the origin of Icelandic rhyolites: insights from partially melted leucocratic xenoliths (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Sigurdsson, Ingvar A.


    We have studied glass-bearing leucocratic (granitic to Qz-monzonitic) crustal xenoliths from the Tindfjöll Pleistocene volcanic complex, SW Iceland. The xenoliths consist of strongly resorbed relicts of anorthitic plagioclase, K-rich feldspar and rounded quartz in colorless through pale to dark-brown interstitial glass. Spongy clinopyroxene and/or rounded or elongated crystals of orthopyroxene are in subordinate amount. Magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, apatite, allanite and/or chevkinite are accessory minerals. The xenoliths more likely are relicts of earlier-formed, partially melted Si-rich rocks or quartz-feldspar-rich crystal segregations, which suffered latter interaction with hotter and more primitive magma(s). Icelandic lavas are typically low in δ 18O compared to mantle-derived, "MORB"-like rocks (~5.6 ± 0.2 ‰), likely due to their interaction with, or contamination by, the upper-crustal rocks affected by rain and glacial melt waters. Surprisingly, many quartz and feldspar crystals and associated colorless to light-colored interstitial glasses of the studied xenoliths are not low but high in δ 18O (5.1-7.2 ‰, excluding three dark-brown glasses of 4-5 ‰). The xenoliths contain abundant, low- to high- δ 18O (2.4-6.3 ‰) young zircons (U-Pb age 0.2-0.27 ± 0.03 Ma; U-Th age 0.16 ± 0.07 Ma), most of them in oxygen isotope equilibrium with interstitial glasses. The δ 18O values >5.6 ‰ recorded in the coexisting zircon, quartz, feldspar and colorless interstitial glass suggest crystallization from melts produced by fusion of crustal rocks altered by seawater, also reflecting multiple melting and crystallization events. This suggests that "normal"- δ 18O silicic magmas may not be ultimately produced by crystallization of mafic, basaltic magmas. Instead, our new single-crystal laser fluorination and ion microprobe O-isotope data suggest addition of diverse partial crustal melts, probably originated from variously altered and preconditioned crust.

  17. Magmatic and post-magmatic phenomena in the Karkonosze granite and its metamorphic envelope (West Sudetes, SW Poland) (United States)

    Kozłowski, Andrzej; Ilnicki, Sławomir; Matyszczak, Witold; Marcinowska, Agnieszka


    Mineralogical studies of the Karkonosze granite (ca. 322-312 Ma) and its surroundings in West Sudetes (SW Poland) have provided data on Nb-Ta-REE minerals from pegmatites in the NE part of the pluton and several new finds of Ag minerals and 15 oxygenic Bi phases, hitherto not reported from the massif. The Karkonosze pegmatites are enriched in HREE as fergusonite-(Y) or xenotime-(Y) appear in almost every studied pegmatite, together with a subordinate assemblage of the aeschynite, euxenite or columbite group. The abundance of LREE minerals such as allanite-( Ce) and the monazite group, correlates inversely with the Nb-Ta-Ti minerals, whilst an early generation of monazite-(Ce) revealed an exceptionally high amount of Nd (up to 22 wt.% of Nd2O3 ). The physical and chemical conditions during the magmatic and post-magmatic processes were reconstructed and the effects of contact metamorphism in amphibolites from hornfelsed zones examined. Changes in solution composition and concentration at the early magmatic stage (825-920°C), pegmatitic stage overlapping with hydrothermal (560°C which ended at 160-90°C) and clearly hydrothermal stage (400 to 110°C) were studied in detail by means of melt and fluid inclusions in quartz. Furthermore, post-magmatic fluids, including some enriched in Li and B, were identified in rock-forming quartz from the whole pluton. In turn, study of the amphibolites indicates that the pair cummingtonite + anorthite or the presence of Ca-rich plagioclase with actinolite seem to be reliable mineral proxies of the thermal impact of the granitoid body on amphibolites in its envelope. The inferred conditions of the contact processes (450-550°C, 2.5- 4.8 kbar) point to an elevated geothermal gradient (ca. 32-45°C/km) probably reflecting the heat flow induced by the Karkonosze intrusion. Moreover, despite the textural and mineral changes imposed by regional and contact metamorphism, the amphibolites have their pre-metamorphic (magmatic) geochemical

  18. Field relationships and geochemistry of pre-collisional (India-Asia) granitoid magmatism in the central Karakoram, northern Pakistan (United States)

    Crawford, M. B.; Searle, M. P.


    In the central Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan, seven major granitic units which were emplaced prior to the Eocene (ca. 50 Ma) India-Asia collision have been mapped and analysed geochemically. The mid-Cretaceous Hunza plutonic complex dominates the Karakoram batholith in the west and is composed of quartz diorite-granodiorite plutons which have been deformed in the south by later collision-related thrusting. The Sost and Khunjerab plutons intrude the Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic sediments north of the batholith. In the east pre-collision magmatic units occur both north of (K2 gneiss, Broad Peak quartz diorite, Muztagh Tower unit) and south of (Hushe gneiss) the batholith which is dominated by a Miocene monzogranite-leucogranite pluton (Baltoro unit). The plutonic units to the north of the batholith are mid- to late Cretaceous with an age range of ca. 115-80 Ma whereas the Hushe gneiss to the south is dominantly Jurassic spanning the age range 200-145 Ma. All the pre-collision magmatic units display similar chemical and isotopic characteristics. Major, trace and REE variations in the Hunza plutonic complex are controlled by high-level fractionation of clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase, biotite, ilmenite and allanite. High LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, together with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies suggest an ultimate source in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios (0.7055-0.7157) in the Hunza plutonic complex can best be explained by contamination of a mantle-derived magma by a crustal component with highly radiogenic Sr. All the units except the Hushe gneiss are probably related to subduction during closure of a back-arc basin between the Karakoram to the north and the Kohistan-Dras arc to the south during the mid- to late Cretaceous, and correlate with widespread plutonism from the same period in Kohistan, Ladakh and southern Tibet along the southern margin of Asia. The Hushe gneiss is probably related to an earlier northward

  19. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka (United States)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari


    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  20. Geology, petrology and U-Pb geochronology of Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton: implications about ediacaran magmatic evolution in NE portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain (NE of Borborema Province); Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia U-Pb do Pluton Granitico Serra da Rajada: implicacoes sobre a evolucao magmatica ediacarana na porcao do Dominio Rio Piranhas-Serido (NE da Provincia Borborema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alan Pereira da; Dantas, Alexandre Ranier, E-mail:, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio de Natal/Superintendencia Regional de Recife; Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite do; Galindo, Antonio Carlos, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia


    The Ediacaran plutonic activity, related to the Brazilian/Pan-African orogeny, is one of the most important geological features in the Borborema Province, formed by batholiths, stocks and dikes. The Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton (SRGP), located in the central portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain, is an example of these bodies. This site is the target of cartographic, petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies. Its rocks are described as monzogranites consisting of K-feldspar, plagioclase (oligoclase-An{sub 23-24%}), quartz and biotite (main mafic), having as accessory minerals opaque, titanite, allanite, apatite and zircon. Chlorite, white mica and carbonate are alteration minerals. Lithochemical data from 15 samples show quite evolved rocks (SiO{sub 2} , 69% to 75%), rich in alkalis (Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O ≥ 8.0%), depleted in MgO (≤ 0.45%), CaO (≤ 1.42%) and TiO{sub 2} (≤ 0.36%), and displaying moderate levels of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} t (2.16 to 3.53%). These rocks present a transitional nature between metaluminous and peraluminous (predominance of the latter) and have subalkaline/monzonitic affinity (high-K Calc-alkaline). Harker diagrams represent negative correlations in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}t, MgO and CaO, indicating fractionation of mafic and plagioclase. The REE spectrum show enrichment of light in relation to heavy REE (LaN/YbN = 23.70 to 10.13), with negative anomaly in Eu (Eu/ Eu* = 0.70 to 10.13) suggesting fractionation or accumulation in the feldspars source (plagioclase). Data integration allows correlating the SRGP rocks with those described as Equigranular high-K Calc-alkaline Suite. The U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotope dating indicate that the biotite monzogranite have a crystallization age of 557 ± 13 Ma and TDM model age of 2.36 Ga, respectively, and ε{sub Nd} value of - 20.10 for the crystallization age, allowing to infer a crustal source for the magma generated in the Paleoproterozoic age. (author)

  1. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen (United States)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.


    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893

  2. REE Mineralization in Kiruna-type Magnetite-Apatite Ore Deposits: Magmatism and Metasomatism (United States)

    Harlov, D. E.


    Magnetite-apatite ore bodies of the Kiruna type occur worldwide and are generally associated with volcanic rocks or volcanism. They also show strong evidence of extensive metasomatism over a wide P-T range. Notable examples include the Kiirunavaara ore body, northern Sweden (Harlov et al., 2002, Chem. Geol., 191, 47-72); the Grängesberg ore body, central Sweden (Jonsson et al., 2010, NGF abstracts, vol 1, 88-89); the Mineville ore body, Adirondacks, New York, USA (McKeown and Klemc, 1956, U.S. Geol Sur Bull (1956), pp. 9-23); the Pea Ridge ore body, SE Missouri, USA (Kerr, 1998, MS Thesis, Univ. Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada 113 pp); the Jurassic Marcona ore body in south-central Peru (Chen et al., 2010, Econ Geol, 105, 1441-1456); and a collection of ore bodies from the Bafq Region, central Iran (Daliran et al., 2010, Geol. Assoc. Canada, Short Course Notes, v. 20, p.147-159). In these ore bodies, low Th and U monazite, xenotime, allanite, REE carbonates, and/or REE fluorides are commonly associated with the apatite as inclusions, rim grains, or as independent grains in the surrounding mineral matrix. High contrast BSE imaging, coupled with EMPA and LA-ICPMS, indicates that the apatite has experienced fluid-induced alteration in the form of (Y+REE) + Na + Si + Cl depletion implying that it served as the source for the (Y+REE) (e.g. Kiirunavaara, northern Sweden; Harlov et al., 2002). Formation of monazite and xenotime associated with fluorapatite, as inclusions or rim grains, has experimentally been demonstrated to originate from the fluorapatite as the result of fluid-aided, coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 150, 268-286). This is explains the low Th and U content of the monazite and xenotime. Fluid sources could range from 700-900 °C, residual, acidic (HCl, H2HSO4) grain boundary fluids, remaining after the last stages of ore body crystallization, to later stage, cooler (< 600 °C) (H2O-CO2-(Na

  3. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon) (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel


    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  4. Crystallization conditions of porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the extreme northeastern Borborema Province, NE Brazil, and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Campos, Benedita Cleide Souza; Vilalva, Frederico Castro Jobim; Nascimento, Marcos Antônio Leite do; Galindo, Antônio Carlos


    An integrated textural and chemical study on amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, titanite, epidote, and magnetite was conducted in order to estimate crystallization conditions, along with possible geodynamic implications, for six Ediacaran porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granite plutons (Monte das Gameleiras, Barcelona, Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha) intrusive into Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks of the São José do Campestre (SJCD) and Rio Piranhas-Seridó (RPSD) domains, northern Borborema Province. The studied rocks include mainly porphyritic leucocratic monzogranites, as well as quartz-monzonites and granodiorites. Textures are marked by K-feldspar megacrysts (5-15 cm long) in a fine-to medium-grained matrix composed of quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, as well as titanite, epidote, Fesbnd Ti oxides, allanite, apatite, and zircon as accessory minerals. Amphibole, biotite and titanite share similar compositional variations defined by increasing Al and Fe, and decreasing Mg contents from the plutons emplaced into the SJCP (Monte das Gameleiras and Barcelona) towards those in the RPSD (Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha). Estimated intensive crystallization parameters reveal a weak westward range of increasing depth of emplacement, pressure and temperature in the study area. The SJCD plutons (to the east) crystallized at shallower crustal depths (14-21 km), under slightly lower pressure (3.8-5.5 kbar) and temperature (701-718 °C) intervals, and high to moderate oxygen fugacity conditions (+0.8 plutons (to the west) were emplaced at slightly deeper depths (18-23 km), under higher, yet variable pressures (4.8-6.2 kbar), temperatures (723-776 °C), and moderate to low oxygen fugacity conditions (-1.0 < ΔFQM < +1.8). These results reinforce the contrasts between the tectono-strutuctural domains of São José do Campestre and Rio Piranhas-Seridó in the northern Borborema Province.

  5. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, M. E.


    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  6. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.


    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of

  7. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of an Early Cretaceous intrusive suite in northeastern Jiangxi Province, South China Block: Implications for petrogenesis, crust/mantle interactions and geodynamic processes (United States)

    Deng, Zhengbin; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Lifei; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Pengtao; Luo, Ping; Guo, Boran


    derived from partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic basement with involvement of enriched mantle-derived magmas or juvenile components, and the primary magma experienced fractionation of K-feldspar, plagioclase, monazite, allanite and zircon during magma ascent and emplacement. The Tieshan intrusive suite, together with the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites, forms a highly enriched shoshonitic rock belt in the northeastern margin of the Cathaysia Block. Integrating with previously published data, we propose that the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate extended into the central South China Block in the Middle Jurassic, and experienced slab rollback during the Early Cretaceous.

  8. Early to late Yanshanian I-type granites in Fujian Province, SE China: Implications for the tectonic setting and Mo mineralization (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Long; Ni, Pei; Yan, Jun; Wu, Chang-Zhi; Dai, Bao-Zhang; Xu, Ying-Feng


    The Cathaysia Block is the southeastern part of the South China Block in Southeast (SE) China, and it hosts voluminous late Mesozoic I-, S-, and A-type granitoids, as well as minor highly fractionated granites. We present here zircon U-Pb age data and Nd-Hf isotopic data for the Dayang and Juzhou granites, together with new petrological and geochemical analyses. The Dayang pluton consists of fine-grained two-mica monzonitic granites in which the plagioclases exhibit zoning and poikilitic textures. In contrast, the Juzhou pluton consists of medium- to coarse-grained biotite K-feldspar granites that lack zoning and poikilitic textures. The emplacement ages are 143 ± 2.3 Ma for the Dayang pluton and 133 ± 2.1 Ma for the Juzhou pluton according to zircon U-Pb isotope analyses. The Dayang and Juzhou granites are both metaluminous and belong to the shoshonitic series. The Dayang granite exhibits very flat REE patterns, showing the tetrad effect, and the spidergrams show striking negative Ba, Sr, Nb, and Ti anomalies and a positive Ta anomaly. In contrast, the Juzhou granite has sloping REE patterns, but like the Dayang granite it also has striking negative Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. Petrographic and geochemical evidence indicates that the Dayang granite is a highly fractionated I-type granite and that the Juzhou granite is a typical I-type granite. The tetrad effect in the Dayang granite can be interpreted in terms of melt-rock interactions at a late stage of magma evolution, whereas the main mechanism during the evolution of the Juzhou magma was fractionation of plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, apatite, zircon, and allanite. Nd-Hf isotope data suggest that the Dayang and Juzhou granites were both formed partial melting of Paleoproterozoic basement rock and juvenile material (underplating basalts or Mayuan Group amphibolites), with the Juzhou granite having a greater contribution from juvenile material than the Dayang granite. Our new data, together with

  9. Varena suite in the crystalline crust of the Southern Lithuania: implication to the genesis and mineralization (United States)

    Kirkliauskaite, Vaida; Motuza, Gediminas; Skipityte, Raminta


    Keywords: Lithuania, Proterozoic, Varena suite, rare earth elements, metasomatosis. Crystalline crust in Southern Lithuania is covered by 200-500 m thick sedimentary cover and is investigated by potential field mapping and drilling. It is composed by amphibolites (metabasalts), biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneisses (metapsammites and porphyry metadacite and metaandesite) of Orosirian period. Each lithology is predominant in alternating bands extended NNE-SSW. Supracrustals are metamorphosed on the level of amphibolite facies and migmatized. Intrusive rocks are represented by coeval rare bodies of gabbro, peridotite and widespread Calymmian granitic plutons. Varena suite comprises olivine, enstatite, diopside, olivine-magnetite, magnetite, apatite-bearing, and presumably also dolomite rocks. They form integrated bodies few sq. km large, concentrated in the ˜300 km2area extended in N-S direction.Bodies of particular rocks from Varena suite fixed in the boreholes are few tenths up to few hundred meters thick, except apatite-bearing rocks, forming decimeter up to meter scale lenses and veins. Rocks of Varena suite are affected by strong metasomatic alteration. Olivine is substituted by serpentine, and phlogopite, pyroxenes with amphibols (hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, rarely richterite). The country rocks (amphibolites, metaporphyres) also affected by alkaline (mainly sodic) metasomatosis manifested by formation of scapolite, albite, clynopyroxene (often sodic), phlogopite, carbonates. The mineralization of REE (up to 2759-3100 ppm of La and Ce respectively), Th, U, P hosted by monazite, apatite, allanite is spatially related to the Varena suite and some metasomatized supracrustals. The views on the genesis of Varena suite are contradicting. By various authors they are regarded as skarns, presuming metasomatic origin, as layered intrusions or products of alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism. In this presentation the genetic model is reviewed based on

  10. Early Mesozoic deep-crust reworking beneath the central Lhasa terrane (South Tibet): Evidence from intermediate gneiss xenoliths in granites (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Xiong, Qing; Yang, Jing-Sui; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Griffin, William L.; Dai, Hong-Kun


    Understanding the rheological behavior of the Tibetan Plateau and its response to geodynamic processes requires a clear knowledge of the composition, evolution and lithological properties of the deep crust. Here we present U-Pb-Hf isotopes of zircons, bulk-rock geochemistry and mineral compositions for seven intermediate gneiss xenoliths and their host Early Mesozoic granites (205 ± 6 Ma) in the central Lhasa terrane to probe the deep crust beneath Southern Tibet. The xenoliths contain plagioclase, amphibole, titanite, allanite, quartz, biotite and muscovite, with accessory Fe-Ti oxides, apatite and zircon. Bulk-rock and mineral geochemistry suggests that these xenoliths have a magmatic origin and experienced deformation and amphibolite-facies metamorphism (equilibration at pressures of 0.46-0.83 GPa and temperatures of 650 °C), before they were captured by the host granite at 205 Ma. Zircons in these xenoliths show complex microstructures, including inherited cores, magmatic or metamorphic bands, and high U-Th hydrothermal rims. Inherited zircon cores record U-Pb ages from 2277 Ma to 517 Ma. Igneous zircons show a range of concordant U-Pb ages, suggesting a protracted magmatism from 236 Ma to 203 Ma. Metamorphic zircon zones record the timing of amphibolite-facies metamorphism from 224 to 192 Ma, while the high U-Th hydrothermal rims show a subsequent fluid activity until 150 Ma. Unradiogenic Hf isotopic compositions of both xenoliths and host granites [xenolith εHf(t) = - 11.2 to 0; host granite εHf(t) = - 17.3 to - 3.3] indicate that the Early Mesozoic deep crust in the central Lhasa terrane originated mainly from ancient (i.e., Proterozoic) crust, with little or no interaction with juvenile magmas. This study suggests a possible continental differentiation mechanism during crustal reworking; progressive melting may initiate from the lower mafic crust (at ca. 236 Ma) and gradually migrate into the sediment-rich upper crust (until ca. 203 Ma). The reworking

  11. Thermometers and thermobarometers in granitic systems (United States)

    Anderson, J.L.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.; ,


    The ability to determine the thermal and barometric history during crystallization and emplacement of granitic plutons has been enhanced by several new calibrations applicable to granitic mineral assemblages. Other existing calibrations for granitic plutons have continued to be popular and fairly robust. Recent advances include the trace element thermometers Ti-in-quartz, Ti-in-zircon, and Zr-in-sphene (titanite), which need to be further evaluated on the roles of reduced activities due to lack of a saturating phase, the effect of pressure dependence (particularly for the Ti-in-zircon thermometer), and how resistive these thermometers are to subsolidus reequilibration. As zircon and sphene are also hosts to radiogenic isotopes, these minerals potentially also provide new insights into the temperature - time history of magmas. When used in conjunction with pressure-sensitive mineral equilibria in the same rocks, a complete assessment of the P-T-t (pressure-temperature-time) path is possible given that the mineralogy of plutons can reflect crystallization over a range of pressure and temperature during ascent and emplacement and that many intrusions are now seen as forming over several millions of years during the protracted history of batholith construction. Accessory mineral saturation thermometers, such as those for zircon, apatite, and allanite, provide a different and powerful perspective, specifically that of the temperature of the onset of crystallization of these minerals, which can allow an estimate of the range of temperature between the liquidus and solidus of a given pluton. In assessment of the depth of crystallization and emplacement of granitic plutons, the Al-in-hornblende remains popular for metaluminous granites when appropriately corrected for temperature. For peraluminous granites, potential new calibrations exist for the assemblages bearing garnet, biotite, plagioclase, muscovite, and quartz. Other thermometers, based on oxygen abundance, and

  12. Subduction-related shoshonitic and ultrapotassic magmatism: a study of Siluro-Ordovician syenites from the Scottish Caledonides (United States)

    Thompson, R. N.; Fowler, M. B.


    Syenites are important or predominant components of several plutonic complexes, emplaced between 456 and 415 Ma along the NW margin of the Caledonian orogenic belt, adjacent to the Lewisian foreland, in W and NW Scotland. Although there are, in detail, chemical differences between the syenites from each centre, they form a well-defined compositional group overall. Ratios amongst their trace elements (especially very high values of La/Nb) are quite different from those trachytes and syenites formed by fractional crystallisation of ocean-island basalts and their continental equivalents, emplaced in regions of anorogenic crustal tension. Instead, the Scottish Caledonian syenites closely resemble chemically the fractional-crystallisation residua of potassic subduction-related magmas, such as the shoshonitic series. A comendite minor intrusion from a swarm associated with the Loch Borralan and Loch Ailsh syenitic complexes is remarkably similar in composition to Recent obsidian from the shoshonitic volcano of Lipari, in the Aeolian Arc. Published Sr- and Pb-isotopic ratios preclude a significant component of either upper (Proterozoic Moine schists) or lower crust (granulite-facies Archaean Lewisian or Proterozoic Grenvillian gneisses) in all these syenites, except in local syenitic facies of the Glenelg-Ratagain complex. Fractional crystallisation appears to be the mechanism by which the liquids which formed these syenites evolved from basic parental magmas. The phases involved in this process may have included plagioclase, alkali feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, garnet, Fe-Ti oxide, sphene, allanite, apatite, zircon and zirconolite, and therefore all the ratios amongst even the so-called incompatible elements may have changed during the evolution of the leucocratic magmas. Nevertheless, a detailed study of the Glen Dessarry complex shows that the changes are insufficient to disguise the geochemical nature of the parental magmas. These appear to be picritic

  13. Eocene magmatic processes and crustal thickening in southern Tibet: Insights from strongly fractionated ca. 43 Ma granites in the western Gangdese Batholith (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Chung, Sun-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Liu, Dong; Zheng, Yuan-Chuan; Dai, Jin-Gen


    This study reports zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope, whole-rock major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data for the Dajia pluton, western Gangdese Batholith, in southern Tibet. These data indicate that the pluton consists of moderately (Group 1) and strongly (Group 2) fractionated granites that were emplaced synchronously at ca. 43 Ma. Group 1 samples have SiO2 contents of 69-72 wt.% and vary in terms of the differentiation index (DI = 84-93). These rocks are depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti, with moderate negative Eu anomalies, and display low heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y abundances. Group 2 samples are characterized by high SiO2 (75-78 wt.%) and DI (95-97); significantly negative Eu anomalies; marked concave-upward middle REE (Gd-Ho) patterns; and Ba, Sr, P, and Ti anomalies that are significantly more negative than those of Group 1 samples. Group 1 samples have whole-rock εNd(t) (- 5.9 to - 6.0), εHf(t) (- 4.0 to - 4.5), and zircon εHf(t) (- 6.0 to + 5.8) values identical to those of Group 2 samples [εNd(t) = - 5.7 to - 6.7, εHf(t) = - 3.5 to - 2.9, and zircon εHf(t) = - 2.0 to + 4.2], as well as similar initial Pb isotopic compositions. These data indicate that the two groups were derived from a common source region with garnet as a residual mineral phase. Group 1 samples were most likely derived from partial melting of garnet-bearing amphibolite (rather than eclogite) within the juvenile southern Lhasa crust and mixed with the enriched components from the subducting ancient Indian continental crust and/or the ancient central Lhasa basement. Group 2 samples are interpreted as the products of extensive fractional crystallization (plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, apatite, allanite, titanite, monazite, and ilmenite) of the melts represented by Group 1 samples. Low HREEs and Y abundances of the Dajia pluton, together with the presence of strongly fractionated granites (Group 2) identified for the first time in the Gangdese Batholith

  14. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand (United States)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.


    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  15. Petrography, mineral chemistry and lithochemistry of the albitite and granite-gneissics rocks of anomaly 35 from Lagoa Real uranium province; Petrografia, quimica mineral e litoquimica do albitito e das rochas granito-gnaissicas da anomalia 35, provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Camila Marques dos


    albitites and gneisses are macroscopically gradational, however, in the garnet albitites replacement of granitic mineral facies by the albitite facies were observed petrographically, implying a granitic protolith for this rock. On the other hand, magnetite albitites do not have clear relationship with granites. Albitites usually have porphyroblastic texture with granoblastic polygonal matrix and chessboard texture in albite porphyroclasts. The garnet albitites comprise hedenbergite, hastingsite, garnet, magnetite and sphena. Magnetite albitites, in turn, have hedenbergite, Fe-edenite, biotite, martitized magnetite, allanite and sphene. The diopside+actinolite+eastonita association is late, and in these rocks, it is restricted to more deformed portions or filling voids. The biotite albitites comprise biotite, zircon and apatite hedenbergite (?). Mineralization occurs in magnetite albitites as thin lenses composed by sphene, magnetite, carbonate and zircon. The uranium mineral is the uraninite, which occurs filling spaces between crystals and sphene or albite granules. In comparison to granites, albitites have a higher content of Na{sub 2}O, MgO, V, W, Zr, Pb and Sr for and lower K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2} and F. They have a geochemical REE pattern that is identical to that of granite. The similarity between macroscopic granites and albitites, the presence of vazios, feldspar hematitization and sericitization causing macroscopical reddening in transitional portions and the replacement of potassic feldspar by albite and oligoclase are suggestive of episyenitization processes. The metasomatic perthites and presence of chessboard texture in porphyroclasts indicate successive albitization processes prior to deformation. The comparison between albitite samples of different drill cores and anomalies shows that there are differences in the formation and mineralization of these rocks. The V and Mg enrichment in some albitites suggests that these rocks may result from the interaction of

  16. Origin of the magmatic varieties of the Serdán-Oriental Basin, eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Mori, L.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Becerra Torres, E.; Landa-Piedra, L.


    metasomatic agent involved in the petrogenesis is a partial melt of the eclogite-facies subducting oceanic plate. Specifically, strong HREE depletions and fractionations, high Nb/Ta ratios and negative Zr-Hf anomalies in these rocks provide evidence for the presence of residual garnet and rutile in the slab; whereas preferential breakdown of white mica and allanite/monazite may account for the marked LILE-LREE enrichments. The contribution of this high-pressure subduction agent is consistent with the steep geometry and great depth of the Cocos plate beneath the SOB. In lower proportions, this slab melt component also appears to contribute to the genesis of the typical calc-alkaline rocks that coexist with the high-K suite at the arc front; and it becomes progressively more diluted in the transitional products emplaced along the central and northern sectors of the basin. On the other hand, the high-Nb suite was likely produced by low degrees of decompression melting of a drier mantle, with negligible contributions from the deeply subducting slab. Work supported by PAPIIT-UNAM IB100912-2 grant.

  17. Caracterización petrográfica y geoquímica del batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (32°34'-32°42' LS y 64°43'-64°52' LO, provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta, G.


    Full Text Available The Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (CA-AC batholith is a 440 km2 granite body present in the Southern edge of the Eastern Pampean Ranges, Córdoba province, central Argentina. The intrusive body of probably paleozoic age shows both post-tectonic and epizonal character. Country rocks include Upper Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks mainly represented by mica-schists, gneisses and migmatites, locally interrupted by minor amphibolite and marble outcrops.This paper deals with representative petrographic and geochemical data that characterize a 150 km2 central stripe between 32°34'-32°42'S and 64°43'-64°52'W.Three granitic facies have been distinguished based on their distinctive modal mineralogy and texture, and upon well known chemical parameters.A K-feldspar megacryst porphydic-type is the areally prevalent facies, but dykes of micro- leucogranites and biotite-phenocryst bearing granite are also well represented. They are all monzogranites of subalkaline and peraluminous chemistry. Their mineralogy shows variable proportions of QAP constituents and micas, with minor phases represented by Fe-Ti oxides, apatite (Ap, titanite (Tt, allanite (Aln.Microgranular enclaves, abundantly distributed in the porphydic facies, provide valuable information for a better understanding of parental magma evolution.The high-Ca content of the melt makes this body quite distinctive compared to its larger northern neighbour, the Achala batholith.Pegmatite and aplite bodies, as well as fluorite bearing breccias and quartz veins, barren or mineralized, are also present within the CA-AC batholith.El batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (CA-AC es un cuerpo granítico que aflora en el extremo sur de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales, en la provincia de Córdoba, República Argentina, cubriendo una superficie cercana a los 440 km2.Es un cuerpo intrusivo postcinemático de probable edad paleozoica. Las rocas encajantes son metamorfitas correspondientes al Prec

  18. Petrogenesis of Jurassic fractionated I-type granites in Southeast China: Constraints from whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Hf-O isotopes (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Ji-Heng; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Li, Xian-Hua


    Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data and zircon in situ U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes are reported for twelve granitic intrusions from inland to coastal areas of the Cathaysia Block, Southeast (SE) China, in order to constrain their magma sources and petrogenesis. They are mainly composed of biotite granites with minor granodiorites. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS and SIMS methods gave emplacement ages of 165-154 Ma for these rocks, which are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.95-1.10), with variable SiO2 contents and high K2O contents. They are all depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) and enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and show negative Sr, Ba and Eu anomalies in the spidergrams. Petrographic and geochemical features suggest the granodiorites that contain hornblende to be typical of I-type, while the biotite granites without hornblende are fractionated I-type granites. Their variable major and trace element concentrations are due to fractional crystallization of feldspar, biotite, hornblende, and accessory minerals, including apatite, allanite and monazite. Moreover, our data indicate significant variations in isotopic compositions of these granitoids from inland to coastal areas. The inland granites, from the Lapu, Fogang, Xinfengjiang and Baishigang plutons, have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7105-0.7155) and low εNd(t) (-11.2 to -7.3) and εHf(t) (-10.9 to -6.3) values for whole rocks, and variable δ18O values of 7.69-9.25‰ and εHf(t) values of -13.5 to -6.7 for zircons. In contrast, the coastal granites, from the Longwo, Wushikeng, Lianhuashan, Shigushan, Chiliao, Hulutian, Mantoushan and Fenghuang plutons, show relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7056-0.7110) and high εNd(t) (-7.6 to -6.2) and εHf(t) (-6.5 to -2.8) values for whole-rocks, together with εHf(t) values of -7.2 to 3.9 and δ18O values of 6.69-8.38‰ for zircons. The spatial

  19. Orogenic development of the Adrar des Iforas (Tuareg Shield, NE Mali): New geochemical and geochronological data and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Bosch, Delphine; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Buscail, François; Hammor, Dalila


    Laser-ablation U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and allanite from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Adrar des Iforas in Northern Mali allow re-examining the relationships between the different crustal units constituting the western part of the Tuareg Shield, as well as the timing of magmatic and metamorphic events in the West Gondwana Orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism in the Iforas Granulitic Unit (IGU) and at In Bezzeg occurred at 1986 ± 7 Ma and 1988 ± 5 Ma respectively. This age is slightly younger, but consistent with that of the HT granulite facies event characterizing the In Ouzzal granulitic unit (IOGU), thereby substantiating the view that these units once formed a single granulitic belt of c. 800 km long. High-grade metamorphic basement units of the Kidal terrane surrounding the IGU contain Paleoproterozoic magmatic rocks crystallized between 1982 ± 8 Ma and 1966 ± 9 Ma. Inherited components in these rocks (2.1 Ga and 2.3-2.5 Ga) have ages similar to that of detrital zircons at In Bezzeg and to that of basement rocks from the IGU. This is taken as evidence that the Kidal terrane and the IGU formed a single crustal block at least until 1.9 Ga. East of the Adrar fault, the Tin Essako orthogneiss is dated at 2020 ± 5 Ma, but escaped granulite facies metamorphism. During the Neoproterozoic, the Kidal terrane underwent a long-lived continental margin magmatism. To the west, this terrane is bounded by the Tilemsi intra-oceanic island arc, for which a gneissic sub-alkali granite was dated at 716 ± 6 Ma. A synkinematic diorite extends the magmatic activity of the arc down to 643 ± 4 Ma, and, along with literature data, indicates that the Tilemsi arc has a life span of about 90 Ma. Backward docking to the western margin of the Kidal terrane is documented by migmatites dated at 628 ± 6 Ma. Subduction related processes and the development of the Kidal active margin was responsible for the development of a back-arc basin in the Tafeliant area, with

  20. Menzerite-(Y) a New Species {(Y REE)(Ca Fe2plus)2}[(Mg Fe2plus)(Fe3plus Al)](Si3)O12 from a Felsic Granulite Parry Sound Ontario and a New Garnet End-member (Y2Ca)Mg2(SiO4)3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Grew; J Marsh; M Yates; B Lazic; T Armbruster; A Locock; S Bell; M Dyar; H Bernhardt; O Medenbach


    interpreted to have equilibrated with ferrosilite, augite, quartz, oligoclase, allanite-(Ce), magnetite, ilmenite and fluorapatite, in the absence of almandine, on the prograde path at 7-8.5 kbar and T {approx} 700-800 C, and subsequently dissolved incongruently in an anatectic melt to form almandine, most likely, at P {approx} 8.5-9.5 kbar and T {approx} 800-850 C.

  1. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic investigations on a carbonate-dyke and enclosed pyroxenite xenoliths from Val Mastallone (Ivrea-Verbano Zone): evidence of a cumulate carbonatite in the lower crust? (United States)

    Galli, Andrea; Grassi, Daniele; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Schwab, Leo; Rickli, Jörg; Gianola, Omar


    The Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Italy/Switzerland) represents one of the best exposed mantle-crust sections worldwide. Its geological evolution has been governed by the Permian underplating of mantle-derived basic magmas („Mafic Complex") into the high-grade basement of the Southern Alps. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, marbles occur as concordant bodies or partly discordant carbonate-dykes. Generally, these dykes are constituted of calcite, diopside, scapolite, contain enclave of the host rocks and display sharp contacts to the host lithologies without evidences of alteration zones. In Val Mastallone, an up to 40 m thick carbonate-dyke with different characteristics occurs within mafic granulites. This dyke is composed of calcite, clinopyroxene and subordinate allanite and zircon. No scapolite is observed. The contacts to the host granulites are characterized by alteration zones composed of actinolite, chlorite, clinozoisite, plagioclase and calcite. The carbonate-dyke bears enclave of phlogopite-amphibole-apatite-rutile-ilmenite ± garnet or spinel clinopyroxenites. These rock type is not outcropping elsewhere in the proximity of the dyke, suggesting a significant transport. Host mafic granulite enclave are found exclusively at the margin of the dyke. Calcite dykelets rich in zircon, baddeleyite and other Ba, U, Th, REE-rich phases cut across the enclave. The carbonate-dyke shows an enrichment of LREE over HREE ((La/Yb)N = 14), with a Σ REE = 338 and Y/Ho = 27. On the chondrite-normalized REE abundances diagram, no Eu anomaly is observed. Mantle-normalized pattern shows strong negative anomalies at Cs, Rb, K, Pb, P, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Ba, Th, Sr, Nd anomalies, similarly to the "world average carbonatites". Measured absolute trace element concentrations are lower than average carbonatites but significantly higher than typical limestones and similar to cumulate carbonatites found elsewhere in the world (e.g. India, China, Brazil). Grt-bearing clinopyroxenite enclave

  2. Near-solidus rhyolitic melts of MORB+4 wt% H2O from base-of-crust through shallow subducted slab pressures (United States)

    Sisson, T. W.; Kelemen, P. B.; Vazquez, J. A.


    Recent numerical models of subduction dynamics indicate that uncommon circumstances (slab edges, slow subduction of young oceanic crust) are required for slabs to heat beyond the H2O-saturated basalt solidus at sub-arc depths (Syracuse et al. 2010 EPSL, among others). In contrast, some geochemical evidence points to widespread incipient slab melting (Cooper et al. 2012 G3). Irrespective of current conditions, hotter mantle in the early Earth may have led to ubiquitous slab melting, and the thickening, foundering, and detaching roots of protocontinents could also have melted to low degrees. Experimental information on melting under such conditions helps to develop and test these hypotheses. Liu et al. (1996 EPSL) performed long duration (commonly 10 days) oxygen buffered (QFM, QFsM) experiments on N-MORB glass+4 wt% H2O from 0.8 to 3 GPa mainly to study slab metamorphism. The H2O-saturated basalt solidus was bracketed between 700 and 750 °C. Many runs 800 °C and hotter have analyzable melt that are examined in this study. Normalized anhydrous, 800 °C melts range from evolved low-K rhyodacite (or leuco-tonalite: 68.9 wt% SiO2) at 1 GPa to low-K high-silica rhyolite (or leuco-trondhjemite: 76.5 wt% SiO2) at 2.7 GPa, coexisting with residual assemblages of garnet-plagioclase amphibolite (0.9-1.2 GPa), amphibole eclogite (1.4-1.8 GPa), eclogite (2.0-2.6 GPa), and quartz eclogite (2.7 GPa) (+apatite, ilmenite, or rutile above 1.4 GPa). Mass-balance based estimates of melt fraction diminish modestly from ~0.3 at 1 GPa to ~0.17 at 2.7 GPa along the 800 °C isotherm. The consistently rhyolitic character of 800 °C melts at upper mantle pressures indicates that liquids closer to the solidus would also be evolved rhyolites. Limited trace element analyses (SIMS) are as expected, with the most evolved liquids coexisting with rutile-quartz eclogite having high Sr/Y (180-240) and Zr/Nb (90-110). Rare earth element-rich accessory minerals (allanite, monazite) have not been

  3. Zircon Trace Element Contents and Refined U-Pb Crystallization Ages for the Tatoosh Pluton, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Cascades (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Du Bray, E. A.; John, D. A.; Mazdab, F. K.; Wooden, J. L.


    have high U contents and low Th/U ratios. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns have familiar convex-up shapes with positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies: LaN = 0.03-6 (10 values >6 may reflect inclusions), YbN = 380-33,900, Ce/Ce* = 0.7-505, and Eu/Eu* = 0.06-1.25. Slopes of REE patterns increase subtly in the order Reflection < Pyramid ≤ Nisqually < Stevens. Fractionation of plagioclase + pyroxene and(or) amphibole + Fe-Ti oxide + apatite + zircon should produce relative-LREE- enriched successive liquids. Observed marginally steeper REE patterns (greater positive slopes) for rims, lower REE concentrations, and lower Th/U ratios may reflect co-precipitation of allanite ± thorite. Two parallel arrays in Eu/Eu* versus Hf, in which Eu/Eu* decreases as Hf increases, are consistent with growth of higher-Hf, lower-Eu/Eu* zircon from more evolved melts; separate arrays imply Nisqually and Pyramid + Reflection intrusions. Zircon Eu/Eu* and Hf in the Stevens granodiorite define one high-Eu/Eu* field and another similar to that for Pyramid and Reflection samples that imply more than one parental magma. The zircon ages indicate solidification in three episodes: Stevens ~19.2 Ma, Pyramid + Reflection ~18.5 Ma, and Nisqually ~17.5 Ma. An ~20.1 Ma stage is represented by antecrysts in Stevens samples. The source(s) of the pluton were active for at least ~2.7 Myr and major crystallization episodes were separated by intervals of 0.7-1.0 Myr.

  4. Two stages of fluid-rock interaction in UHP marbles (Dabie Shan, China): grain-scale processes and map-scale metasomatism (United States)

    Wawrzenitz, N. H.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Rhede, D.


    -temperature-time history. During the second stage, the interacting fluid had a radiogenic initial Sr isotopic composition and may be derived from dehydrating subducted crustal rocks that were juxtaposed to the marble during a later stage of exhumation. At this second stage, allanite precipitated locally at calcite grain boundaries and in veins related to brittle deformation of the large pre-UHP titanite. Grain boundaries and mineral cleavage served as pathways for the fluid. In the calcite marble matrix, dissolution-precipitation led to Mg-enrichment at the rim of calcite grains and to precipitation of small rectangular and vermicular dolomite in calcite. This texture is commonly interpreted as the result of exsolution of the Mg-component of UHP-calcite during decompression. Associated with the recorded fluid-rock interactions, complementary isotopic (e.g. high 87Sr/86Sr) and geochemical signatures (e.g. enrichment of alkali elements) in the mantle-derived rocks, now exhumed as mafic eclogites within the Dabie UHP complex, are expected, similar to the phlogopite-bearing rocks of the Finero body (Ivrea zone, Italy). Romer, R.L., Wawrzenitz, N., Oberhänsli, R., 2003. Terra Nova 15, 5, 330-336. Wawrzenitz, N., Romer, R.L., Oberhänsli, R., Dong, S., 2006. Lithos 89, 1-2, 174-201.

  5. Mineral chemistry and shrimp U-Pb Geochronology of mesoproterozoic polycrase-titanite veins in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit, British Columbia (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Belkin, H.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Ransom, P.W.


    Small polycrase-titanite veins 0.1-2 mm thick cut the tourmalinite feeder zone in the deep footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, southeastern British Columbia. Unaltered, euhedral crystals of polycrase and titanite 50-100 ??m in diameter are variably replaced by a finer-grained alteration-induced assemblage composed of anhedral polycrase and titanite with local calcite, albite, epidote, allanite, and thorite or uranothorite (or both). Average compositions of the unaltered and altered polycrase, as determined by electron-microprobe analysis, are (Y0.38 REE0.49 Th0.10 Ca0.04 Pb0.03 Fe0.01U0.01) (Ti1.48 Nb0.54 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6 and (Y0.42 REE0.32 Th0.15 U0.06 Ca0.04 Pb0.01 Fe0.01) (Ti1.57 Nb0.44 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6, respectively. The unaltered titanite has, in some areas, appreciable F (to 0.15 apfu), Y (to 0.40 apfu), and Nb (to 0.13 apfu). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of eight grains of unaltered polycrase yields a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1413 ?? 4 Ma (2??) that is interpreted to be the age of vein formation. This age is 50-60 m.y. younger than the ca. 1470 Ma age of synsedimentary Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Sullivan deposit, which is based on combined geological and geochronological data. SHRIMP ages for altered polycrase and titanite suggest later growth of minerals during the ???1370-1320 Ma East Kootenay and ???1150-1050 Ma Grenvillian orogenies. The 1413 ?? 4 Ma age for the unaltered polycrase in the veins records a previously unrecognized post-ore (1370 Ma) mineralizing event in the Sullivan deposit and vicinity. The SHRIMP U-Pb age of the polycrase and high concentrations of REE, Y, Ti, Nb, and Th in the veins, together with elevated F in titanite and the absence of associated sulfides, suggest transport of these high-field-strength elements (HFSE) by F-rich and S-poor hydrothermal fluids unrelated to the fluids that formed the older Fe-Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ores of the Sullivan deposit. Fluids containing abundant REE, HFSE, and F may have been derived from a

  6. Structural evolution of the Rieserferner Pluton: insight into the localization of deformation and regional tectonics implications (United States)

    Ceccato, Alberto; Pennacchioni, Giorgio


    deformation structures within the RFP is controlled by the development and later reactivation in shear of two main sets of joints during cooling and progressive exhumation of the pluton. These joints were either exploited as faults or localized ductile shear zones. In the RFP, the kinematics of shear reactivation is complex, with the same joint set recording different senses of shear and transport directions. Preliminary kinematic analysis and qualitative paleostress reconstruction show that there has been a clockwise rotation of the main regional shortening direction from WNW-ESE, during the first ductile event, to N-S during later brittle deformation. These two different shortening directions fit with those inferred, respectively, for Austroalpine nappe stacking by Ratschbacher (1989) and for the Alpine convergence during late Oligocene-Miocene within the Tauern window (Pennacchioni & Mancktelow, 2007). References Cesare, B. (1994). Hercynite as the product of staurolite decomposition in the contact aureole of Vedrette di Ries, eastern Alps, Italy. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 116(3), 239-246. Pennacchioni, G., Di Toro, G., Brack, P., Menegon, L., & Villa, I. M. (2006). Brittle-ductile-brittle deformation during cooling of tonalite (Adamello, Southern Italian Alps). Tectonophysics, 427(1), 171-197. Pennacchioni, G., & Mancktelow, N. S. (2007). Nucleation and initial growth of a shear zone network within compositionally and structurally heterogeneous granitoids under amphibolite facies conditions. Journal of Structural Geology, 29(11), 1757-1780. Ratschbacher, L., Frisch, W., Neubauer, F., Schmid, S. M., & Neugebauer, J. (1989). Extension in compressional orogenic belts: the eastern Alps. Geology, 17(5), 404-407. Romer, R. L., & Siegesmund, S. (2003). Why allanite may swindle about its true age. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 146(3), 297-307. Steenken, A., Siegesmund, S., & Heinrichs, T. (2000). The emplacement of the Rieserferner Pluton (Eastern

  7. 内蒙古兴和县曹四夭特大型钼矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素年龄及地质意义%Re-Os Isotopic Age Dating of the Molybdenite Separated from the Caosiyao Giant Molybdenum Deposit, Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia, and Its Geological Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 李香资; 李超; 赵宇安; 刘翼飞


    内蒙古兴和县曹四夭矿床是迄今为止在我国北方找到的最大规模钼矿床,钼的资源量超过200万吨.考虑到大规模地质勘查工作仍在进行中,金属资源量和储量仍有较大提升空间.为了进一步查明曹四夭矿床的形成时间,对主要钼矿体4件辉钼矿样品进行了Re-Os同位素分析,所获同位素年龄值分别为131.9±2.3Ma、131.2±2.3Ma、129.7±2.0Ma和128.6±2.4Ma,平均值为130.4±2.4Ma,与花岗斑岩体锆石U-Pb年龄(134 ~ 131Ma)相近.根据岩(矿)体同位素年龄数据,并且结合辉钼矿呈浸染状和团块状分布于花岗斑岩株中,并且与部分硫化物呈共生结构关系的地质事实,可以推测曹四夭矿区含矿花岗斑岩株及有关钼矿床的形成时间均为早白垩世,属燕山期构造-岩浆活动的产物.曹四天钼矿床形成时代的厘定对于提高该矿床的理论研究水平和指导隐伏金属矿床的找矿勘查工作均具有重要意义.%Located in Liangcheng uplift of Inner Mongolian massif ( Axis) within the Northern China craton, the newly discovered Caosiyao deposit in Xinghe county, central Inner Mongolia is a giant molybdenum deposit. During the Mesozoic orogenies, intensive tectonic and igneous activities resulted in large-scale granitoid magmatism in the Caosiyao mineralized district. The granitoid porphyry stocks and dyke swarms were emplaced in the Achaean metamorphic rocks of the Jining Group. Rock-forming minerals of the ore-bearing granitoid porphyry are mainly quartz, microcline, microperthite and plagioclase associated with minor biotite and sericite. Accessory minerals are magnetite, apatite, zircon, sphene and allanite. The zircon samples from the ore-bearing granitoid porphyry stock have yielded LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages ranging from 134 Ma to 131 Ma, indicating the stocks and dykes may be formed during the Early Cretaceous tectonic activity. Molybdenum mineralization occurs in both Achaean metamorphic rocks and granitoid

  8. Black and red granites in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum of Turin. A minero-petrographic and provenance study. (United States)

    Serra, M.; Borghi, A.; Vaggelli, G.; D'Amicone, E.; Vigna, L.


    materials used for two of the best known masterpieces of Egyptian art. As regards to red granites, it has been observed that most of the exposed sculptures were made of rocks closely akin to Aswan granite. Just in one case, the Ram headed sphinx (cat. 836), macroscopic differences in colour index, grain size and isoorientation of feldspar phenocrysts, suggested a different provenance of the source material and determined the choice of picking up a small fragment for minero-petrographic analysis. The sample collected from the sarcophagus of Nefertari (suppl. 5153) during the recent restoration of the sculpture, was analysed in order to test the accuracy of the results, as the provenance of the material used for its realization was already certain. Petrographic observations and chemical analysis were undertaken by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Minero-petrographic data primarily showed that all samples vary in composition from granite (red granites) to granodiorite and tonalite (black granites). The main sialic phases are represented by plagioclase (albite to oligoclase), alkali-feldspar (microcline) and quartz, while femic phases are amphibole (green horneblende) and biotite (Fe- to Mg-biotite), always coexisting in variable relative percentages. Minor amount of apatite (≈ 1 wt.%), magnetite, ilmenite, often associated to sphene, zircon, pyrite and allanite also occur. The identification of some compositional markers in all samples suggested a common provenance for all the rocks used for the sculptures. Thus, it was supposed that they could all have been quarried in the famous district of Aswan, well known at least since Dynastic period. This provenance hypothesis was confirmed by geological literature and archeological evidences, considering the relative proximity of Aswan quarries to Nile river and to the key centres of power in the New Kingdom. Therefore, several geological samples were collected in Aswan area, in order