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Sample records for all-trans retinoic acid-induced

  1. Mechanisms of all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ji-Wang Zhang; Jian Gu; Zhen-Yi Wang; Sai-Juan Chen; Zhu Chen

    2000-09-01

    Retinoic acids (RA) play a key role in myeloid differentiation through their agonistic nuclear receptors (RAR/RXR) to modulate the expression of target genes. In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells with rearrangement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) (including: PML-RAR, PLZF-RAR, NPM-RAR, NuMA-RAR or STAT5b-RAR) as a result of chromosomal translocations, the RA signal pathway is disrupted and myeloid differentiation is arrested at the promyelocytic stage. Pharmacologic dosage of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) directly modulates PML-RAR and its interaction with the nuclear receptor co-repressor complex, which restores the wild-type RAR/RXR regulatory pathway and induces the transcriptional expression of downstream genes. Analysing gene expression profiles in APL cells before and after ATRA treatment represents a useful approach to identify genes whose functions are involved in this new cancer treatment. A chronologically well coordinated modulation of ATRA-regulated genes has thus been revealed which seems to constitute a balanced functional network underlying decreased cellular proliferation, initiation and progression of maturation, and maintenance of cell survival before terminal differentiation.

  2. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Expression of a Novel Intergenic Long Noncoding RNA in Adult rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-02-01

    Around 90% of the mammalian genome undergoes pervasive transcription into various types of small and long regulatory noncoding RNAs, whereas only ∼ 1.5% codes for proteins. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute diverse classes of sense- and antisense transcripts that are abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in cell type- and developmental stage-specific manners. They are implicated in brain development, differentiation, neuronal plasticity, and other cognitive functions. Mammalian brain requires the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) for its normal development, differentiation, and cell-fate determination. However, its role in adult brain function is less understood. Here, we report atRA-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous expression of a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA-rat brain expressed (LINC-RBE) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons from adult rat. We have previously reported LINC-RBE as an intergenic, simple repeat sequence containing lncRNA highly expressed in the rat brain. This is a first-time report of involvement of atRA in transcriptional upregulation of lncRNA expression in rat hippocampal neurons. Therefore, it may be involved in regulation of brain function and disease. PMID:26572536

  3. A Gene(s) for All-trans-Retinoic Acid-Induced Forelimb Defects Mapped and Confirmed to Murine Chromosome 11

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Grace S.; Cantor, Rita M.; Abnoosian, Arin; Park, Euisun; Yamamoto, Mitsuko L.; Hovland, David N.; Collins, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) induces various anatomical limb dysmorphologies in mice dependent on the time of exposure. During early limb development, RA induces forelimb ectrodactyly (digital absence) with varying susceptibilities for different inbred mouse strains; C57BL/6N are highly susceptible while SWV are resistant. To isolate the genetic basis of this defect, a full-genome scan was performed in 406 backcross fetuses of F1 males to C57BL/6N females. Fetuses were exposed via a maternal ...

  4. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Proliferation, Survival, and Migration in A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway through a Transcription-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Barceinas, Reyna Sara; García-Regalado, Alejandro; Aréchaga-Ocampo, Elena; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; González-De la Rosa, Claudia Haydée

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used as an antineoplastic because of its ability to promote proliferation, inhibition, and differentiation, primarily in leukemia; however, in other types of cancer, such as lung cancer, treatment with ATRA is restricted because not all the patients experience the same results. The ERK signaling pathway is dysregulated in cancer cells, including lung cancer, and this dysregulation promotes proliferation and cell invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with ATRA can activate the ERK signaling pathway by a transcription-independent mechanism through a signaling cascade that involves RARα and PI3K, promoting growth, survival, and migration in lung cancer cells. Until now, this mechanism was unknown in lung cancer cells. The inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway restores the beneficial effects of ATRA, reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and blocks the cell migration process in lung cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of ATRA with ERK inhibitor in clinical trials for lung cancer is warranted. PMID:26557664

  5. Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RARα assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RARα, C/EBPε, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

  6. Activation of Notch1 inhibits medial edge epithelium apoptosis in all-trans retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yadong; Dong, Shiyi; Wang, Weicai; Wang, Jianning; Wang, Miao; Chen, Mu; Hou, Jinsong; Huang, Hongzhang

    2016-08-26

    Administration of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on E12.0 (embryonic day 12.0) leads to failure of medial edge epithelium (MEE) disappearance and cleft palate. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between atRA and MEE remains to be identified. In this study, atRA (200 mg/kg) administered by gavage induced a 75% incidence of cleft palate in C57BL/6 mice. Notch1 was up-regulated in MEE cells in the atRA-treated group compared with the controls at E15.0, together with reduced apoptosis and elevated proliferation. Next, we investigated the mechanisms underlying atRA, Notch1 and MEE degradation in palate organ culture. Our results revealed that down-regulation of Notch1 partially rescued the inhibition of atRA-induced palate fusion. Molecular analysis indicated that atRA increased the expression of Notch1 and Rbpj and decreased the expression of P21. In addition, depletion of Notch1 expression decreased the expression of Rbpj and increased the expression of P21. Moreover, inhibition of Rbpj expression partially reversed atRA-induced MEE persistence and increased P21 expression. These findings demonstrate that atRA inhibits MEE degradation, which in turn induces a cleft palate, possibly through the Notch1/RBPjk/P21 signaling pathway. PMID:27343556

  7. Loss-of-Function of HtrA1 Abrogates All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Through Deficiencies in p70S6K Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Stephan; Mirsaidi, Ali; López-Fagundo, Cristina; Filliat, Gladys; Tiaden, André N; Richards, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation in mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs), although the underlying mechanisms responsible for its mode of action have yet to be completely elucidated. High temperature requirement protease A1 (HtrA1) is a newly recognized modulator of human multipotent stromal cell (MSC) osteogenesis and as such, may play a role in regulating ATRA-dependent osteogenic differentiation of mASCs. In this study, we assessed the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced repression of HtrA1 production on mASC osteogenesis and examined its effects on ATRA-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Inhibition of HtrA1 production in osteogenic mASCs resulted in a significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation. Western blot analyses revealed the rapid activation of Akt (Ser473) and p70S6K (Thr389) in ATRA-treated mASCs, and that levels of phosphorylated p70S6K were noticeably reduced in HtrA1-deficient mASCs. Further studies using mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and siRNA specific for the p70S6K gene Rps6kb1 confirmed ATRA-mediated mASC osteogenesis as being dependent on p70S6K activation. Finally, transfection of cells with a constitutively active rapamycin-resistant p70S6K mutant could restore the mineralizing capacity of HtrA1-deficient mASCs. These findings therefore lend further support for HtrA1 as a positive mediator of MSC osteogenesis and provide new insights into the molecular mode of action of ATRA in regulating mASC lineage commitment. PMID:26950191

  8. BIOCONCENTRATION AND METABOLISM OF ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY RANA SYLVATICA AND RANA CLAMITANS TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoids, which are Vitamin A derivatives, are important signaling molecules that regulate processes critical for development in all vertebrates. The objective of our study was to examine uptake and metabolism of all-trans retinoic acid...

  9. Biological activity of all-trans retinol requires metabolic conversion to all-trans retinoic acid and is mediated through activation of nuclear retinoid receptors in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlandsky, S B; Xiao, J H; Duell, E A; Voorhees, J J; Fisher, G J

    1994-12-30

    The biological activity of all-trans retinol, in human keratinocytes, was investigated through metabolic and functional analyses that assessed the capacity for retinol uptake and metabolism and the mechanism of retinol-induced activation of gene transcription. Human keratinocytes converted all-trans retinol predominantly to retinyl esters, which accounted for 60 and 90% of cell-associated radiolabel after a 90-min pulse and a 48-h chase, respectively. Human keratinocytes also metabolized all-trans retinol to low levels of all-trans retinoic acid (11.47-131.3 ng/mg of protein) in a dose-dependent manner, between 0.3 and 10 microM added retinol. Small amounts of 13-cis retinoic acid (5.47-8.62 ng/mg of protein) were detected, but 9-cis retinoic acid was detected only when keratinocytes were incubated with radiolabeled retinol. There was no accumulation of the oxidized catabolic metabolites 4-hydroxy- or 4-oxoretinoic acid; however, 5,6-epoxy retinoic acid was detected at pharmacological levels (10 and 30 microM) of added retinol. Biological activity of retinol was assessed through analysis of two known retinoic acid-mediated responses: 1) reduction of type I epidermal transglutaminase and 2) activation of a retinoic acid receptor-dependent reporter gene, beta RARE3-tk-CAT. Both all-trans retinol and all-trans retinoic acid reduced type I epidermal transglutaminase in a dose-dependent manner; however, the ED50 for all-trans retinol (10 nM) was 10 times greater than for all-trans retinoic acid (1 nM). All-trans retinol also stimulated beta RARE3-tk-CAT reporter gene activity in a dose-dependent manner. Half-maximal induction was observed at 30 nM retinol, which was again 10-fold greater than observed with all-trans retinoic acid. Cotransfection of human keratinocytes with expression vectors for dominant negative mutant retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors reduced retinol-induced beta RARE3-tk-CAT reporter gene activation by 80%. Inhibition of conversion of all-trans

  10. UPTAKE AND METABOLISM OF ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY THREE NATIVE NORTH AMERICAN RANIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoids, which are Vvitamin A derivatives, are important signaling molecules that regulate processes critical for development in all vertebrates. The objective of our study was to examine uptake and metabolism of the model retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid (all-trans RA), by th...

  11. All-trans retinoic acid promotes smooth muscle cell differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhong-yuan; Ying LI; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells, an attractive resource for regenerative medicine. Accumulating evidence suggests that all-trans retinoic acid plays a key role in the development and differentiation of smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into smooth muscle cells upon the treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. All-trans retinoic acid increased t...

  12. Acute effects of all-trans-retinoic acid in ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative that is important in neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. We investigated the relatively acute effects of ATRA (100 nM and 1 µM) on cell swelling in ischemic injury and on key features hypothesized to contribute to cell swelli...

  13. Pathophysiology, clinical features and radiological findings of differentiation syndrome/all-trans-retinoic acid syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinale, Luciano; Asteggiano, Francesco; Moretti, Federica; Torre, Federico; Ulisciani, Stefano; Fava, Carmen; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia, differentiation therapy based on all-trans-retinoic acid can be complicated by the development of a differentiation syndrome (DS). DS is a life-threatening complication, characterized by respiratory distress, unexplained fever, weight gain, interstitial lung infiltrates, pleural or pericardial effusions, hypotension and acute renal failure. The diagnosis of DS is made on clinical grounds and has proven to be difficult, because none of the symptoms is pathognom...

  14. Inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Feng Piao; Yang Shi; Pu-Jun Gao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721and to explore the mechanism of its effect.METHODS: SMMC-7721 cells were divided into two groups, one treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days and the other as a control group. Light microscope and electron microscope were used to observe the morphological changes. Telomerase activity was analyzed with silver-stained telomere repeated assay protocal (TRAP). Expression of Caspase-3 was demonstrated with western blot.RESULTS: ATRA-treated cells showed differentiation features including small and pyknotic nuclei, densely stained chromatin and fewer microvilli. Besides, ATRA could inhibit the activity of telomerase, promote the expression of Caspase-3 and its activation.CONCLUSION: Telomerase activity and Caspase-3expression are changed in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 treated with all-trans retinioc acid.The inhibition of telomerase activity and the activation of Caspase-3 may be the key steps through which ATRA inhibits the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cell line.

  15. Reversible effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on AML12 hepatocyte proliferation and cell cycle progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation is well documented. Numerous studies have established the cancer preventive propertiesofatRAwhichfunctionstoregulate levels ofcellcycleproteinsessentialfortheGliS transition...

  16. Effects of all-trans retinoic acid and Ca++ on human skin in organ culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Varani, J.; Fligiel, S. E.; Schuger, L; Perone, P.; Inman, D.; Griffiths, C E; Voorhees, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we have established an organ culture model of human skin and examined the effects of both all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and extracellular Ca++ on the epidermal and dermal components of the organ-cultured skin. Our data show that while organ cultures maintained in serum-free, growth factor-free culture medium containing 0.15 mM Ca++ degenerated rapidly, those treated with concentrations of RA that have been shown previously to stimulate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation i...

  17. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dental pulp cells by all-trans retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Man; Kang, Sang Wook; Shin, Su-Mi; Su Kim, Duck; Choi, Kyong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and -9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA)...

  18. The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenya Gao; Lijun Huo; Dongmei Cui; Xiao Yang; Junwen Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cu...

  19. All-Trans Retinoic Acid plus Arsenic Trioxide versus All-Trans Retinoic Acid plus Chemotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafang Ma

    Full Text Available Recently, the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA plus arsenic trioxide (ATO protocol has become a promising first-line therapeutic approach in patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL, but its benefits compared with standard ATRA plus chemotherapy regimen needs to be proven. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of ATRA plus ATO with ATRA plus chemotherapy for adult patients with newly diagnosed APL.We systematically searched biomedical electronic databases and conference proceedings through February 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for relevance and validity.Overall, three studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, which included a total of 585 patients, with 317 in ATRA plus ATO group and 268 in ATRA plus chemotherapy group. Compared with patients who received ATRA and chemotherapy, patients who received ATRA plus ATO had a significantly better event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.67, p = 0.009, overall survival (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.82, p = 0.009, complete remission rate (relative risk [RR] = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.10; p = 0.03. There were no significant differences in early mortality (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.22-1.05; p = 0.07.Thus, this analysis indicated that ATRA plus ATO protocol may be preferred to standard ATRA plus chemotherapy protocol, particularly in low-to-intermediate risk APL patients. Further larger trials were needed to provide more evidence in high-risk APL patients.

  20. Combination of nanoparticle-delivered siRNA for Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA): an effective therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Srivastava, Jyoti; Ebeid, Kareem; GREDLER, RACHEL; Akiel, Maaged; Jariwala, Nidhi; Robertson, Chadia L.; Shen, Xue-Ning; Siddiq, Ayesha; Fisher, Paul B; Salem, Aliasger K.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a fatal cancer with no effective therapy. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis and inhibits retinoic acid-induced gene expression and cell death. Combination of a lentivirus expressing AEG-1 shRNA and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) profoundly and synergistically inhibited subcutaneous human HCC xenografts in nude mice. We now have developed liver-targeted nanoplexes by conjugating poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers w...

  1. Apoptosis of Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells Induced By All-Trans Retinoic Acid and Interferon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hua Wang; Yuan-qin Yin; Ping Ma; Cheng-guang Sui; Fan-dong Meng; Jiang You-hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma PC3 cells induced by the combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with interferon alpha (IFN-α). Methods: PC3 cells were treated with ATRA and IFN-α. The inhibitory rate of PC3 cell proliferation was detected using MTT method. Cellular apoptosis was determined with flow cytometry. The percentage of PC3 cell apoptosis was assayed using TUNEL methods. Results: ATRA and IFN-α could inhibit cellular proliferation and induces cellular apoptosis of PC3 cells. The inhibitory effect was stronger when the ATRA and IFN-α were combined as a therapy. Conclusion: ATRA inhibits the proliferation of PC3 cells and induce the apoptosis of PC3 cells. The combination of IFN-α with ATRA may enhance these effects on PC3 cells.

  2. Fungistatic activity of all-trans retinoic acid against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Roberta Gaziano,2 Daniele Marino,2 Augusto Orlandi3 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Purpose: Fungal infections are a major complication in hematologic and neoplastic patients causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are among the most invasive opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients, and classic antifungal drugs are frequently unsuccessful in these patients. Recent reports hypothesize that the antifungal efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is mainly related to its strong capacity to stimulate monocyte-mediated immunity, but no consideration was given to its potential direct fungistatic activity. Moreover, ATRA offers the opportunity for systemic therapy. Methods and results: We investigated the efficacy of ATRA at different concentrations for its antifungal activity against opportunistic A. fumigatus and C. albicans obtained from clinical samples according to standard protocols. A fungistatic activity of ATRA on A. fumigatus and C. albicans at 0.5–1 mM concentration was documented up to 7 days. Conclusion: This is the first evidence of a direct and strong fungistatic activity of ATRA against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. The potential adjuvant therapeutic application of ATRA might be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of a direct fungistatic activity, in association with its reported immunomodulatory properties, makes ATRA an excellent candidate for new combined antifungal strategies for systemic mycoses in immunocompromised and cancer patients. Keywords: all-trans retinoic acid, fungistatic activity, fungal infections

  3. Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes CZECH REPUBLIC (Dvorak, Zdenek) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-08-22 Revised: 2006-11-16 Accepted: 2007-01-02

  4. Sweet’s syndrome during the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chi Jun; Bae, Young Deok; Choi, Ji Yong; Heo, Pil Seog; Lee, Keun Seok; Park, Young Suk; Lee, Jung-Ae

    2001-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the standard induction treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Quite many ATRA-related side effects, including retinoic acid syndrome, were reported. So far, it has rarely been reported that Sweet’s syndrome, characterized by fever, neutrophilia, painful erythematous cutaneous plaques, dense dermal infiltrates of mature neutrophils and rapid response to steroid therapy, is associated with ATRA. In the case that Sweet’s syndrome associated with ATRA ...

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of testosterone evaluated in all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, granulocytes, and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Alex; Moesby, Lise; Timm, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    The sex hormones are known to affect innate immunity in humans. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of testosterone in a model system comprising of all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, and confirmed the results in human granulocytes and monocytes. Results showed...

  6. All-trans retinoic acid negatively regulates cytotoxic activities of nature killer cell line 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NK cells are key components of innate immune systems and their activities are regulated by cytokines and hormones. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), as a metabolite of vitamin A and an immunomodulatory hormone, plays an important role in regulating immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ATRA on human NK cell line NK92. We found that ATRA dose-dependently suppressed cytotoxic activities of NK92 cells without affecting their proliferation. To explore the mechanisms underlying the ATRA influence on NK92 cells, we examined the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ), gene expression of cytotoxic-associated molecules (perforin, granzyme B, nature killer receptors (NCRs), and NKG2D), and the activation of NF-κB pathways related with immune response. Our results demonstrated that ATRA suppressed NF-κB activity and prevented IκBα degradation in a dose-dependent way, inhibited IFN-γ production and gene expression of granzyme B and NKp46. Our findings suggest that ATRA is a negative regulator of NK92 cell activation and may act as a potential regulator of anti-inflammatory functions in vivo

  7. Fungistatic activity of all-trans retinoic acid against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Gaziano, Roberta; Marino, Daniele; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fungal infections are a major complication in hematologic and neoplastic patients causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are among the most invasive opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients, and classic antifungal drugs are frequently unsuccessful in these patients. Recent reports hypothesize that the antifungal efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is mainly related to its strong capacity to stimulate monocyte-mediated immunity, but no consideration was given to its potential direct fungistatic activity. Moreover, ATRA offers the opportunity for systemic therapy. Methods and results We investigated the efficacy of ATRA at different concentrations for its antifungal activity against opportunistic A. fumigatus and C. albicans obtained from clinical samples according to standard protocols. A fungistatic activity of ATRA on A. fumigatus and C. albicans at 0.5–1 mM concentration was documented up to 7 days. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a direct and strong fungistatic activity of ATRA against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. The potential adjuvant therapeutic application of ATRA might be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of a direct fungistatic activity, in association with its reported immunomodulatory properties, makes ATRA an excellent candidate for new combined antifungal strategies for systemic mycoses in immunocompromised and cancer patients. PMID:27199548

  8. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dental pulp cells by all-trans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Man Kim; Sang Wook Kang; Su-Mi Shin; Duck Su Kim; Kyong-Kyu Choi; Eun-Cheol Kim; Sun-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and-9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of MMP-2 and-9 were accessed by gelatin zymography and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. ATRA was found to decrease MMP-2 level in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction in MMP-2 mRNA expression was also observed in HDPCs treated with 25 mmol?L21 ATRA. However, HDPCs treated with ATRA had no effect on the pattern of MMP-9 produced or secreted in either cell extracts or conditioned medium fractions. Taken together, ATRA had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 expression in HDPCs, which suggests that ATRA could be a candidate as a medicament which could control the inflammation of pulp tissue in vital pulp therapy and regenerative endodontics.

  9. Modulation of human stratum corneum properties by salicylic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-01

    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to decrease the in vivo skin response to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The converse was also shown with a synergistic effect of RA following prior applications of SLS. The reason for such effects is not clear. We employed measures of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), squamometry and sequential corneosurfametry to explore the protective activity of a 0.05% RA cream at the level of the stratum corneum. Nonionic oil-in-water emulsions with or without 5% salicylic acid (SA) served as test product references. Data indicated that the RA formulation was responsible for a stochastic impairment in the TEWL and for an increased intercorneocyte cohesion. SA and the unmedicated emulsion did not lead to similar TEWL changes. The squamometry test proved to be very sensitive to disclose the effects of SA and RA without, however, allowing to distinguish the difference in the physiological processes involved. The corneosurfametry bioassay did not show any protection or synergistic effect between RA or SA and SLS challenge on the stratum corneum. This is in contrast to a previous work showing a positive protective effect afforded by retinol against SLS. The combined effects of irritant compounds affecting the stratum corneum are complex. The precise reason for some of their biological consequences remains a conundrum. On balance, products such as SA and RA do not appear to afford protection or impairment to a surfactant challenge at the level of the stratum corneum. PMID:9885411

  10. Pathophysiology, clinical features and radiological findings of differentiation syndrome/all-trans-retinoic acid syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciano; Cardinale; Francesco; Asteggiano; Federica; Moretti; Federico; Torre; Stefano; Ulisciani; Carmen; Fava; Giovanna; Rege-Cambrin

    2014-01-01

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia, differentiation thera-py based on all-trans-retinoic acid can be complicated by the development of a differentiation syndrome(DS). DS is a life-threatening complication, characterized by respiratory distress, unexplained fever, weight gain, interstitial lung infiltrates, pleural or pericardial effusions, hypotension and acute renal failure. The diagnosis of DS is made on clinical grounds and has proven to be difficult, because none of the symptoms is pathognomonic for the syndrome without any definitive diagnostic criteria. As DS can have subtle signs and symptoms at presentation but progress rapidly, end-stage DS clinical picture resembles the acute respiratory distress syndrome with extremely poor prognosis; so it is of absolute importance to be conscious of these complications and initiate therapy as soon as it was suspected. The radiologic appearance resembles the typical features of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Diagnosis of DS remains a great skill for radiologists and haematologist but it is of an utmost importance the cooperation in suspect DS, detect the early signs of DS, examine the patients’ behaviour and rapidly detect the complications.

  11. All-TRANS RETINOIC ACID INTERFERES DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION INDUCED BY MONOCROTALINE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉明; 周爱卿; 贲晓明; 沈捷; 梁瑛; 李奋

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) affects the metabolism of collagen in main pulmonary artery and exerts an inhibitory effect in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline . Methods All rats (n=72) were divided into 3 groups as control, model, and atRA . In model and atRA groups, rats (n=48) were assigned at random to be given a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mgg/kg) and administrated with either atRA (30rng·kg-1·d-1) for atRA group or saline through oral-gastro intubation for model group. In control group, rats (n=24) received a single subcutaneous injection of an equal volume of 0. 9% saline. On day 7, 14,21 and 28 after monocrotaline or saline injection, cardiovascular catheters were inserted into the pulmonary artery of rats in each group to examine their mean pulmonary artery pressure, in addition with their hydroxyproline content determined by chromometry. Results In comparison with the control rats, the mean pulmonary artery pressure of rats in model group increased significantly on day 21 and up to the peak on day 28 (P<0.01), while their hydroxyproline contents decreased significantly on day 14 ( P < 0.05) and increased significantly on day 21 and 28. The atRA group when compared with the model group show reduction in the content of hydroxyproline and the mean pulmonary artery pressure ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The atRA inhibits the accumulation of collagen in main pulmonary artery and interferes the development of pulmonary hypertension which might elicit favorable geometric remodeling of rat pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline.

  12. Effect of All-trans Retinoic Acid on Airway Inflammation in Asthmatic Rats and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方红; 金红芳; 王宏伟

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The inhibitive effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ARTA) on airway inflammation in asthmatic rats and its mechanism on the basis of the regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) were explored. Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, asthma group,dexamethasone treatment group and retinotic acid treatment group. The total and differential cell counts in the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The pathological changes in lung tissues were estimated by scoring. The expression of NF-κB inhibitor (IκBa), NF-κB,intercellular adhering molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemical method. The results showed that in the two treatment groups, the total cell counts and proportion of inflammatory cells in BALF were significantly reduced, but there was no significant difference in differential cell counts in BALF between, them. The pathological changes in lung tissues in the treatment groups were significantly attenuated as compared with asthma group. Except the epithelial injury in retinotic acid treatment group was milder than in dexamethasone treatment group, the remaining lesions showed no significant difference between them. In the two treatment groups, the expression of IκBa was increased, while the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1 decreased with the difference between the two groups being not significant. It was concluded that the similar anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of ATRA on airway in asthmatic rats to those of dexamethasone were contributed to the increase of cytoplasmic IκBa content and suppression of NF-cB activation and expression.

  13. Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid on the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltony, Sohair A; Elmottaleb, Nashwa A; Gomaa, Asmaa M; Anwar, Mamdouh M; El-Metwally, Tarek H

    2016-03-01

    All-trans Retinoic acid (atRA) is instructive for the development of endocrine pancreas and is an integral component of β-cell induction protocols. We showed that atRA induces glucose-responsive endocrine transdifferentiation of pleomorphic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. This study aimed to detect the role of atRA in improving the histological changes of the pancreas in diabetic rats. Forty young male Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups. Group I: normal vehicle control (N = 5). Group II: streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (N = 20) were followed up at 0.0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Group III: streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (N = 15) treated with atRA (2.5 mg/kg/day), were followed up at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Specimens from the pancreas were processed for light, electron microscopy and pancreatic insulin mRNA expression. Blood samples were assayed for the levels of glucose, insulin, and total peroxides. In the atRA-treated group, the number of the islets and the islet area significantly increased. Strong insulin-immunoreactive endocrine-like cells were observed nearby the pancreatic acini and the interlobular ducts. Interestingly, insulin-positive cells seemed to arise from pancreatic acinar and ductal epithelium. Ultrastructurally, ß-cells, acinar, and ductal cells restored their normal appearance. Pancreatic insulin mRNA and blood indices were almost normalized. AtRA improved the histological changes of the pancreas and the blood indices in diabetic rats. Anat Rec, 299:334-351, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26704900

  14. Identification of target genes of transcription factor CEBPB in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yu; Yang-De Zhang; Jun Zhou; De-Ming Yao; Xiang Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To indentify target genes of transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding proteinβ (CEBPB) in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid. Methods:A new strategy for high-throughput identification of direct target genes was established by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with in vitro selection. Then, 106 potential CEBPB binding fragments from the genome of the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated NB4 cells were identified. Results: Of them, 82 were mapped in proximity to known or previously predicted genes; 7 were randomly picked up for further confirmation by ChIP-PCR and 3 genes (GALM, ITPR2 and ORM2) were found to be specifically up-regulated in the ATRA-treated NB4 cells, indicating that they might be the down-stream target genes of ATRA. Conclusions: Our results provided new insight into the mechanisms of ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation.

  15. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal...

  16. Potential role of nuclear receptor ligand all-trans retinoic acids in the treatment of fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal keratitis (FK is a worldwide visual impairment disease. This infectious fungus initiates the primary innate immune response and, later the adaptive immune response. The inflammatory process is related to a variety of immune cells, including macrophages, helper T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and Treg cells, and is associated with proinflammatory, chemotactic and regulatory cytokines. All-trans retinoic acids (ATRA have diverse immunomodulatory actions in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. These retinoids regulate the transcriptional levels of target genes through the activation of nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid receptor α (RAR α, retinoic acid receptor γ (RAR γ, and retinoid X receptor α (RXR α are expressed in the cornea and immune cells. This paper summarizes new findings regarding ATRA in immune and inflammatory diseases and analyzes the perspective application of ATRA in FK.

  17. Potential role of nuclear receptor ligand all-trans retinoic acids in the treatment of fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan; Zhou; Wei; Zhong; Hong; Zhang; Miao-Miao; Bi; Shuang; Wang; Wen-Song; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    ·Fungal keratitis(FK) is a worldwide visual impairment disease. This infectious fungus initiates the primary innate immune response and, later the adaptive immune response. The inflammatory process is related to a variety of immune cells, including macrophages, helper T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and Treg cells, and is associated with proinflammatory, chemotactic and regulatory cytokines. All-trans retinoic acids(ATRA)have diverse immunomodulatory actions in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. These retinoids regulate the transcriptional levels of target genes through the activation of nuclear receptors.Retinoic acid receptor α(RAR α), retinoic acid receptor γ(RAR γ), and retinoid X receptor α(RXR α) are expressed in the cornea and immune cells. This paper summarizes new findings regarding ATRA in immune and inflammatory diseases and analyzes the perspective application of ATRA in FK.

  18. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-pil; Casadesus, Gemma; Zhu, Xiongwei; Lee, Hyoung-Gon; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Gustaw-Rothenberg, Katarzyna; Lerner, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid, an essential factor derived from vitamin A, has been shown to have a variety of functions including roles as an antioxidant and in cellular differentiation. Since oxidative stress and de-differentiation of neurons appear to be common pathological elements of a number of neurodegenerative disorders, we speculated that retinoic acid may offer therapeutic promise. In this vein, recently compelling evidence indicates a role of retinoic acid in cognitive activities and anti-amyloido...

  19. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity of all-trans retinoic acid derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shen; Jing Bo Shi; Fei Hu Chen; Yuan Wang; Jing Jing Ruan; Yua Huang

    2009-01-01

    A series of retinoate and retinamide derivatives were designed, synthesized, and their anti-tumor activities were investigated in NB4 by MTT and flow cytometry assays (FCM). All compounds showed cytotoxicity, especially compounds 1a and 1d exhibited a higher cytotoxicity than other derivatives and all-traus retinoic acid (ATRA). Furthermore, compound ld could induce NB4 cell lines differentiation efficiently.

  20. All-trans retinoic acid modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation in human scleral fibroblasts through retinoic acid receptor beta

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Lijun; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Zhenya; Trier, Klaus; Zeng, Junwen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is known to inhibit the proliferation of human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) and to modulate the scleral intercellular matrix composition, and may therefore serve as a mediator for controlling eye growth. Cell proliferation is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether changed activation of the MAPK pathway could be involved in the response of HSFs exposed to ATRA. Methods HSFs w...

  1. The role of all-trans retinoic acid in the biology of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhong-Min; Wang, Kun-Peng; Ma, Jilin; Guo Zheng, Song

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are necessary for immune system homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Foxp3 is specifically expressed in Treg cells and plays a key role in their differentiation and function. Foxp3+ Treg cells are consisted of naturally occurring, thymus-derived Treg (nTreg) and peripheral-induced Treg (iTreg) cells that may have different functional characteristics or synergistic roles. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite, regulates a wide range ...

  2. Proteomic analysis of changes in the protein composition of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and their combination

    OpenAIRE

    Flodrová, D. (Dana); Benkovská, D. (Dagmar); Macejová, D.; Bialesova, L.; Hunakova, L.; Brtko, J.; Bobálová, J. (Janette)

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (all-trans and 9-cis) isomers represent important therapeutic agents for many types of cancers, including human breast cancer. Changes in protein composition of the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were induced by all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and their combination and subsequently proteomic strategies based on bottom-up method were applied. Proposed approach was used for the analysis of proteins extracted from MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line utilizing a ...

  3. Perlecan Heparan Sulfate Is Required for the Inhibition of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by All-trans-Retinoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Lundmark, Karin; Tannenberg, Philip; Rauch, Bernhard H; Ekstrand, Johan; Tran, Phan-Kiet; Hedin, Ulf; Kinsella, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a key process in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, and during restenosis after interventions. A clearer understanding of SMC growth regulation is therefore needed to design specific anti-proliferative therapies. Retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit proliferation of SMCs both in vitro and in vivo and to affect the expression of extracellular matrix molecules. To explore the mechanisms behind the growth inhibitory activity of retinoic acid, we hypothesized that retinoids may induce the expression of perlecan, a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan with anti-proliferative properties. Perlecan expression and accumulation was induced in murine SMC cultures by all-trans-retinoic acid (AtRA). Moreover, the growth inhibitory effect of AtRA on wild-type cells was greatly diminished in SMCs from transgenic mice expressing heparan sulfate-deficient perlecan, indicating that the inhibition is perlecan heparan sulfate-dependent. In addition, AtRA influenced activation and phosphorylation of PTEN and Akt differently in wild-type and mutant SMCs, consistent with previous studies of perlecan-dependent SMC growth inhibition. We demonstrate that AtRA regulates perlecan expression in SMCs and that the inhibition of SMC proliferation by AtRA is, at least in part, secondary to an increased expression of perlecan and dependent upon its heparan sulfate-chains. PMID:25078760

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DIFFERENTIATION HPV16 SUBGENES-IMMORTALIZED HUMAN ENDOCERVICAL CELLS INDUCED BY ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-ming; ZHAO Yong; LIN Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiation-inducing effects of all-trans-retinoic (ATRA) to HPV16 subgenesimmortalized human endocervical cells (H8 cell) in vitro. Methods: HPV16 subgenes-immortalized human endocervical cells(H8 cells) were cultured in vitro. After treated with ATRA, the proliferation of immortalized human endocervical cells was measured by MTT assay; morphological changes were observed using M and TEM; cell cycle was analyzed by FCM;expression of Ki67 was tested using immunocytochemistry and the activity of telomerase was tested using PCR-ELISA.Results: ATRA could inhibit proliferation of H8 cells significantly and induce their morphodifferentiation. According to FCM, H8 cells accumulated in G1 phase and expression of Ki67 and activity of telomerase reduced significantly after treatment with ATRA. Conclusion: ATRA could induce the differentiation of H8 cell line obviously, which might be achieved by inhibiting proliferation, blocking cell cycle, and reducing activity of telomerase.

  5. Sorafenib plus all-trans retinoic acid for AML patients with FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenounou, Sarah; Delabesse, Eric; Récher, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the molecular basis of acute myeloid leukaemia has increased considerably in the past few years, and therapies targeting specific molecular defects of this disease are intensively investigated. Patients with both NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations encompass 20% of cytogenetically normal AML. The multikinase and FLT3 inhibitor, sorafenib, has shown some efficacy in patients with relapsed FLT3-ITD(+) AML. In addition, it is suggested that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) used in combination with chemotherapy has shown to improve outcome of patients harbouring NPM1 mutations. We report here the clinical course of three patients with refractory or relapsed FLT3-ITD(+) /NPM1(+) AML who achieved significant response upon sorafenib and ATRA combination. PMID:24689895

  6. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In rodents, retinoic acid (RA) treatment favors loss of body fat mass and the acquisition of brown fat features in white fat depots. In this work, we sought to examine to what extent these RA effects are cell autonomous or dependent on systemic factors. METHODS: Parameters of lipid...... metabolism and related gene expression were analyzed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after exposure to RA or vehicle. RESULTS: Treatment with RA resulted in decreased cellular triacylglycerol content and increased basal lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation rate. At the mRNA level, RA treatment led to a...... increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  7. Metabolic Characterization of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA)–Induced Craniofacial Development of Murine Embryos Using In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Feifei Qin; Zhiwei Shen; Lihong Peng; Renhua Wu; Xiao Hu; Guishan Zhang; Shijie Tang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the abnormal metabolic profile of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced craniofacial development in mouse embryos using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: Timed-pregnant mice were treated by oral gavage on the morning of embryonic gestation day 11 (E11) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Dosing solutions were adjusted by maternal body weight to provide 30, 70, or 100 mg/kg RA. The control group was given an equivalent volume of the carrier alone....

  8. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha and epsilon cooperate with all-trans retinoic acid in therapy but differ in their antileukemic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-jin; Jones, Letetia C.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.; Perrotti, Danilo; Tenen, Daniel G; Kogan, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) play critical roles in myelopoiesis. Dysregulation of these proteins likely contributes to the pathogenesis of myeloid disorders characterized by a block in granulopoiesis. In one such disease, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) fusion protein is expressed as a result of a t(15;17) chromosomal translocation. Treatment of PML-RARα leukemic cells with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) causes them...

  9. Expression of the helix-loop-helix protein inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (ID-1) is activated by all-trans retinoic acid in normal human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ID (inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding) helix-loop-helix proteins are important mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types through regulation of gene expression. Overexpression of the ID proteins in normal human keratinocytes results in extension of culture lifespan, indicating that these proteins are important for epidermal differentiation. Our hypothesis is that the ID proteins are targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in keratinocytes. Retinoids, vitamin A analogues, are powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation and are widely used in the prevention and treatment of a variety of cancers in humans. Furthermore, retinoic acid is necessary for the maintenance of epithelial differentiation and demonstrates an inhibitory action on skin carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of all-trans retinoic acid on expression of ID-1, -2, -3, and -4 in normal human keratinocytes and found that exposure of these cells to all-trans retinoic acid causes an increase in both ID-1 and ID-3 gene expression. Furthermore, our data show that this increase is mediated by increased transcription involving several cis-acting elements in the distal portion of the promoter, including a CREB-binding site, an Egr1 element, and an YY1 site. These data demonstrate that the ID proteins are direct targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. Given the importance of the ID proteins to epidermal differentiation, these results suggest that IDs may be mediating some of the effects of all-trans retinoic acid in normal human keratinocytes

  10. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Atigadda, Venkatram R; Belyaeva, Olga V; Harville, Steven R; Elmets, Craig A; Muccio, Donald D; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations. PMID:27078158

  11. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Wu

    Full Text Available UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations.

  12. Differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all- trans retinoic acid and anthracycline chemotherapy: Characteristics, outcome, and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Montesinos (Pau); J.M. Bergua (Juan Miguel); E. Vellenga (Edo); C. Rayón (Chelo); R. Parody (Ricardo); J. de Serna (Javier); A. León (Angel); J. Esteve (Jordi); G. Milone (Gustavo); G. Debén (Guillermo); C. Rivas (Concha); M. González (Marcos); M. Tormo (Mar); D.M. Joaquín; J.D. González (José David); S. Negri (Silvia); E. Amutio (Elena); S. Brunet (Salut); B. Löwenberg (Bob); M.A. Sanz (Miguel Angel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDifferentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Detailed knowl- edge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, char- a

  13. Contrasting Roles For All-Trans Retinoic Acid in TGF-ß-mediated Induction of Foxp3 and Il10 Genes in Developing Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrathymic induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) is essential to the regulation of effector T cell responses in the periphery. TGF-ß has been shown to induce Foxp3-expressing Tregs both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, the vitamin A metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA), has been found t...

  14. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in a cell model of neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Meng Kian; Vigne, Jean-Louis; Taylor, Robert N

    2006-03-01

    Infiltrating neutrophil granulocytes are a particularly rich source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the endometrium and may contribute to the angiogenesis of endometriosis lesions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression and regulation of VEGF in endometrial neutrophils and in a model of neutrophil differentiation relevant to endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on endometriosis patient biopsies and cultured neutrophil-like HL-60 cells were assessed. The study was set in a reproductive biology division within an academic medical center. Endometrial biopsies were performed on women with endometriosis and HL-60 cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and dimethyl sulfoxide in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry, VEGF mRNA and protein quantification, and transfection studies of VEGF gene promoter-luciferase constructs were all main outcome measures. Immunofluorescence studies verified the presence of neutrophils in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis. Examination of the regulation of VEGF using differentiated HL-60 cells as a model, revealed that atRA induced a dose- and time-dependent suppression of VEGF mRNA and protein. Transient transfection, truncation, EMSA, and site-directed mutagenesis of human VEGF promoter-luciferase constructs in HL-60 cells indicated that atRA repressed VEGF gene transcription via a direct repeat 1 element located between -443 and -431 bp relative to the transcription initiation site. Because retinoic acid is synthesized de novo in endometrial cells under the influence of progesterone, our findings suggest that the up-regulated VEGF and angiogenesis in tissue from women with endometriosis may reflect failure of neutrophil differentiation in these cases, and provide a rationale for retinoid therapy in this condition. PMID:16322068

  15. Retinoic Acid Syndrome in Patients following the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with All-trans Retinoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Su

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS is a potentially lethal complication during alltransretinoic acid (ATRA treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL. The incidence and risk factors have been shown to vary in differentseries. In this study we want to establish the incidence of RAS in our hospitaland try to elucidate factors that increase its risk.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients diagnosed with APL betweenAugust 1993 and December 2007 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital,Taiwan. All patients received ATRA as an induction regimen with or withoutconventional chemotherapy.Results: Eight of the 102 patients (7.8% experienced RAS which developed after amedian of 9 days (range: 2 to 23 days of ATRA treatment. Respiratory distressand fever were the most common presentations, occurring in 7 of 8patients (87.5%. Age, gender, morphological or molecular subtypes, an initialwhite blood cell (WBC count of more than 10 x 109/L and concurrentchemotherapy did not statistically attribute to the occurrence of RAS. Onepatient developed RAS manifesting with pulmonary hemorrhage but experienceda complete recovery after administration of high-dose dexamethasone.The RAS-related mortality was 12.5% (1 out of 8 patients.Conclusion: The incidence of RAS in this study was similar to those of other series withATRA and concurrent chemotherapy. Age, gender, morphological or molecularsubtypes, an initial leukocyte count of more than 10 x 109/L or the presenceof concurrent chemotherapy is not significantly associated with theoccurrence of the RAS.

  16. Expression profile of Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) isoforms in undifferentiated and all-trans retinoic acid differentiated neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Rasà, Daniela Maria; Reitano, Rita; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Parenti, Rosalba; Magro, Gaetano; D'Agata, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) is a tumor suppressor gene originally identified in nephroblastoma. It is also expressed in neuroblastoma which represents the most aggressive extracranial pediatric tumor. Many evidences have shown that neuroblastoma may undergo maturation, by transforming itself in a more differentiated tumors such as ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma, or progressing into a highly aggressive metastatic malignancy. To date, 13 WT1 mRNA alternative splice variants have been identified. However, most of the studies have focused their attention only on isoform of ∼49 kDa. In the present study, it has been investigated the expression pattern of WT1 isoforms in an in vitro model of neuroblastoma consisting in undifferentiated or all-trans retinoic acid (RA) differentiated cells. These latter representing the less malignant phenotype of this tumor. Results have demonstrated that WT1.1-WT1.5, WT1.6-WT1.9, WT1.10 WT1.11-WT1.12 and WT1.13 isoforms are expressed in both groups of cells, but their levels are significantly increased after RA treatment. These data have also been confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. Moreover, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK, that represent two signalling pathway specifically involved in NB differentiation, induces an overexpression of WT1 isoforms. These data suggest that WT1 isoforms might be involved in differentiation of neuroblastic into mature ganglion cells. PMID:27014421

  17. Study of Bcl-2 siRNA Enhancement of Sensitivity of HL-60 Cells to All Trans Retinoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Hu; Yuan Zhang; Dongmei He

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study whether siRNA targeting against the Bcl-2gene can enhance sensitivity of HL-60 cells to all trans retinoic acid (ATRA).METHODS siRNA, which is a leading sequence selected by previous experiments, was transferred into HL-60 cells. At 6 h after transfection, the cells were cultured with ATRA. The cell growth of the HL-60 cells was measured by the MTT assay at 24,48, 72 h. The level of the Bcl-2 protein and ROS (reactive oxygen species) as well as membrane potential of the mitochondria were determined by flowcytometry.RESULTS siRNA significantly increased the inhibitory effect of ATRA on growth of the HL-60 cells. The combination of siRNA with ATRA resulted in a decrease in the Bcl-2 protein level and an increase in the ROS level as well as significantly lowering the mitochondrial membrane potential of the HL-60 cells (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION Effective siRNA targeting of Bcl-2 increases the sensitivity of HL-60 leukemic cells to ATRA by inhibiting the expression of the Bcl-2 protein.

  18. NIR and visible investigation of some potential SERS-active substrates for studying antitumour agent all- trans retinoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljebbar, A.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Morjani, H.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    1997-01-01

    Red and near-infrared excited Fourier transform surface-enhanced Raman spectra of an anticancer agent, all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA), adsorbed on gold island films are reported. Best results have been obtained with plates 80 Å and 40 Å thick respectively in the red and near-infrared and at concentrations of 10 -5 and 5 × 10 -6 M with a spinning system. The use of near-infrared laser excitation with low photon energy, allows us to overcome the problems of isomerisation when the sample is exposed for a long time to the laser radiation. Comparison between the Raman and SERS spectra in the visible shows that the adsorption on the surface does not perturb the structure of ATRA and confirms the long range enhancement of the island films with this type of molecule. Spectral data show that while gold island films and colloids are appropriate substrates for use with red excitation, silver and gold colloids as well as gold island films exhibit satisfactory enhancement levels in the near-infrared. This study will in the future allow us to choose the appropriate system that will serve to investigate the interaction of ATRA with its target in vitro and the effect of this differentiating agent in human leukaemia cell lines such as K562 and HL60.

  19. Catalase Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid Is Involved in Antiproliferation of 36B10 Cells

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    Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has antiproliferative effects against brain tumor cells. Recently, ATRA has been reported to induce catalase. We investigated whether catalase induction by ATRA is associated with its antiproliferative effects. 36B10 cells were exposed to 0-50{mu}M ATRA for 24 or 48 hours and mRNA, protein, and activity of catalase were measured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. A clonogenic assay was used to confirm the cytotoxic effect. The mRNA, protein, and activity of catalase were found to increase in a concentration- and incubation- time-dependent manner. The increase in catalase activity induced by ATRA was decreased by the addition of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ). ROS was also increased with ATRA and decreased by the addition of ATZ. The decrease in cell survival induced by ATRA was partly rescued by ATZ. Catalase induction by ATRA is involved in ROS overproduction and thus inhibits the proliferation of 36B10 cells.

  20. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

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    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  1. The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Gao

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cultured acute retinal pigment epithelial 19 (ARPE-19 cells.The effects of ATRA (concentrations from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l on the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs in ARPE-19 cells were examined at the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The effects of treating ARPE-19 cells with ATRA concentrations ranging from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l for 24 h and 48 h or with 10-6mol/l ATRA at different times ranging from 6h to 72h were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The contribution of RARβ-induced activation of ARPE-19 cells was confirmed using LE135, an antagonist of RARβ.RARβ mRNA levels significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells treated with ATRA for 24h and 48h. These increases in RARβ mRNA levels were dose dependent (at concentrations of 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l with a maximum effect observed at 10-6 mol/l. There were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of RARα and RARγ. Western blot assay revealed that RARβ protein levels were increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells treated with 10-6 mol/l ATRA from 12 h to 72 h, with a marked increase observed at 24 h and 48 h. The upregulation of RARβ and the ATRA-induced secretion in ARPE-19 cells could be inhibited by the RARβ antagonist LE135.ATRA induced upregulation of RARβ in ARPE-19 cells and stimulated these cells to secrete BMP-2 and MMP-2.

  2. The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenya; Huo, Lijun; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Zeng, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cultured acute retinal pigment epithelial 19 (ARPE-19) cells. Methods The effects of ATRA (concentrations from 10−9 to 10−5 mol/l) on the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in ARPE-19 cells were examined at the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay, respectively. The effects of treating ARPE-19 cells with ATRA concentrations ranging from 10−9 to 10−5 mol/l for 24 h and 48 h or with 10-6mol/l ATRA at different times ranging from 6h to 72h were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The contribution of RARβ-induced activation of ARPE-19 cells was confirmed using LE135, an antagonist of RARβ. Results RARβ mRNA levels significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells treated with ATRA for 24h and 48h. These increases in RARβ mRNA levels were dose dependent (at concentrations of 10−9 to 10−5 mol/l) with a maximum effect observed at 10−6 mol/l. There were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of RARα and RARγ. Western blot assay revealed that RARβ protein levels were increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells treated with 10−6 mol/l ATRA from 12 h to 72 h, with a marked increase observed at 24 h and 48 h. The upregulation of RARβ and the ATRA-induced secretion in ARPE-19 cells could be inhibited by the RARβ antagonist LE135. Conclusion ATRA induced upregulation of RARβ in ARPE-19 cells and stimulated

  3. All-trans retinoic acid modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation in human scleral fibroblasts through retinoic acid receptor beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lijun; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Zhenya; Trier, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is known to inhibit the proliferation of human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) and to modulate the scleral intercellular matrix composition, and may therefore serve as a mediator for controlling eye growth. Cell proliferation is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether changed activation of the MAPK pathway could be involved in the response of HSFs exposed to ATRA. Methods HSFs were cultured in Dulbecco Modified Eagle's Medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) and exposed to 1 μmol/l ATRA for 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 8 h, or 24 h. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in HSFs was assessed with western blot analysis and immunocytofluorescence. Results After exposure to ATRA for 24 h, the HSFs appeared shrunken and thinner than the control cells. The intercellular spaces were wider, and the HSFs appeared less numerous than in the control culture. Western blot showed decreased activation of ERK 1/2 in the HSFs from 30 min (p=0.01) to 24 h (p<0.01) after the start of exposure to ATRA, and increased activation of the JNK protein from 10 to 30 min (p<0.01) after the start of exposure to ATRA. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed changes in activation of ERK 1/2 and JNK in HSFs exposed to ATRA. No change in activation of p38 in HSFs was observed after exposure to ATRA. Pretreatment of the HSFs with LE135, an antagonist of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ), abolished the ATRA-induced changes inactivation of ERK 1/2 and JNK. Conclusions ATRA inhibits HSF proliferation by a mechanism associated with modulation of ERK 1/2 and JNK activation and depends on stimulation of retinoic acid receptor beta. PMID:23946634

  4. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wantao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. Methods In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Results Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. Conclusion The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR) have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR) alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

  6. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

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    Niu Chao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells(BTSCs in vitro. Methods Limiting dilution and clonogenic assay were used to isolate and screen BTSCs from the fresh specimen of human brain glioblastoma. The obtained BTSCs, which were cultured in serum-free medium, were classified into four groups in accordance with the composition of the different treatments. The proliferation of the BTSCs was evaluated by MTT assay. The BTSCs were induced to differentiate in serum-containing medium, and classified into the ATRA group and control group. On the 10th day of induction, the expressions of CD133 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the differentiated BTSCs were detected by immunofluorescence. The differentiated BTSCs were cultured in serum-free medium, the percentage and the time required for formation of brain tumor spheres (BTS were observed. Results BTSCs obtained by limiting dilution were all identified as CD133-positive by immunofluorescence. In serum-free medium, the proliferation of BTSCs in the ATRA group was observed significantly faster than that in the control group, but slower than that in the growth factor group and ATRA/growth factor group, and the size of the BTS in the ATRA group was smaller than that in the latter two groups(P P P P Conclusion ATRA can promote the proliferation and induce the differentiation of BTSCs, but the differentiation is incomplete, terminal differentiation cannot be achieved and BTSs can be formed again.

  7. Comparison of anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy with or without all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare survival in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) patients treated with or without All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA). Longitudinal, comparative study. All consecutive newly diagnosed patients of acute promyelocytic leukemia, treated at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, between May 2001 and April 2007, were included and given chemotherapy according to availability of ATRA. Diagnosis was confirmed on morphology/ karyotyping/ molecular analysis. Eligibility criteria included confirmed morphologic diagnosis and/or by demonstration of t(15;17) and/or PML/RAR macro re-arrangement, no prior chemotherapy, normal hepatic and renal function, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 - 2 and no contraindications to ATRA (history of sensitivity to Vit. A or other retinoids). All patients having history of cardiac failure (LVEF 150 macro mol/L and pregnancy were excluded from this study. Survival was calculated from the date of chemotherapy to death or last follow-up according to Kaplan-Meier and Cox (Proportional hazard) regression analysis methods. During the 6 years study period, 31 newly diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia received treatment at AFBMTC. Seventeen patients received anthracycline-based remission induction and consolidation chemotherapy, while 14 received ATRA-based remission induction, consolidation and by two years maintenance therapy. Overall Survival (OS), Disease Free Survival (DFS) and mortality were 29.4%, 29.4% and 70.6% respectively in 17 patients who received anthracycline based chemotherapy, whereas in patients who received ATRA-based chemotherapy OS, DFS and mortality was 71.4%, 64.2% and 28.6% respectively. Major causes of mortality were septicemia and chemotherapy related toxicity. Response to ATRA-based chemotherapy in patient cohort was better as compared with anthracycline based chemotherapy (71.4% vs. 29.4%) in terms of survival and mortality. (author)

  8. Paradoxical effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on lupus-like disease in the MRL/lpr mouse model.

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    Xiaofeng Liao

    Full Text Available Roles of all-trans-retinoic acid (tRA, a metabolite of vitamin A (VA, in both tolerogenic and immunogenic responses are documented. However, how tRA affects the development of systemic autoimmunity is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that tRA have paradoxical effects on the development of autoimmune lupus in the MRL/lpr mouse model. We administered, orally, tRA or VA mixed with 10% of tRA (referred to as VARA to female mice starting from 6 weeks of age. At this age, the mice do not exhibit overt clinical signs of lupus. However, the immunogenic environment preceding disease onset has been established as evidenced by an increase of total IgM/IgG in the plasma and expansion of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in secondary lymphoid organs. After 8 weeks of tRA, but not VARA treatment, significantly higher pathological scores in the skin, brain and lung were observed. These were accompanied by a marked increase in B-cell responses that included autoantibody production and enhanced expression of plasma cell-promoting cytokines. Paradoxically, the number of lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph node decreased with tRA that led to significantly reduced lymphadenopathy. In addition, tRA differentially affected renal pathology, increasing leukocyte infiltration of renal tubulointerstitium while restoring the size of glomeruli in the kidney cortex. In contrast, minimal induction of inflammation with tRA in the absence of an immunogenic environment in the control mice was observed. Altogether, our results suggest that under a predisposed immunogenic environment in autoimmune lupus, tRA may decrease inflammation in some organs while generating more severe disease in others.

  9. The Vitamin A Derivative All-Trans Retinoic Acid Repairs Amyloid-β-Induced Double-Strand Breaks in Neural Cells and in the Murine Neocortex

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Gruz-Gibelli; Natacha Chessel; Clélia Allioux; Pascale Marin; Françoise Piotton; Geneviève Leuba; Herrmann, François R.; Armand Savioz

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid-β peptide or Aβ is the key player in the amyloid-cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to trigger cell death but also production of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in aging and Alzheimer's disease. All-trans retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, was already known for its neuroprotective effects against the amyloid cascade. It diminishes, for instance, the production of Aβ peptides and their oligomerisation. In the present work we investigat...

  10. Ethanol elevates physiological all-trans-retinoic acid levels in select loci through altering retinoid metabolism in multiple loci: a potential mechanism of ethanol toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Maureen A.; Folias, Alexandra E.; Wang, Chao; Napoli, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) supports embryonic development, central nervous system function, and the immune response. atRA initiates neurogenesis and dendritic growth in the hippocampus and is required for spatial memory; superphysiological atRA inhibits neurogenesis, causes teratology and/or embryo toxicity, and alters cognitive function and behavior. Because abnormal atRA shares pathological conditions with alcoholism, inhibition of retinol (vitamin A) activation into atRA has been credi...

  11. All-trans retinoic acid impairs the vasculogenic mimicry formation ability of U87 stem-like cells through promoting differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    LING, GENG-QIANG; LIU, YI-JING; Ke, Yi-Quan; Chen, Lei; JIANG, XIAO-DAN; JIANG, CHUAN-LU; Ye, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The poor therapeutic effect of traditional antiangiogenic therapy on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may be attributed to vasculogenic mimicry (VM), which was previously reported to be promoted by cancer stem-like cells (SLCs). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a potent reagent which drives differentiation, was reported to be able to eradicate cancer SLCs in certain malignancies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ATRA on the VM formation ability of U87 glioblastoma SL...

  12. Retinoic Acid-Induced Epidermal Transdifferentiation in Skin

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    Yoshihiro Akimoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to a mucous epithelium (Fell, H.B.; Mellanby, E. Metaplasia produced in cultures of chick ectoderm by high vitamin A. J. Physiol. 1953, 119, 470–488. However, the molecular mechanism of this transdifferentiation process was unknown for a long time. Recent studies demonstrated that Gbx1, a divergent homeobox gene, is one of the target genes of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for this transdifferentiation. Furthermore, it was found that ATRA can induce the epidermal transdifferentiation into a mucosal epithelium in mammalian embryonic skin, as well as in chick embryonic skin. In the mammalian embryonic skin, the co-expression of Tgm2 and Gbx1 in the epidermis and an increase in TGF-β2 expression elicited by ATRA in the dermis are required for the mucosal transdifferentiation, which occurs through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Not only does retinoic acid (RA play an important role in mucosal transdifferentiation, periderm desquamation, and barrier formation in the developing mammalian skin, but it is also involved in hair follicle downgrowth and bending by its effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families.

  13. All-trans retinoic acid protects against arsenic-induced uterine toxicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Chatterjee, A.; Chatterji, U., E-mail: urmichatterji@gmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Background and purpose: Arsenic exposure frequently leads to reproductive failures by disrupting the rat uterine histology, hormonal integrity and estrogen signaling components of the rat uterus, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed as a prospective therapeutic agent for reversing reproductive disorders. Experimental approach: Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to either recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or treatment continued up to 56 days. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining was used to evaluate changes in the uterine histology. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by ELISA. Expression of the estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}), an estrogen responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Key results: ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced decrease in circulating estradiol and gonadotropin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with recovery of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands. Concomitant up regulation of ER{alpha}, VEGF, cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ki-67 was also observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the results reveal that ATRA reverses arsenic-induced disruption of the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, and degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands of the rat uterus, indicating resumption of their functional status. Since structural and functional maintenance of the pubertal uterus is under the influence of estradiol, ATRA consequently up regulated the estrogen receptor and resumed cellular proliferation, possibly by an antioxidant therapeutic approach against arsenic toxicity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic

  14. Influence of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA) on the expression of NANOG in Glioma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weixian; Yi Fuxin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA) on the expression of NANOG in glioma cell lines.Methods Each cell line was divided into the experimental group which was treated with ATRA for 5 days,and the control group which was cultured normally without ATRA treatment. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR were adopted to detect the expression of NANOG at protein and mRNA level among the three kinds of cell lines. Results Positive rates of NANOG protein in glioma cell lines SHG-44,U87 MG and U251 in control groups were (65.5±3.0)%,(64.8±8.0)% and (64.5±1.2)%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant(F=0.190,P=0.829). NANOG mRNA of the three cell lines in the relative content were 0.636 8±0.039 9, 0.642 1±0.063 7, 0.651 6±0.044 4,and the difference was not statistically significant(F=0.427,P=0.662).However,5 days after application of ATRA-induced NANOG protein in the three cell lines,the positive rates of NANOG protein of experimental groups were (36.5±7.3)%,(35.5±7.9)%,(35.2±6.1)%,respectively,compared with the control groups,the differences were statistically significant (FSHG-44=259.1,FU87=129.5,FU251= 431.8,PSHG-44=0.0,PU87=0.0,PU251=0.0),and the relative level of NANOG mRNA in these groups were 0.458 3±0.079 1,0.255 1±0.079 3 and 0.333 1±0.054 0,respectively,compared with the control groups,the difference was significant(FSHG-44=77.8,FU87=277.9,FU251=398.1,PSHG-44=0.0,PU87=0.0,PU251=0.0).Conclusion NANOG which highly expressed in glioma cell line SHG-44,U87 MG and U251 can be reduced by ATRA.

  15. MDI 301 suppresses myeloid leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo without the toxicity associated with all-trans retinoic acid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad N; McClintock, Shannon; Khan, Shazli P; Perone, Patricia; Allen, Ronald; Ouillette, Peter D; Dame, Michael K; Cheng, Jason X; Kunkel, Steven L; Varani, James

    2015-08-01

    MDI 301 is a novel 9-cis retinoic acid derivative in which the terminal carboxylic acid group has been replaced by a picolinate ester. MDI 301, a retinoic acid receptor-α - agonist, suppressed the growth of several human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, NB4, OCI-M2, and K562) in vitro and induced cell-substrate adhesion in conjunction with upregulation of CD11b. Tumor growth in HL60-injected athymic nude mice was reduced. In vitro, MDI 301 was comparable to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) whereas in vivo, MDI 301 was slightly more efficacious than ATRA. Most importantly, unlike what was found with ATRA treatment, MDI 301 did not induce a cytokine response in the treated animals and the severe inflammatory changes and systemic toxicity seen with ATRA did not occur. A retinoid with these characteristics might be valuable in the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia, or, perhaps, other forms of myeloid leukemia. PMID:26010252

  16. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid combined with trichostatin A on the nude mice bearing human follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of iodine uptake of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line (FTC-133) and nude mice bearing human follicular thyroid carcinoma after the induction with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), trichostatin A (TSA) or ATRA combined with TSA. Methods: After the induction with ATRA, TSA, or ATRA combined with TSA in different concentrations for 96 h, the iodine uptake of FTC-133 cells was observed. The concentrations for different groups were as follows: ATRA 1.0 ×10-6 mol/L(Alow group), ATRA 1.0 × 10-4 mol/L (Ahigh group), TSA 1.65 ×10-7 mol/L (T group), Alow + T group, Ahigh + T group and ethanol (control group). Cell quantities and morphology were observed by HE staining. FTC-133 cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Twelve nude mice were randomly divided into 4 groups after tumor formation: ATRA group (2 mg/kg, intragastric administration), TSA group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), combined therapy group (ATRA + TSA, the same doses as above) and saline control group (10 ml/kg, intragastric and intraperitoneal administration, respectively). Drugs were administered to the tumor-bearing mice according to the mouse body mass daily. At the 22nd day, the tumor-bearing mice were injected with 37 MBq 131I intraperitoneally. The biodistribution of 131I and gamma imaging were performed at 4, 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection respectively. Histopathological examinations of the tumor samples were taken after imaging completion. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS 13.0. Results: The cellular iodine uptake were (23 885 ± 616.0) and (13 849 ±728.2) counts · min-1 · 10-6 cells in the Alow + T group and Ahigh + T group respectively, and the data were (985 ± 84.2) - (17 600 ± 782.7) counts · min-1 · 10-6 in the other groups (F=600.879, P<0.001). The % ID/g of tumor at 6 h was 6.17 ±0.46 in the combined group and it increased to 9.34 ±0.61 at 12 h and 11.19 ± 0.98 at 24 h. The % ID/g of

  17. Defects in embryonic hindbrain development and fetal resorption resulting from vitamin A deficiency in the rat are prevented by feeding pharmacological levels of all-trans-retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jeffrey C.; Shankar, V. Narayanaswamy; Highland, Margaret; Epstein, Miles L; DeLuca, Hector F.; Clagett-Dame, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin A is required for reproduction and normal embryonic development. We have determined that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) can support development of the mammalian embryo to parturition in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats. At embryonic day (E) 0.5, VAD dams were fed purified diets containing either 12 μg of atRA per g of diet (230 μg per rat per day) or 250 μg of atRA per g of diet (4.5 mg per rat per day) or were fed the purified diet supplemented with a source of retinol (100 units of re...

  18. All-trans retinoic acid regulates the expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 in the guinea pig sclera and human scleral fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanxu; McFadden, Sally A.; Morgan, Ian; Cui, Dongmei; Hu, Jianmin; Wan, Wenjuan; Zeng, Junwen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fibulin-1 (FBLN1) mRNA is expressed in human sclera and is an important adhesion modulatory protein that can affect cell–matrix interactions and tissue remodeling. Scleral remodeling is influenced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Our purpose was to confirm the presence of fibulin-1 protein in guinea pig sclera and investigate the effect of RA on the expression of fibulin-1 in guinea pig sclera in vivo and in cultured human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Methods Confocal fluorescence micr...

  19. Phase 2 clinical trial of 5-azacitidine, valproic acid, and all-trans retinoic acid in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Raffoux, Emmanuel; Cras, Audrey; Recher, Christian; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; de Labarthe, Adrienne; Turlure, Pascal; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Reman, Oumedaly; Gardin, Claude; Victor, Maud; Maury, Sébastien; Rousselot, Philippe; Malfuson, Jean-Valère; Maarek, Odile; Daniel, Marie-Thérèse

    2010-01-01

    In this Phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy of combination of 5-azacitidine (AZA), valproic acid (VPA), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Treatment consisted of six cycles of AZA and VPA for 7 days, followed by ATRA for 21 days. Sixty-five patients were enrolled (median age, 72 years; 55 AML including 13 relapsed/refractory patients, 10 MDS; 30 unfavorable karyotypes). Best responses included 14 C...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYPS IN THE METABOLISM OF ALL TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY LIVER MICROSOMES FROM MICE TREATED WITH CONAZOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may involve in conazole-...

  1. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters the endogenous metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carsten K.; Nau, Heinz [Department of Food Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173, Hannover (Germany); Hoegberg, Pi; Fletcher, Nicholas; Nilsson, Charlotte B.; Trossvik, Christina; Haakansson, Helen [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known to influence vitamin A homeostasis. In order to investigate the mechanism behind this retinoid disruption, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to TCDD at doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 {mu}g/kg body weight, and were killed 3 days after exposure. Additional groups of rats were killed 1 and 28 days after a single oral dose of 10 {mu}g TCDD/kg body weight. Serum, kidney, and liver were investigated for retinoid levels, as well as gene expression and enzyme activities relevant for retinoid metabolism. Besides the well known effects of TCDD on apolar retinoids, i.e. decreased hepatic and increased renal retinyl ester (RE) levels, we have found dose-dependent elevation of all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA) levels in all investigated tissues. In the liver, 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA was drastically decreased by TCDD in a dose-dependent manner. In serum, cis-isomers of all-trans-RA, including 9,13-di-cis-RA, were significantly reduced already at the lowest dose level. Protein and mRNA levels of cellular retinol binding protein I (CRBP-I) in liver or kidneys were not significantly altered by TCDD exposure at doses at which retinoid levels were affected, making CRBP-I an unlikely candidate to account for the alterations in retinoid metabolism caused by TCDD. The expression and activities of relevant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes with potential roles in all-trans-RA synthesis and/or degradation (CYP1A1, 1A2, and 2B1/2) were also monitored. A possible role of CYP1A1 in TCDD-induced all-trans-RA synthesis is suggested from the time-course relationship between CYP1A1 activity and all-trans-RA levels in liver and kidney. The significant alteration of the all-trans-RA metabolism has the potential to contribute significantly to the toxicity of TCDD. (orig.)

  2. All-trans retinoic acid as a single agent induces complete remission in a patient with acute leukemia of M2a subtype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子兴; 王阳; 王玮; 贡静霞; 薛永权

    2002-01-01

    Objective To present a special case with the karyotype and molecular marker of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M2 who was induced to complete remission by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone.Methods A recently hospitalized young female patient with acute leukemia was initially diagnosed as M3 subtype based on morphological French-American-British (FAB) classification. Karyotype analysis using standard G and R banding techniques and RT-PCR were applied to further define the diagnosis. After primarily cultured bone marrow cells from the iliac aspiration were tested for in vitro induced differentiation, the patient was treated with oral all-trans retinoic acid alone, 60?mg per day until complete remission was achieved. Peripheral blood and bone marrow changes were monitored over the whole treatment course.Results The characteristic chromosomal aberration for M3, the t(15;17) reciprocal translocation, was not found while a t(8;21) translocation was verified. Furthermore, an amplified product of the AML-1/ETO fusion gene instead of the PML/RARα fusion gene was detected by RT-PCR and the diagnosis was corrected from M3 to M2. Primary cultured bone marrow cells can be fully induced to terminal differentiation after 4 days exposure to ATRA. A hematological complete remission was achieved after 40 days treatment with ATRA as a single therapeutic agent, suggesting an alternative pathway mediating ATRA-induced myeloid differentiation. Conclusion A leukemia patient with a subtype other than M3, such as M2 in this case, may also be induced to complete remission by the mechanism of ATRA-induced terminal differentiation. This implies that there may be a pathway other than PML/RARα fusion gene product which mediates ATRA-induced myeloid maturation in leukemia cells.

  3. Metabolic characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA-induced craniofacial development of murine embryos using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Qin

    Full Text Available AIM: To characterize the abnormal metabolic profile of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA-induced craniofacial development in mouse embryos using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS. METHODS: Timed-pregnant mice were treated by oral gavage on the morning of embryonic gestation day 11 (E11 with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA. Dosing solutions were adjusted by maternal body weight to provide 30, 70, or 100 mg/kg RA. The control group was given an equivalent volume of the carrier alone. Using an Agilent 7.0 T MR system and a combination of surface coil coils, a 3 mm×3 mm×3 mm 1H-MRS voxel was selected along the embryonic craniofacial tissue. 1H-MRS was performed with a single-voxel method using PRESS sequence and analyzed using LCModel software. Hematoxylin and eosin was used to detect and confirm cleft palate. RESULT: 1H-MRS revealed elevated choline levels in embryonic craniofacial tissue in the RA70 and RA100 groups compared to controls (P<0.05. Increased choline levels were also found in the RA70 and RA100 groups compared with the RA30 group (P<0.01. High intra-myocellular lipids at 1.30 ppm (IMCL13 in the RA100 group compared to the RA30 group were found (P<0.01. There were no significant changes in taurine, intra-myocellular lipids at 2.10 ppm (IMCL21, and extra-myocellular lipids at 2.30 ppm (EMCL23. Cleft palate formation was observed in all fetuses carried by mice administered 70 and 100 mg/kg RA. CONCLUSIONS: This novel study suggests that the elevated choline and lipid levels found by 1H-MRS may represent early biomarkers of craniofacial defects. Further studies will determine performance of this test and pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial malformation.

  4. All-trans retinoic acid ameliorates glycemic control in diabetic mice via modulating pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiao-Yun; Yuan, Tze-An; Cho, Candy Hsin-Hua; Chang, Fang-Pei; Mao, Wan-Yu; Wu, Ruei-Ren; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Shen, Chia-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are associated with impairment in vitamin A metabolism. This study evaluated whether treatment with retinoic acid, the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, can ameliorate diabetes. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) was used to treat streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice which revealed atRA administration ameliorated blood glucose levels of diabetic mice. This hyperglycemic amelioration was accompanied by an increase in the amount of β cells co-expressed Pdx1 and insulin and by restoration of the vascular laminin expression. The atRA-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A from the pancreatic islets was possibly the key factor that mediated the restoration of islet vascularity and recovery of β-cell mass. Furthermore, the combination of islet transplantation and atRA administration significantly rescued hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. These findings suggest that vitamin A derivatives can potentially be used as a supplementary treatment to improve diabetes management and glycemic control. PMID:27381866

  5. The oncofusion protein FUS-ERG targets key hematopoietic regulators and modulates the all-trans retinoic acid signaling pathway in t(16;21) acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, A M; Prange, K H M; Reijnders, B; Mandoli, A; Nguyen, L N; Stunnenberg, H G; Martens, J H A

    2016-04-14

    The ETS transcription factor ERG has been implicated as a major regulator of both normal and aberrant hematopoiesis. In acute myeloid leukemias harboring t(16;21), ERG function is deregulated due to a fusion with FUS/TLS resulting in the expression of a FUS-ERG oncofusion protein. How this oncofusion protein deregulates the normal ERG transcription program is unclear. Here, we show that FUS-ERG acts in the context of a heptad of proteins (ERG, FLI1, GATA2, LYL1, LMO2, RUNX1 and TAL1) central to proper expression of genes involved in maintaining a stem cell hematopoietic phenotype. Moreover, in t(16;21) FUS-ERG co-occupies genomic regions bound by the nuclear receptor heterodimer RXR:RARA inhibiting target gene expression and interfering with hematopoietic differentiation. All-trans retinoic acid treatment of t(16;21) cells as well as FUS-ERG knockdown alleviate the myeloid-differentiation block. Together, the results suggest that FUS-ERG acts as a transcriptional repressor of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. PMID:26148230

  6. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid target NPM1 mutant oncoprotein levels and induce apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Maria Paola; Gionfriddo, Ilaria; Mezzasoma, Federica; Milano, Francesca; Pierangeli, Sara; Mulas, Floriana; Pacini, Roberta; Tabarrini, Alessia; Pettirossi, Valentina; Rossi, Roberta; Vetro, Calogero; Brunetti, Lorenzo; Sportoletti, Paolo; Tiacci, Enrico; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Falini, Brunangelo

    2015-05-28

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations represent an attractive therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) because they are common (∼30% AML), stable, and behave as a founder genetic lesion. Oncoprotein targeting can be a successful strategy to treat AML, as proved in acute promyelocytic leukemia by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO), which degrade the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor fusion protein. Adjunct of ATRA to chemotherapy was reported to be beneficial for NPM1-mutated AML patients. Leukemic cells with NPM1 mutation also showed sensibility to ATO in vitro. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying these observations and show that ATO/ATRA induce proteasome-dependent degradation of NPM1 leukemic protein and apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cell lines and primary patients' cells. We also show that PML intracellular distribution is altered in NPM1-mutated AML cells and reverted by arsenic through oxidative stress induction. Interestingly, similarly to what was described for PML, oxidative stress also mediates ATO-induced degradation of the NPM1 mutant oncoprotein. Strikingly, NPM1 mutant downregulation by ATO/ATRA was shown to potentiate response to the anthracyclin daunorubicin. These findings provide experimental evidence for further exploring ATO/ATRA in preclinical NPM1-mutated AML in vivo models and a rationale for exploiting these compounds in chemotherapeutic regimens in clinics. PMID:25795919

  7. Critical role of all-trans retinoic acid in stabilizing human natural regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Lan, Qin; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Gu, Jian; Li, Qiang; Wang, Julie; Chen, Maogen; Liu, Ya; Shen, Yi; Brand, David D; Ryffel, Bernhard; Horwitz, David A; Quismorio, Francisco P; Liu, Zhongmin; Li, Bin; Olsen, Nancy J; Zheng, Song Guo

    2014-08-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that thymus-derived naturally occurring CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in human and mouse may be unstable and dysfunctional in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. All-trans RA (atRA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been shown to regulate Treg and T effector cell differentiation. We hypothesize atRA stabilizes human natural Tregs (nTregs) under inflammatory conditions. atRA prevents human nTregs from converting to Th1 and/or Th17 cells and sustains their Foxp3 expression and suppressive function in vitro or in vivo following encounters with IL-1 and IL-6. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of human nTregs pretreated with atRA significantly enhanced their suppressive effects on xenograft-vs.-host diseases (xGVHDs), and atRA- but not rapamycin-pretreated nTregs sustained the functional activity against xGVHD after stimulation with IL-1/IL-6. atRA suppresses IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) up-regulation, accelerates IL-6R down-regulation, and diminishes their signaling events as well as prevents the up-regulation of STIP1 homology and U-Box containing protein 1 on Foxp3(+) cells following IL-1/IL-6 stimulation. atRA also increases histone acetylation on Foxp3 gene promoter and CpG demethylation in the region of Foxp3 locus (i.e., Treg-specific demethylated region). These results strongly implicate that nTregs primed with atRA may represent a novel treatment strategy to control established chronic immune-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25099355

  8. Combination of Nanoparticle-Delivered siRNA for Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) and All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA): An Effective Therapeutic Strategy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Srivastava, Jyoti; Ebeid, Kareem; Gredler, Rachel; Akiel, Maaged; Jariwala, Nidhi; Robertson, Chadia L; Shen, Xue-Ning; Siddiq, Ayesha; Fisher, Paul B; Salem, Aliasger K; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-08-19

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a fatal cancer with no effective therapy. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis and inhibits retinoic acid-induced gene expression and cell death. The combination of a lentivirus expressing AEG-1 shRNA and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) profoundly and synergistically inhibited subcutaneous human HCC xenografts in nude mice. We have now developed liver-targeted nanoplexes by conjugating poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lactobionic acid (Gal) (PAMAM-PEG-Gal) which were complexed with AEG-1 siRNA (PAMAM-AEG-1si). The polymer conjugate was characterized by (1)H-NMR, MALDI, and mass spectrometry; and optimal nanoplex formulations were characterized for surface charge, size, and morphology. Orthotopic xenografts of human HCC cell QGY-7703 expressing luciferase (QGY-luc) were established in the livers of athymic nude mice and tumor development was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Tumor-bearing mice were treated with PAMAM-siCon, PAMAM-siCon+ATRA, PAMAM-AEG-1si, and PAMAM-AEG-1si+ATRA. In the control group the tumor developed aggressively. ATRA showed little effect due to high AEG-1 levels in QGY-luc cells. PAMAM-AEG-1si showed significant reduction in tumor growth, and the combination of PAMAM-AEG-1si+ATRA showed profound and synergistic inhibition so that the tumors were almost undetectable by BLI. A marked decrease in AEG-1 level was observed in tumor samples treated with PAMAM-AEG-1si. The group treated with PAMAM-AEG-1si+ATRA nanoplexes showed increased necrosis, inhibition of proliferation, and increased apoptosis when compared to other groups. Liver is an ideal organ for RNAi therapy and ATRA is an approved anticancer agent. Our exciting observations suggest that the combinatorial approach might be an effective way to combat HCC. PMID:26079152

  9. DNA vaccination with all-trans retinoic acid treatment induces long-term survival and elicits specific immune responses requiring CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia mouse model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furugaki, K.; Pokorná, Kateřina; le Pogam, C.; Aoki, M.; Reboul, M.; Bajzik, V.; Krief, P.; Janin, A.; Noguera, M.-E.; West, R.; Charron, D.; Chomienne, C.; Pla, M.; Moins-Teisserenc, H.; Padua, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2010), s. 653-656. ISSN 0006-4971 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 94308 Institutional research pla n: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : all-trans retinoic acid * DNA vaccination * protective immunity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.558, year: 2010

  10. Genetic and pathologic aspects of retinoic acid-induced limb malformations in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Grace S.; Liao, Xiaoyan; Shimizu, Hirohito; Collins, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Because all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is teratogenic in all species tested and many of the specific defects induced are common across the phylogenetic spectrum, it would be logical to predict that murine strain differences in teratology to this agent are minimal. However, for specific defects, strain susceptibilities are vastly different. Studies with atRA have shown stark differences between C57BL/6 and SWV mouse strains in susceptibility to postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly and ectopic hindl...

  11. Pharmacogenomic analysis of retinoic-acid induced dyslipidemia in congenic rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Krupková, Michaela; Liška, František; Šedová, Lucie; Křenová, Drahomíra; Křen, Vladimír; Šeda, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Background All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, tretinoin) is a vitamin A derivative commonly used in the treatment of diverse conditions ranging from cancer to acne. In a fraction of predisposed individuals, the administration of ATRA is accompanied by variety of adverse metabolic effects, particularly by the induction of hyperlipidemia. We have previously derived a minimal congenic SHR.PD-(D8Rat42-D8Arb23)/Cub (SHR-Lx) strain sensitive to ATRA-induced increase of triacylglycerols and cholesterol ...

  12. The all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-regulated gene Calmin (Clmn) regulates cell cycle exit and neurite outgrowth in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzinke, Mark A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1544 (United States); Clagett-Dame, Margaret, E-mail: dame@biochem.wisc.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1544 (United States); Pharmaceutical Science Division, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705-2222 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) functions in nervous system development and regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y and Neuro2a or N2A) exposed to atRA undergo growth inhibition and neuronal differentiation, both of which are preceded by an increase in Clmn mRNA. Treatment of N2A cells with atRA produces a reduction in phosphohistone 3 immunostaining and BrdU incorporation, both indicators of a reduction in cell proliferation. These effects are nearly eliminated in atRA-treated shClmn knockdown cells. Loss of Clmn in the mouse N2A cell line also results in a significant reduction of atRA-mediated neurite outgrowth, a response that can be rescued by reintroduction of the Clmn sequence. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of Clmn produces an increase in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21{sup Cip1}, a decrease in cyclin D1 protein and an increase in hypophosphorylated Rb, showing that Clmn participates in G{sub 1}/S arrest. Clmn overexpression alone is sufficient to inhibit N2A cell proliferation, whereas both Clmn and atRA must be present to induce neurite outgrowth. This study shows that the atRA-responsive gene Clmn promotes exit from the cell cycle, a requisite event for neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin is a retinoic acid-responsive gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin promotes cell cycle exit in N2A cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin overexpression increases p21Cip1 and decreases cyclin D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin is required for RA-induced growth inhibition and neurite outgrowth.

  13. Chromosomal localization of a novel retinoic acid induced gene RA28 and the protein distribution of its encoded protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene RA28 is a retinoic acid induced novel gene isolated in our laboratory previously. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used to induce lung adenocarcinoma cell line GLC-82, and RA28 was obtained by subtractive hybridization. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has emerged as a unique tool for examining introcellular phenomena in living cells. GFP possesses an intrinsic fluorescence at 488 nm that does not require other co-factors. In this report, an eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-C1-RA28 was constructed and transfected with parental cell line GLC-82 to analyze protein expression and its distribution in living cells. Moreover, radiation hybrid (RH) technique was used to localize RA28 to the chromosome. The results show that gene RA28 is mapped to the chromosome 19q13.1 region, its encoded protein is distributed on cell membrane. All the results further demonstrate that GFP and RH techniques are accurate, fast, repetitive, and will be powerful methods for investigating the gene and protein localization.

  14. The Vitamin A Derivative All-Trans Retinoic Acid Repairs Amyloid-β-Induced Double-Strand Breaks in Neural Cells and in the Murine Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Gruz-Gibelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid-β peptide or Aβ is the key player in the amyloid-cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Aβ appears to trigger cell death but also production of double-strand breaks (DSBs in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. All-trans retinoic acid (RA, a derivative of vitamin A, was already known for its neuroprotective effects against the amyloid cascade. It diminishes, for instance, the production of Aβ peptides and their oligomerisation. In the present work we investigated the possible implication of RA receptor (RAR in repair of Aβ-induced DSBs. We demonstrated that RA, as well as RAR agonist Am80, but not AGN 193109 antagonist, repair Aβ-induced DSBs in SH-SY5Y cells and an astrocytic cell line as well as in the murine cortical tissue of young and aged mice. The nonhomologous end joining pathway and the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated kinase were shown to be involved in RA-mediated DSBs repair in the SH-SY5Y cells. Our data suggest that RA, besides increasing cell viability in the cortex of young and even of aged mice, might also result in targeted DNA repair of genes important for cell or synaptic maintenance. This phenomenon would remain functional up to a point when Aβ increase and RA decrease probably lead to a pathological state.

  15. Tamoxifen enhances the differentiation-inducing and growth-inhibitory effects of all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koji; Honma, Yoshio; Miyake, Takaaki; Kawakami, Koshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzumiya, Junji

    2016-03-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is valuable in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, ATRA has had limited success as a single agent, due to the development of resistance. We found that tamoxifen effectively enhanced the differentiation-inducing effect of ATRA. Tamoxifen alone inhibited the proliferation of myeloid leukemia cell lines while only slightly increasing morphologic differentiation. Tamoxifen effectively enhanced the growth-inhibiting actions of various differentiation-inducing agents. ATRA in the presence of tamoxifen increased NBT reduction and the expression of CD11b in HL-60 cells more effectively than ATRA alone. Tamoxifen also enhanced the differentiation induced by the other inducers tested. ATRA induced the differentiation of APL cell lines NB4 and HT93 and APL cells in primary culture, and this differentiation was also enhanced by tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of cancer and has few side effects. The combination of ATRA and tamoxifen might be considered for the treatment of APL patients in whom it can be difficult to apply arsenic trioxide or anthracyclines. PMID:26797574

  16. Amelioration of glomerulosclerosis with all-trans retinoic acid is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α-smooth muscle actin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia LIU; Lei L(U); Bei-bei TAO; Ai-ling ZHOU; Yi-chun ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on renal morphology and function as well as on renal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression and plasmin activity in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy.Methods:Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were given 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Renal function was measured 2 weeks later. The nephrectomized rats were assigned to groups matched for proteinuria and treated with vehicle or atRA (5 or 10 mg/kg by gastric gavage once daily) for the next 12 weeks. Rats with sham operation were treated with vehicle. At the end of the treatments,kidneys were collected for histological examination, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity measurements.Results:The 5/6 nephrectomy promoted hypertension, renal dysfunction, and glomerulosclerosis. These changes were significantly reduced in the atRA-treated group. The expressions of PAI-1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were significantly increased in the vehicle-treated nephrectomized rats. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced the expressions of PAI-1 and α-SMA. However, piasmin activity remained unchanged following atRA treatment.Conclusion:Treatment with atRA ameliorates glomerulosclerosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. This is associated with a decrease in PAI-1 and α-SMA, but not with a change in plasmin activity.

  17. Function of all-trans retinoic acid observation on similar myopia changes in cultivated rabbit retinal pigment epithelium and relation with myopia relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during the similar myopia changes of cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, as well as the variation changes and relationships with myopic correlation factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and matrix metalloprateinase-2 (MMP-2). Rabbit RPE cells of primary generation were selected and cultured to fifth generation by subculture. Then the morphology of RPE cells were observed and cell vitality was analyzed by using the Trypan blue reject test. The expressions of HGF and MMP-2 in RPE cells were tested by using an immunobistochemistry method. The HGF concentration in RPE cell culture fluid was detected by applying enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). As the ATRA concentration enhanced and action time prolonged, the survival rate of RPE cells was reduced, but the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased, so did the secretion of HGF. ATRA concentration with no less than 5nM/ml was able to induce the growth inhibition of RPE cells and the decrease in survival rate, which was similar to the changes in RPE cells in myopia. With the actin of ATRA, the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased in RPE cells, with more distinct in HGF increase. PMID:27113312

  18. Phase 2 clinical trial of 5-azacitidine, valproic acid, and all-trans retinoic acid in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffoux, Emmanuel; Cras, Audrey; Recher, Christian; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; de Labarthe, Adrienne; Turlure, Pascal; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Reman, Oumedaly; Gardin, Claude; Victor, Maud; Maury, Sébastien; Rousselot, Philippe; Malfuson, Jean-Valère; Maarek, Odile; Daniel, Marie-Thérèse; Fenaux, Pierre; Degos, Laurent; Chomienne, Christine; Chevret, Sylvie; Dombret, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    In this Phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy of combination of 5-azacitidine (AZA), valproic acid (VPA), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Treatment consisted of six cycles of AZA and VPA for 7 days, followed by ATRA for 21 days. Sixty-five patients were enrolled (median age, 72 years; 55 AML including 13 relapsed/refractory patients, 10 MDS; 30 unfavorable karyotypes). Best responses included 14 CR and 3 PR (26%), 75% of the responders and 36% of the non-responders achieving an erythroid response. Median overall survival (OS) was 12.4 months. Untreated patients had a longer OS than relapsed/refractory patients. In patients who fulfilled the 6 planned cycles, OS did not appear to depend on CR/PR achievement, suggesting that stable disease while on-treatment would be a surrogate for survival with this approach. During therapy, early platelet response and demethylation of the FZD9, ALOX12, HPN, and CALCA genes were associated with clinical response. Finally, there was no evidence for the restoration of an ATRA-induced differentiation during therapy. Epigenetic modulation deserves prospective comparisons to conventional care in patients with high-risk AML, at least in those presenting previously untreated disease and low blast count. PMID:21293051

  19. Optimization and evalution of all-trans retinoic acid ethosomes%全反式维A酸醇质体的处方优化及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志; 胡玉容; 郭新红

    2010-01-01

    目的:制备全反式维A酸(all-trans retinoic acid,ATRA)醇质体并对其稳定性及体外经皮渗透等进行考察.方法:采用注入法制备ATRA醇质体,通过正交设计优化制备工艺;同时测定其Zeta电位及粒径;以改进的Franz扩散池法,进行体外小鼠经皮渗透实验,测定药物累积渗透量及透皮速率.结果:优选处方组成为20%乙醇(w/w),4%磷脂(w/w),磷脂:胆固醇(w/w)2:1,磷脂:维A酸(w/w)10:1,检测平均粒径为237.3 nm,Zeta电位为-36.31 mV;ATRA醇质体放置1,10,20 d后,7 h累积透皮量分别为(210.6±1.7),(196.2±3.8)和(181.1±4.2)μg·cm-2,而水醇混合物累积透皮量仅为(120.4±5.4)μg·cm-2.结论:ATRA醇质体制备工艺简单可行,所得传递体粒径较小且均匀,室温放置较稳定,透皮效果较好并可以促进维A酸经皮转运.

  20. Regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-{beta} suppress autoimmune diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Minoru [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yasuda, Hisafumi, E-mail: yasuda@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhisa; Sasaki, Hirotomo; Shimizu, Mami; Arai, Takashi; Okumachi, Yasuyo; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenta; Yokono, Koichi; Nagata, Masao [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    Antigen-specific regulatory CD4{sup +} T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-{beta}, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days. CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-{beta} and ATRA had low Foxp3{sup +} expression (1.7 {+-} 0.9% and 3.2 {+-} 4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3{sup +} in IGRP-reactive CD8{sup +} T cells (36.1 {+-} 10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8{sup +} T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-{beta} induces CD8{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  1. PEG-PLA diblock copolymer micelle-like nanoparticles as all-trans-retinoic acid carrier: in vitro and in vivo characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Qi, Xian Rong; Maitani, Yoshie; Nagai, Tsuneji

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the properties in vitro, i.e. release, degradation, hemolytic potential and anticancer activity, and in vivo disposition of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in rats after administration of ATRA-loaded micelle-like nanoparticles. The amphiphilic block copolymers consisted of a micellar shell-forming mPEG block and a core-forming PLA block. The mPEG-PLA nanoparticles prepared by an acetone volatilization dialysis procedure were identified as having core-shell structure by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Critical association concentration, drug contents, loading efficiency, particle size and ξ potential were evaluated. The release of ATRA from the nanoparticles and the degradation of PLA were found to be mostly associated with the compositions of the nanoparticles. ATRA release was faster at smaller molecular weight of copolymer and lower drug contents. In vitro, the incorporation of ATRA in mPEG-PLA nanoparticles reduced the hemolytic potential of ATRA. Furthermore, anticancer activity of ATRA against HepG2 cell was increased by encapsulation, which showed an enhancement of tumor treatment of ATRA. In vivo, after intravenous injection to rats, the levels of ATRA in the blood stream and the bioavailability were higher for ATRA-loaded mPEG-PLA nanoparticles than those for ATRA solution. In conclusion, the structure of the mPEG-PLA diblock copolymer could be modulated to fit the demand of in vitro and in vivo characterizations of nanoparticles. The mPEG-PLA nanoparticles' loading ATRA have a promising future for injection administration.

  2. All Trans-Retinoic Acid Mediates MED28/HMG Box-Containing Protein 1 (HBP1)/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Hsieh, Nien-Tsu; Huang, Chun-Yin; Li, Chun-I

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin A is required for normal body function, including vision, epithelial integrity, growth, and differentiation. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a family member of vitamin A, has been explored in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of cancer. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disrupted cadherin-catenin complex often contribute to colorectal malignancy. MED28, a mammalian Mediator subunit, is found highly expressed in breast and colorectal cancers. Our laboratory has also reported that MED28 regulates cell growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of ATRA on MED28 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer. HCT116, HT29, SW480, and SW620, four human colorectal cancer cell lines representing different stages of carcinogenesis and harboring critical genetic changes, were employed. Our data indicated that regardless of genetic variations among these cells, suppression of MED28 reduced the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and nuclear β-catenin, but increased the expression of E-cadherin and HMG box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) where HBP1 has been described as a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The reporter activity of an HBP1 promoter increased upon MED28 knockdown, but decreased upon MED28 overexpression. ATRA reduced the expression of MED28 and mimicked the effect of MED28 suppression in down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, ATRA can reverse the suppressive effect of MED28 on HBP1 and E-cadherin and inactivate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer, suggesting a protective effect of ATRA against colorectal cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1796-1803, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660958

  3. Combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin, all-trans retinoic acid and low molecular weight heparin based on self-assembled multi-functional polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Hui; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Sun, Li; Li, Yuanke; Yao, Li; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Based on the complementary effects of doxorubicin (DOX), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), the combination therapy of DOX, ATRA and LMWH was expected to exert the enhanced anti-tumor effects and reduce the side effects. In this study, amphiphilic LMWH-ATRA conjugate was synthesized for encapsulating the DOX. In this way, DOX, ATRA and LMWH were assembled into a single nano-system by both chemical and physical modes to obtain a novel anti-tumor targeting drug delivery system that can realize the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs with different properties to the tumor. LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles exhibited good loading capacities for DOX with excellent physico-chemical properties, good biocompatibility, and good differentiation-inducing activity and antiangiogenic activity. The drug-loading capacity was up to 18.7% with an entrapment efficiency of 78.8%. It was also found that DOX-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles (DHR nanoparticles) could be efficiently taken up by tumor cells via endocytic pathway, and mainly distributed in cytoplasm at first, then transferred into cell nucleus. Cell viability assays suggested that DHR nanoparticles maintained the cytotoxicity effect of DOX on MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the in vivo imaging analysis indicated that DiR-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles could target the tumor more effectively as compared to free DiR. Furthermore, DHR nanoparticles possessed much higher anticancer activity and reduced side effects compared to free drugs solution. These results suggested that DHR nanoparticles could be considered as a promising targeted delivery system for combination cancer chemotherapy with lower adverse effects.

  4. Prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity of all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro toxicity data and in silico physiologically based kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisse, Jochem; Bosgra, Sieto; Blaauboer, Bas J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Verwei, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    The use of laboratory animals for toxicity testing in chemical safety assessment meets increasing ethical, economic and legislative constraints. The development, validation and application of reliable alternatives for in vivo toxicity testing are therefore urgently needed. In order to use toxicity data obtained from in vitro assays for risk assessment, in vitro concentration-response data need to be translated into in vivo dose-response data that are needed to obtain points of departure for risk assessment, like a benchmark dose (BMD). In the present study, we translated in vitro concentration-response data of the retinoid all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), obtained in the differentiation assay of the embryonic stem cell test, into in vivo dose-response data using a physiologically based kinetic model for rat and human that is mainly based on kinetic model parameter values derived using in vitro techniques. The predicted in vivo dose-response data were used for BMD modeling, and the obtained BMDL10 values [lower limit of the 95 % confidence interval on the BMD at which a benchmark response equivalent to a 10 % effect size (BMR10) is reached (BMD10)] for rat were compared with BMDL10 values derived from in vivo developmental toxicity data in rats reported in the literature. The results show that the BMDL10 values from predicted dose-response data differ about sixfold from the BMDL10 values obtained from in vivo data, pointing at the feasibility of using a combined in vitro-in silico approach for defining a point of departure for toxicological risk assessment. PMID:24935252

  5. Effect of differentiating agents (all-trans retinoic acid and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on drug sensitivity of HL60 and NB4 cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Mirecka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have shown that human myeloid leukemia cell lines: HL60 and NB4 can be stimulated to differentiation by various agents, for example, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differentiation of HL60 and NB4 leukemia cell lines induced by ATRA and PMA alters their drug sensitivity. The differentiation along the neutrophil lineage (upon stimulation with ATRA and along the monocyte/macrophage lineage (upon stimulation with PMA was proved by decreased proliferative potential of cells, changes in their morphology, increased ability for NBT reduction and increased expression of CD11b and CD14 cell surface markers. The effect of drugs: cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, mitoxantrone and etoposide was examined by Alamar Blue test (proliferation and survival rates, as well as by evaluation of cell smears stained with Hoechst 33342 (apoptotic index. Differentiation resulted in the change of drug sensitivity in both cell lines: the differentiation along the neutrophil pathway (after stimulation with ATRA increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone but decreased sensitivity to etoposide; the differentiation along the monocyte/macrophage pathway (induced by PMA resulted in the decreased sensitivity of both cell lines to all drugs tested. In conclusion, we have shown that ATRA- and PMA-mediated differentiation of HL60 and NB4 cell lines results in the changes of their drug sensitivity. Our data may provide a contribution to a strategy aimed at a rational combination of differentiating agents and conventional anticancer drugs.

  6. Combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin, all-trans retinoic acid and low molecular weight heparin based on self-assembled multi-functional polymeric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the complementary effects of doxorubicin (DOX), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), the combination therapy of DOX, ATRA and LMWH was expected to exert the enhanced anti-tumor effects and reduce the side effects. In this study, amphiphilic LMWH–ATRA conjugate was synthesized for encapsulating the DOX. In this way, DOX, ATRA and LMWH were assembled into a single nano-system by both chemical and physical modes to obtain a novel anti-tumor targeting drug delivery system that can realize the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs with different properties to the tumor. LMWH–ATRA nanoparticles exhibited good loading capacities for DOX with excellent physico-chemical properties, good biocompatibility, and good differentiation-inducing activity and antiangiogenic activity. The drug-loading capacity was up to 18.7% with an entrapment efficiency of 78.8%. It was also found that DOX-loaded LMWH–ATRA nanoparticles (DHR nanoparticles) could be efficiently taken up by tumor cells via endocytic pathway, and mainly distributed in cytoplasm at first, then transferred into cell nucleus. Cell viability assays suggested that DHR nanoparticles maintained the cytotoxicity effect of DOX on MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the in vivo imaging analysis indicated that DiR-loaded LMWH–ATRA nanoparticles could target the tumor more effectively as compared to free DiR. Furthermore, DHR nanoparticles possessed much higher anticancer activity and reduced side effects compared to free drugs solution. These results suggested that DHR nanoparticles could be considered as a promising targeted delivery system for combination cancer chemotherapy with lower adverse effects. (paper)

  7. Ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of all-trans-retinoic acid during Behçet's disease: a study in Algerian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeraba, Zineb; Boumedine, Karim; Arroul-Lammali, Amina; Otmani, Fifi; Belguendouz, Houda; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2014-02-01

    Uveitis, recurrent oral and genital ulcerations associated with skin lesions are the major symptoms of a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disorder known as Behçet's disease (BD). High prevalence of this dreaded disease has been observed in the Mediterranean basin, including Algeria and along the Silk Road. Although the etiologic agent of this disease remains uncertain, many hypotheses have been advanced in its pathogenesis. Our team has previously reported high levels of nitric oxide (NO) in sera of BD patients, suggesting its deleterious effect during chronic inflammation. In our current study, the aim is to investigate the ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on NO pathway in Algerian BD patients. First, peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from active and inactive BD patients and healthy controls were cultured with different concentrations of ATRA. NO production was estimated with the Griess method. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ATRA effect on NO production, we analyze inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity by immunofluorescence test. Our results revealed a higher production of NO in active BD compared with the inactive stage and healthy controls. We observed that ATRA inhibits NO production in BD both in active and inactive stages and inhibits NF-κB translocation. In conclusion, we report a relationship between NO production and the disease activity. ATRA down-regulates NO production in BD patients. This immunomodulatory effect seems to be mediated through NF-κB pathway. All these findings suggest that ATRA could be considered as a promising therapy for BD. PMID:24369064

  8. All-trans retinoic acid regulates the expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 in the guinea pig sclera and human scleral fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanxu; McFadden, Sally A.; Morgan, Ian; Cui, Dongmei; Hu, Jianmin; Wan, Wenjuan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fibulin-1 (FBLN1) mRNA is expressed in human sclera and is an important adhesion modulatory protein that can affect cell–matrix interactions and tissue remodeling. Scleral remodeling is influenced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Our purpose was to confirm the presence of fibulin-1 protein in guinea pig sclera and investigate the effect of RA on the expression of fibulin-1 in guinea pig sclera in vivo and in cultured human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Methods Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study fibulin-1 and aggrecan expression and localization in sclera from control guinea pigs and in animals given RA by daily gavage from 4 to 8 days of age. The effects of RA (from 10−9 to 10−5 M) on fibulin-1 expression in HSFs were observed by immunohistochemistry and assayed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Results Fibulin-1 protein expression was detected by confocal fluorescence microscopy in guinea pig sclera and in cultured HSFs. Upregulation of fibulin-1 in scleral tissue was observed after feeding with RA. In vitro, the level of Fbln1 mRNA was increased after treatment of HSFs with RA (at concentrations of 10−8 to 10−6 M; p<0.001), with a maximum effect at 10−7 M. Fibulin-1 protein levels were significantly increased after treatment of HSFs with 10−7 M of RA for 24 or 48 h (p<0.05). Conclusions Fibulin-1 protein was expressed in guinea pig sclera and cultured HSFs. Expression was regulated by RA, a molecule known to be involved in the regulation of eye growth. Further studies on the role of fibulin-1 in the regulation of eye growth, including during the development of myopia, are therefore warranted. PMID:20405022

  9. Regulatory CD8+ T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-β suppress autoimmune diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antigen-specific regulatory CD4+ T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8+ T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8+ T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8+ T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-β, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days. CD8+ T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-β and ATRA had low Foxp3+ expression (1.7 ± 0.9% and 3.2 ± 4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8+ T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-β, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3+ in IGRP-reactive CD8+ T cells (36.1 ± 10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8+ T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-β, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8+ T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-β induces CD8+Foxp3+ T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on procoagulant and fibrinolytic activities of cultured blast cells from patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, V; Teofili, L; Sica, S; Mastrangelo, S; Di Mario, A; Rutella, S; Salutari, P; Rumi, C; d'Onofrio, G; Leone, G

    1995-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) coagulopathy and its reversal by administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have been investigated. Bone marrow promyelocytic blasts from nine patients with APL were cultured with or without ATRA 1 mumol/L. Cultured blasts (days 0, 3, 6, and 9) were washed, resuspended in phosphate buffer, lysed by freezing and thawing, and then assayed for procoagulant activity (PCA), elastase activity, tissue factor (TF) antigen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) antigen. PCA was determined by a recalcification assay. Elastase was measured by an amidolytic assay (S-2484). TF, t-PA, and u-PA antigens were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Malignant promyelocytes isolated from the patients had increased levels of PCA and TF as compared with the control polymorphonucleates, and low levels of elastase, t-PA, and u-PA; the patient blast PCA level was significantly related to the degree of hypofibrinogenemia. In this system, blast PCA depended on the tissue factor and was significantly correlated to the TF antigen values. In the cultures without ATRA, PCA, TF, and u-PA progressively increased, whereas elastase and t-PA levels remained essentially unchanged. In the presence of ATRA, all parameters (except u-PA) decreased during the culture time. Thus, a major role of the promyelocytic blast cell PCA in the pathogenesis of M3-related coagulopathy is suggested; the ATRA effect on coagulopathy seems mainly mediated by a downregulation of the PCA. PMID:7579461

  11. All-trans retinoic acid inhibited angiotensin Ⅱ-induced increase in cell growth and collagen secretion of neonatal cardiac fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HE; Ying HUANG; Li ZHOU; Li-min LU; Yi-chun ZHU; Tai YAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) acts to modulate angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) -induced cardiac fibroblast cell growth and collagen secretion.Methods:Cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (CF) were used in the experiment.A 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect cell growth of the CF;and immunocytochemistry and Western blotting were used to measure the production and secretion of collagen and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by the CF.Results:atRA (1×10-7 to 1×10-5mol/L) inhibitedtheAngⅡ-induced increase in cell growth of CF (P<0.05).Ang Ⅱ stimulated the secretion of collagen types Ⅰ and Ⅲ by the CF. This eflfect was blocked by AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (1×10-6 mol/L) ,but notbyAT2 receptorantagonistPDl23319 (upto 1×10-6mol/L).Exposure of CF to atRA (1×10-5mol/L) attenuated the Ang Ⅱ-induced increase in the secretion of collagen types I and Ⅲ (P<0.05).atRA (1×10-5mol/L) also blocked the Ang Ⅱ-induced increase in the expression of TGF-β1.Conclusion:atRA inhibits the Ang Ⅱ-induced increase in cell growth and collagen secretion of neonatal rat CF.The effect of atRA is possibly mediated by lowering the TGF-β1 level.These observations support the notion that atRA is a potential candidate for the prevention and therapy of cardiac remodeling.

  12. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L.; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1500-fold and 2800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  13. Structural remodeling of proteoglycans upon retinoic acid-induced differentiation of NCCIT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E; Nairn, Alison V; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1,500-fold and 2,800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  14. Complete remission of t(11;17) positive acute promyelocytic leukemia induced by all-trans retinoic acid and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Jansen (Joop); M.C. de Breems-de Ridder (Marleen); W.M. Geertsma; C.A.J. Erpelinck (Claudia); K. van Lom (Kirsten); R. Slater (Rosalyn); B.A. van der Reijden (Bert); G.E. de Greef (Georgine); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); B. Löwenberg (Bob); E.M.E. Smit (Elisabeth)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe combined use of retinoic acid and chemotherapy has led to an important improvement of cure rates in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Retinoic acid forces terminal maturation of the malignant cells and this application represents the first generally accepted

  15. Chmp 1A is a mediator of the anti-proliferative effects of All-trans Retinoic Acid in human pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hanh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently have shown that Charged multivesicular protein/Chromatin modifying protein1A (Chmp1A functions as a tumor suppressor in human pancreatic tumor cells. Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis of all cancers with a dismal 5-year survival rate. Preclinical studies using ATRA for treating human pancreatic cancer suggest this compound might be useful for treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which ATRA inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells is not clear. The objective of our study was to investigate whether Chmp1A is involved in ATRA-mediated growth inhibition of human pancreatic tumor cells. Results We performed microarray studies using HEK 293T cells and discovered that Chmp1A positively regulated Cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP-1. CRBP-1 is a key regulator of All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA through ATRA metabolism and nuclear localization. Since our microarray data indicates a potential involvement of Chmp1A in ATRA signaling, we tested this hypothesis by treating pancreatic tumor cells with ATRA in vitro. In the ATRA-responsive cell lines, ATRA significantly increased the protein expression of Chmp1A, CRBP-1, P53 and phospho-P53 at serine 15 and 37 position. We found that knockdown of Chmp1A via shRNA abolished the ATRA-mediated growth inhibition of PanC-1 cells. Also, Chmp1A silencing diminished the increase of Chmp1A, P53 and phospho-P53 protein expression induced by ATRA. In the ATRA non-responsive cells, ATRA did not have any effect on the protein level of Chmp1A and P53. Chmp1A over-expression, however, induced growth inhibition of ATRA non-responsive cells, which was accompanied by an increase of Chmp1A, P53 and phospho-P53. Interestingly, in ATRA responsive cells Chmp1A is localized to the nucleus, which became robust upon ATRA treatment. In the ATRA-non-responsive cells, Chmp1A was mainly translocated to the plasma membrane upon ATRA treatment. Conclusion

  16. Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA on Viability, Proliferation, Activation and Lineage-Specific Transcription Factors of CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, as an active metabolite of vitamin A, has been shown to affect immune cells. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ATRA on viability, proliferation, activation and lineage-specific transcription factors of CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells were  separated  from  heparinized  blood  of  healthy  donors  and  were  cultured  in conditions, some with, some without ATRA.Viability was assessed by PI  flowcytometry and proliferation was measured by MTT assay. CD69 expression was determined by flowcytometry as a measure of cell activation. Lineage-specific transcription  factors  (FOXP3,  RORγt  and  T-bet  were  examined  by intracellular staining and flowcytometry. High doses of ATRA (0.1-1 mM caused extensive cell death in both PBMCs and CD4+ T cells. Doses of ATRA equal to or lower than 10 µM did not  adversely affect cell viability and proliferation in comparison to  culture medium without ATRA.Doses of ATRA between 10 µM and 1nM significantly increased cell activation when compared  to  culture medium without  ATRA. ATRA could increase FOXP3+  and also FOXP3+RORγt+ T cells while it decreased RORγt+ and T-bet+ T cells. This study showed that doses of ATRA up to 10 µM are safe when using with CD4+  T cells in terms of cell viability, proliferation and activation.We  could  also  show  that  ATRA  diverts  the  human  immune  response  in  neutral conditions (without adding polarizing cytokines by increasing FOXP3+  cells and decreasing RORγt+  cells. ATRA could be regarded as a potential therapy in inflammatory conditions and autoimmunities.

  17. 全反式维甲酸对血管粥样硬化病变作用的研究进展%Research Progress for Effect of All-trans-retinoic Acid to Vascular Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育盛

    2012-01-01

    All-trans-refinoic acid is a natural derivative of vitamin A in the body. It plays an important role in embryonic development, vision, immune regulation, and induces cellular differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that as an important biological active substance, all-trans retinoic acid could regulate the apoptosis of endothelial cells and the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. All-trans retinoic acid may be able to affect the development of vascular atherosclerosis and inhibit the formation of athermanous plaque. This article reviews recent research on the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on vascular atherosclerosis.%全反式维甲酸是维生素A在体内的天然衍生物,既往发现其在胚胎发育、视觉形成、免疫功能、诱导正常分化等生理过程中具有一定作用,临床上也应用于皮肤病、急性早幼粒白血病等多种疾病的治疗.近年来研究发现全反式维甲酸作为一种重要的生物活性物质,具有调节血管内皮凋亡、血管平滑肌增殖、氧化应激、炎症浸润等多种功能,可能能够作用于血管粥样硬化的发生发展过程中的关键环节,从而起抑制粥样斑块形成的作用.现就近年来全反式维甲酸在粥样硬化发生发展机制的研究进展做一综述.

  18. Identification of tumor invasion-related differentially expressed genes in different grades and all-trans retinoic acid-treated astrocytoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zeng; Zhong Yang; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several genetic aberrations and gene expressional changes have been shown to exist in tumors and different grades of astrocytomas, as well as in normal tissues, the gene profiling and genetic pathways associated with malignant transformation and progression remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identity differentially expressed genes related to tumor invasion from various grades and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated astrocytoma cell lines by cDNA microarray. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: In vitro gene experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from January to October 2007. MATERIALS: Two different grades of astrocytoma cell lines CHG-5 (WHO grade Ⅱ) and SHG-44 (WHOgrade Ⅳ) were developed by our laboratory; a cell differentiation-inducing agent ATRA and a human cDNA microarray technology were used to determine differentially expressed genes (City University of Hong Kong). METHODS: Total RNA was extracted using the Trizol test kit. Reverse transcription was performed using Superscript Ⅱ reverse transcriptase. The eDNA product (target DNA) was marked with fluorochromes Cy3 (normal SHG-44) and Cy5 (CHG-5 or ATRA-treated SHG-44), followed by chip hybridization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gene expression profiles of CHG-5 vs. SttG-44 and ATRA-treated vs. Normal SHG-44 were performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Several of these genes were randomly selected for Northern Blot analysis. The identification of genes that were similarly regulated (overlapping) was performed by comparing gene expression profiles between CHG-5 and SHG-44 cells, and between SHG-44 cells with or without treatment with ATRA. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between CHG5 and SHG-44 cell line morphology. Under confocal microscopy. GFAP staining intensity of CHG5 cells was greater than SHG-44 cells (t = 6.078, P = 0.004). Growth curve analysis demonstrated that the speed of SHG-44 cell

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Gill; Bijjem, Krishna Reddy V.; Sharma, Pyare L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ receptors in carrageenan-induced inflammation and in the anti-inflammatory effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Materials and Methods: The λ-carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1% w/v) was injected into intra-plantar (i.pl.) region of the hind paw to produce acute inflammation. Paw volume was measured by using the mercury plethysmography. Further, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) ...

  20. Effect of Tanshitone on prevention and treatment of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-meng; LIU Yu-bo; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the prevention and therapeutic effects of tanshitone (TAN) on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in mice. Methods The mice osteoporosis was induced by given retinoic acid intragasttrically for two weeks. The histomorphological features of bone were observed and biochemical indexes in serum (Ca, P, ALP, TRAP, E2, BGP) were determined after mice were given TAN at the dose of 40, 80, 160 mg·kg-1 respectively. Results Tanshitone can induce high conversion of osteoporosis. The levels of P, ALP, TRAP and BGP in the TAN groups were lower than the model group, while the E2 level was higher than the model group. Conclusions Tanshitone can prevent the loss bone in the experimental mice. The mechanism may be that it improves the level of estrogenic hormone and inhibits the high bone turnover.

  1. Direct Channeling of Retinoic Acid between Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Protein II and Retinoic Acid Receptor Sensitizes Mammary Carcinoma Cells to Retinoic Acid-Induced Growth Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Budhu, Anuradha S.; Noy, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABP-II) is an intracellular lipid-binding protein that associates with retinoic acid with a subnanomolar affinity. We previously showed that CRABP-II enhances the transcriptional activity of the nuclear receptor with which it shares a common ligand, namely, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR), and we suggested that it may act by delivering retinoic acid to this receptor. Here, the mechanisms underlying the effects of CRABP-II on the transcriptional ac...

  2. Influence of suppressor gene p16 on retinoic acid inducing cancer cell A549 differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of suppressor gene p16 in the process of differential regulation of retinoic acid (RA) on the A549 lung cancer cells.Methods Tumor suppressor gene p16 was transferred into A549 cells and the cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATR) at the dosage of 5×10-6 mol/L for 4 d. After that, the proliferation and differentiation of A549 cells were examined by growth curve and cytometry analysis, the change of lung lineage-specific marker MUC1 was tested by immunohistochemical staining. Meanwhile, Western blot was used to observe the change of p16 protein expression in A549 cells treated with ATRA.Results ATRA could obviously inhibit the growth and induce the differentiation of A549 Cells that were transferred with p16 gene. There were more cells arrested in G1/G0 phase and the expression of MUG1 was markedly down-regulated than in control cells. The expression of p16 protein was up-regulated in A549 cells treated with ATRA.Conclusion Suppressor gene p16 could enhance the effects of RA and proliferated suppression and differential induction of A549 cells.

  3. Gene expression in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects A cDNA mieroarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Long; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    the cranium and abnormal changes of the metencephalon and face.cDNA microarray analysis suggested that the changes in expression of seven different genes were similar on both days E10.5 and E11.5. These were downregulation of NekT, Igfbp5, Zw10,Csf3r, Psmc6 and Rbl, and upregulation of Apoa-4. This study also indicated that Cdk5 expression was downregulated in the retinoic acid group on day E11.5. The results of the cDNA microarray analysis were partly confirmed by Northern blotting.CONCLUSION: Cdk5, NekT, Igfbp5, ZwlO, Csf3r, Psmc6, Rb 1 and Apoa-4 may be key factors in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  4. Acute Coronary Syndrome Manifesting as an Adverse Effect of All-trans-Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Report with Review of the Literature and a Spotlight on Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind Babu, K.; Lokesh, K. N.; Suresh Babu, M. C.; Bhat, Gita R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by t(15;17). This leads to the formation of PML/RARα which blocks the differentiation of blasts at the stage of promyelocytes. This is reversed by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative. Acute myocardial ischemia is a rare side effect of ATRA. Case Report. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome manifesting as an adverse effect of ATRA in a lady with APL who had no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. We emphasize the need for high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this entity. In the light of this case, the rare instances of ATRA associated acute myocardial ischemia recorded in the literature and the options available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia sans ATRA have been reviewed. PMID:26981297

  5. Acute Coronary Syndrome Manifesting as an Adverse Effect of All-trans-Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Report with Review of the Literature and a Spotlight on Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Govind Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by t(15;17. This leads to the formation of PML/RARα which blocks the differentiation of blasts at the stage of promyelocytes. This is reversed by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, a vitamin A derivative. Acute myocardial ischemia is a rare side effect of ATRA. Case Report. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome manifesting as an adverse effect of ATRA in a lady with APL who had no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. We emphasize the need for high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this entity. In the light of this case, the rare instances of ATRA associated acute myocardial ischemia recorded in the literature and the options available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia sans ATRA have been reviewed.

  6. Retinoic acid induces nuclear accumulation of Raf1 during differentiation of HL-60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Reiterer, Gudrun [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Coder, David; George, Thaddeus [Amnis Corporation, Seattle, Washington (United States); Asaly, Michael [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yen, Andrew, E-mail: ay13@cornell.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    All trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a standard therapeutic agent used in differentiation induction therapy treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). RA and its metabolites use a diverse set of signal transduction pathways during the differentiation program. In addition to the direct transcriptional targets of the nuclear RAR and RXR receptors, signals derived from membrane receptors and the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway are required. Raf1 phosphorylation and the prolonged activation of Raf1 persisting during the entire differentiation process are required for RA-dependent differentiation of HL-60 cells. Here we identify a nuclear redistribution of Raf1 during the RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. In addition, the nuclear accumulation of Raf1 correlates with an increase in Raf1 phosphorylated at serine 621. The serine 621 phosphorylated Raf1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus. The RA-dependent nuclear accumulation of Raf1 suggests a novel nuclear role for Raf1 during the differentiation process.

  7. Retinoic acid induces HL-60 cell differentiation via the upregulation of miR-663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuan Zhou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line HL-60 can be induced by all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA; however, the mechanism regulating this process has not been fully characterized. Methods Using bioinformatics and in vitro experiments, we identified the microRNA gene expression profile of HL-60 cells during ATRA induced granulocytic differentiation. Results Six microRNAs were upregulated by ATRA treatment, miR-663, miR-494, miR-145, miR-22, miR-363* and miR-223; and three microRNAs were downregulated, miR-10a, miR-181 and miR-612. Additionally, miR-663 expression was regulated by ATRA. We used a lentivirus (LV backbone incorporating the spleen focus forming virus (SFFV-F promoter to drive miR-663 expression, as the CMV (Cytomegalovirus promoter is ineffective in some lymphocyte cells. Transfection of LV-miR-663 induced significant HL-60 cell differentiation in vitro. Conclusions Our results show miR-663 may play an important role in ATRA induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Lentivirus delivery of miR-663 could potentially be used directly as an anticancer treatment in hematological malignancies

  8. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF cDNA FRAGMENTS AND FULL-LENGTH cDNA DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELL LINE BT-325 VERSUS ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金虎林; 胡松年; 李光涛; 涂纯; 袁建刚; 强伯勤

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the differentiation process of the human glioblastoma cells. Methods. Differential display reverse transcribed-PCR(DDRT-PCR) was used to isolate the genes differentially expressed in control and all-trans retinoic acid treated human glioblastoma cell line BT-325. Routine method of cDNA library screening was performed to clone full-length cDNA. Results. Thirty-six RT-PCR reactions were performed and 64 differentially expressed fragments were recovered, amplified and cloned. Of them,46 ESTs were sequenced and delivered into the GenBank. The homology comparison us ing BLAST algorithm revealed that 22ESTs are highly homologous with the known genes and many of them play impor tant roles in the cell differentiation progress. A dot-blot hybridization was conducted to certify the differentiation expres sion. The result showed that 27 EST clones are expressed at different level in control and all-trans retinoi c acid treated BT-325 cells. A full-length cDNA was cloned using the ES T-HGBB098. Conclusion. DDRT-PCR was a simple and effective method to serially analyze the differentially expressed genes.

  9. Morphogenetic and neuronal characterization of human neuroblastoma multicellular spheroids cultured under undifferentiated and all-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwon-Soo Jung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to compare the morphogenetic andneuronal characteristics between monolayer cells andspheroids. For this purpose, we established spheroid formationby growing SH-SY5Y cells on the hydrophobic surfaces ofthermally-collapsed elastin-like polypeptide. After 4 days ofculture, the relative proliferation of the cells within spheroidswas approximately 92% of the values for monolayer cultures.As measured by quantitative assays for mRNA and proteinexpressions, the production of synaptophysin and neuronspecificenolase (NSE as well as the contents of cell adhesionmolecules (CAMs and extracellular matrix (ECM proteins aremuch higher in spheroids than in monolayer cells. Under theall-trans-retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation condition,spheroids extended neurites and further up-regulated theexpression of synaptophysin, NSE, CAMs, and ECM proteins.Our data indicate that RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y neurospheroidsare functionally matured neuronal architectures. [BMBReports 2013; 46(5: 276-281

  10. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF cDNA FRAGMENTS AND FULL-LENGTH cDNA DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSEDIN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELL LINE BT-325 VERSUS ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金虎林; 胡松年; 李光涛; 涂纯; 袁建刚; 强伯勤

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the differentiation process of the human glioblastoma cells. Methods. Differential display reverse transcribed-PCR(DDRT-PCR) was used to isolate the genes differentially expressed in control and all-trans retinoic acid treated human glioblastoma cell line BT-325. Routine method of cDNA library screening was performed to clone full-length cDNA. Results. Thirty-six RT-PCR reactions were performed and 64 differentially expressed fragments were recovered, amplified and cloned. Of them,46 ESTs were sequenced and delivered into the GenBank. The homology comparison us-ing BLAST algorithm revealed that 22ESFs are highly homologous with the known genes and many of them play impor-tant roles in the cell differentiation progress. A dot-blot hybridization was conducted to certify the differemiation expres-sion. The result showed that 27 EST clones are expressed at different level in control and all-traus retinoic acid treated BT-325 cells. A full-length cDNA was cloned using the EST-HGBB098.Conclusion. DDRT-PCR was a simple and effective method to segally analyze the differentially expressed genes.

  11. All-trans retinoic acid combined with 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine induces C/EBP{alpha} expression and growth inhibition in MLL-AF9-positive leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Atsushi [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Imamura, Toshihiko, E-mail: imamura@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Sakamoto, Kenichi; Kawashima, Sachiko; Yoshida, Hideki; Hirashima, Yoshifumi; Miyachi, Mitsuru; Yagyu, Shigeki; Nakatani, Takuya [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Sugita, Kanji [Department of Pediatrics, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Hosoi, Hajime [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested whether ATRA and 5-Aza affect AML cell differentiation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell differentiation and growth arrest were induced in MLL-AF9-expressing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1 were also observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells are less sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different MLL fusion has distinct epigenetic properties related to RA pathway. -- Abstract: The present study tested whether all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine (5-Aza) affect AML cell differentiation and growth in vitro by acting on the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}) and c-Myc axis. After exposure to a combination of these agents, cell differentiation and growth arrest were significantly higher in human and murine MLL-AF9-expressing cells than in MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells, which were partly associated with increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1, and decreased expression of c-Myc. These findings indicate that MLL-AF9-expressing cells are more sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza, indicating that different MLL fusion proteins possess different epigenetic properties associated with retinoic acid pathway inactivation.

  12. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. ► We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. ► RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. ► It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RARα. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1–100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  13. Sensitivity of MLL-rearranged AML cells to all-trans retinoic acid is associated with the level of H3K4me2 in the RARα promoter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is well established as differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which the PML–RARα (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α) fusion protein causes blockade of the retinoic acid (RA) pathway; however, in types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) other than APL, the mechanism of RA pathway inactivation is not fully understood. This study revealed the potential mechanism of high ATRA sensitivity of mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9-positive AML compared with MLL-AF4/5q31-positive AML. Treatment with ATRA induced significant myeloid differentiation accompanied by upregulation of RARα, C/EBPα, C/EBPε and PU.1 in MLL-AF9-positive but not in MLL-AF4/5q31-positive cells. Combining ATRA with cytarabine had a synergistic antileukemic effect in MLL-AF9-positive cells in vitro. The level of dimethyl histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2) in the RARα gene-promoter region, PU.1 upstream regulatory region (URE) and RUNX1+24/+25 intronic enhancer was higher in MLL-AF9-positive cells than in MLL-AF4-positive cells, and inhibiting lysine-specific demethylase 1, which acts as a histone demethylase inhibitor, reactivated ATRA sensitivity in MLL-AF4-positive cells. These findings suggest that the level of H3K4me2 in the RARα gene-promoter region, PU.1 URE and RUNX1 intronic enhancer is determined by the MLL-fusion partner. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of ATRA sensitivity in AML and novel treatment strategies for ATRA-resistant AML

  14. Effects of varied interferons in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on proliferation and differentiation of ATRA-resistent APL cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Peng-cheng; ZHANG Mei; LI Jing; CAI Rui-bo; LIU Ya-lin; CAO Yun-xin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanisms of interferon in combination with alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) on proliferation and differentiation of ATRA-resistent APL cell. Methods :After MR2 cells (ATRA-resistance cell line) were treated with IFN-α, IFN-γ and ATRA alone or IFN-α and IFN-γ in combination with ATRA respectively. The cell roliferation was tested by MTT test and the cell differentiation was tested through light microscope by NBT test and flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein was observed by indirect immune fluorescent method. Results: Both IFN-α and IFN-γ could inhibit the proliferation and induce the differentiation of MR2 cells to some extent. The effects were more obvious after both interferons in combination with ATRA respectively (P<0. 05). Moreover, the maturation of MR2 cells induced by IFN-γ+ATRA group was more higher than that by IFN-α+ATRA group (P<0.05). Both interferons could induce the expressions of PML protein. Conclusion :Both interferons can inhibit MR2 cells proliferation, which may be related to the expression of PML protein induced by both interferons. The inducing differentiation effects of IFN-γ+ATRA group on MR2 cells are more powerful than those of IFN-α+ATRA group, which may be related to the different signal transduction pathway of both interferons.

  15. Retinoic acid induces sodium/iodide symporter gene expression and radioiodide uptake in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Kogai, Takahiko; Schultz, James J.; Johnson, Laura S.; Huang, Min; Brent, Gregory A.

    2000-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) stimulates iodide uptake in normal lactating breast, but is not known to be active in nonlactating breast or breast cancer. We studied NIS gene regulation and iodide uptake in MCF-7 cells, an estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell line. All-trans retinoic acid (tRA) treatment stimulated iodide uptake in a time- and dose-dependent fashion up to ≈9.4-fold above baseline. Stimulation with selective retinoid compounds indicated that the inductio...

  16. MicroRNA gene expression during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, R; Pichiorri, F; Palumbo, T; Visentini, M; Aqeilan, R; Cimmino, A; Wang, H; Sun, H; Volinia, S; Alder, H; Calin, G A; Liu, C-G; Andreeff, M; Croce, C M

    2007-06-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides that are involved in the regulation of critical cell processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in granulopoiesis. Here, we report the expression of miRNAs in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients and cell lines during all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment by using a miRNA microarrays platform and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found upregulation of miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16-1, let-7a-3, let-7c, let-7d, miR-223, miR-342 and miR-107, whereas miR-181b was downregulated. Among the upregulated miRNAs, miR-107 is predicted to target NFI-A, a gene that has been involved in a regulatory loop involving miR-223 and C/EBPa during granulocytic differentiation. Indeed, we have confirmed that miR-107 targets NF1-A. To get insights about ATRA regulation of miRNAs, we searched for ATRA-modulated transcription factors binding sites in the upstream genomic region of the let-7a-3/let-7b cluster and identified several putative nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) consensus elements. The use of reporter gene assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that one proximal NF-kappaB binding site is essential for the transactivation of the let-7a-3/let-7b cluster. Finally, we show that ATRA downregulation of RAS and Bcl2 correlate with the activation of known miRNA regulators of those proteins, let-7a and miR-15a/miR-16-1, respectively. PMID:17260024

  17. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  18. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  19. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18 W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: ishizum@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18 W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RAR{alpha}. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1-100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  20. Retinoic acid-induced gene expression in normal and leukemic myeloid cells

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Retinoic acid has been shown to induce large accumulations of tissue transglutaminase in cultured myeloid cells. Addition of retinoic acid to mouse resident peritoneal macrophages increased the level of tissue transglutaminase mRNA within 30-60 min. Retinoic acid also increased tissue transglutaminase mRNA levels in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL- 60) cells. These studies show that retinoic acid can induce acute alterations in specific gene expression in both normal and leukemic myeloid cells.

  1. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid and their combination on the expression of selected nuclear RARs and RXRs and protein profile in human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brtko, J.; Macejová, D.; Bialešová, L.; Toporová, L.; Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette

    Elsevier. 238S, - (2015), S373-S373. ISSN 0378-4274. [Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology (EUROTOX) /51./. 13.09.2015-16.09.2015, Porto] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR SAV-15-01 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : proteins * retinoic acid isomers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Proteomic analysis of changes in the protein composition of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and their combination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Macejová, D.; Bialesova, L.; Hunakova, L.; Brtko, J.; Bobálová, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 1 (2015), s. 226-232. ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK151 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : retinoic acid * polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis * MALDI TOF MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.262, year: 2014

  3. Protein phosphatase 2A associates with Rb2/p130 and mediates retinoic acid-induced growth suppression of ovarian carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuocolo, Scott; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Zhang, Dongmei;

    2003-01-01

    Levels of Rb2/p130 protein are increased 5-10-fold following all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of the retinoid-sensitive ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line CAOV3, but not the retinoid-resistant adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3. We found that this increase in Rb2/p130 protein levels in ATRA...

  4. Myeloid neoplasm demonstrating a STAT5B-RARA rearrangement and genetic alterations associated with all-trans retinoic acid resistance identified by a custom next-generation sequencing assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluk, Michael J; Abo, Ryan P; Brown, Ronald D; Kuo, Frank C; Dal Cin, Paola; Pozdnyakova, Olga; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Lindeman, Neal I; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Aster, Jon C

    2015-10-01

    We describe the case of a patient presenting with several weeks of symptoms related to pancytopenia associated with a maturation arrest at the late promyelocyte/early myelocyte stage of granulocyte differentiation. A diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia was considered, but the morphologic features were atypical for this entity and conventional tests for the presence of a PML-RARA fusion gene were negative. Additional analysis using a custom next-generation sequencing assay revealed a rearrangement producing a STAT5B-RARA fusion gene, which was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and supplementary cytogenetic studies, allowing the diagnosis of a morphologically atypical form of acute promyelocytic leukemia to be made. Analysis of the sequencing data permitted characterization of both chromosomal breakpoints and revealed two additional alterations, a small deletion in RARA exon 9 and a RARA R276W substitution, that have been linked to resistance to all-trans retinoic acid. This case highlights how next-generation sequencing can augment currently standard testing to establish diagnoses in difficult cases, and in doing so help guide selection of therapy. PMID:27148563

  5. All-trans retinoic acid prevents the development of type 1 diabetes by affecting the levels of interferon gamma and interleukin 4 in streptozotocin-induced murine diabetes model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhong, Y J; Wang, Y Y; Xing, J; Wang, Z M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) prevents type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Fifty ICR mice were randomly assigned to three groups: prevention group [N = 20; mice received 10 mg/kg ATRA daily for 5 days and then 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for 5 days]; diabetic group (N = 20, mice received 95% sterile peanut oil and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide for 5 days and then 60 mg/kg STZ for 5 days); and control group (N = 10, mice received 95% sterile peanut oil and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide for 5 days and then citrate buffer for 5 days). Blood glucose was measured using blood glucose test strips and serum insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Islets cell morphology was assessed by microscopy and ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL- 4). In the prevention group, blood sugar levels were found to be reduced and serum insulin levels increased compared with the levels in the diabetic group (P levels of IFN-γ and increase the levels of IL-4 as well as the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in STZ-treated animals (P levels and increasing IL-4 levels. PMID:27050967

  6. Modulation of the retinoic acid-induced cell apoptosis and differentiation by the human TR4 orphan nuclear receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous studies, the TR4 orphan nuclear receptor (TR4) has been demonstrated to suppress retinoic acid (RA)-induced transactivation via a negative feedback control mechanism and in situ analysis showed that TR4 is extensively expressed in mouse brain, especially in regions where the cells are proliferating. To further study the potential roles of TR4 during cell differentiation, a tetracycline-inducible system with anti-sense TR4 in teratocarcinoma P19 cell lines was generated to analyze the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of these cells. The results indicated that the expression of TR4 reduced by doxycycline anti-sense TR4 would alter the retinoic acid-induced differentiation pathway that results in the changes of cell morphology and cell cycle profile. Unexpectedly, our data further indicated that the RA-induced apoptosis, judging by DNA fragmentation, could also be altered by the induction of anti-sense TR4. Together, these findings provide the first in vivo evidence that an orphan nuclear receptor, such as TR4, may play major roles in the RA-mediated apoptosis or differentiation in P19 cells

  7. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Modulates DNA Damage Response and the Expression of the VEGF-A and MKI67 Genes in ARPE-19 Cells Subjected to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka Wanda; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the progressive degradation of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 is an RPE cell line established as an in vitro model for the study of AMD pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is an AMD pathogenesis factor that induces DNA damage. Thus, the oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) of ARPE-19 cells can be important in AMD pathogenesis. The metabolism of retinoids-which regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and the visual cycle in the retina-was reported to be disturbed in AMD patients. In the present work, we studied the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, a retinoid) on DDR in ARPE-19 cells subjected to oxidative stress. We observed that ATRA increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alkali-labile sites in DNA, DNA single-strand breaks, and cell death evoked by oxidative stress. ATRA did not modulate DNA repair or the distribution of cells in cell cycle in the response of ARPE-19 cells to oxidative stress. ATRA induced autophagy in the absence of oxidative stress, but had no effect on this process in the stress. ATRA induced over-expression of proliferation marker MKI67 and neovascularization marker VEGF-A. In conclusion, ATRA increased oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells, resulting in more lesions to their DNA and cell death. Moreover, ATRA can modulate some properties of these cells, including neovascularization, which is associated with the exudative form of AMD. Therefore, ATRA can be important in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of AMD. PMID:27314326

  8. Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Human Plasma and Its Application to a Bioequivalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Bo Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, reliable and specific LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the identification and quantitation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA in human plasma. Acitretin was used as the internal standard (IS. After liquid-liquid extraction of 500 μL plasma with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, ATRA and the IS were chromatographed on a HyPURITY C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm with the column temperature set at 40 °C. The mobile phase was consisted of 40% phase A (MTBE–methanol–acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v and 60% phase B (water–methanol–acetic acid, 50:50:0.5, v/v with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode via the positive electrospray ionization interface using the transition m/z 301.4 → 123.1 for ATRA and m/z 326.9 → 177.1 for IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.45–217.00 ng/mL (r ≥ 0.999 with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ of 0.45 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions values were below 8% relative standard deviation and the accuracy was from 98.98% to 106.19% in terms of relative error. The validated method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of ATRA in Chinese healthy volunteers.

  9. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits KIT activity and induces apoptosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor GIST-T1 cell line by affecting on the expression of survivin and Bax protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Takahiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as a standard first-line therapy for irresectable and metastasized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST patients. Unfortunately, most patients responding to imatinib will eventually exhibit imatinib-resistance, the cause of which is not fully understood. The serious clinical problem of imatinib-resistance demands alternative therapeutic strategy. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA on GIST cell lines. Methods Cell proliferation was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of activated KIT, its downstream proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. The cytotoxic interactions of imatinib with ATRA were evaluated using the isobologram of Steel and Peckham. Results and conclusion In this work, for the first time we have demonstrated that ATRA affected on cell proliferation of GIST-T1 and GIST-882 cell line through inhibition of cell growth in a dose dependent manner and induced apoptosis. High dose of ATRA induced morphologic change in GIST-T1 cells, rounded-up cells, and activated the caspase-3 protein. In further examination, we found that the ATRA-induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells was accompanied by the down-regulated expression of survivin and up-regulated expression of Bax protein. Moreover, ATRA suppressed the activity of KIT protein in GIST-T1 cells and its downstream signal, AKT activity, but not MAPK activity. We also have demonstrated that combination of ATRA with imatinib showed additive effect by isobologram, suggesting that the combination of ATRA and imatinib may be a novel potential therapeutic option for GIST treatment. Furthermore, the scracht assay result suggested that ATRA was a potential reagent to prevent the invasion or metastasis of GIST cells.

  10. Polyoma Virus Infection of Retinoic Acid-Induced Differentiated Teratocarcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Frank K.; Silbert, Pamela E.; Eckhart, Walter; Linney, Elwood

    1981-01-01

    The mouse teratocarcinoma stem cell line, F9, becomes permissive for productive polyoma infection upon treatment with retinoic acid. Through the use of M13-polyoma recombinant single-stranded DNA probes, spliced and unspliced early viral RNA were detected after polyoma infection of retinoic acid-treated and untreated F9 cultures.

  11. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    OpenAIRE

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Janet L. Paluh; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increa...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navneet; Bijjem, Krishna Reddy V.; Sharma, Pyare L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ receptors in carrageenan-induced inflammation and in the anti-inflammatory effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Materials and Methods: The λ-carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1% w/v) was injected into intra-plantar (i.pl.) region of the hind paw to produce acute inflammation. Paw volume was measured by using the mercury plethysmography. Further, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) were assessed by using the dynamic plantar aesthesiometer and plantar test apparatus, respectively. In addition, markers of oxido-nitrosative stress were assessed spectrophotometrically in the hind paw tissue 5 h post-carrageenan. Results: An i.pl injection of carrageenan has produced a marked mechanical hyperalgesia (MH) and TH in ipsilateral paw, which was associated with significant elevated oxido-nitrosative stress. Treatment with ATRA (5 mg/kg/p.o/4 days) and GW0742, a selective PPAR-β/δ receptor agonist (0.1 mg/kg/i.p/4 days), significantly decreased the paw volume, mechanical and TH as compared to vehicle control. Administration of GSK0660, selective PPAR-β/δ receptor antagonist, at a dose of (0.3 mg/kg/i.p/4 days), did not produce a significant effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema, MH and TH. However, co-administration of GSK0660 (0.3 mg/kg/i.p/4 days) along with both ATRA (5 mg/kg/p.o/4 days) and GW0742 (0.1 mg/kg/i.p/4 days), significantly reverse the decreased paw edema, MH, and TH. These observed ameliorative effects on inflammatory pain symptoms are correlated with the extent of reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress. Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress. PMID:23833373

  13. Herpes simplex virus infection is sensed by both Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene- like receptors, which synergize to induce type I interferon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Jensen, Søren B; Nielsen, C;

    2009-01-01

    The innate antiviral response is initiated by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here we show that retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs) in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is required for expression of type I...

  14. Cholinergic activation enhances retinoic acid-induced differentiation in the human NB-4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotirat, Sadudee; Suriyo, Tawit; Hokland, Marianne; Hokland, Peter; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Auewarakul, Chirayu U

    2016-07-01

    The non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) has been shown to play a role in regulating hematopoietic differentiation. We determined the expression of cholinergic components in leukemic cell lines by Western blotting and in normal leukocyte subsets by flow cytometry and found a heterogeneous expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline transporter (CHT), M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR). We then evaluated NNCS role in differentiation of human NB-4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line and discovered a dramatic induction of M3-mAChR after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment (p<0.0001). Adding carbachol which is a cholinergic agonist to the ATRA treatment resulted in an increase of a granulocytic differentiation marker (CD11b) as compared with ATRA treatment alone (p<0.05), indicating that cholinergic activation enhanced ATRA in inducing NB-4 maturation. The combination of carbachol and ATRA treatment for 72h also resulted in decreased viability and increased cleaved caspase-3 expression when compared with ATRA treatment alone (p<0.05). However, this combination did not cause poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Overall, we have shown that NB-4 cells expressed M3-mAChR in a differentiation-dependent manner and cholinergic stimulation induced maturation and death of ATRA-induced differentiated NB-4 cells. PMID:27282572

  15. Involvement of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle perturbation in retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, plays a key role in a variety of biological processes and is essential for normal embryonic development. On the other hand, exogenous RA could cause cleft palate in offspring when it is given to pregnant animals at either the early or late phases of palatogenesis, but the pathogenetic mechanism of cleft palate caused by excess RA remains not fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of excess of RA on early palatogenesis in mouse fetuses and analyze the teratogenic mechanism, especially at the stage prior to palatal shelf elevation. We gave all-trans RA (100 mg/kg) orally to E11.5 ICR pregnant mice and observed the changes occurring in the palatal shelves of their fetuses. It was found that apoptotic cell death increased not only in the epithelium of the palatal shelves but also in the tongue primordium, which might affect tongue withdrawal movement during palatogenesis and impair the horizontal elevation of palatal shelves. In addition, RA was found to prevent the G1/S progression of palatal mesenchymal cells through upregulation of p21 Cip1, leading to Rb hypophospholylation. Thus, RA appears to cause G1 arrest in palatal mesenchymal cells in a similar manner as in various cancer and embryonic cells. It is likely that apoptotic cell death and cell cycle disruption are involved in cleft palate formation induced by RA

  16. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  17. A PU.1 suppressive target gene, metallothionein 1G, inhibits retinoic acid-induced NB4 cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hirako

    Full Text Available We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells.

  18. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chih Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP. Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.

  19. ERF and ETV3L are retinoic acid-inducible repressors required for primary neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, Amanda; Abbey, Rachelle; Chung, Connie; Liu, Sophia; Taketani, Mao; Blumberg, Bruce

    2013-08-01

    Cells in the developing neural tissue demonstrate an exquisite balance between proliferation and differentiation. Retinoic acid (RA) is required for neuronal differentiation by promoting expression of proneural and neurogenic genes. We show that RA acts early in the neurogenic pathway by inhibiting expression of neural progenitor markers Geminin and Foxd4l1, thereby promoting differentiation. Our screen for RA target genes in early Xenopus development identified Ets2 Repressor Factor (Erf) and the closely related ETS repressors Etv3 and Etv3-like (Etv3l). Erf and Etv3l are RA responsive and inhibit the action of ETS genes downstream of FGF signaling, placing them at the intersection of RA and growth factor signaling. We hypothesized that RA regulates primary neurogenesis by inducing Erf and Etv3l to antagonize proliferative signals. Loss-of-function analysis showed that Erf and Etv3l are required to inhibit proliferation of neural progenitors to allow differentiation, whereas overexpression of Erf led to an increase in the number of primary neurons. Therefore, these RA-induced ETS repressors are key components of the proliferation-differentiation switch during primary neurogenesis in vivo. PMID:23824578

  20. Experimental study of the enhancement effect of aminopeptidase N inhibitor ubenimex on the differentiation induction activity of all-trans-retinoic acid in acute promyeiocytic leukemia cells and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱习军

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aminopeptidase N inhibitor ubenimex on differentiation induction of alltrans -retinoic acid (ATRA) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells and its mechanism. Methods The expression of CD11b was analyzed by flow cytometry and nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay was per-

  1. The BRPF2/BRD1-MOZ complex is involved in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye In; Kim, Min Seong; Jang, Yeun Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The scaffold protein BRPF2 (also called BRD1), a key component of histone acetyltransferase complexes, plays an important role in embryonic development, but its function in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether BRPF2 is involved in mouse ESC differentiation. BRPF2 depletion resulted in abnormal formation of embryoid bodies, downregulation of differentiation-associated genes, and persistent maintenance of alkaline phosphatase activity even after retinoic acid-induced differentiation, indicating impaired differentiation of BRPF2-depleted ESCs. We also found reduced global acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) in BRPF2-depleted ESCs, irrespective of differentiation status. Further, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a physical association between BRPF2 and the histone acetyltransferase MOZ in differentiated ESCs, suggesting the role of BRPF2-MOZ complexes in ESC differentiation. Together, these results suggest that BRPF2-MOZ complexes play an important role in the differentiation of ESCs via H3K14 acetylation. PMID:27256846

  2. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Yu Tao; Fan Song; Xi Yuan; Jian Wang; David Saffen

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-u...

  3. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yun; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Zhao-Xia; Han, Bin [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Li-Shun, E-mail: jywangls@shsmu.edu.cn [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha}. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RAR{alpha}). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  4. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. ► Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. ► Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. ► ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RARα. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RARα). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  5. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5'-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, "R(2)-Δ(2)" analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5'-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  6. Effect of all trans-retinoic acid on the expression of synaptopodin in human podocytes induced by high glucose%全反式维甲酸对高糖培养的人肾小球足细胞synaptopodin蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵珊; 白波; 李荣山; 于为民; 黄轶嵘

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of all trans-retinoic acid on the expression of synaptopodin in human podocytes induced by high glucose.Methods Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were exposed to nomal glucose group (NG) and high glucose group (HG).The expression of synaptopodin in podocytes was detected by Western blot.Results The expression of synaptopodin decreased significantly in time-dependent manner after 3,6 and 9 days of high glucose (HG) stimulation [ ( 1.15 ± 0.04) %,(0.78 ± 0.04) %,(0.41 ± 0.05 ) % vs ( 1.49 ± 0.07) %,P < 0.05 ].Compared to HG group,5 μmol/L and 15 μmol/L all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increased synaptopodin expressionat 9th day dramaticaly [ (0.41 ± 0.05 ) %,(0.86 ± 0.04) %,(0.90 ± 0.07 ) % vs ( 1.47 ± 0.08) %,P < 0.05 ].Conclusions High concentration of glucose decreases the expression of synaptopodin in podocyte.All trans retinoic acid(ATRA)may exert protective role on diabetic nephropathy by increasing synaptopodin expression which is downregulated by HG.%目的 探讨高糖培养的人肾小球足细胞synaptopodin蛋白表达的变化以及全反式维甲酸对其表达的干预效应.方法 以体外培养的条件性永生人肾小球足细胞为研究对象,平均分为正常糖(NG)组、高糖(HG)组、HG+5tmol/L全反式维甲酸干预组、HG+ 15 μmol/L全反式维甲酸干预组.蛋白质印迹法检测HG组足细胞培养0、3、6、9d时和其他各组足细胞培养9 dsynaptopodin蛋白的表达.结果 HG组足细胞培养3、6、9d时synaptopodin蛋白表达灰度值与培养0d时比较明显降低[(1.15±0.04)%、(0.78±0.04)%、(0.41±0.05)%比(1.49±0.07)%,P<0.05].培养9d后,与NG组比较,HG组、HG+5μmol/L维甲酸干预组、HG+ 15 μmol/L维甲酸干预组足细胞synaptopodin蛋白表达灰度值均明显下降[(0.41±0.05)%、(0.86±0.04)%、(0.90±0.07)%比(1.47 ±0.08)%,均P<0.05].结论 高糖可以使体外培养的足细胞synaptopodin蛋白

  7. Study of apoptotic mechanisms induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its 13-cis isomer on cellular lines of human hepato carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cellular lines of liver cancer (Hep3B and HepG2) were incubated during different periods of time with some concentrations of two retinoic acid isomers (ATRA and 13-cis AR) and with 5-fu chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and paclitaxel. It was determined if these substances leaded cytotoxicity, apoptosis and if they modified the expression of different genes related to cellular death by apoptosis, in order to explain the hepatocellular carcinoma resistance to these drugs. HepG2 cells showed more resistance than Hep3B cells to 72 hours of treatment, as much ATRA as the 13-cis AR were toxic and produced apoptosis in two cellular lines. This type of cellular death seems to be mediated by a decrease in Bcl-xL concentration in Hep3B cells treated with both retinoids an increase in bax concentration in HepG2 cells treated with 13-cis AR. It were observed 3 and 8 proteolysis of procaspase in Hep3B cells, suggesting extrinsic via activation of the apoptosis, while cellular death in HepG2 cells seems to be independent of caspases. Cisplatin and paclitaxel leaded cytotoxicity to 48 hours of treatment, with significant differences between two cellular lines only in case of paclitaxel. Hep3B cells treated with cisplatin and HepG2 cells treated with paclytaxel suffered apoptosis. 5-FU produced toxicity only when it was used to high concentrations and the mechanism of cellular death induced by this agent seems to be primarily necrosis in Hep3B cells and apoptosis in HepG2. There was decrease in the Bcl-xL concentration in two cellular lines when it was treated with cisplatin and in HepG2 cells treated with 5-FU. Bax concentration there no was modified with no treatment. Activation of the 3 caspases seems to happen only in HepG2 cells with 5-FU and paclytaxel. These two agents, also, decreased the survivin concentration of HepG2 cells. Treatments of the three drugs produced an increase in the expression of this gen in Hep3B cells, which might explain partially the resistance

  8. Increased expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haybaeck J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Haybaeck,1 Magdalena Postruznik,1 Christine L Miller,2 Jeannette R Dulay,3 Ida C Llenos,3,4 Serge Weis3,4 1Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 3Laboratory of Brain Research and Neuropathology, Departments of Psychiatry and Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Laboratory of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, State Neuropsychiatric Hospital Wagner-Jauregg, Medical School, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria Background: Retinoids regulate gene expression in different cells and tissues at the transcriptional level. Retinoic acid transcriptionally regulates downstream regulatory molecules, including enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. Animal models indicate an involvement of retinoid signaling pathways in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning, especially in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid-inducible or induced gene 1 (RAI-1 is induced during neuronal differentiation, and was associated with the severity of the phenotype and response to medication in schizophrenic patients. Methods: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of RAI-1 in 60 brains from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium (15 cases each from controls and from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Rating scores for density and intensity were determined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Results: All four groups showed high interindividual variation. RAI-1-positive cells were identified as neurons and astrocytes. Significantly increased intensities in cortical neurons were noted in all three major psychiatric groups compared with controls. The density of RAI-1-positive neurons was increased (P=0.06 in schizophrenia and bipolar

  9. The impact on outcome of the addition of all-trans retinoic acid to intensive chemotherapy in younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia: overall results and results in genotypic subgroups defined by mutations in NPM1, FLT3, and CEBPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Alan K; Hills, Robert K; Green, Claire; Jenkinson, Sarah; Koo, Kenneth; Patel, Yashma; Guy, Carol; Gilkes, Amanda; Milligan, Donald W; Goldstone, Anthony H; Prentice, Archibald G; Wheatley, Keith; Linch, David C; Gale, Rosemary E

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the benefit of adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to chemotherapy for younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and considered interactions between treatment and molecular markers. Overall, 1075 patients less than 60 years of age were randomized to receive or not receive ATRA in addition to daunorubicin/Ara-C/thioguanine chemotherapy with Ara-C at standard or double standard dose. There were data on FLT3 internal tandem duplications and NPM1 mutations (n = 592), CEBPA mutations (n = 423), and MN1 expression (n = 195). The complete remission rate was 68% with complete remission with incomplete count recovery in an additional 16%; 8-year overall survival was 32%. There was no significant treatment effect for any outcome, with no significant interactions between treatment and demographics, or cytarabine randomization. Importantly, there were no interactions by FLT3/internal tandem duplications, NPM1, or CEBPA mutation. There was a suggestion that ATRA reduced relapse in patients with lower MN1 levels, but no significant effect on overall survival. Results were consistent when restricted to patients with normal karyotype. ATRA has no overall effect on treatment outcomes in this group of patients. The study did not identify any subgroup of patients likely to derive a significant survival benefit from the addition of ATRA to chemotherapy. PMID:19965647

  10. Retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells is effected by modulation of intracellular redox state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopka, Roman; Pacherník, J.; Lojek, Antonín; Kubala, Lukáš

    Brno, 2007. s. 110-111. ISBN 978-80-239-9591-6. [Analytical Cytometry IV. 23.06.2007-26.06.2007, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : retinoic acid * NADPH oxidase * embryonal carcinoma cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Jingcheng Zhang; Yang Gao; Mengying Yu; Haibo Wu; Zhiying Ai; Yongyan Wu; Hongliang Liu; Juan Du; Zekun Guo; Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activ...

  12. Long-term effects of androgen combined with low dose all-trans-retinoic acid on myelodysplastic syndrome: follow-up of 60 cases%雄激素联合小剂量全反式维甲酸治疗骨髓增生异常综合征长期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管梅; 陈书长; 葛昌文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term effects of androgen combined with low dose all-trans-retinoic acid on myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods Sixty-two MDS patients, 48 with RA, 2 of RAS, 9 with RA with excess of blasts (RAEB), 2 with RAEB-transformation (RAEB-t), and 1 with chronic myelogenous-monocytic leukemia (CMML) according to the FAB subtype standard, received stanazolol (6 mg/d) or danazol (600 mg/d) and low dose all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA 10 mg/d). Three months later the treatment was discontinued on 22 patients that showed ineffective and 2 more patients withdrew from the treatment due to exacerbation. The remaining 36 patients were treated according to the original protocol, and the doses of these 2 drugs were reduced by half until the condition was exacerbated. Follow-up was conducted for 47 (34 -78) months. Results Mter 6 months of treatment, complete remission (CR) was seen in 1 patient, partial remission (PR) in 6 patients, and hematologic Improvement (HI)in 19 of the 60 patients evaluated with a response rate of 43.3% (26/60) in all patients, 50% (24/48) in RA/RAS group, and 16. 7% (2/12) in RAEB/RAEB-t/CMML group. There were not significant differences in cellularity, dysplastic hematopoiesis, and myeloblast before and after treatment among the RA/RAS patients. After 12 months of treatment, CR was seen in 1 patient, PR in 7, and HI in 9, with a response rate of 28.3 % (17/60) in all patients, 35.4% (17/48) in the RA/RAS group, and 0% (0/12) in the RAEB/RAEB-t/CMML group. Adverse effects were mild and did not require discontinuance of the therapy. The survival time of the 19 patients in the RA group that responded well to treatment was 54 months (41,66), significantly longer than that of the 20 patients without good outcomes [23 months (13,32) , x2= =4.72,P=0.025]. Conclusion Effective, economic, and safe, stanozolol or danazol with low-dose all-trans-retinoic acid improves the life quality and prolongs the survival time of the MDS

  13. Retinoic acid induces nuclear FAK translocation and reduces breast cancer cell adhesion through Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Angel Matías; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Vargas-Roig, Laura María; Flamini, Marina Inés

    2016-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, with metastases being the cause of death in 98%. In previous works we have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the main retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand, is involved in the metastatic process by inhibiting migration through a reduced expression of the specific migration-related proteins Moesin, c-Src, and FAK. At present, our hypothesis is that RA also acts for short periods in a non-genomic action to cooperate with motility reduction and morphology of breast cancer cells. Here we identify that the administration of 10(-6) M RA (10-20 min) induces the activation of the migration-related proteins Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in T-47D breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation exerted by the selective agonists for RARα and RARβ, on Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin was comparable to the activation exerted by RA. The RARγ agonist only led to a weak activation, suggesting the involvement of RARα and RARβ in this pathway. We then treated the cells with different inhibitors that are involved in cell signaling to regulate the mechanisms of cell motility. RA failed to activate Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in cells treated with Src inhibitor (PP2) and PI3K inhibitor (WM), suggesting the participation of Src-PI3K in this pathway. Treatment with 10(-6) M RA for 20 min significantly decreased cell adhesion. However, when cells were treated with 10(-6) M RA and FAK inhibitor, the RA did not significantly inhibit adhesion, suggesting a role of FAK in the adhesion inhibited by RA. By immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis we demonstrated that RA induced nuclear FAK translocation leading to a reduced cellular adhesion. These findings provide new information on the actions of RA for short periods. RA participates in cell adhesion and subsequent migration, modulating the relocation and activation of proteins involved in cell migration. PMID:27130522

  14. MicroRNA-31 negatively regulates peripherally derived regulatory T-cell generation by repressing retinoic acid-inducible protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Ke, Fang; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Bai, Jing; Liu, Jinlin; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Lou, Fangzhou; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Huiyuan; Sun, Yang; Cai, Wei; Gao, Yuanyuan; Li, Qun; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Qian, Youcun; Hua, Zichun; Deng, Jiong; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally derived regulatory T (pT(reg)) cell generation requires T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling and the cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-2. Here we show that TCR signalling induces the microRNA miR-31, which negatively regulates pT(reg)-cell generation. miR-31 conditional deletion results in enhanced induction of pT(reg) cells, and decreased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Unexpectedly, we identify Gprc5a as a direct target of miR-31. Gprc5a is known as retinoic acid-inducible protein 3, and its deficiency leads to impaired pT(reg-)cell induction and increased EAE severity. By generating miR-31 and Gprc5a double knockout mice, we show that miR-31 promotes the development of EAE through inhibiting Gprc5a. Thus, our data identify miR-31 and its target Gprc5a as critical regulators for pT(reg)-cell generation, suggesting a previously unrecognized epigenetic mechanism for dysfunctional T(reg) cells in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26165721

  15. microRNA-34a-Upregulated Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I Promotes Apoptosis and Delays Cell Cycle Transition in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Le; Ma, Yu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2016-06-01

    The function of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in viral replication is well documented, but its function in carcinogenesis and malignancies as well as relationship with microRNAs (miRNAs) remain poorly understood. miR-34a is an antioncogene in multiple tumors. In our study, RIG-I and miR-34a suppressed cell growth, proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cells in vitro. miR-34a was validated as a new regulator of RIG-I by binding to its 3' untranslated region and upregulating its expression level. Furthermore, we revealed that RIG-I and miR-34a enhanced apoptosis, delayed the G1/S/G2 transition of the cell cycle, and inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process to modulate malignancies in cervical cancer cells. Phenotypic rescue experiments indicated that RIG-I mediates the effects of miR-34a in HeLa and C33A cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that underlie carcinogenesis and may provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of cervical cancer. PMID:26910120

  16. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activating ectoderm markers in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Moreover, RA modulated the DNA methylation of mESCs by altering the expression of epigenetic-associated genes such as Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l. Furthermore, H3K4me2, a pluripotent histone modification, was repressed by RA stimulation. From microRNA sequence data, we identified two downregulated microRNAs, namely, miR-200b and miR-200c, which regulated the pluripotency of stem cells. We found that miR-200b or miR-200c deficiency suppressed the expression of pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, and activated the expression of the ectodermal marker gene Nestin. These results demonstrate that retinoid induces mESCs to differentiate by regulating miR-200b/200c. Our findings provide the landscapes of mRNA and microRNA gene networks and indicate the crucial role of miR-200b/200c in the RA-induced differentiation of mESCs.

  17. Sonic hedgehog and retinoic Acid induce bone marrow-derived stem cells to differentiate into glutamatergic neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Shixing; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Haiyan; Chen, Lei; Yuan, Xinli; Zhang, Zhiying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have showed that transplanted stem cells in the inner ear won't regenerate to replace the damaged sensory hair cells. They can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal cells and fibrocytes in the damaged inner ear. Only mature sensory cells of MSCs-derived possess the great potency for cell transplantation in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. So, we try to establish an efficient generation of the glutamatergic sensory neural phenotype for the cell transplantation of the hearing loss. We isolated MSCs from femoral and tibial bones according to their adherence to culture dishes. After purification, proliferation, and passaged, cells became homogeneous in appearance, showing more uniformity and grew in a monolayer with a typical spindle-shape morphology. The cell surface markers were assessed using FACS to characterize the isolated cells. For neural induction to harvest the glutamatergic sensory neurons, passage 3 MSCs were incubated with preinduced medium for 24 hr, and neural-induced medium for an additional 14 days. The cells exhibit a typical neural shape. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of the neural cell marker nestin, Tau, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, GluR-3, and GluR-4 were higher compared with primary MSCs. Immunohistochemistry and western-blotting proofed that nestin, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, and GluR-4 proteins indeed exhibit their expression difference in the induced cells compared to the MSCs. We show an efficient protocol by the combined applications of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Retinoic Acid (RA) to induce MSCs to differentiate into the glutamatergic sensory neuron which were identified from the morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics. PMID:24547891

  18. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengying; Wu, Haibo; Ai, Zhiying; Wu, Yongyan; Liu, Hongliang; Du, Juan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activating ectoderm markers in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Moreover, RA modulated the DNA methylation of mESCs by altering the expression of epigenetic-associated genes such as Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l. Furthermore, H3K4me2, a pluripotent histone modification, was repressed by RA stimulation. From microRNA sequence data, we identified two downregulated microRNAs, namely, miR-200b and miR-200c, which regulated the pluripotency of stem cells. We found that miR-200b or miR-200c deficiency suppressed the expression of pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, and activated the expression of the ectodermal marker gene Nestin. These results demonstrate that retinoid induces mESCs to differentiate by regulating miR-200b/200c. Our findings provide the landscapes of mRNA and microRNA gene networks and indicate the crucial role of miR-200b/200c in the RA-induced differentiation of mESCs. PMID:26162091

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  20. Identification of a retinoic acid-inducible gene I from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and expression analysis in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Guo, Songlin; Lin, Peng; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping; Zhang, Zaipeng; Yu, Lili

    2016-08-01

    RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) is one of the key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for the recognition of cytosolic viral nucleic acids and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). The full-length cDNA sequence of RIG-I (AjRIG-I) in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was identified and characterized in this article. The full-length cDNA of AjRIG-I was 3468 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 52 bp, a 3'-UTR of 617 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 bp encoding a polypeptide of 933 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 106.2 kDa. NCBI CDD analysis showed that the AjRIG-I protein had the typical conserved domains, including two adjacent caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), a DEXDc domain, a HELICc domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed a broad expression for AjRIG-I in a wide range of tissues, with the predominant expression in liver, followed by the gills, spleen, kidney, intestine, skin, and the very low expression in muscle and heart. The AjRIG-I expressions in liver, spleen and kidney were significantly induced following injection with LPS, the viral mimic poly I:C, and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. In vitro, the AjRIG-I transcripts of Japanese eel liver cells were significantly enhanced by poly I:C and PGN stimulation, down-regulated with CpG-DNA treatment whereas no change of the expression level was found post LPS challenge. These results collectively suggested AjRIG-I transcripts expression possibly play an important role in fish defense against viral and bacterial infection. PMID:27238428

  1. Retinal Photodamage Mediated by All-trans-retinal†

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Tadao; Golczak, Marcin; Maeda, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of all-trans-retinal (all-trans-RAL), reactive vitamin A aldehyde, is one of the key factors in initiating retinal photodamage. This photodamage is characterized by progressive retinal cell death evoked by light exposure in both an acute and chronic fashion. Photo-activated rhodopsin releases all-trans-RAL which is subsequently transported by ATP–binding cassette transporter 4 and reduced to all-trans-retinol by all-trans-retinol dehydrogenases located in photoreceptor cells. Any...

  2. 全反式维A酸对UVB照射的A375细胞酪氨酸酶代谢及铜锌超氧化物歧化酶的影响%Effects of all-trans retinoic ac id on tyrosinase metabolism and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase mRNA expression in A375 cells irradiated by ultraviolet B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋帅; 魏大鹏; 罗志娟; 陈菊萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on melanin content,activity and protein expression of tyrosinase,mRNA expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in A375 cells irradiated with ultraviolet B (UVB).Methods Cultured A375 cells were classified into 6 groups:ATRA+UVB group treated with ATRA after UVB irradiation,hydroquinone+UVB group treated with hydroquinone after UVB irradiation,UVB group and ATRA group treated with UVB irradiation and ATRA respectively,negative control group receiving no treatment.Melanin content and tyrosinase activity were determined by NaOH solubilization assay and dopa-oxidation assay respectively at 24,48 and 72 hours after the addition of ATRA into medium.Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of tyrosinase,and real-time quantitative PCR to measure the mRNA expressions of tyrosinase and Cu/Zn SOD in A375 cells after 24-hour culture with ATRA.Results The melanin content and tyrosinase activity decreased in UVB-irradiated cells after being treated with ATRA for 24,48 and 72 hours.The protein (gray scale) and mRNA (2-△△Ct value) expression levels of tyrosinase were 0.72 ± 0.070 and 1.400 ± 0.135 respectively at 24 hours after UVB irradiation,decreased to 0.42 ± 0.056 (P <0.01) and 0.810 ± 0.062 (P < 0.01 ) respectively after additional treatment with ATRA.The mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD was 0.323 ± 0.066 in A375 cells at 24 hours after UVB irradiation,and increased to 0.625 ±0.103 (P < 0.01 ) after additional treatment with ATRA.Conclusion ATRA can suppress UVB-induced increase in melanin synthesis and elevate Cu/Zn SOD level in A375 cells,likely through tyrosinase pathway.%目的 探讨全反式维A酸(ATRA)对中波紫外线(UVB)照射的人A375黑素瘤株细胞黑素含量、酪氨酸酶及铜锌超氧化物歧化酶(Cu/ZnSOD)的影响.方法 将培养的A375细胞分为6组:ATRA+UVB组:A375细胞照射UVB后加入全反式维A酸;氢醌+UVB组:照射UVB后

  3. RETINOIC ACID ALTERS EPITHELIAL DIFFERENTIATION DURING PALATOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoids are teratogenic in humans and animals, producing a syndrome of craniofacial malformations which includes cleft palate. his study investigates the mechanism through which retinoic acid induces cleft palate. urine palatogenesis after exposure to retinoic acid in utero is ...

  4. Protein and ligand adaptation in a retinoic acid binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayek, R.; Newcomer, M E

    1999-01-01

    A retinoic acid binding protein isolated from the lumen of the rat epididymis (ERABP) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily. ERABP binds both the all-trans and 9-cis isomers of retinoic acid, as well as the synthetic retinoid (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8)-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2 napthalenyl-1 propenyl]-benzoic acid (TTNPB), a structural analog of all-trans retinoic acid. The structure of ERABP with a mixture of all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid has previously been reported. To elucidate any ...

  5. Embryonic Gut Anomalies in a Mouse Model of Retinoic Acid-Induced Caudal Regression Syndrome : Delayed Gut Looping, Rudimentary Cecum, and Anorectal Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Pitera, Jolanta E.; Smith, Virpi V.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Milla, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives such as retinoic acid (RA) are important signaling molecules for morphogenesis of vertebrate embryos. Little is known, however, about morphogenetic factors controlling the development of the gastrointestinal tract and RA is likely to be involved. In the mouse, teratogenic doses of RA cause truncation of the embryonic caudal body axis that parallel the caudal regression syndrome as described in humans. These changes are often associated with anomalies of the lower...

  6. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of retrovirus-infected HL-60 cells is associated with enhanced transcription from the viral long terminal repeat.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, S J

    1988-01-01

    I infected different human leukemic cell lines with an amphotropic retrovirus vector (designated PA317/N2) which confers G418 resistance and contains the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat. In retrovirus-infected G418-resistant HL-60 cells, induction of granulocyte differentiation by retinoic acid was invariably accompanied by a marked increase (5- to 10-fold) in the transcriptional activity of the integrated retroviral long terminal repeat.

  7. The HER2 inhibitor TAK165 Sensitizes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells to Retinoic Acid-Induced Myeloid Differentiation by activating MEK/ERK mediated RARα/STAT1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuejing; Liu, Yujia; Li, Yangling; Xian, Miao; Zhou, Qian; Yang, Bo; Ying, Meidan; He, Qiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The success of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in differentiation therapy for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) highly encourages researches to apply this therapy to other types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, AML, with the exception of APL, fails to respond to differentiation therapy. Therefore, research strategies to further sensitize cells to retinoids and to extend the range of AMLs that respond to retinoids beyond APLs are urgently needed. In this study, we showed that TAK165, a HER2 inhibitor, exhibited a strong synergy with ATRA to promote AML cell differentiation. We observed that TAK165 sensitized the AML cells to ATRA-induced cell growth inhibition, G0/G1 phase arrest, CD11b expression, mature morphologic changes, NBT reduction and myeloid regulator expression. Unexpectedly, HER2 pathway might not be essential for TAK165-enhanced differentiation when combined with ATRA, while the enhanced differentiation was dependent on the activation of the RARα/STAT1 axis. Furthermore, the MEK/ERK cascade regulated the activation of STAT1. Taken together, our study is the first to evaluate the synergy of TAK165 and ATRA in AML cell differentiation and to assess new opportunities for the combination of TAK165 and ATRA as a promising approach for future differentiation therapy. PMID:27074819

  8. All-trans retinol and retinol-binding protein from embryonic cerebrospinal fluid exhibit dynamic behaviour during early central nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2008-06-11

    Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) is involved in the regulation of survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of neuroectodermal progenitor cells, as well as in the control of mesencephalic gene expression in collaboration with the isthmic organizer. Recently, we showed the presence of retinol-binding protein (RBP) within the E-CSF proteome. RBP is an all-trans retinol carrier, a molecule that can be metabolized into retinoic acid, a morphogen involved in central nervous system (CNS) morphogenesis and patterning. Here we demonstrate the presence of all-trans retinol within the E-CSF and analyse the dynamics of RBP and all-trans retinol within this fluid, as well as the expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing enzymes during early CNS development. Our results suggest a relationship between the dynamics of these molecules and the early events of CNS patterning. PMID:18520998

  9. Retinoic Acid Induces Ubiquitination-Resistant RIP140/LSD1 Complex to Fine-Tune Pax6 Gene in Neuronal Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Persaud, Shawna D; Wei, Li-Na

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a wide-spectrum coregulator for hormonal regulation of gene expression, but its activity in development/stem cell differentiation is unknown. Here, we identify RIP140 as an immediate retinoic acid (RA)-induced dual-function chaperone for LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1). RIP140 protects LSD1's catalytic domain and antagonizes its Jade-2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. In RA-induced neuronal differentiation, the increased RIP140/LSD1 complex is recruited by RA-elevated Pit-1 to specifically reduce H3K4me2 modification on the Pax6 promoter, thereby repressing RA-induction of Pax6. This study reveals a new RA-induced gene repressive mechanism that modulates the abundance, enzyme quality, and recruitment of histone modifier LSD1 to neuronal regulator Pax6, which provides a homeostatic control for RA induction of neuronal differentiation. PMID:26372689

  10. Oral retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent Rambazole for plaque psoriasis: an immunohistochemical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kooijmans-Otero, M.E.; Langewouters, A.M.G.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Rens, D.W.A. van; Seyger, M.M.B.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The novel systemic all-trans retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent (RAMBA) R115866 (Rambazole(TM); Barrier Therapeutics, Geel, Belgium; further referred to as rambazole) increases intracellular levels of endogenous all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Well-known effects of RA are normalizatio

  11. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Iwao

    Full Text Available The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1 GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2 all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3 phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells.

  12. Caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induce spiua bifida fetal rat%维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织中Caspase-3表达情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英桓; 袁正伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Wister rats with 10 days were used. Retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil (40mg /ml) were stomach fed for preparing the rat model of spina bifida malformations 135mg / kg). Control group only received olive oil. The animals were divided into 4 groups: pregnancy of 12 days, 15 days, 17 days and 20 days. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare caspase-3 expression in different groups. Results The expression of caspase-3 increased at the day 15 after pregnancy, and maintained until day 20 in the spinal tissue of modeled fetal rat, which presented significant difference compared to that of control groups at the same pregnant time. At day 15, day 17 and day 20 of pregnancy, the number of caspase-3 positive cells was more in model animals than the control. Conclusions Retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat demonstrates the increased caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of fetal rats.%目的 本文旨在探讨维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3表达情况.方法 选取孕10d Wistar大鼠,实验组用溶有维甲酸(40mg/ml)的橄榄油,以135mg/kg经胃管注入给药制作脊柱裂畸形大鼠模型;对照组选取孕10 d Wistar大鼠给等量橄榄油.将实验组及对照组按照孕12、15、17和20 d分为4组.应用免疫组织化学方法比较分析Caspase-3在对照组、畸形组胎鼠脊髓组织细胞中的分布和表达情况.结果 脊柱裂大鼠脊髓神经组织中Caspase-3在15d开始增多,一直持续到20 d胚胎大鼠.其增高情况明显高于同一时间点对照组大鼠.胚胎15、17和20 d显性脊柱裂畸形鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3阳性细胞数多于对照组,荧光强度高于对照组.结论 维甲酸诱导的脊柱裂胎鼠Caspase-3表达明显高于正常发育胎鼠.

  13. Polymer system for controlled drug delivery and release of all-trans retinoic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lidický, Ondřej; Šírová, Milada; Etrych, Tomáš

    Tel Aviv : International Cancer Microenvironment Society, 2015. P-87. [International Conference on Tumor Microenvironment: Progression, Therapy & Prevention /7./. 11.10.2015-15.10.2015, Tel Aviv] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0325 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : drug delivery systems * pH-controlled release * HPMA copolymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; FD - Oncology ; Hematology (MBU-M)

  14. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco;

    2007-01-01

    increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  15. Radiologic features of all-trans-retinoic acid syndrome (ATRAS) - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATRA Syndrome appears as a side effect of acute promyelocytic leukemia treatment with ATRA, vitamin A derivative. The etiopathogenesis of the syndrome remains unclear. Fever, generalized edema, pleural or pericardial effusion, respiratory distress, coagulation disorders and sometimes renal failure are the most common clinical symptoms of ATRAS. Radiological features of the syndrome are very diverse. Early diagnosis followed by introduction of appropriate treatment (corticosteroids) prevents worsening of the patients' condition and significantly reduces the risk of death. Although clinical symptomatology of ATRAS has been widely described, there are still few descriptions of its radiological manifestation. A 53-year-old female was referred to the Hematology Department for further detailed diagnostics and appropriate therapy from the district hospital, where she had been primarily admitted due to weakness, easy fatigue, loss of appetite and blood extravasations on the skin of the extremities. The patient's general condition on admission was assessed as quite good. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML M3 according to FAB classification) was diagnosed. The introduced treatment included ATRA. On the second day of treatment, the patient developed fever, dyspnea, generalized edema, and coagulation disorders increased. Chest X-ray findings reminded ARDS. The diagnosis of ATRAS was established, which resulted in ATRA withdrawal. After administration of corticosteroids, the patient's condition improved gradually within a few days. ATRA was reintroduced then, since the signs of leukemia had intensified. The patient remains in charge of the Hematology Department. Changes of chest X-ray pictures in AML patients treated with ATRA should be interpreted in clinical context due to lack of radiological features specific for ATRAS. (author)

  16. 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibits activation-driven T-cell apoptosis: implications for retinoid X receptor involvement in thymocyte development.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Y.; Vacchio, M S; Ashwell, J D

    1993-01-01

    Retinoic acid is a morphogenetic signaling molecule derived from vitamin A and involved in vertebrate development. Two groups of receptors, retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), have been identified. All-trans-retinoic acid is the high-affinity ligand for retinoic acid receptors, and 9-cis-retinoic acid additionally binds RXRs with high affinity. Here we report that although retinoic acid has little inhibitory effect on activation-induced T-cell proliferation, it specifical...

  17. The retinoid X receptor ligand, 9-cis-retinoic acid, is a potential regulator of early Xenopus development.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, J C; Schuh, T.; Juchau, M; Kimelman, D

    1994-01-01

    Endogenous retinoids are potential regulators of vertebrate embryogenesis that have been implicated in early anterior-posterior patterning and limb-bud development. We have characterized the temporal and spatial distribution of 9-cis-retinoic acid in the Xenopus embryo and compared it to two other retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoyl-beta-glucuronide. 9-cis-Retinoic acid is first detected after the midblastula transition and by the end of gastrulation is localized primari...

  18. Retinoic acid disrupts the Golgi apparatus and increases the cytosolic routing of specific protein toxins

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid can specifically increase receptor mediated intoxication of ricin A chain immunotoxins more than 10,000 times, whereas fluid phase endocytosis of ricin A chain alone or ricin A chain immunotoxins was not influenced by retinoic acid. The immunotoxin activation by retinoic acid does not require RNA or protein synthesis and is not a consequence of increased receptor binding of the immunotoxin. Vitamin D3 and thyroid hormone T3, that activate retinoic acid receptor (RAR) c...

  19. Difference in effect of temperature on absorption and Raman spectra between all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; Li Zuo-Wei; Gao Shu-Qin; Li Shuo; Sun Cheng-Lin; Liu Tian-Yuan; Wu Yong-Ling; Sun Shang; Shan Xiao-Ning; Men Zhi-Wei; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependencies (81 ℃-18 ℃) of visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol extremely diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide are investigated in order to clarify temperature effects on different polyenes.Their absorption spectra are identified to be redshifted with temperature decreasing.Moreover,all-trans-β-carotene is more sensitive to temperature due to the presence of a longer length of conjugated system.The characteristic energy responsible for the conformational changes in all-trans-β-carotene is smaller than that in all-trans-retinol.Both of the Raman scattering cross sections increase with temperature decreasing.The results are explained with electron-phonon coupling theory and coherent weakly damped electron-lattice vibrations model.

  20. Loss of growth inhibitory effects of retinoic acid in human breast cancer cells following long-term exposure to retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, R; Darbre, P D

    2000-01-01

    Although retinoids are known to be inhibitory to breast cancer cell growth, a key remaining question is whether they would remain effective if administered long-term. We describe here the long-term effects of all-trans retinoic acid on two oestrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and ZR-75-1. Although both cell lines were growth inhibited by retinoic acid in the short-term in either the absence or the presence of oestradiol, prolonged culture with 1 μM all-trans retinoic acid r...

  1. Retinopathy in Mice Induced by Disrupted All-trans-retinal Clearance*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Akiko; Maeda, Tadao; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The visual (retinoid) cycle is a fundamental metabolic process in vertebrate retina responsible for production of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rhodopsin and cone pigments. 11-cis-Retinal is bound to opsins, forming visual pigments, and when the resulting visual chromophore 11-cis-retinylidene is photoisomerized to all-trans-retinylidene, all-trans-retinal is released from these receptors. Toxic byproducts of the visual cycle formed from all-trans-retinal ofte...

  2. The Controversial Role of Retinoic Acid in Fibrotic Diseases: Analysis of Involved Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Han Qin; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Tian-Biao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Fibrotic diseases, such as liver, pulmonary and renal fibrosis, are common end-stage conditions and represent a major global health problem. Furthermore, effective therapeutic measures are presently unavailable. Extracellular matrix accumulation is the most prominent characteristic in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. Retinoic acid, including all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis and 13-cis retinoic acid, play important roles in various physiological processes, such as in embryonic development, ...

  3. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand w...

  4. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  5. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-a Mediates Human T-Cell Activation and Th2 Cytokine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-g and TNF-a expression by activated human T cells and reducing the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated ...

  6. Proteomic evaluation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells after treatment with retinoic acid isomers: Preliminary insights

    OpenAIRE

    Flodrová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 9-cis retinoic acid and all-trans retinoic acid in human MCF-7 breast cancer line have been investigated. The total cell proteins were extracted and separated on 1D SDS-PAGE. The proteins were subsequently in-gel digested by trypsin and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF.

  7. Thyroid hormone receptor can modulate retinoic acid-mediated axis formation in frog embryogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor acts as a hormone-dependent transcriptional transactivator and as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of thyroid hormone. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor can repress retinoic acid-induced gene expression through interactions with retinoic acid receptor. (Retinoic acid is a potent teratogen in the frog Xenopus laevis, acting at early embryonic stages to interfere with the formation of anterior structures. Endogenous retinoic acid is thought to act in norm...

  8. Involvement of All-trans-retinal in Acute Light-induced Retinopathy of Mice*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    MAEDA, Akiko; Maeda, Tadao; Golczak, Marcin; Chou, Steven; Desai, Amar; Hoppel, Charles L.; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to bright light can cause visual dysfunction and retinal photoreceptor damage in humans and experimental animals, but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We investigated whether the retinoid cycle (i.e. the series of biochemical reactions required for vision through continuous generation of 11-cis-retinal and clearance of all-trans-retinal, respectively) might be involved. Previously, we reported that mice lacking two enzymes responsible for clearing all-tran...

  9. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the stability of all-trans lutein and its degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Da-Jing; Pang, Hui-Li; Liu, Chun-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound treatment has been widely applied in the extraction of biologically active compounds including carotenoids. However, there are few reports on their effects on the stability of these compounds. In the present study, the stability of all-trans lutein, one of the carotenoids, was investigated under the action of ultrasound. Results showed that ultrasound induced the isomerization of all-trans lutein to its isomers, namely to 13-cis lutein, 13'-cis lutein, 9-cis lutein and 9'-cis lutein as analyzed by HPLC coupled with DAD and LC-MS; and the percentage of the isomerization increased with increasing both ultrasonic frequency and power. The stability of all-trans lutein in dichloromethane was worst among multiple kinds of solvents. Interestingly, the retention rate of all-trans lutein improved as the temperature increased, which runs counter to the Arrhenius law. Under ultrasound irradiation, the degradation mechanism might be different with various temperatures, the degradation of all-trans lutein followed first-order kinetics at 20°C, while second-order kinetics was followed at 30-50°C. As the ultrasonic reaction time prolonged, lutein epoxidation nearly occurred. Those results presented here emphasized that UAE techniques should be carefully used in the extraction of all-trans lutein. PMID:25934130

  10. Development and characterization of polymer-oil nanostructured carrier (PONC) for controlled delivery of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvekar, Mayuri M.

    The commonly used PLGA-based delivery systems are often limited by their inadequate drug loading and release properties. This study reports the integration of oil into PLGA to form the prototype of a hybrid drug carrier PONC. Our primary goal is to confer the key strength of lipid-based drug carriers, i.e. efficient encapsulation of lipophilic compounds, to a PLGA system without taking away its various useful qualities. The PONC were formulated by emulsification solvent evaporation technique, which were then characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug release and anticancer efficacy. The ATRA loaded PONC showed excellent encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics. Even after surface functionalization with PEG , controlled drug release kinetics was maintained, with 88.5% of the encapsulated ATRA released from the PEG-PONC in a uniform manner over 120 hours. It also showed favorable physicochemical properties and serum stability. PEG-PONC has demonstrated substantially superior activity over the free ATRA in ovarian cancer cells that are non-responsive to the standard chemotherapy. The newly developed PEG-PONC significantly reduced the IC50 values (pretinoic acid to treat highly resistant ovarian cancer.

  11. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Atigadda, Venkatram R.; Belyaeva, Olga V.; Steven R Harville; Elmets, Craig A.; Muccio, Donald D.; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. Th...

  12. Retinoic acid upregulates the plasminogen activator system in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart, E; Magdolen, V; Degitz, K

    2001-05-01

    The activation of the proteolytic plasminogen activator system is important for the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Keratinocytes synthesize and secrete the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which binds to its specific receptor on keratinocytes. Receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator efficiently activates cell surface bound plasminogen. This results in pericellular proteolysis, which facilitates keratinocyte migration. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator activity is specifically controlled by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -2. As retinoids have been reported to accelerate epithelialization of skin wounds in animal studies and clinical settings, we investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid on the plasminogen activator system in human epidermal keratinocytes. As tested in a chromogenic plasminogen activation assay, incubation with 10 microM all-trans retinoic acid caused a marked induction of cell-associated plasminogen activity after 24 h, and this induction was blocked by neutralizing anti-urokinase-type plasminogen activator antibodies, but not anti-tissue-type plasminogen activator antibodies. All-trans retinoic acid lead to a strong increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor cell surface expression (flow cytometry) after 24 h. At this time-point, tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -2 proteins were not or only slightly increased. Northern blot analyses revealed that all-trans retinoic acid caused an early and short-lived increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, but a prolonged induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor mRNA levels. Collectively, these data suggest that all-trans retinoic acid activates the plasminogen activator system in human epidermal keratinocytes by differentially regulating activating and inhibiting components

  13. Biosynthesis of a mannolipid containing a metabolite of retinoic acid by 3T12 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinol and retinoic acid (RA) increase the adhesive properties of spontaneously transformed mouse fibroblasts and the incorporation of [2-3H]mannose into cellular glycoconjugates. Therefore we searched for a mannolipid of retinoic acid similar to mannosylretinylphosphate (MRP) in these cells. Labeled RA was incorporated into a compound similar to standard MRP. This metabolite contained the same 3H:14C ratio as the precursor [11, 12-3H, 15-14C]retinoic acid, demonstrating that no decarboxylation had occurred. A doubly labeled mannolipid was obtained from cells incubated with [2-3H]mannose and [15-14C]retinoic acid. This mannolipid was readily cleaved by mild acid, yielding [3H]mannosephosphate and a compound that migrated as standard anhydroretinol at Rf 0.93. Standard all trans-MRP yields all-trans-anhydroretinol under these conditions. A HPLC system was developed to further characterize the mannolipids obtained from retinol and retinoic acid in 3T12 cells. [15-3H]Retinol and [15-14C]retinoic acid were incorporated into mannolipids that cochromatographed with standard MRP. The mixture of the [15-3H]retinol and [15-14C]retinoic acid derived mannolipids was subjected to mild acid hydrolysis, after purification by HPLC yielding all-trans-[3H]anhydroretinol and a [14C]labeled product which was eluted from HPLC as a slightly more polar compound than all-trans-anhydroretinol. The retinoic acid-derived mannolipid (MXP) represented approximately 4% of the total radioactivity in the methanolic extract of 3T12 cells incubated in labeled retinoic acid. However, if the cells were incubated for an additional 20 hours in the absence of the radioactive precursor, MXP represented 40% of the total extracted radioactivity

  14. All-trans retinal constitutes the functional chromophore in Chlamydomonas rhodopsin

    OpenAIRE

    Hegemann, P.; Gärtner, W; R. Uhl

    1991-01-01

    Orientation of the green alga Chlamydomonas in light (phototaxis and stop responses) is controlled by a visual system with a rhodopsin as the functional photoreceptor. Here, we present evidence that in Chlamydomonas wild-type cells all-trans retinal is the predominant isomer and that it is present in amounts similar to that of the rhodopsin itself.

  15. 培哚普利对维甲酸所致骨质疏松模型大鼠骨代谢的影响%Effects of perindopril on bone metabolism in a rat model of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟奕; 薛青; 周奕; 陈亮华; 张礼超

    2016-01-01

    : To observe effects of perindopril on bone metabolism in a rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid. METHODS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, with ten in each group. In the model group and each perindopril groups, rats were intragastricaly administered retinoic acid solution 80 mg/kg per day. After successful model establishment, rats in different perindopril groups were intragastrical y administered perindopril 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg per day, once a day, for 42 consecutive days. In the normal control and model groups, rats were given an equal volume of distil ed water. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, bone mass and bone mineral density were detected in each group. Expression of bone specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase mRNA in bone tissue was determined. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the model group, after treatment with perindopril, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were increased, alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly decreased, bone mass and bone mineral density were obviously increased in rats with retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis. Expression of bone specific alkaline phosphatase mRNA was higher in the perindopril 8 mg/kg group than in the perindopril 2 and 4 mg/kg groups and model group. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase mRNA expression was higher in the perindopril 8 mg/kg group than in the model group. These results indicated that perindopril could improve partial bone metabolic biochemical markers in osteoporosis rats, promoted bone formation by up-regulating bone specific alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression, and had a certain preventive effect on retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis.

  16. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors and retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived morphogen controlling important developmental processes in vertebrates, and more generally in chordates, including axial patterning and tissue formation and differentiation. In the embryo, endogenous RA levels are controlled by RA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and the RA signal is transduced by two retinoid receptors: the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Both RAR and RXR are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and mainly act as heterodimers to activate the transcription of target genes in the presence of their ligand, all-trans RA. This signaling pathway was long thought to be a chordate innovation, however, recent findings of gene homologs involved in RA signaling in the genomes of a wide variety of non-chordate animals, including ambulacrarians (sea urchins and acorn worms) and lophotrochozoans (annelids and mollusks), challenged this traditional view and suggested that the RA signaling pathway might have a more ancient evolutionary origin than previously thought. In this chapter, we discuss the evolutionary history of the RA signaling pathway, and more particularly of the RARs, which might have experienced independent gene losses and duplications in different animal lineages. In sum, the available data reveal novel insights into the origin of the RA signaling pathway as well as into the evolutionary history of the RARs. PMID:24962881

  17. Retinoic Acid Inhibits Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Regina M.; Lee, Young H.; Park, Ah-Mee; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2006-01-01

    Airway remodeling in chronic asthma is characterized by increased smooth muscle mass that is associated with the reduction of the bronchial lumen as well as airway hyperresponsiveness. The development of agents that inhibit smooth muscle growth is therefore of interest for therapy to prevent asthma-associated airway remodeling. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) suppresses growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The present study investigated the...

  18. Retinoic acid fails to reverse emphysema in adult mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, M; Ye, Q.; Ouchi, H.; Nakashima, N; Hamada, N; Hagimoto, N; Kuwano, K.; Mason, R.; Nakanishi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The models used were an elastase induced emphysema model for acute alveolar destruction and a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α transgenic mouse which exhibits chronic air space enlargement, loss of elastic recoil, increased lung volume, and pulmonary hypertension comparable to human pulmonary emphysema. All-trans-retinoic acid (2 mg/kg) was injected for 12 successive days after the establishment of emphysema. The effects of treatment were evaluated using physiological and morphometric ...

  19. Tuning the Electronic Absorption of Protein-Embedded All-trans-Retinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjing [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nossoni, Zahra [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berbasova, Tetyana [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Watson, Camille T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Yapici, Ipek [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Kin Sing Stephen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Vasileiou, Chrysoula [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Geiger, James H. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Borhan, Babak [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Protein-chromophore interactions are a central component of a wide variety of critical biological processes such as color vision and photosynthesis. To understand the fundamental elements that contribute to spectral tuning of a chromophore inside the protein cavity, we redesigned human cellular retinol binding protein II (hCRBPII) to fully encapsulate all-trans-retinal and form a covalent bond as a protonated Schiff base. The system, using rational mutagenesis designed to alter the electrostatic environment within the binding pocket of the host protein, enabled regulation of the absorption maximum of the pigment in the range of 425 to 644 nanometers. Moreover, with only nine point mutations, the hCRBPII mutants induced a systematic shift in the absorption profile of all-trans-retinal of more than 200 nanometers across the visible spectrum.

  20. Identification of retinoic acid in a high content screen for agents that overcome the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-beta-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chateen Krueger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 is an inhibitor of muscle cell differentiation that is associated with fibrosis, poor regeneration and poor function in some diseases of muscle. When neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1 or the angiotensin II inhibitor losartan were used to reduce TGF-β1 signaling, muscle morphology and function were restored in mouse models of Marfan Syndrome and muscular dystrophy. The goal of our studies was to identify additional agents that overcome the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-β1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-content cell-based assay was developed in a 96-well plate format that detects the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC in C2C12 cells. The assay was used to quantify the dose-dependent responses of C2C12 cell differentiation to TGF-β1 and to the TGF-β1 Type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor, SB431542. Thirteen agents previously described as promoting C2C12 differentiation in the absence of TGF-β1 were screened in the presence of TGF-β1. Only all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid allowed a maximal level of C2C12 cell differentiation in the presence of TGF-β1; the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril and 10 nM estrogen provided partial rescue. Vitamin D was a potent inhibitor of retinoic acid-induced myogenesis in the presence of TGF-β1. TGF-β1 inhibits myoblast differentiation through activation of Smad3; however, retinoic acid did not inhibit TGF-β1-induced activation of a Smad3-dependent reporter gene in C2C12 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Retinoic acid alleviated the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-β1 by a Smad3-independent mechanism. With regard to the goal of improving muscle regeneration and function in individuals with muscle disease, the identification of retinoic acid is intriguing in that some retinoids are already approved for human therapy. However, retinoids also have well-described adverse effects. The quantitative, high-content assay will be

  1. The histone demethylase PHF8 governs retinoic acid response in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arteaga, Maria Francisca; Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Qiu, Jihui;

    2013-01-01

    While all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been the paradigm of targeted therapy for oncogenic transcription factors, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, and a significant number of patients still relapse and become ATRA resistant. We...

  2. Topical retinoic acid changes the epidermal cell surface glycosylation pattern towards that of a mucosal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C E; Dabelsteen, Erik; Voorhees, J J

    1996-01-01

    Topical all-trans retinoic acid (RA) produces a number of epidermal changes which are indistinguishable from those observed following treatment with a local irritant, namely sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). This observation has led to criticism that the efficacy of RA in disorders such as photoageing...

  3. Retinoic acid stimulation of human dermal fibroblast proliferation is dependent on suboptimal extracellular Ca2+ concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Varani, J.; Shayevitz, J.; Perry, D; Mitra, R. S.; Nickoloff, B J; Voorhees, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Human dermal fibroblasts failed to proliferate when cultured in medium containing 0.15 mmol/l (millimolar) Ca2+ (keratinocyte growth medium [KGM]) but did when the external Ca2+ concentration was raised to 1.4 mmol/l. All-trans retinoic acid (retinoic acid) stimulated proliferation in KGM but did not further stimulate growth in Ca2(+)-supplemented KGM. The ability of retinoic acid to stimulate proliferation was inhibited in KGM prepared without Ca2+ or prepared with 0.03 mmol/l Ca2+ and in KG...

  4. The Function of Retinol Dehydrogenase 1 in Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Metabolic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krois, Charles Robert

    2011-01-01

    Retinol dehydrogenases (RDH) convert retinol into retinal, the intermediate in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) regulates gene transcription and/or translation through retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and PPARδ (1). To test function of Rdh1, an efficient (Vmax/Km) and widely distributed RDH (2), our lab created Rdh1 knockout (KO) mice (3). Initial study of Rdh1-KO mice determined that when fed a low or vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, Rdh1-KO mice gain 33% ...

  5. Retinoic Acid-Induced Epidermal Transdifferentiation in Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Akimoto; Mary Miyaji; Riyo Morimoto-Kamata; Yasuhiro Kosaka; Akiko Obinata

    2014-01-01

    Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to a mucous epithelium (Fell, H.B.; Mellanby, E. Metaplasia produced in cultures of chick ectoderm by high vitamin A. J. Physiol. 1953, 119, 470–488). However, the molecular mechanism of this tra...

  6. Effects of all-trans-retinol on human tumor cell growth: /sup 31/P NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of all-trans-retinol on the cell line HCT-8R, from human colon adenocarcinoma, have been examined. Dose-response curve shows that retinol inhibits cell growth starting from vitamin concentration as low as 10/sup -10/M. No cytotoxic effects were observed at the used concentrations. /sup 31/P NMR spectra of intact HCT-8R cells showed slight modifications in the ATP metabolism. More relevant modifications on the lipid components are also hypothizable on the basis of /sup 31/P NMR spectra analysis of freshly prepared perchloric acid extracts

  7. Identification and characterization of the retinoic acid response elements in the human RIG1 gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 (RIG1), a class II tumor suppressor gene, is induced in cells treated with retinoids. RIG1 has been shown to express ubiquitously and the increased expression of this gene appears to suppress cell proliferation. Recent studies also demonstrated that this gene may play an important role in cell differentiation and the progression of cancer. In spite of the remarkable regulatory role of this protein, the molecular mechanism of RIG1 expression induced by retinoids remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to study the molecular mechanism underlying the all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-mediated induction of RIG1 gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a total of 10 luciferase constructs that contain various fragments of the RIG1 5'-genomic region. These constructs were then transfected into human gastric cancer SC-M1 and breast cancer T47D cells for transactivation analysis. atRA exhibited a significant induction in luciferase activity only through the -4910/-5509 fragment of the 5'-genomic region of RIG1 gene relative to the translation initiation site. Further analysis of this promoter fragment indicated that the primary atRA response region is located in between -5048 and -5403 of the RIG1 gene. Within this region, a direct repeat sequence with five nucleotide spacing, 5'-TGACCTctattTGCCCT-3' (DR5, -5243/-5259), and an inverted repeat sequence with six nucleotide spacing, 5'-AGGCCAtggtaaTGGCCT-3' (IR6, -5323/-5340), were identified. Deletion and mutation of the DR5, but not the IR6 element, abolished the atRA-mediated activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extract from atRA-treated cells indicated the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers specifically to this response element. In addition to the functional DR5, the region contains many other potential sequence elements that are required to maximize the at

  8. Optimal condition of directional-differentiation of neurons from retinoic-acid induced MSESPU35 embryonic stem cell lines%维甲酸诱导MESPU35胚胎干细胞系定向分化神经细胞的最佳条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦茂林; 蔡文琴; 姚忠祥

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neural axon regeneration is one of the difficulties that must be overcome in treatment of injury of central nerve system. Significant therapeutic effects have been obtained in transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and Schwann cells. But the bottleneck situation of insufficiency of cell provider has limited the development on it.OBJECTIVE: To observe directional-differentiation of retinoic-acid induced ESCs so as to find optimal condition for neuronal differentiation.DESIGN: Non-randomized controlled experiment was designed.SETTING: Teaching-Research Room of Histology and Embryology, Department of Basic Medicines. Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLAMATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Staff Room of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from January to May 2000. Eighteen Kunming mice in disoestrus were employed, of which. 12 mice were female and 6 mice male. They were placed in same cage at ratio of 2:1 for mating. The date of pregnancy was recorded. MESPU35 ESC line was prepared.METHODS: Removed head. internal organs and four limbs, feeder-layer Feeder-layer adherent culture was used to proliferate MESPU35 ESCs.Classic 4-/4+ method [The embryoid body (EB) grew naturally for 4 days,without retinoic acid added. In the coming 4 days, retinoic acid was added to induce neural EB of high proportion] was applied to induce the directional differentiation of the nerve. EB was cultured with serum of different concentrations. Phase contrast microscope was used to observe nerve-like EB in serum of different concentrations and to count numbers. ②Immunocytochemical technique was used to observe cellular morphological charac ters at various differentiating phase spots (5th. 9th, 14th days) and with retinoic acid at various concentrations. Flow cytometer (FCM) was used to count the proportion of differentiated neurons.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Estimated measurement of the length

  9. DMRG-CASPT2 study of the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented internally contracted complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as active space solver [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. Internally contracted CASPT2 requires to contract the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) of the reference wavefunction. The required 4-RDM elements can be obtained from 3-particle reduced density matrices (3-RDM) of different wavefunctions, formed by symmetry-conserving single-particle excitations op top of the reference wavefunction. In our spin-adapted DMRG code chemps2 [https://github.com/sebwouters/chemps2], we decompose these excited wavefunctions as spin-adapted matrix product states, and calculate their 3-RDM in order to obtain the required contraction of the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-RDM of the reference wavefunction. In this work, we study the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes...

  10. On the photophysics of all-trans polyenes: Hexatriene versus octatetraene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, J.; de Paz, J. L. G.

    2006-01-01

    The disparate photophysical behavior of trans-1,3,5-hexatriene (nonfluorescent) and trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene (with two fluorescence emissions) in the gas phase is explained in terms of the tendency of their 1Bu excited states to rotate about their terminal carbon-carbon single bonds in order to adopt a quasiplanar molecular form of lower energy than the 1Bu state in the parent all-trans structure. The origin of their disparate photophysical behavior is that such a transformation is subject to a small energy barrier in octatetraene; the barrier produces two minima (two fluorescence emissions) in the corresponding potential-energy curve. Instead of an energy barrier, hexatriene gives a 1,3-diene species which falls to the ground state so rapidly that no emission is produced.

  11. Retinoic acid inhibits calmodulin binding to human erythrocyte membranes and reduces membrane Ca2(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, F B; Smith, T. J.; Deziel, M R; Davis, P J; Blas, S D

    1990-01-01

    Ca2(+)-ATPase activity in human red cell membranes is dependent on the presence of calmodulin. All trans-retinoic acid inhibited human red cell membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase activity in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-8) to 10(-4) M). In contrast, retinol, retinal, 13-cis-retinoic acid and the benzene ring analogue of retinoic acid did not alter enzyme activity. Purified calmodulin (up to 500 ng/ml, 3 X 10(-8) M) added to red cell membranes, in the presence of inhibitory concentration...

  12. Experimental study of retinoic acid on improving iodide uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hong-Liang; WU Jing-Chuan; DU Xue-Liang; LI Jia-Ning; WU Zhen; ZOU Ren-Jian

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of retinoic acid on the iodide uptake of MCF-7 cells and its mechanism. The iodide uptake and expression of hNIS(human sodium/iodide symporter)mRNA in the breast cancer MCF-7 cells were compared individually before and after the intervention of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with the iodide uptake assay and RT-PCR. The following results are obtained: (1) when treated with all-trans retinoic acid in the concentration of 1.0 μmol/L, the capacity of iodide uptake of MCF-7 cells reached about 1.5 times of the basal state; (2) 12 h after the intervention of 1.0 μmol/L ATRA, the hNISmRNA expression of the MCF-7 cells reached maximum. The study shows that all-trans retinoic acid has the effect to improve the iodide uptake of the MCF-7 cells and this effect may result from its up-regulation of the hNISmRNA expression.

  13. Disturbed apoptosis and cell proliferation in developing neuroepithelium of lumbo-sacral neural tubes in retinoic acid-induced spina biifda aperta in rat%反式维甲酸诱导显性脊柱裂胎鼠骶尾部神经前体细胞凋亡和增殖的变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓伟; 袁正伟

    2015-01-01

    目的观察大鼠胚胎脊柱裂发生早期,细胞凋亡与细胞增殖的变化规律。方法孕鼠随机分为对照组和实验组。胚胎10天时,实验组1次性经胃管注入致畸量反式维甲酸诱导产生脊柱裂动物模型,对照组胃饲等量溶剂,分别在妊娠11、12、13天(E11, E12, E13)时剖宫取胚胎,一部分胚胎固定后进行全胚胎TUNEL染色观察其整体凋亡情况;另一部分胚胎常规制作石蜡切片,采用TUNEL切片染色和免疫荧光染色技术,检测胚胎脊部神经管组织中细胞凋亡和细胞增殖的变化。结果与对照组相比,细胞凋亡于多个发育部位明显增多,集中表现在颅面原基、颅部神经管的背外侧、骶尾部神经管的背部中线。免疫荧光染色显示,与对照组相比,脊柱裂组胚胎畸形发生部位的神经前体细胞的凋亡率升高[E11(2.02±0.52)%与(0.57±0.23)%, E12(3.56±0.33)%与(0.93±0.14)%,E13(3.76±0.37)%与(1.24±0.21)%,P<0.001]。而细胞增殖降低[E11(65.17±2.30)%与(81.76±2.17)%, E12(63.97±3.03)%与(76.98±5.14)%,E13(56.86±2.80)%与(73.43±1.99)%,P <0.001]。结论反式维甲酸诱导的大鼠脊柱裂胚胎骶尾部神经管中神经前体细胞凋亡增多,而细胞增殖减少,这可能是脊柱裂胚胎神经元发育异常的主要原因之一。%Objective To investigate the cell apoptosis in the whole embryosand proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the spinal neural tube during neurulation in all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-induced spina biifda in fetal rats.MethodSpina biifda was induced by atRA in fetal rats. Cell apoptosis and cell proliferation were assessed using TUNEL labeling technique on both whole-mount and serially sectioned embryos and mitotic markers (Ki67) assay, respectively.ResultsAn excess of apoptosis in the neuroepithelium of embryos with spina bifida was found, which became more marked as embryos

  14. Unbinding of Retinoic Acid from its Receptor Studied by Steered Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kosztin, D; Schulten, K; Kosztin, Dorina; Izrailev, Sergei; Schulten, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in cell growth, differentiation, and development. Binding of the retinoic acid hormone to RAR is accompanied by conformational changes in the protein which induce transactivation or transrepression of the target genes. In this paper we present a study of the hormone binding/unbinding process in order to clarify the role of some of the amino acid contacts and identify possible pathways of the all-trans retinoic acid binding/unbinding to/from human retinoic acid receptor (hRAR)-g. Three possible pathways were explored using steered molecular dynamics simulations. Unbinding was induced on a time scale of 1 ns by applying external forces to the hormone. The simulations suggest that the hormone may employ one pathway for binding and an alternative "back door" pathway for unbinding.

  15. DMRG-CASPT2 study of the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sebastian; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    We have implemented internally contracted complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as active space solver [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. Internally contracted CASPT2 requires to contract the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) of the reference wavefunction. The required 4-RDM elements can be obtained from 3-particle reduced density matrices (3-RDM) of different wavefunctions, formed by symmetry-conserving single-particle excitations op top of the reference wavefunction. In our spin-adapted DMRG code chemps2 https://github.com/sebwouters/chemps2, we decompose these excited wavefunctions as spin-adapted matrix product states and calculate their 3-RDM in order to obtain the required contraction of the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-RDM of the reference wavefunction. In this work, we study the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes C2nH2n+2 [n = 4-12] in the cc-pVDZ basis set. DMRG-SCF and DMRG-CASPT2 yield substantially lower values and scaling with system size compared to RHF and MP2, respectively.

  16. Retinoid suppression of transglutaminase activity and envelope competence in cultured human epidermal carcinoma cells: Hydrocortisone is a potent antagonist of retinyl acetate but not retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Rh; Thacher, SM; Coe, EL

    1985-01-01

    Growth of SCC-13 squamous carcinoma cultures in the presence of retinoids considerably reduced the expression of two differentiation markers, the cellular capability to form cross-linked envelopes, and the enzyme transglutaminase required for cross-linking. A limited survey of retinoids showed that all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, and arotinoid Ro 13-6298 were highly effective in the absence of hydrocortisone and were only slightly antagonized by its presence in the medium. In c...

  17. Effects of Infrared Laser Radiation on the In Vitro Isomerization of All-Trans Retinal to 11-Cis Retinal

    OpenAIRE

    Liegner, J.; Taboada, J.; Tsin, A. T. C.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro effect of infrared laser light on the isomerization of all-trans retinal dissolved in an ether/hexane and also an ethanol solvent was studied. Pulsed laser energy at 1064 nm was used to drive the molecular reconfiguration of all-trans retinal to 11-cis retinal. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the conversion. Overall isomerization was minimal (0.2 percent to 1.0 percent), yet, a significant difference in isomerization due to pulsed infrared laser en...

  18. Retinoic Acid Biosynthesis Is Impaired in Human and Murine Endometriosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Pierzchalski, Keely; Taylor, Robert N.; Nezhat, Ceana; Jones, Jace W.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Yang, Guixiang; Kane, Maureen A.; Sidell, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in extrauterine sites. Our objective was to determine whether endometriotic lesions (ELs) from women with endometriosis have altered retinoid levels compared with their eutopic endometrium, and to test the hypothesis that defects in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) biosynthesis in EL is related to reduced expression of cellular retinol-binding protein type 1 (RBP1). Retinoids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-...

  19. Effect of Retinoic Acid in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyang-Rim; Park, Yong-Jin; Kim, Soo-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) modulates immune responses by affecting T cells. Several studies have revealed that allergic inflammation of the lower airways is negatively associated with the vitamin A concentration. However, the role of ATRA in allergic inflammation of the upper airways is unclear. We investigated the effects of ATRA in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. Methods BALB/c mice except control groups (CON group) were sensitized with and challenged intra-nasally with Dermat...

  20. Energy Metabolism Regulates Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Homeostasis in Physiological Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Obrochta, Kristin Marie

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a regulated and reciprocal relationship between retinoid homeostasis and energy metabolism, with a physiologically relevant consequence of disrupted energy balance. This research was motivated by an observation that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), and biosynthetic precursors, were responsive to acute shifts in energy status, in wild type animals with normal body weight and glucose tolerance, i.e. not consequent to metabolic syndrome. My dissertation was designed to ...

  1. Localized Th1-, Th2-,and inflamation-associated hepatic and pulmonary immune responses in Ascaris-infected swine are increased by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on d–1, d+1, d+3 of infection. Control or infected pigs were given 100 (LD-ATRA) or 1,000 (HD-ATRA) µg/kg ATRA in corn oil, or corn oil alone, and sacrificed at 7 and 14 days after inoculation (DAI) with infective eggs...

  2. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: EGF and TGF regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryo. The induction of cleft palate (CP) by all trans retinoic acid (RA) was associated with altered expression of TGF, EGF receptor and binding of EGF. The present study uses knockout (KO) mice to e...

  3. Prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity of all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro toxicity data and in silico physiologically based kinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, Jochem; Bosgra, Sieto; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; Verwei, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The use of laboratory animals for toxicity testing in chemical safety assessment meets increasing ethical, economic and legislative constraints. The development, validation and application of reliable alternatives for in vivo toxicity testing are therefore urgently needed. In order to use toxicity d

  4. Prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity of all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro toxicity data and in silico physiologycally based kinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bosgra, S.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.; Verwei, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of laboratory animals for toxicity testing in chemical safety assessment meets increasing ethical, economic and legislative constraints. The development, validation and application of reliable alternatives for in vivo toxicity testing are therefore urgently needed. In order to use toxicity d

  5. Prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity of all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro toxicity data and in silico physiologically based kinetic modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Louisse, Jochem; Bosgra, Sieto; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; Verwei, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The use of laboratory animals for toxicity testing in chemical safety assessment meets increasing ethical, economic and legislative constraints. The development, validation and application of reliable alternatives for in vivo toxicity testing are therefore urgently needed. In order to use toxicity data obtained from in vitro assays for risk assessment, in vitro concentration-response data need to be translated into in vivo dose-response data that are needed to obtain points of departure for r...

  6. STAGE-AND SPECIES-SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID IN FOUR NATIVE NORTH AMERICAN RANIDS AND XENOPUS LAEVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the last decase there have been increasing reports of malformed amphibians across North America. Recently, it has been suggested that hindlimb malformations are a consequence of xenobiotic disruption of developmental pathways regulated by retinoids. To assess the validity ...

  7. Retinoic Acid Drives Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Expression and Is Instrumental to Dioxin-Induced Toxicity during Palate Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Hugues; Dennefeld, Christine; Féret, Betty; Viluksela, Matti; Håkansson, Helen; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Palate development depends on complex events and is very sensitive to disruption. Accordingly, clefts are the most common congenital malformations worldwide, and a connection is proposed with fetal exposure to toxic factors or environmental contaminants, such as dioxins. There is increasing evidence that dioxin interferes with all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a hormone-like signal derived from vitamin A, which plays an essential role during embryonic development. Although similarit...

  8. Wnt/β-Catenin and Retinoic Acid Receptor Signaling Pathways Interact to Regulate Chondrocyte Function and Matrix Turnover*

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhara, Rika; Yuasa, Takahito; Williams, Julie A.; Byers, Stephen W.; Shah, Salim; Pacifici, Maurizio; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and retinoid signaling pathways is known to tilt cartilage matrix homeostasis toward catabolism. Here, we investigated possible interactions between these pathways. We found that all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment of mouse epiphyseal chondrocytes in culture did increase Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the absence or presence of exogenous Wnt3a, as revealed by lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor/β-catenin reporter activity and β-catenin nuclear accumulation. T...

  9. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  10. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; OuYang Shun-Li; Wang Wei-Wei; Li Zuo-Wei; Sun Cheng-Lin; Men Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature.

  11. Expansion of First-in-Class Drug Candidates That Sequester Toxic All-Trans-Retinal and Prevent Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianye; Dong, Zhiqian; Mundla, Sreenivasa Reddy; Hu, X. Eric; Seibel, William; Papoian, Ruben; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Golczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinal, a retinoid metabolite naturally produced upon photoreceptor light activation, is cytotoxic when present at elevated levels in the retina. To lower its toxicity, two experimentally validated methods have been developed involving inhibition of the retinoid cycle and sequestration of excess of all-trans-retinal by drugs containing a primary amine group. We identified the first-in-class drug candidates that transiently sequester this metabolite or slow down its production by in...

  12. Fluorescence excitation spectra of all-trans-1,6-diphenylhexatriene conformers: Adiabatic conformer equilibration in the 21Ag state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Andrzej M.; Krishna, Tallapragada S. R.; Brela, Mateusz; Saltiel, Jack

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence spectra of all-trans-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in n-hexadecane at 99 °C by varying λexc in the 294-404 nm range. Resolution of this spectral matrix into s-trans,s-trans and s-cis,s-trans conformer fluorescence spectra yields the λexc dependence of fractional contributions which are converted to conformer specific fluorescence excitation spectra. Conformer absorption spectra obtained from the fluorescence excitation spectra are remarkably similar, but differ significantly from absorption spectra derived from a spectrothermal absorption spectral matrix measured in n-alkanes under isopolarizability conditions. The results reveal substantial conformer equilibration in the excited state. Theory is consistent with adiabatic conformer equilibration in the 21Ag state.

  13. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Ye; Gong, Nan; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car) in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl(-)·Chl⁺ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C₃H₆O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II. PMID:27338363

  14. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl−·Chl+ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C3H6O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II.

  15. Neutrophils are immune cells preferentially targeted by retinoic acid in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minet-Quinard Régine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system gradually deteriorates with age and nutritional status is a major factor in immunosenescence. Of the many nutritional factors implicated in age-related immune dysfunction, vitamin A may be a good candidate, since vitamin A concentrations classically decrease during aging whereas it may possess important immunomodulatory properties via its active metabolites, the retinoic acids. This prompted us to investigate the immune response induced by retinoids in adults and elderly healthy subjects. Before and after oral supplementation with 13cis retinoic acid (0.5 mg/kg/day during 28 days, whole blood cells were phenotyped, and functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN were investigated by flow cytometry and ELISA tests. Results In both young adults (n = 20, 25 ± 4 years and older subjects (n = 20, 65 ± 4 years, retinoic acid supplementation had no effect on the distribution of leukocyte subpopulations or on the functions of PBMC (Il-2 and sIl-2R production, membrane expression of CD25. Concerning PMN, retinoic acid induced an increase in both spontaneous migration and cell surface expression of CD11b in the two different age populations, whereas bactericidal activity and phagocytosis remained unchanged. Conclusions We demonstrated that retinoic acid induces the same intensity of immune response between adult and older subjects, and more specifically affects PMN functions, i.e. adhesion and migration, than PBMC functions.

  16. Cytochrome P450s in the Regulation of Cellular Retinoic Acid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, A. Catharine; Zolfaghari, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), is a powerful regulator of gene transcription. RA is also a therapeutic drug. The oxidative metabolism of RA by certain members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily helps to maintain tissue RA concentrations within appropriate bounds. The CYP26 family—CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1—is distinguished by being both regulated by and active toward all-trans-RA (at-RA) while being expressed in different tissue-specific patterns. The CYP26A1...

  17. 4-Oxoretinol, a new natural ligand and transactivator of the retinoic acid receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Achkar, C C; Derguini, F; Blumberg, B; Langston, A; Levin, A A; Speck, J; Evans, R M; Bolado, J; Nakanishi, K; Buck, J.; Gudas, L J

    1996-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (at-RA) induces cell differentiation in a wide variety of cell types, including F9 embryonic teratocarcinoma cells, and can influence axial pattern formation during embryonic development. We now identify a novel retinoid synthetic pathway in differentiating F9 cells that results in the intracellular production of 4-oxoretinol (4-oxo-ROL) from retinol (vitamin A). Approximately 10-15% of the total retinol in the culture is metabolized to 4-hydroxyretinol and 4-oxo-ROL b...

  18. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. HEMOPOIETIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006261 Enhancement of all - trans retinoic acid -induced differentiation by bufalin in primary culture of acute promyelocytic leukmia cells. ZHOU Zhitu (周志图),et al. Dept Med Oncol, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2006; 45(4):314-317. Objective:To investigate the effect of bufalin combined with all -trans retinoic acid induced (ATRA) differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia ( API) cells

  20. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  1. Expansion of first-in-class drug candidates that sequester toxic all-trans-retinal and prevent light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianye; Dong, Zhiqian; Mundla, Sreenivasa Reddy; Hu, X Eric; Seibel, William; Papoian, Ruben; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Golczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinal, a retinoid metabolite naturally produced upon photoreceptor light activation, is cytotoxic when present at elevated levels in the retina. To lower its toxicity, two experimentally validated methods have been developed involving inhibition of the retinoid cycle and sequestration of excess of all-trans-retinal by drugs containing a primary amine group. We identified the first-in-class drug candidates that transiently sequester this metabolite or slow down its production by inhibiting regeneration of the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal. Two enzymes are critical for retinoid recycling in the eye. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is the enzyme that traps vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) from the circulation and photoreceptor cells to produce the esterified substrate for retinoid isomerase (RPE65), which converts all-trans-retinyl ester into 11-cis-retinol. Here we investigated retinylamine and its derivatives to assess their inhibitor/substrate specificities for RPE65 and LRAT, mechanisms of action, potency, retention in the eye, and protection against acute light-induced retinal degeneration in mice. We correlated levels of visual cycle inhibition with retinal protective effects and outlined chemical boundaries for LRAT substrates and RPE65 inhibitors to obtain critical insights into therapeutic properties needed for retinal preservation. PMID:25538117

  2. Fatty acids attached to all-trans-astaxanthin alter its cis-trans equilibrium, and consequently its stability, upon light-accelerated autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Wouter J C; Weesepoel, Yannick; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid esterification, common in naturally occurring astaxanthin, has been suggested to influence both colour stability and degradation of all-trans-astaxanthin. Therefore, astaxanthin stability was studied as influenced by monoesterification and diesterification with palmitate. Increased esterification decelerated degradation of all-trans-astaxanthin (RP-UHPLC-PDA), whereas, it had no influence on colour loss over time (spectrophotometry). This difference might be explained by the observation that palmitate esterification influenced the cis-trans equilibrium. Free astaxanthin produced larger amounts of 9-cis isomer whereas monopalmitate esterification resulted in increased 13-cis isomerization. The molar ratios of 9-cis:13-cis after 60min were 1:1.7 (free), 1:4.8 (monopalmitate) and 1:2.6 (dipalmitate). The formation of 9-cis astaxanthin, with its higher molar extinction coefficient than that of all-trans-astaxanthin, might compensate for colour loss induced by conjugated double bond cleavage. As such, it was concluded that spectrophotometry is not an accurate measure of the degradation of the all-trans-astaxanthin molecule. PMID:26471660

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid control of neurogenesis induced by retinoic acid during early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Carnicero, E; Bueno, D; Gato, A

    2011-07-01

    Embryonic-cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) plays crucial roles in early brain development including the control of neurogenesis. Although FGF2 and lipoproteins present in the E-CSF have previously been shown to be involved in neurogenesis, the main factor triggering this process remains unknown. E-CSF contains all-trans-retinol and retinol-binding protein involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), a neurogenesis inducer. In early chick embryo brain, only the mesencephalic-rombencephalic isthmus (IsO) is able to synthesize RA. Here we show that in chick embryo brain development: (1) E-CSF helps to control RA synthesis in the IsO by means of the RBP and all-trans-retinol it contains; (2) E-CSF has retinoic acid activity, which suggests it may act as a diffusion pathway for RA; and (3) the influence of E-CSF on embryonic brain neurogenesis is to a large extent due to its involvement in RA synthesis. These data help to understand neurogenesis from neural progenitor cells. PMID:21594951

  4. Expression of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-like protein in the embryonic and adult nervous system of a protostome species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christopher J; Rand, Christopher; Mohammad, Imtiaz; Lepp, Amanda; Vesprini, Nicholas; Wiebe, Olivia; Carlone, Robert; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, is an important molecule in nervous system development and regeneration in vertebrates. Retinoic acid signaling in vertebrates is mediated by two classes of nuclear receptors, the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Recently, evidence has emerged to suggest that many effects of retinoic acid are conserved between vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, even though the RARs were previously thought to be a vertebrate innovation and to not exist in non-chordates. We have cloned a full-length putative RAR from the CNS of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis (LymRAR). Immunoreactivity for the RAR protein was found in axons of adult neurons in the central nervous system and in growth cones of regenerating neurons in vitro. A vertebrate RAR antagonist blocked growth cone turning induced by exogenous all-trans retinoic acid, possibly suggesting a role for this receptor in axon guidance. We also provide immunostaining evidence for the presence of RAR protein in the developing, embryonic CNS, where it is also found in axonal processes. Using qPCR, we determined that LymRAR mRNA is detectable in the early veliger stage embryo and that mRNA levels increase significantly during embryonic development. Putative disruption of retinoid signaling in Lymnaea embryos using vertebrate RAR antagonists resulted in abnormal eye and shell development and in some instances completely halted development, resembling the effects of all-trans retinoic acid. This study provides evidence for RAR functioning in a protostome species. PMID:25504929

  5. A mollusk retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ortholog sheds light on the evolution of ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Lima, Daniela; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Santos, Miguel M; Castro, L Filipe C; Bourguet, William; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. Surprisingly, we also find that NlRAR does not bind all-trans retinoic acid or any other retinoid we tested. Furthermore, NlRAR is unable to activate the transcription of reporter genes in response to stimulation by retinoids and to recruit coactivators in the presence of these compounds. Three-dimensional modeling of the ligand-binding domain of NlRAR reveals an overall structure that is similar to vertebrate RARs. However, in the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of the mollusk receptor, the alteration of several residues interacting with the ligand has apparently led to an overall decrease in the strength of the interaction with the ligand. Accordingly, mutations of NlRAR at key positions within the LBP generate receptors that are responsive to retinoids. Altogether our data suggest that, in mollusks, RAR has lost its affinity for all-trans retinoic acid, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity of its LBP. When put in an evolutionary context, our results reveal new structural and functional features of nuclear receptors validated by millions of years of evolution that were impossible to reveal in model organisms. PMID:25116705

  6. Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandi, Zoltan; Horvath, Attila; Nagy, Peter; Nagy, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development is a multistep process involving activation and repression of many genes. Enhancer elements in the genome are known to contribute to tissue and cell-type specific regulation of gene expression during the cellular differentiation. Thus, their identification and further investigation is important in order to understand how cell fate is determined. Integration of gene expression data (e.g., microarray or RNA-seq) and results of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based genome-wide studies (ChIP-seq) allows large-scale identification of these regulatory regions. However, functional validation of cell-type specific enhancers requires further in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures. Here we describe how active enhancers can be identified and validated experimentally. This protocol provides a step-by-step workflow that includes: 1) identification of regulatory regions by ChIP-seq data analysis, 2) cloning and experimental validation of putative regulatory potential of the identified genomic sequences in a reporter assay, and 3) determination of enhancer activity in vivo by measuring enhancer RNA transcript level. The presented protocol is detailed enough to help anyone to set up this workflow in the lab. Importantly, the protocol can be easily adapted to and used in any cellular model system. PMID:27403939

  7. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-α mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA, and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-β/γ ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR. Results The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-α-selective antagonist, RO 41–5253, inhibited these effects. Conclusion These results strongly support a role for RAR-α engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production.

  8. Effects of detergents on retinyl ester synthetase and all-trans:11-CIS retinoid isomerase activities in homogenates of bovine retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [11,12-3H] all-trans Retinol and various detergents were added to homogenates of fresh bovine retinal pigment epithelium. After dark incubation for 40 minutes at 37 degrees C, the retinoids were extracted and analyzed by a high resolution HPLC method. The detergents showed different effects on the retinyl ester synthetase (RES) and all-trans:11 cis retinoid isomerase (RI) activities. The detergent CHAPS (0.3%) almost totally destroyed RI activity without reducing RES activity. The same concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate and Nonidet P-40 significantly reduced RES activity and totally destroyed RI activity. RES and RI activities were unaffected by 0.3% Mega 8, a nonionic detergent, but were inhibited by 1% Mega 8. Thus, because of these differential effects of detergents, RES and RI probably are different enzymes rather than a single multifunctional enzyme. Because isomerization was always inhibited more than esterification, our findings also accord with the esterification/isomerization mechanism recently reported by Rando et al

  9. Induction of cranial and posterior trunk neural crest by exogenous retinoic acid in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in development of vertebrate embryos. We demonstrate impacts of exogenous RA on the formation of neural crest cells in zebrafish using specific neural crest markers sox9b and crestin. Treatment with all-trans RA at 10?7 mmol/L at 50% epiboly induces sox9b expression in the forebrain and crestin expression in the forebrain and midbrain, resulting in significant increase of pigment cells in the head derived from the cranial neural crest. In addition, RA treatment induces expression of sox9b and crestin in the caudal marginal cells of the neuroectoderm during early segmentation. Earlier commitment of these cells to the neural crest fate in the posterior margins leads to abnormal development of the posterior body, probably by preventing mingling of ventral derived and dorsal-derived cells during the formation of the tailbud.

  10. Efeito de diferentes doses de ácido retinoico sobre a resistência óssea de ratos jovens Effect of varied doses of retinoic acid on young rats' bone resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bronzi de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de diferentes doses de todo-trans ácido retinóico sobre a resistência óssea, por meio de ensaio biomecânico de flexão, em tíbia de ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 58 ratos jovens, com quatro diferentes doses de vitamina A em suas dietas, sendo divididos em 4 grupos: grupo-controle (n=15, sem acréscimo de todo-trans ácido retinoico; grupo com acréscimo de 0,3mg de todo-trans ácido retinoico por kg de ração (n=13; grupo com 10mg de todo-trans ácido retinoico por kg de ração (n=15; e grupo com 50mg de todo-trans ácido retinoico por kg de ração (n=15. O estudo durou 30 dias. Após o sacrifício dos animais, suas patas esquerdas foram congeladas, dissecadas e as tíbias submetidas ao ensaio de flexão. Foram avaliados a carga máxima e o coeficiente de rigidez. Foi aplicada análise de variância one-way. O nível de significância estatístico adotado foi pOBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of different doses of all-trans retinoic acid on bone resistance by conducting a biomechanical flexion study on young rats' tibias. METHODS: Fifty-eight young rats were divided into four groups according to the all-trans retinoic acid content of their diets: control group (n=15, chow not enriched with all-trans retinoic acid; chow enriched with 0.3mg of all-trans retinoic acid per kilogram (n=13; chow enriched with 10mg of all-trans retinoic acid per kilogram (n=15; and chow enriched with 50mg of all-trans retinoic acid per kilogram (n-15. After 30 days of this diet, the animals were killed, their left paws were frozen and dissected and the tibias were submitted to the flexion study which assessed maximum force and shear modulus. One-way analysis of variance was used with significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean maximum force values in newtons (SD were: control group =37.94, SD=4.76; 0.3mg group = 36.49, SD= 4.38; 10mg group = 40.12, SD=6.03; 50mg group =35.68, SD=5.22 (p=0

  11. A paradoxical teratogenic mechanism for retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Leo M. Y.; Leung, Chun-Yin; Tang, Walfred W. C.; Choi, Heung-Ling; Leung, Yun-Chung; McCaffery, Peter J.; Wang, Chi-Chiu; Woolf, Adrian S.; Shum, Alisa S.W.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of vitamin A, plays essential signaling roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Nevertheless, it has long been recognized that overexposure to vitamin A or retinoic acid causes widespread teratogenesis in rodents as well as humans. Although it has a short half-life, exposure to high levels of retinoic acid can disrupt development of yet-to-be formed organs, including the metanephros, the embryonic organ which normally differentiates into the mature kidney. Parado...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Gill

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress.

  13. Mutual exclusivity analysis of genetic and epigenetic drivers in melanoma identifies a link between p14ARF and retinoic acid receptor β signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christina; Christensen, Claus; Jonsson, Goran;

    2013-01-01

    patterns. We found statistically significant mutual exclusivity among components of each of the p16INK4A-CDK4-RB, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways. In addition, we found an inverse correlation between promoter hypermethylation of RARB (encoding retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ)) and CDKN2A alterations...... affecting p14ARF (P < 0.0001), suggesting a functional link between RARβ signaling and the melanoma-suppressive activities of p14ARF. We show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can increase the expression of p14ARF in primary human melanocytes, and that the steady-state levels of p14ARF in these cells are...

  14. Valproic acid induced pancreatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupen Barman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. Apart from its common side effect there is definite association between valproic acid therapy and acute pancreatitis. Since 1979, many cases of acute pancreatitis induced by valproic acid have been published in medical literature. Here we are reporting a case of valproic acid induced acute pancreatitis in a 27 years old boy. The treatment is supportive, re-challenge is hazardous and should be avoided. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1765-1767

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a new retinoic acid ECPIRM as potential chemotherapeutic agent for human cutaneous squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengli; Tao, Yue; Ma, Pengcheng; Wang, Dechuan; He, Chundi; Cao, Yuping; Wei, Jun; Li, Lingjun; Tao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, requiring effective therapeutic interventions. Retinoids are important chemopreventive and therapeutic agents for a variety of human cancers including CSCC. In this study we synthesized a novel retinoic derivative N-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl) isoretinamide (ECPIRM) and evaluated its biological activities and possible mechanisms in human cutaneous squamous cell lines. ECPIRM had better inhibitory effect on the proliferation of squamous carcinoma cells SCL-1 and colo-16, compared with All-trans retinoic acid and 13-cis retinoic acid. ECPIRM had less toxicity to normal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Mechanistically, ECPIRM induced G1 cell cycle arrest in SCL-1 cells, via the downregulation of CDK2, CDK4, cycling D1 and cyclin E expression and upregulation of p21. In addition, these effects were at least partially due to the inhibition of JNK/ ERK-AP-1 signaling pathway by ECPIRM. Importantly, these effects of ECPIRM are independent of the classical retinoid receptor pathway, suggesting that the novel compound will have less side-effects in chemotherapy. These findings demonstrate that ECPIRM is a potential inhibitor of MPAK-AP-1 pathway, and is a potential therapeutic agent against CSCC. PMID:25991427

  16. Lysyl oxidase-like 4 involvement in retinoic acid epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptour, Aurélie; Rouzaire, Marion; Belville, Corinne; Bonnin, Nicolas; Daniel, Estelle; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Blanchon, Loïc; Sapin, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A and its active forms (retinoic acids/RAs) are known to have pro-healing properties, but their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. This work aimed to identify the cellular and molecular processes by which atRA (all-trans RA) improves wound healing, using an in vivo model of mouse corneal alkali burns and an in vitro cellular human corneal epithelial injury model. Regulation by atRA has been studied on most of the cellular events that occur in wound healing. We investigated the direct influence of atRA on a specific target gene known to be involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM) dynamics, one of the pathways contributing to epithelial repair. Our results demonstrate that atRA promotes corneal epithelial wound healing by acting preferentially on migration. The induction of lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) expression by atRA in the corneal epithelium environment was established as essential in the mechanism of atRA-dependent wound healing. Our study describes for the first time a direct link between a retinoic-induced gene and protein, LOXL4, and its general clinical pro-healing properties in ECM dynamics. PMID:27597564

  17. Effect of Retinoic acid on Platelet-derived Growth Factor and Lung Development in Newborn Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红兵; 常立文; 刘汉楚; 容志惠; 祝华平; 张谦慎; 李文斌

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The influence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on lung development in newborn rats and the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on PDGF in lung development were investigated. Newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control group and RA group.The rats in RA group was intraperitoneally injected with all trans-retinoic acid (500 μg/kg every day) for consecutive 3 days after birth, while those in the control group were not subjected to intervention, Immunohistochemical assay was performed to locate the expression of PDGF. mRNA levels of PDGF were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at age of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 days. The method of radial alveolar counts (RAC) was used to measure the amount of the alveoli of the lungs. It was found that with increasing days, levels of PDGF-A and PDGF-B changed to verying degrees. RA could elevate significantly the expression levels of PDGF A mRNA and protein (P<0.01), but not affect the expression levels of PDGF-B mRNA and pro tein markedly (P>0.05). It is suggested that PDGF might play an important role in lung development. RA can stimulate lung development through increasing the expression levels of PDGF-A mRNA and protein.

  18. Retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) for treatment of cancer and dermatological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njar, Vincent C O; Gediya, Lalji; Purushottamachar, Puranik; Chopra, Pankaj; Vasaitis, Tadas Sean; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Mehta, Jhalak; Huynh, Carlic; Belosay, Aashvini; Patel, Jyoti

    2006-07-01

    The naturally occurring retinoids and their synthetic analogs play a key role in differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and their use/potential in oncology, dermatology and a variety of diseases are well documented. This review focuses on the role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the principal endogenous metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) and its metabolism in oncology and dermatology. ATRA has been used successfully in differentiated therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia, skin cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and also in the treatment of acne and psoriasis. However, its usefulness is limited by the rapid emergence of acquired ATRA resistance involving multifactoral mechanisms. A key mechanism of resistance involves ATRA-induced catabolism of ATRA. Thus, a novel strategy to overcome the limitation associated with exogenous ATRA therapy has been to modulate and/or increase the levels of endogenous ATRA by inhibiting the cytochrome P450-dependent ATRA-4-hydroxylase enzymes (particularly CYP26s) responsible for ATRA metabolism. These inhibitors are also referred to as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs). This review highlights development in the design, synthesis, and evaluation of RAMBAs. Major emphasis is given to liarozole, the most studied and only RAMBA in clinical use and also the new RAMBAs in development and with clinical potential. PMID:16530416

  19. Application of retinoic acid to obtain osteocytes cultures from primary mouse osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinzoli, Deborah; Messa, Piergiorgio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Ikehata, Masami; Mondini, Anna; Zennaro, Cristina; Armelloni, Silvia; Li, Min; Giardino, Laura; Rastaldi, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    The need for osteocyte cultures is well known to the community of bone researchers; isolation of primary osteocytes is difficult and produces low cell numbers. Therefore, the most widely used cellular system is the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line. The method here described refers to the use of retinoic acid to generate a homogeneous population of ramified cells with morphological and molecular osteocyte features. After isolation of osteoblasts from mouse calvaria, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is added to cell medium, and cell monitoring is conducted daily under an inverted microscope. First morphological changes are detectable after 2 days of treatment and differentiation is generally complete in 5 days, with progressive development of dendrites, loss of the ability to produce extracellular matrix, down-regulation of osteoblast markers and up-regulation of osteocyte-specific molecules. Daily cell monitoring is needed because of the inherent variability of primary cells, and the protocol can be adapted with minimal variation to cells obtained from different mouse strains and applied to transgenic models. The method is easy to perform and does not require special instrumentation, it is highly reproducible, and rapidly generates a mature osteocyte population in complete absence of extracellular matrix, allowing the use of these cells for unlimited biological applications. PMID:24894124

  20. Retinoic acid decreases the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mediated gastroenteritis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ritam; Howlader, Debaki Ranjan; Mukherjee, Priyadarshini; Rai, Sulabh; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta

    2016-07-01

    Gastroenteritis is a global burden; it's the major cause of morbidity and mortality both in adults and children of developing countries. Salmonella is one of the leading causes of bacteria-mediated gastroenteritis and due to its increasing multidrug antibiotic resistance; Salmonella-mediated gastroenteritis is difficult to control. Retinoic acid, the biologically active agent of vitamin A has an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental colitis. In this study we have shown All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment down regulates Salmonella-mediated colitis in a murine model. Macroscopic signs of inflammation such as decrease in body weight and cecum weight, shorter length of proximal colon and pathological score of colitis were observed less in ATRA treated mice than in a vehicle control group. ATRA treatment not only reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 production but also increased IL-10 response in the supernatant of intestinal tissue. Results also suggested that ATRA treatment enhances the number of FoxP3-expressing T regulatory cells in MLN and also decreases bacterial load in systemic organs. We concluded that ATRA treatment indeed reduces Salmonella Typhimurium-mediated gastroenteritis in mice, suggesting it could be an important part of an alternative therapeutic approach to combat the disease. PMID:26858186

  1. Regulation of vitamin D receptor expression by retinoic acid receptor alpha in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchwicka, Aleksandra; Cebrat, Małgorzata; Łaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Śnieżewski, Łukasz; Brown, Geoffrey; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid precursors. A very promising way to treat AML is differentiation therapy using either all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), or the use of both these differentiation-inducing agents. However, the effect of combination treatment varies in different AML cell lines, and this is due to ATRA either down- or up-regulating transcription of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the cells examined. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of VDR in response to ATRA has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) is responsible for regulating VDR transcription in AML cells. We have shown that a VDR transcriptional variant, originating in exon 1a, is regulated by RARα agonists in AML cells. Moreover, in cells with a high basal level of RARα protein, the VDR gene is transcriptionally repressed as long as RARα agonist is absent. In these cells down-regulation of the level of RARα leads to increased expression of VDR. We consider that our findings provide a mechanistic background to explain the different outcomes from treating AML cell lines with a combination of ATRA and 1,25D. PMID:26969398

  2. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  3. Retinoic acid induction of genes associated with neural tube developmental defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjun Li; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hong Xu; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Xiaodong Long; Chao You

    2010-01-01

    To date, little information has been available regarding genes involved in the regulation of embryonic cell development, which participate in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects in mice.Previous studies have revealed seven differentially expressed genes involved in neural tube developmental defects. However, gene expression and regulation is a complex process. Therefore,gene expression differences between normal and defective neural tubes at 9.5 and 10.5 days were compared. A total of eight differentially expressed genes exhibited coincident alterations at embryonic 9.5 and 10.5 days. In mice with retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects, NeK7, IGFBP5,ZW10, Csf3r, PSMC6, Cdk5, and Rb1 expressions were downregulated, but Apoa-4 expression was upregulated. These results were confirmed by Northern blot hybridization. Results suggested that NeK7, IGFBP5, ZW10, Csf3r, PSMC6, Cdk5, Rb1, and Apoa-4 are important regulatory factors involved in neural tube defects.

  4. α-Mangostin, a Natural Agent, Enhances the Response of NRAS Mutant Melanoma to Retinoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Chen, Jing; Gong, Chongwen; Chen, Hongxiang; Sun, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification and use of novel compounds alone or in combination hold promise for the fight against NRAS mutant melanoma. Material/Methods We screened a kinase-specific inhibitor library through combining it with α-Mangostin in NRAS mutant melanoma cell line, and verified the enhancing effect of α-Mangostin through inhibition of the tumorigenesis pathway. Results Within the kinase inhibitors, retinoic acid showed a significant synergistic effect with α-Mangostin. α-Mangostin also can reverse the drug resistance of retinoic acid in RARa siRNA-transduced sk-mel-2 cells. Colony assay, TUNEL staining, and the expressions of several apoptosis-related genes revealed that α-Mangostin enhanced the effect of retinoic acid-induced apoptosis. The combination treatment resulted in marked induction of ROS generation and inhibition of the AKT/S6 pathway. Conclusions These results indicate that the combination of these novel natural agents with retinoid acid may be clinically effective in NRAS mutant melanoma. PMID:27104669

  5. Comparing the accuracy of high-dimensional neural network potentials and the systematic molecular fragmentation method: A benchmark study for all-trans alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastegger, Michael; Kauffmann, Clemens; Behler, Jörg; Marquetand, Philipp

    2016-05-21

    Many approaches, which have been developed to express the potential energy of large systems, exploit the locality of the atomic interactions. A prominent example is the fragmentation methods in which the quantum chemical calculations are carried out for overlapping small fragments of a given molecule that are then combined in a second step to yield the system's total energy. Here we compare the accuracy of the systematic molecular fragmentation approach with the performance of high-dimensional neural network (HDNN) potentials introduced by Behler and Parrinello. HDNN potentials are similar in spirit to the fragmentation approach in that the total energy is constructed as a sum of environment-dependent atomic energies, which are derived indirectly from electronic structure calculations. As a benchmark set, we use all-trans alkanes containing up to eleven carbon atoms at the coupled cluster level of theory. These molecules have been chosen because they allow to extrapolate reliable reference energies for very long chains, enabling an assessment of the energies obtained by both methods for alkanes including up to 10 000 carbon atoms. We find that both methods predict high-quality energies with the HDNN potentials yielding smaller errors with respect to the coupled cluster reference. PMID:27208939

  6. Comparing the accuracy of high-dimensional neural network potentials and the systematic molecular fragmentation method: A benchmark study for all-trans alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastegger, Michael; Kauffmann, Clemens; Behler, Jörg; Marquetand, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    Many approaches, which have been developed to express the potential energy of large systems, exploit the locality of the atomic interactions. A prominent example is the fragmentation methods in which the quantum chemical calculations are carried out for overlapping small fragments of a given molecule that are then combined in a second step to yield the system's total energy. Here we compare the accuracy of the systematic molecular fragmentation approach with the performance of high-dimensional neural network (HDNN) potentials introduced by Behler and Parrinello. HDNN potentials are similar in spirit to the fragmentation approach in that the total energy is constructed as a sum of environment-dependent atomic energies, which are derived indirectly from electronic structure calculations. As a benchmark set, we use all-trans alkanes containing up to eleven carbon atoms at the coupled cluster level of theory. These molecules have been chosen because they allow to extrapolate reliable reference energies for very long chains, enabling an assessment of the energies obtained by both methods for alkanes including up to 10 000 carbon atoms. We find that both methods predict high-quality energies with the HDNN potentials yielding smaller errors with respect to the coupled cluster reference.

  7. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. eleg...

  8. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ai-Guo, E-mail: wangaiguotl@hotmail.com; Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Ling; Dong, Jian-Yi; Cui, Hai-Peng; Yao, Liang; Li, Xue-Feng; Gao, Wen-Ting; Qiu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Fu-Jin; Wang, Jing-Yu, E-mail: wangjingyus@163.com

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  9. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  10. Spectral and intramolecular charge transfer properties in terminal donor/acceptor-substituted all-trans-α,ω-diphenylpolyenes and α,ω-diphenylpolyynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaonan; Yan, Linyin; Wang, Xuefei; Guo, Qianjin; Xia, Andong

    2011-10-14

    The absorption spectra and intramolecular charge transfer (CT) properties of terminal donor/acceptor-substituted all-trans-α,ω-diphenylpolyenes (DPE) and α,ω-diphenylpolyynes (DPY) molecules with different conjugated bridge length and substitution modes were investigated by using quantum chemical calculations. We calculated the ground state structures and energy of two series of terminal donor/acceptor DPE and DPY by DFT method. The dependence of conjugation length and substitution modes of the electronic absorption spectra was obtained by TDDFT calculation. The hybrid-GGA XC-functional PBE0 employed in this work was selected from several functionals by comparing the calculated electronic spectral data with experimental value. The CIS-based generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) approach was further used to calculate coupling values H(AD) of the CT process. The calculation shows that both the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and average bond length alternations between unsaturated multiple (C≡C and C=C) and saturated single bonds (C-C) decrease regularly with the extension of conjugation. The effective conjugated length (ECL) of DPE and DPY with the same order MM > MP/PM > PP is found together with the regular red shift of the electronic absorption spectra with the extension of conjugation, resulting from the different π-electron delocalization and conjugation efficiency. The GMH analysis further suggests that the CT process in both DPE and DPY is predominated by the through-bond mechanism. The remarkable difference of the conjugated length dependence of squared CT coupling between substituted DPE and DPY is the result of the energetic matching degree of the frontier molecular orbitals between donor/acceptor and the conjugated bridge. PMID:21879052

  11. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Triphenyl phosphate-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos is enhanced in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate uptake or metabolism within zebrafish embryos is not altered in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate decreases expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 in zebrafish embryos. • Triphenyl phosphate inhibits retinoic acid-induced activation of human retinoic acid receptors. - Abstract: Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5–72 h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite – were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may

  12. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M. [Division of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Volz, David C., E-mail: volz@mailbox.sc.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Triphenyl phosphate-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos is enhanced in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate uptake or metabolism within zebrafish embryos is not altered in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate decreases expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 in zebrafish embryos. • Triphenyl phosphate inhibits retinoic acid-induced activation of human retinoic acid receptors. - Abstract: Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5–72 h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite – were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may

  13. Retinoic acid signaling after nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Schrage, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Experiments with sciatic nerve lesions and spinal cord contusions have demonstrated that retinoic acid is involved in the physiological reactions after PNS and CNS injuries. The aim of this thesis was to identify the cellular targets of injury-related RA signals in the peripheral and central nervous system and to investigate the functional significance of RA in this context.I discovered that crucial components of the RA signal transduction cascade (retinoic acid receptors, retinoid X receptor...

  14. Clinical Study on Prospective Efficacy of All-Trans Acid, Realgar-Indigo Naturalis Formula Combined with Chemotherapy as Maintenance Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To test the efficiency and safety of sequential application of retinoic acid (ATRA, Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF and chemotherapy (CT were used as the maintenance treatment in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 98 patients with newly diagnosed APL who accepted two different maintenance treatments. After remission induction and consolidation chemotherapy according to their Sanz scores, patients received two different kinds of maintenance scheme. The first regimen was using ATRA, RIF, and standard dose of CT sequentially (ATRA/RIF/CT regimen, while the second one was using ATRA and low dose of chemotherapy with methotrexate (MTX plus 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP alternately (ATRA/CTlow regimen. The OS, DFS, relapse rate, minimal residual disease, and adverse reactions in two groups were monitored and evaluated. Results. ATRA/RIF/CT regimen could effectively reduce the chance of relapse in different risk stratification of patients, but there was no significant difference in 5-year DFS rate and OS rate between the two groups. Besides, the patients in the experimental group suffered less severe adverse reactions than those in the control group. Conclusions. The repeated sequential therapeutic regimen to APL with ATRA, RIF, and chemotherapy is worth popularizing for its high effectiveness and low toxicity.

  15. Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Harry; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Beal, Madeline; Beshah, Ethiopia; Vangimalla, Vandana; Jones, Eudora; Botero, Sebastian; Joseph F. Urban

    2009-01-01

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observatio...

  16. Retinoic acid signalling is activated in the postischemic heart and may influence remodelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Bilbija

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-trans retinoic acid (atRA, an active derivative of vitamin A, regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and cardiac morphogenesis via transcriptional activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs acting on retinoic acid response elements (RARE. We hypothesized that the retinoic acid (RA signalling pathway is activated in myocardial ischemia and postischemic remodelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Myocardial infarction was induced through ligating the left coronary artery in mice. In vivo cardiac activation of the RARs was measured by imaging RARE-luciferase reporter mice, and analysing expression of RAR target genes and proteins by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Endogenous retinoids in postinfarcted hearts were analysed by triple-stage liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Cardiomyocytes (CM and cardiofibroblasts (CF were isolated from infarcted and sham operated RARE luciferase reporter hearts and monitored for RAR activity and expression of target genes. The effect of atRA on CF proliferation was evaluated by EdU incorporation. Myocardial infarction increased thoracic RAR activity in vivo (p<0.001, which was ascribed to the heart through ex vivo imaging (p = 0.002 with the largest signal 1 week postinfarct. This was accompanied by increased cardiac gene and protein expression of the RAR target genes retinol binding protein 1 (p = 0.01 for RNA, p = 0,006 for protein and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (p = 0.04 for RNA, p = 0,014 for protein, while gene expression of cytochrome P450 26B1 was downregulated (p = 0.007. Concomitantly, retinol accumulated in the infarcted zone (p = 0.02. CM and CF isolated from infarcted hearts had higher luminescence than those from sham operated hearts (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008. AtRA inhibited CF proliferation in vitro (p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: The RA signalling pathway is activated in postischemic hearts and may play a role in regulation of damage and

  17. Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Signaling during Early Organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Duester, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A, is an essential component of cell-cell signaling during vertebrate organogenesis. In early development retinoic acid functions as a trunk organizer by providing an instructive signal for posterior neuroectoderm and foregut endoderm and a permissive signal for trunk mesoderm differentiation. At later stages, retinoic acid contributes to the development of the eye and other organs. Recent efforts suggest that retinoic acid acts primarily in a paracrine ...

  18. In vitro study on arsenic sulfide (realgar)-induced apoptosis of retinoic acid susceptible or resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Si-yu; LIU Shan-xi; LI Xin-min

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To further understand the possible mechanisms of arsenic sulfide (realgar) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Methods: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-susceptible APL cell line (NB4 cells) and ATRA-resistant APL cell line (MR2 subclone) were used as models in vitro. At various times after incubated with various concentrations of realgar, NB4 and MR2 cells were observed by cell viability, cell proliferation and cell morphology; cell cycle and the expression of Annexin V were assayed by flow cytometry. Results: Cell viability and proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells were inhibited after the treatment,to some extent, in a dose and time dependent manner. 177-711 μg/L of realgar treated NB4 and MR2 cell presented morphologically some features of apoptotic cells such as intact cell membrane, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, apoptosis body could be found by electron microscopy as well. Sub-G1 ceils andcell cycle arrest were observed by flow cytometry. The proportion of Annexin V -FITC+/PI cells, which represent apoptotic cells, was up-regulated. Conclusion: Realgar could induce apoptosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia cell despite its susceptibility to retinoic acid in the way that may be different from retinoic acid.

  19. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Retinoic Acid Combined with Interferon Alpha-2a on Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANLi-xin; LIUXun-liang; ZHOUJian-wei; MonicaLiebert; ZOUChang-chun; ZOUChang-ping

    2004-01-01

    To identify new favorable agents and develop novel approaches for the chemoprevention and treatment of superficial bladder cancer and invesligate the effects of combination of relinoids and interferon α-2a on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in bladder cancer cell lines. Methods: Four bladder cancer cell lines, grade 1 to 3,and two retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid(ATRA) ,9.cis retinoic acid(9cRA) ,combined with inteferon α-2a(INF),were used in the study.We compared the competence of these agents to inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, affect the exptession of nuclear retinoid receptors, and modulate STAT1 protein. Resu/ts: Most of the bladder cancer cell lines were resistant to the effect of ATRA and 9cRA on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, even at higher concentration (10-5M).The effects of ATRA and 9c RA on cell growth and apoptosis were enhanced by INF α-2a.Combination of ATRA and IFNa-2a induced ~ and Slat 1 expression in three bladder cancer cell lines, ~: The results demonstrated that INFw2a synergize with the inhibitory effect of ATRA and 9c RA on the growth intn'bition and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells in vitro, which suggested that it has a potenlJal intexest for the trealment of transitimml cell carcinmna of bladder.

  20. Sequential Analysis for Comparing the Effect of Keyin Decoction(克银方) with Retinoic Acid in Treating Psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ning(王砚宁); GU Jun(顾军)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of Keyin Decoction(克银方)with retinoic acid in treatingpsoriasis. Methods: One hundred and six patients were randomly divided by paired grouping into the KYD group and the all-trans retinoic acid (RA) group, 53 in each group with 19 cases belonging to Wind-Heat Syndrome type and 34 to Wind-Dryness type. The Wind-Heat Syndrome type in the KYD group was trea- ted with KYD Ⅰ (with the action of rearing Heat, removing Dampness, cooling blood and dispelling Wind), and the Wind-Dryness type with KYD Ⅱ (with the action of nourishing blood, moistening skin and dredging Qi-blood circulation, ). The RA group was treated with RA. Sequential analysis was adopted to observe the effect. At the same time, the adverse reaction was observed. Results: When the test got to the 44th pair of patients, the scription of result reached the UA line of sequential chart, suggesting that the efficacy of KYD was superior to that of RA. Skin lesion subsidence rate in the KYD group and the RA group was 39.6% and 20.8% respectively with significant difference (P<0.05). And for the patients of progressive phase in the two groups, skin lesion subsidence rate was 57.8% and 21.1% respectively (P<0.05). No obvious adverse reaction was found in the KYD group. Conclusion: Keyin Decoction had goodeffect in treating psoriasis.

  1. Retinoic acid receptor gamma-induced misregulation of chondrogenesis in the murine limb bud in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdones, Eugene; Hales, Barbara F

    2008-11-01

    Vitamin A derivatives modulate gene expression through retinoic acid and rexinoid receptor (RAR/RXR) heterodimers and are indispensable for limb development. Of particular interest, RARgamma is highly expressed in cartilage, a target affected following retinoid-induced limb insult. The goal of this study was to examine how selective activation of RARgamma affects limb development. Forelimbs from E12.5 CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days in the presence of all-trans RA (pan-RAR agonist; 0.1 or 1.0 microM) or BMS-189961 (BMS961, RARgamma-selective agonist; 0.01 or 0.1 microM) and limb morphology assessed. Untreated limbs developed normal cartilage elements whereas pan-RAR or RARgamma agonist-treated limbs exhibited reductive effects on chondrogenesis. Retinoid activity was assessed using RAREbeta2 (retinoic acid response element beta2)-lacZ reporter limbs; after 3 h of treatment, both drugs increased retinoid activity proximally. To elucidate the expression profiles of a subset of genes important for development, limbs were cultured for 3 h and cRNA hybridized to osteogenesis-focused microarrays. Two genes, matrix GLA protein (Mgp; chondrogenesis inhibitor) and growth differentiation factor-10 (Gdf10/Bmp3b) were induced by RA and BMS-189961. Real-time PCR was done to validate our results and whole mount in situ hybridizations against Mgp and Gdf10 localized their upregulation to areas of cartilage and programmed cell death, respectively. Thus, our results illustrate the importance of RARgamma in mediating the retinoid-induced upregulation of Mgp and Gdf10; determining their roles in chondrogenesis and cell death will help further unravel mechanisms underlying retinoid teratogenicity. PMID:18703560

  2. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  3. Synergistic effects of retinoic acid and tamoxifen on human breast cancer cells: Proteomic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anti-estrogen tamoxifen and vitamin A-related compound, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), in combination act synergistically to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach to globally analyze this synergistic effect of RA and tamoxifen. Proteomic study revealed that multiple clusters of proteins were involved in RA and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, including post-transcriptional and splicing factors, proteins related to cellular proliferation or differentiation, and proteins related to energy production and internal degradation systems. The negative growth factor-transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) was secreted by RA and/or tamoxifen treatment and was studies as a potential mediator of the synergistic effects of RA and tamoxifen in apoptosis. By comparing protein alterations in treatments of RA and tamoxifen alone or in combination to those of TGFβ treatment, or co-treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB 431542, proteomic results showed that a number of proteins were involved in TGFβ signaling pathway. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of RA and tamoxifen-induced TGFβ signaling pathway in breast cancer cells

  4. UV-A emission from fluorescent energy-saving light bulbs alters local retinoic acid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Heuser, Isabella; Regen, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide bans on incandescent light bulbs (ILBs) drive the use of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs, which emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Potential health issues of these light sources have already been discussed, including speculation about the putative biological effects on light exposed tissues, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized photoisomerization of all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA), a highly light sensitive morphogen, into biologically less active isomers, as a mechanism mediating biological effects of CFLs. Local at-RA is anti-carcinogenic, entrains molecular rhythms and is crucial for skin homeostasis. Therefore, we quantified the impact of CFL irradiation on extra- and intracellular levels of RA isomers using an epidermal cell culture model. Moreover, a biologically relevant impact of CFL irradiation was assessed using highly at-RA-sensitive human neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent conversion of extra- and intracellular at-RA into the biologically less active 13-cis-isomer was significantly higher in CFL vs. ILB exposure and completely preventable by employing a UV-filter. Moreover, pre-irradiation of culture media by CFL attenuated at-RA-specific effects on cell viability in human at-RA-sensitive cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings point towards a biological relevance of CFL-induced at-RA decomposition, providing a mechanism for CFL-mediated effects on environmental health. PMID:24135972

  5. Age-related changes in retinoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid modulation in nuclear lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveglio, Virginia L; Pascual, Ana C; Giusto, Norma M; Pasquaré, Susana J

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this work was to study how age-related changes could modify several enzymatic activities that regulate lipid mediator levels in nuclei from rat cerebellum and how these changes are modulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). The higher phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and lower diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity observed in aged animals compared with adults could augment diacylglycerol (DAG) availability in the former. Additionally, monoacylglycerol (MAG) availability could be high due to an increase in lysophosphatidate phosphohydrolase (LPAPase) activity and a decrease in monocylglycerol lipase activity. Interestingly, RA, DHA and AA were observed to modulate these enzymatic activities and this modulation was found to change in aged rats. In adult nuclei, whereas RA led to high DAG and MAG production through inhibition of their hydrolytic enzymes, DHA and AA promoted high MAG production by LPAPase and DAGL stimulation. In contrast, in aged nuclei RA caused high MAG generation whereas DHA and AA diminished it through LPAPase activity modulation. These results demonstrate that aging promotes a different nuclear lipid metabolism as well as a different type of non-genomic regulation by RA, DHA and AA, which could be involved in nuclear signaling events. PMID:27355428

  6. Anti-apoptotic role of retinoic acid in the inner ear of noise-exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to loud noise can induce temporary or permanent hearing loss, and acoustic trauma is the major cause of hearing impairment in industrial nations. However, the mechanisms underlying the death of hair cells after acoustic trauma remain unclear. In addition to its involvement in cellular stress and apoptosis, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, is involved in cell survival, transformation, embryonic morphogenesis, and differentiation. JNK is primarily activated by various environmental stresses including noise, and the phenotypic result appears be to cell death. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that regulates a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. We evaluated the role of ATRA in preserving hearing in mice exposed to noise that can induce permanent hearing loss. Mice fed with ATRA before and during 3 consecutive days of noise exposure had a more preserved hearing threshold than mice fed sesame oil or saline. Histological and TUNEL staining of the cochlea showed significantly enhanced preservation of the organ of Corti, including outer hair cells and relatively low apoptotic nuclei, in mice-fed ATRA than in mice-fed sesame oil or saline. Phospho-JNK immunohistochemistry showed that ATRA inhibited the activation of JNK. These results suggest that ATRA has an anti-apoptotic effect on cochleae exposed to noise

  7. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  8. SnapShot: Retinoic Acid Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandeep; Duester, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a lipid soluble signaling molecule derived from vitamin A (retinol), regulates diverse biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, throughout embryonic development. RA controls the expression of genes involved in patterning and morphogenesis during organogenesis. Disruptions in the regulation of RA signaling results in several developmental disorders, including limb and skeletal defects, abnormal patterning of the central nervous...

  9. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naive T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  10. Retinoic acid receptor-dependent, cell-autonomous, endogenous retinoic acid signaling and its target genes in mouse collecting duct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Fei Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is necessary for kidney development and has also been linked to regulation of solute and water homeostasis and to protection against kidney stone disease, infection, inflammation, and scarring. Most functions of vitamin A are mediated by its main active form, all-trans retinoic acid (tRA, which binds retinoic acid receptors (RARs to modulate gene expression. We and others have recently reported that renal tRA/RAR activity is confined to the ureteric bud (UB and collecting duct (CD cell lineage, suggesting that endogenous tRA/RARs primarily act through regulating gene expression in these cells in embryonic and adult kidney, respectively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore target genes of endogenous tRA/RARs, we employed the mIMCD-3 mouse inner medullary CD cell line, which is a model of CD principal cells and exhibits constitutive tRA/RAR activity as CD principal cells do in vivo. Combining antagonism of RARs, inhibition of tRA synthesis, exposure to exogenous tRA, and gene expression profiling techniques, we have identified 125 genes as candidate targets and validated 20 genes that were highly regulated (Dhrs3, Sprr1a, and Ppbp were the top three. Endogenous tRA/RARs were more important in maintaining, rather than suppressing, constitutive gene expression. Although many identified genes were expressed in UBs and/or CDs, their exact functions in this cell lineage are still poorly defined. Nevertheless, gene ontology analysis suggests that these genes are involved in kidney development, renal functioning, and regulation of tRA signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A rigorous approach to defining target genes for endogenous tRA/RARs has been established. At the pan-genomic level, genes regulated by endogenous tRA/RARs in a CD cell line have been catalogued for the first time. Such a catalogue will guide further studies on molecular mediators of endogenous tRA/RARs during kidney development and in relation to renal

  11. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Diez del Corral; Morales, Aixa V

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, tr...

  12. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Richard Kin Ting; Deng Yi; Chen Yonglong; Zhao Hui

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Retinoic acid (RA) is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A) that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) which then regulate the target gene expression. In thi...

  13. Retinoids cause apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of RAR-γ and altered expression of Bcl-2/Bax

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, F; Dalgleish, A G; Bissonnette, R P; Colston, K W

    2002-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid have been reported to have inhibitory effects on pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells and we have shown that this is partly due to induction of apoptosis. In this study, the mechanisms whereby 9-cis-retinoic acid induces apoptosis in these cells were investigated. An involvement of the Bcl-2 family of proteins was shown, such that 9-cis-retinoic acid causes a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Overexpression of Bcl-2 also resulted in inhibition of apop...

  14. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Diez del Corral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, trying to separate the different processes where retinoic acid signaling is involved and to highlight common features, such as its ability to promote transitions along the neuronal differentiation cascade.

  15. Retinoic acid signaling in mammalian eye development

    OpenAIRE

    CVEKL, ALES; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a biologically active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that serves as a signaling molecule during a number of developmental and physiological processes. RA signaling plays multiple roles during embryonic eye development. RA signaling is initially required for reciprocal interactions between the optic vesicle and invaginating lens placode. RA signaling promotes normal development of the ventral retina and optic nerve through its activities in the neural crest cell-derive...

  16. Altered retinoic acid signalling underpins dentition evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert, Yann; Samarut, Eric,; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Bernard, Laure; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Sadier, Alexa; Labbé, Catherine; Viriot, Laurent; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Small variations in signalling pathways have been linked to phenotypic diversity and speciation. In vertebrates, teeth represent a reservoir of adaptive morphological structures that are prone to evolutionary change. Cyprinid fish display an impressive diversity in tooth number, but the signals that generate such diversity are unknown. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA) availability influences tooth number size in Cyprinids. Heterozygous adult zebrafish heterozygous for the cyp26b1 mutant ...

  17. Retinoic acid response element in the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3: implications for regulation of retinoic acid synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Duester, G; Shean, M L; McBride, M S; Stewart, M J

    1991-01-01

    Retinoic acid regulation of one member of the human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family was demonstrated, suggesting that the retinol dehydrogenase function of ADH may play a regulatory role in the biosynthetic pathway for retinoic acid. Promoter activity of human ADH3, but not ADH1 or ADH2, was shown to be activated by retinoic acid in transient transfection assays of Hep3B human hepatoma cells. Deletion mapping experiments identified a region in the ADH3 promoter located between...

  18. Teratogenic effects of triphenyltin on embryos of amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis): a phenotypic comparison with the retinoid X and retinoic acid receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Jing; Cao, Qinzhen; Liu, Junqi; Zhu, Pan; Shi, Huahong

    2011-09-15

    Triphenyltin (TPT) has high binding affinity with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) in animals. The natural ligand of RXR, 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), is known to induce featured malformations in vertebrate embryos by disrupting RA signal. Limited information is available on the TPT effects on amphibians. We exposed embryos of amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis) to TPT, 9-cis-RA, all-trans-RA (ligand of retinoic acid receptor, RAR), and LGD1069 (a selective ligand of RXR). The 72h LC50 of TPT was 5.25 μg Sn/L, and 72h EC50 was 0.96 μg Sn/L. TPT induced multiple malformations including enlarged proctodaeum and narrow fins. TPT at 5 μg Sn/L inhibited the differentiation of skins and muscles. The reduced brain, loss of external eyes and bent axis were observed in RXR and RAR ligands treatments. TPT and tributyltin (TBT) inhibited the mRNA expression of RXRα and increased that of TRβ. The phenotypes of malformations induced by TPT were similar to those by TBT and were much different from those by the RXR and RAR ligands. These results indicated that TPT was acute toxic and had high teratogenicity to amphibian embryos, and that TPT induced phenotypes of malformations. TPT and TBT might have a similar teratogenic mechanism, which seems not to be mainly mediated through RA signal. PMID:21820800

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric field suppresses development of eyes and germ cells through blocking synthesis of retinoic acid in Medaka (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10-30 kV/cm, 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes. Exposure of early blastula stage embryos to nsPEF down-regulated the expression of several transcription factors which are essential for eye development, causing abnormal eye formation. Moreover, the majority of the exposed genetic female embryos showed a fewer number of germ cells similar to that of the control (unexposed genetic male at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf. However, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA treatment following the exposure rescued proliferation of germ cells and resumption of normal eye development, suggesting that the phenotypes induced by nsPEF are caused by a decrease of retinoic acid levels. These results confirm that nsPEFs induce novel effects during embryogenesis in medaka.

  20. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut;

    The Vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) has emerged as an important regulator of peripheral T cell responses. However, whether there is endogenous retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling in developing thymocytes and the potential impact of such signals in thymocyte development remains unclear...

  1. Method of preparing tritium-labelled retinoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoic acid is brominated, and the product obtained is reduced by means of a tritium-labelled reduction agent. N-bromine succinimide is recommended for bromination and sodium hydroboron for reduction. The resulting retinoic acid has a specific activity around 3.7x1010 Bq/mol (1 Ci/mMol). (orig./PW)

  2. Oral tolerance: is it all retinoic acid?

    OpenAIRE

    von Boehmer, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Oral tolerance has been argued to depend on “special” presentation of antigen in the gut. New studies support this idea by showing that the catalysis of vitamin A into retinoic acid (RA) in gut-associated dendritic cells (DCs) enhances the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β–dependent conversion of naive T cells into regulatory T (T reg) cells and also directs T reg cell homing to the gut. These results reveal new tolerance mechanisms that will aid the use of T reg cells in the clinic.

  3. The Effects of Quercetin and Retinoic acid on Skeletal System of Rat Embryos in Prenatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Gohari-Behbahani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal rat embryo exposure to retinoid induces some malformations in various organs, the most active and teratogenic metablolite is all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA. The teratogenic effects of some drugs can be prevented by the application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Also, quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid has excellent antioxidant properties. Therefore, in this study, the prophylactic effect of quercetin on teratogenic effects of atRA was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant rats were divided into 7 groups. Control group received normal saline and test groups received dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, quercetin (75 mg/kg, quercetin (200 mg/kg, atRA (25 mg/kg, atRA (25 mg/kg plus quercetin (75 mg/kg and atRA (25 mg/kg plus quercetin (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally at 8-10th days of gestation. Fetuses were collected at 20th day of gestation and after determination of weight and length; they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. Results: Cleft palate, exencephaly and spina bifida incidence were 30.76%, 61.53% and 30.76% range in group which received only atRA. Cleft palate, exencephaly and spina bifida incidence were 11.11%, 16.66% and 5.55% in group which received atRA plus quercetin (75 mg/kg. However, cleft palate, exencephaly and spina bifida incidence were 10.52%, 10.52% and 0% in group which received atRA plus quercetin (200 mg/kg. The means of weight and length of fetuses from rat that received atRA plus quercetin (75 mg/kg were significantly greater than those received only atRA. Conclusion: It is concluded that quercetin decreased teratogenicity induced by atRA, but this subject needs more detailed evaluation.

  4. BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ALDO-KETO REDUCTASES IN RETINOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS AND SIGNALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier eRuiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several aldo-keto reductase (AKR enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low Km and kcat values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3, as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in β-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance.

  5. Retinoic acid-treated pluripotent stem cells undergoing neurogenesis present increased aneuploidy and micronuclei formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C Sartore

    Full Text Available The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC cells, embryonic stem (ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal

  6. Acid-induced changes of brain protein buffering

    OpenAIRE

    Kraig, Richard P.; Wagner, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Excessive cellular acidosis is thought to enhance destruction of brain from ischemia. Protein denaturation may contribute to such injury although the behavior of brain proteins to acidosis is poorly defined. As a first approach to detect acid-induced changes in brain proteins and to characterize buffer content, homogenates were acidified for 20 min (as low as pH 3.1), returned to baseline pH (6.9), and then titrated. Titration curves show a significant (P < 0.0001) and permanent increase in b...

  7. Retinoic Acid Receptors Control Spermatogonia Cell-Fate and Induce Expression of the SALL4A Transcription Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Gely-Pernot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is instrumental to male germ cell differentiation, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. To address this question, we have analyzed the phenotypes of mice lacking, in spermatogonia, all rexinoid receptors (RXRA, RXRB and RXRG or all ATRA receptors (RARA, RARB and RARG. We demonstrate that the combined ablation of RXRA and RXRB in spermatogonia recapitulates the set of defects observed both upon ablation of RAR in spermatogonia. We also show that ATRA activates RAR and RXR bound to a conserved regulatory region to increase expression of the SALL4A transcription factor in spermatogonia. Our results reveal that this major pluripotency gene is a target of ATRA signaling and that RAR/RXR heterodimers are the functional units driving its expression in spermatogonia. They add to the mechanisms through which ATRA promote expression of the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor to trigger a critical step in spermatogonia differentiation. Importantly, they indicate also that meiosis eventually occurs in the absence of a RAR/RXR pathway within germ cells and suggest that instructing this process is either ATRA-independent or requires an ATRA signal originating from Sertoli cells.

  8. Effects of All-trans Retinoic Acid on hTERT Gene Expression and Telomerase Activity of HL-60 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEDongmei; ZHANGYuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression and telomerase activity in HL-60 cells. Methods: The expression of hTERT protein was assayed by immunofluorescence using fluoresce isothiocyanate label and telomerase activity was determined by polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunoassay with HL-60 cells untreated or treated with ATRA. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: After treatment with 1μmol/L ATRA for 24, 48, 72 h, mean fluorescence intensity of hTERT protein in HL-60 cells was 61.87±4.36, 37.47±2.85, 33.45±2.37,respectively. There was a significant decrease in hTERT protein expression compared to the cells untreated, and the effect had statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Telomerase activity was decreased significantly in HL-60 cells treated with 1μmol/L ATRA for 48, 72h as compared to the cells untreated (P<0.05). Conclusion: ATRA could inhibit telomerase activity and hTERT gene expression in HL-60 cells.

  9. In vitro induction and differentiation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells by alltrans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Jin; Yao-Peng; Xu; An-Huai; Yang; Yi-Qiao; Xing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimal concentration for inducing the differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells(h UC-MSCs) into neuron-like cells, although it is understood that all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA) regulates cell proliferation in the nervous system by modulating the balance between mitosis and apoptosis.METHODS: The abilities of ATRA to promote apoptosis as well as neural differentiation were assessed in cultured h UC-MSCs by morphological observation, MTT assay, annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry.RESULTS: The data showed that low concentrations of ATRA(0.5 μmol, 0.25 μmol) had no effect on the number of cells. However, treatment with 1.0 μmol or 2.0 μmol ATRA induced a 24.16% and 52.67% reduction in cell number, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated cultures. Further, 4.0 μmol ATRA had a potent effect on cell number, with almost no adherent cells recovered after 24 h. We further showed that 0.5 μmol ATRA caused these cells to express characteristic markers of neuronal progenitor cells.CONCLUSION: Taken together, we conclude that ATRA has a dose-dependent influence on the neural differentiation and apoptosis of h UC-MSCs. These findings have implications on the use of ATRA-differentiated h UC-MSCs for the study of neural degeneration diseases.

  10. MicroRNA-10a is reduced in breast cancer and regulated in part through retinoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that play a critical role in mRNA cleavage and translational repression, and are known to be altered in many diseases including breast cancer. MicroRNA-10a (miR-10a) has been shown to be deregulated in various cancer types. The aim of this study was to investigate miR-10a expression in breast cancer and to further delineate the role of retinoids and thyroxine in regulation of miR-10a. Following informed patient consent and ethical approval, tissue samples were obtained during surgery. miR-10a was quantified in malignant (n = 103), normal (n = 30) and fibroadenoma (n = 35) tissues by RQ-PCR. Gene expression of Retinoic Acid Receptor beta (RARβ) and Thyroid Hormone receptor alpha (THRα) was also quantified in the same patient samples (n = 168). The in vitro effects of all-trans Retinoic acid (ATRA) and L-Thyroxine (T4) both individually and in combination, on miR-10a expression was investigated in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and SK-BR-3. The level of miR-10a expression was significantly decreased in tissues harvested from breast cancer patients (Mean (SEM) 2.1(0.07)) Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ)) compared to both normal (3.0(0.16) Log10 RQ, p < 0.001) and benign tissues (2.6(0.17) Log10 RQ, p < 0.05). The levels of both RARβ and THRα gene expression were also found to be decreased in breast cancer patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was determined between miR-10a and RARβ (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and also with THRα (r = 0.32, p < 0.001). In vitro stimulation assays revealed miR-10a expression was increased in both T47D and SK-BR-3 cells following addition of ATRA (2 fold (0.7)). While T4 alone did not stimulate miR-10a expression, the combination of T4 and ATRA was found to have a positive synergistic effect. The data presented supports a potential tumour suppressor role for miR-10a in breast cancer, and highlights retinoic acid as a positive regulator of the micro

  11. Keeping an eye on retinoic acid signaling during eye development

    OpenAIRE

    Duester, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid is a metabolic derivative of vitamin A that plays an essential function in cell-cell signaling by serving as a ligand for nuclear receptors that directly regulate gene expression. The final step in the conversion of retinol to retinoic acid is carried out by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases encoded by Raldh1 (Aldh1a1), Raldh2 (Aldh1a2), and Raldh3 (Aldh1a3). Mouse Raldh gene knockout studies have been instrumental in understanding the mechanism of retinoic acid action during e...

  12. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Richard Kin Ting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoic acid (RA is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR which then regulate the target gene expression. In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development.

  13. Characterization of DNA Binding and Retinoic Acid Binding Properties of Retinoic Acid Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Schule, Roland; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Evans, Ronald M.

    1991-05-01

    High-level expression of the full-length human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α and the DNA binding domain of the RAR in Escherichia coli was achieved by using a T7 RNA polymerase-directed expression system. After induction, full-length RAR protein was produced at an estimated level of 20% of the total bacterial proteins. Both intact RAR molecules and the DNA binding domain bind to the cognate DNA response element with high specificity in the absence of retinoic acid. However, this binding is enhanced to a great extent upon the addition of eukaryotic cell extracts. The factor responsible for this enhancement is heat-sensitive and forms a complex with RAR that binds to DNA and exhibits a distinct migration pattern in the gel-mobility-shift assay. The interaction site of the factor with RAR is localized in the 70-amino acid DNA binding region of RAR. The hormone binding ability of the RARα protein was assayed by a charcoal absorption assay and the RAR protein was found to bind to retinoic acid with a K_d of 2.1 x 10-10 M.

  14. Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi-Vamos Ferenc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the positive and negative effects of retinoids (vitamin A analogs in premalignant and malignant lesions. Retinoids have been used as chemopreventive and anticancer agents because of their pleiotropic regulator function in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis through interaction with two types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the function of retinoids and their signaling pathways and may explain the failure of earlier chemopreventive studies. In this review we have compiled basic and recent knowledge regarding the role of retinoid receptors in lung carcinogenesis. Sensitive and appropriate biological tools are necessary for screening the risk population and monitoring the efficacy of chemoprevention. Investigation of retinoid receptors is important and may contribute to the establishment of new strategies in chemoprevention for high-risk patients and in the treatment of lung cancer.

  15. Novel retinoic acid receptor ligands in Xenopus embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, B; Bolado, J; Derguini, F; Craig, A G; Moreno, T A; Chakravarti, D; Heyman, R A; Buck, J.; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids are a large family of natural and synthetic compounds related to vitamin A that have pleiotropic effects on body physiology, reproduction, immunity, and embryonic development. The diverse activities of retinoids are primarily mediated by two families of nuclear retinoic acid receptors, the RARs and RXRs. Retinoic acids are thought to be the only natural ligands for these receptors and are widely assumed to be the active principle of vitamin A. However, during an unbiased, bioactivit...

  16. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Koichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Koizumi, Tomonobu, E-mail: tomonobu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakagawa, Rikimaru [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Obata, Toru [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of DNA Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  17. The effect pathway of retinoic acid through regulation of retinoic acid receptor in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Qiao Wu; Zheng-Ming Chen; Wen-Jin Su

    2001-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the role of RARa gene in mediating the growth inhibitory effect of ail-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)on gastric cancer cells.``METHODS The expression levels of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in gastric cancer cells were detected by Northern blot. Transient transfection and chlorophenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) assay were used to show the transcriptional activity of β retinoic acid response element (βRARE) and AP-l activity. Cell growth inhibition was determined by MTT assay and anchorage-independent growth assay, respectively. Stable transfection was performed by the method of Lipofectamine, and the cells were screened by G418.``RESULTS ATRA could induce expression level of RARα in MGC80-3, BGCC8823 and SGC-7901 cells obviously,resulting in growth inhibition of these cell lines. After sense RARa gene was transfected into MKN-45 cells that expressed rather Iow level of RARα and could not be induced by ATRA, the cell growth was inhibited by ATRA markedly. In contrast, when antisense RARα gene was transfected into BGC-825 cells, a little inhibitory effect by ATRA was seen, compared with the parallel BGC-823cells. In transient transfection assay, ATRA effectively induced transcriptional activity of βRARE in MGC80-3,BGC.823, SGC-7902 and MKN/RARa cell lines, but not in MKN-45 and BGC/aRARa cell lines. Similar results were observed in measuring anti-AP-l activity by ATRA in these cancer cell lines.``CONCLUSION ATRA inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells by up-regulating the level of RARa; RARa is the major mediator of ATRA action in gastric cancer cells; and adequate level of RAPa is required for ATRA effect on gastric cancer cells.``

  18. Transvitreal retino-choroidal biopsy of suspected malignant lesions of the choroid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, O.A.; Prause, J.U.; Scherfig, E.

    ophthalmology, intraocular biopsy, transvitreal retino-choroidal biopsy, malignant melanoma of choroid, histopathology, brachytherapy......ophthalmology, intraocular biopsy, transvitreal retino-choroidal biopsy, malignant melanoma of choroid, histopathology, brachytherapy...

  19. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  20. Altered retinoic acid signalling underpins dentition evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Yann; Samarut, Eric; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Bernard, Laure; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Sadier, Alexa; Labbé, Catherine; Viriot, Laurent; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Small variations in signalling pathways have been linked to phenotypic diversity and speciation. In vertebrates, teeth represent a reservoir of adaptive morphological structures that are prone to evolutionary change. Cyprinid fish display an impressive diversity in tooth number, but the signals that generate such diversity are unknown. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA) availability influences tooth number size in Cyprinids. Heterozygous adult zebrafish heterozygous for the cyp26b1 mutant that encodes an enzyme able to degrade RA possess an extra tooth in the ventral row. Expression analysis of pharyngeal mesenchyme markers such as dlx2a and lhx6 shows lateral, anterior and dorsal expansion of these markers in RA-treated embryos, whereas the expression of the dental epithelium markers dlx2b and dlx3b is unchanged. Our analysis suggests that changes in RA signalling play an important role in the diversification of teeth in Cyprinids. Our work illustrates that through subtle changes in the expression of rate-limiting enzymes, the RA pathway is an active player of tooth evolution in fish. PMID:25652838

  1. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  2. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products. PMID:25300299

  3. 全反式维甲酸对兔颈动脉粥样硬化病变中Cdk2表达及血管平滑肌细胞增生的影响%Influence of All-trans Retinoic Acid on the Expression of Cdk2 and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Carotid Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳琳; 董果雄; 张社华

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨全反式维甲酸(ATRA)对兔颈动脉粥样硬化病灶中血管内膜的增生、血管平滑肌细胞(VSMCs)增殖、增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)及细胞周期素依赖性激酶Cdk2表达规律的影响.方法 36只新西兰雄性大白兔随机分为3组:正常饮食组、手术组、ARTA治疗组,每组12只.手术组和治疗组均给予高脂饮食,两周后用空气干燥法制作颈动脉内膜损伤模型,治疗组于术前3d开始给予ATRA灌胃.于术后1、4周处死动物,取病变血管应用HE染色、免疫组化和计算机图像分析法进行形态学、PCNA和Cdk2表达水平的检测.结果 ①正常动脉壁未见PCNA及Cdk2表达.②手术组在术后第1周时内膜开始增生,第4周增生明显,且出现泡沫细胞、脂质核心形成、管腔狭窄;增生内膜中Cdk2表达水平增高.③治疗组Cdk2的表达明显低于手术组(P<0.05),VSMCs的迁移、增殖、内膜增生和管腔狭窄显著减轻(P<0.05).④PCNA表达与Cdk2表达呈显著正相关(P<0.01).结论 ARTA可通过抑制Cdk2表达,抑制VSMCs的迁移和增殖,从而抑制兔颈动脉粥样硬化新生内膜过度增生和管腔狭窄.

  4. All-trans Retinoic acid combined arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia Clinical analysis of 21 cases%全反式维甲酸联合As2O3治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病21例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍世平

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察三氧化二砷(As2O3)联合全反式维甲酸(ATRA)治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病(APL)的疗效及毒副反应.方法:对21例急性早幼粒细胞白血病(APL)患者应用As2O3联合ATRA双诱导治疗,对高白细胞患者加用单一化疗药物高三尖衫酯碱(H)或柔红霉素(DNR).结果:21例患者中19例完全缓解,完全缓解(CR)率90.47%;1例死于颅内出血.结论:三氧化二砷联合全反式维甲酸治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病疗效确切,患者耐受性较好.

  5. The synthetic retinoid AGN 193109 but not retinoic acid elevates CYP1A1 levels in mouse embryos and Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, D R; Gambone, C J; Sheikh, S N; Gabriel, J L; Chandraratna, R A; Soprano, K J; Kochhar, D M

    2001-07-15

    The synthetic retinoid AGN 193109 is a potent pan retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist. Treatment of pregnant mice with a single oral 1 mg/kg dose of this antagonist on day 8 postcoitum results in severe craniofacial (median cleft face or frontonasal deficiency) and eye malformations in virtually all exposed fetuses. Using differential display analysis, we have determined that CYP1A1 mRNA levels are elevated in mouse embryos 6 h following treatment with AGN 193109. Similarly, an elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels, protein levels, and aryl hydrocarbon hydoxylase activity occurs in Hepa-1c1c7 cells, with the maximal elevation observed when the cells were treated with 10(-5) M AGN 193109 for 4 to 8 h. Elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels in mouse embryos and Hepa-1c1c7 cells does not occur upon treatment with the natural retinoid, all-trans-retinoic acid. Finally, elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels was not observed when mutant Hepa-1c1c7 cells, which are defective in either the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), were treated with AGN 193109. This suggests that the AhR/ARNT pathway and not the RAR/RXR pathway is mediating the elevation of CYP1A1 mRNA levels by AGN 193109, at least in the Hepa-1c1c7 cells. This is the first example of a retinoid that displays the abililty to regulate both the RAR/RXR and AhR/ARNT transcriptional regulatory pathways. PMID:11446831

  6. Role of JWA in acute promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation and apoptosis triggered by retinoic acid, 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and arsenic trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    JWA, a cytoskeleton associated gene, was primarily found to be regulated by all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), 13 cis-retinoic acid (13 cis-RA) and 12-tetradecano- ylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Our previous data showed that JWA might be involved in both cellular differentiation and apoptosis induced by several chemicals. In this study, we addressed the possible mechanism of JWA in the regulation of cell differentiation and apoptosis in NB4, a human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. CD11b/CD33 expression and cell cycle were analyzed for detecting of cell differentiation and apoptosis. Both reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays were used for understanding the expressions of JWA. The results showed that under the indicated concentrations ATRA (10?6 mol/L) and As2O3 (10?6 mol/L) induced cell differentiation and apoptosis separately; while both 4HPR (10?6 mol/L) and TPA (10?7 mol/L) showed dual-directional effects on NB4 cells, they not only trigger cells' differentiation but also induce cells apoptosis at the same time. All chemicals up-regulated JWA expression whatever they trigger cells either differentiation or apoptosis; however, it seems that the chemicals have no effect on PML/RAR? in the treated NB4 cells. Anti-sense JWA oligonucleotide could partially block the ability of TPA in inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis via direct signal pathway. Interestingly, a high molecular weight JWA protein (JWAF) was identified only in de novo primary APL cells and it was also responsible for ATRA treatment. It raises questions of whether the JWAF is a novel APL specific marker and, how it was involved in the known mechanism of APL.

  7. Retinoic Acid Stimulates Regeneration of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Malgrange, Brigitte; Staecker, Hinrich; Moonen, Gustave; van de Water, Thomas R.

    1993-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the loss of auditory hair cells is thought to be irreversible in mammals. This study provides evidence that retinoic acid can stimulate the regeneration in vitro of mammalian auditory hair cells in ototoxic-poisoned organ of Corti explants in the rat. In contrast, treatment with retinoic acid does not stimulate the formation of extra hair cells in control cultures of Corti's organ. Retinoic acid-stimulated hair cell regeneration can be blocked by cytosine arabinoside, which suggests that a period of mitosis is required for the regeneration of auditory hair cells in this system. These results provide hope for a recovery of hearing function in mammals after auditory hair cell damage.

  8. Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Cortical Synchrony During Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Stéphanie; Franken, Paul; Dauvilliers, Yves; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.; Chambon, Pierre; Tafti, Mehdi

    2005-10-01

    Delta oscillations, characteristic of the electroencephalogram (EEG) of slow wave sleep, estimate sleep depth and need and are thought to be closely linked to the recovery function of sleep. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of delta waves at the cortical and thalamic levels are well documented, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate in the mouse that the gene encoding the retinoic acid receptor beta determines the contribution of delta oscillations to the sleep EEG. Thus, retinoic acid signaling, which is involved in the patterning of the brain and dopaminergic pathways, regulates cortical synchrony in the adult.

  9. Induction of apoptosis and change of bcl—2 expression in macrophage Ana—1 cells by all—trans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINDELING; XIUHAIREN; 等

    1996-01-01

    Macrophage cells play an important role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response.All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its natural and synthetic analogs (retinoids)affect a large number of biological processes.Recently,retinoids have been shown promise in the therapy and prevention of various cancers.However,many interesting questions related to the activities of retinoids remain to be answered:(I) Molecular mechanisms by which retinoids exert their effects;(Ⅱ)why the clinical uses of retinoids give undesirable side effects of varying severity with a higher frequency of blood system symptoms;(Ⅲ)little is known for its impacts on macrophage cells etc.We set up this experiment,therefore,to examine the apoptosis of ATRA on macrophage Ana-1 cell line.Apoptosis of the cells was quantitated,after staining cells with propidium iodide(PI),by both accounting nuclear condensation and flow cytometry.When the cells were treated with ATRA at or higher than 1μM for more than 24h,significant amount of the apoptotic cells was observed.Induction of apoptosis of Ana-1 cells by ATRA was in time-and dose-dependent manners,exhibiting the similar pattern as the apoptosis induced by actinomycin D (ACTD).ATRA treatment of Ana-1 cells also caused the changes of the mRNA levels of apoptosis-associated gene bcl-2,as detected by Northern blot analysis.The temporal changes of bcl-2 expression by ATRA was also parallel to that by ACTD.In conclusion,ATRA can induce apoptosis in macrophage cells,which may be helpful in understanding of immunological functions retinoids.

  10. Impact of retinoic acid exposure on midfacial shape variation and manifestation of holoprosencephaly in Twsg1 mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Billington

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a developmental anomaly characterized by inadequate or absent midline division of the embryonic forebrain and midline facial defects. It is believed that interactions between genes and the environment play a role in the widely variable penetrance and expressivity of HPE, although direct investigation of such effects has been limited. The goal of this study was to examine whether mice carrying a mutation in a gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP antagonist twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, which is associated with a low penetrance of HPE, are sensitized to retinoic acid (RA teratogenesis. Pregnant Twsg1+/− dams were treated by gavage with a low dose of all-trans RA (3.75 mg/kg of body weight. Embryos were analyzed between embryonic day (E9.5 and E11.5 by microscopy and geometric morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were used to examine potential mechanisms mediating the combined effects of increased BMP and retinoid signaling. Although only 7% of wild-type embryos exposed to RA showed overt HPE or neural tube defects (NTDs, 100% of Twsg1−/− mutants exposed to RA manifested severe HPE compared to 17% without RA. Remarkably, up to 30% of Twsg1+/− mutants also showed HPE (23% or NTDs (7%. The majority of shape variation among Twsg1+/− mutants was associated with narrowing of the midface. In P19 cells, RA induced the expression of Bmp2, acted in concert with BMP2 to increase p53 expression, caspase activation and oxidative stress. This study provides direct evidence for modifying effects of the environment in a genetic mouse model carrying a predisposing mutation for HPE in the Twsg1 gene. Further study of the mechanisms underlying these gene-environment interactions in vivo will contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of birth defects and present an opportunity to explore potential preventive interventions.

  11. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Perlmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.perlmann@licr.ki.se [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-25

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPAR{beta}/{delta} signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4A NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPAR{beta}/{delta} and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.

  12. A new module in neural differentiation control: two microRNAs upregulated by retinoic acid, miR-9 and -103, target the differentiation inhibitor ID2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Annibali

    Full Text Available The transcription factor ID2 is an important repressor of neural differentiation strongly implicated in nervous system cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are increasingly involved in differentiation control and cancer development. Here we show that two miRNAs upregulated on differentiation of neuroblastoma cells--miR-9 and miR-103--restrain ID2 expression by directly targeting the coding sequence and 3' untranslated region of the ID2 encoding messenger RNA, respectively. Notably, the two miRNAs show an inverse correlation with ID2 during neuroblastoma cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid. Overexpression of miR-9 and miR-103 in neuroblastoma cells reduces proliferation and promotes differentiation, as it was shown to occur upon ID2 inhibition. Conversely, an ID2 mutant that cannot be targeted by either miRNA prevents retinoic acid-induced differentiation more efficient than wild-type ID2. These findings reveal a new regulatory module involving two microRNAs upregulated during neural differentiation that directly target expression of the key differentiation inhibitor ID2, suggesting that its alteration may be involved in neural cancer development.

  13. Increased expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Haybaeck J; Postruznik M; Miller CL; Dulay JR; Llenos IC; Weis S.

    2015-01-01

    Johannes Haybaeck,1 Magdalena Postruznik,1 Christine L Miller,2 Jeannette R Dulay,3 Ida C Llenos,3,4 Serge Weis3,4 1Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 3Laboratory of Brain Research and Neuropathology, Departments of Psychiatry and Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Laboratory of Ne...

  14. Human Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells (HL-60) Express a Membrane Receptor for Estrogen that Signals and Modulates Retinoic Acid-induced Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kauss, M. Ariel; Reiterer, Gudrun; Rodica P Bunaciu; Yen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are historically perceived as nuclear ligand activated transcription factors. An estrogen receptor has now been found localized to the plasma membrane of human myeloblastic leukemia cells (HL-60). Its expression occurs throughout the cell cycle, progressively increasing as cells mature from G1 to S to G2/M. To ascertain that the receptor functioned, the effect of ligands, including a non-internalizable estradiol-BSA conjugate and tamoxifen, an antagonist of nuclear estrogen...

  15. Genetic variation in toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene I and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, L N; Ladelund, S; Weis, N;

    2014-01-01

    resolution in the discovery cohort were genotyped in a validation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for sex, hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV infection and the interleukin-28B rs12979860 SNP was performed in the combined cohort. Haplotype reconstruction and linkage disequilibrium analysis...... were performed. srs2233437, rs730775 and rs28362857 in Inhibitor of NF-kB ε (IkBε) and rs352140 in TLR9 were associated with spontaneous HCV resolution (P ≤ 0.05) in the discovery cohort (n = 308). In the validation cohort (n = 216), we replicated a significant association with HCV resolution for two...

  16. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut;

    The Vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) works as a ligand for a family of nuclearRA receptors (RARα, RARβ and RARγ) which form heterodimers with retinoid Xreceptors (RXR). These complexes function as ligand-activated transcription factors,recognizing specific RA responsive elements in the...

  17. The Effect of Opsteoporotic Model Rats Induced by Retinoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Peng; Yao Jianfeng; Jin Weizhang; Cai Qiankun; Guo Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of retinoic acid on inducing osteoporosis in female rat. Methods: 48SD female rats were divided randomly into experiment group and control group. Retinoic acid was administered orally to experiment group with 80mg.kg-1d-1 for 15 days. Then the rats were sacrificed on the 0th, 30th, 60th days after last administration. The serum concentration of Ca, P, BGP, E2, AKP and TRAP were detected. Components of collagen and proteoglycan in the bones and BMD were also assayed .The femoral morphometric change and epiphyseal plate cartilage histological changes were observed. Results: After a 15-day period treatment with retinoic acid, charateristics of experiment group were compared with control, it is shown that the concentration of serum E2 and BGP declined, the activity of AKP and TRAP increased while BMP decreased, the bone mass of both spongy bone and cortical bone reduced, the number of spongy bone osteoclasts and their activity increased, number of epiphyseal plate chondrocyte reduced, cartilage hypertrophic zone displayed dyscalcification, and no difference of other markers was found in the two groups. On the 30th day after the last administration, the experiment group appeared a declined number of cancellous bone osteoclast and level of serum AKP yet they were still higher than control. Number of epiphyseal chondrocyte, serum BGP and tibial BMD, though higher than before, were still lower than control. Other markers were no difference. On the 60th day after treatment, although the femoral cancellous bone mass was still less and cancellous osteoblast was more than control, the cortical bone mass, cancellous osteoclast number and level of serum Ca and P were all remained no different between two groups.Conclusion: Retinoic acid possessed a better short-term effect than long-term effect. Cancellous bone loss lasted much longer than cortical bone and more obviously; the bone matrix in this osteoporosis model was able to repair itself

  18. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR-BETA IN RETINOIC ACID-SENSITIVE AND ACID-RESISTANT P19-EMBRYOCARCINOMA CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUYT, FAE; VANDENBRINK, CE; DEFIZE, LHK; DONATH, MJ; KASTNER, P; KRUIJER, W; CHAMBON, P; VANDERSAAG, PT; Kruyt, Frank

    1991-01-01

    As in other embryocarcinoma (EC) cell lines retinoic acid (RA) rapidly induces expression of the nuclear retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta in murine P19 EC cells, while RAR-alpha is expressed constitutively. In the RA-resistant P19 EC-derived RAC65 cells, however, there is no such induction and an a

  19. Effect of retinoic acid on cell proliferation kinetics and retinoic acid receptor expression of colorectal mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bo Wei; Xiao-Yan Han; Wei Fan; Gui-Hua Chen; Ji-Fu Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on cell proliferation kinetics and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)expression of colorectal mucosa.METHODS:One hundred sixty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Rats in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ were subcutaneously injected with dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg, once a week,) for 7 to 13 weeks, while groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ were injected with normal saline. Rats in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ were also treated with RA (50 mg/kg,every day, orally) from 7th to 15th week, thus group Ⅳ was used as a control. The rats were killed in different batches.The expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA),nucleolar organizer region-associated protein (AgNOR) and RAR were detected.RESULTS: The incidence of colorectal carcinoma was different between groupsⅠ(100 %) and Ⅱ (15 %) (P<0.01).The PCNA indices and mean AgNOR count in group Ⅱ were significantly lower than those in group Ⅰ(F=5.418 and 4.243,P<0.01). The PCNA indices and mean AgNOR count in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ were significantly higher than those in the groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ (in which carcinogen was not used) (F=5.927and 4.348, P<0.01). There was a tendency in group Ⅰ that the longer the induction with DMH the higher PCNA index and AgNOR count expressed (F=7.634 and 6.826, P<0.05).However, there was no such tendency in groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ(F=1.662 and 1.984, P>0.05). The levels of RAR in normal and cancerous tissues in groups treated with RA were significantly higher than those in groups not treated with RA (F=6.343 and 6.024, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: RA decreases the incidence of colorectal carcinoma induced by DMH. Coiorectal cancer tissue is associated with abnormal expression of PCNA, AgNOR and RAR. RA inhibits the expression of PCNA and AgNOR, and increases RAR concentration in colorectal tissues.

  20. Investigation of the Role of All-Trans Retinoid Acid in Inducing Differentiation of Retinoblastoma in Vivo%维甲酸诱导分化视网膜母细胞瘤的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 高解春; 董岿然; 陈莲; 王舒宜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role and possible mechanism of all-trans retinoid acid in inducing differentiation of retinoblastoma in nude mice. Methods SO-RB50 suspense cell mixture was injected into bilateral armpits of male nude mice, and model of retinoblastoma nude mice was established. The size and weight of tumors were observed twice every week ,tumors' structure were recorded under microscope and electro-microscope, tumors' DNA index was calculated, relative quantities of gene CyclinDl ,CDK4 and ICAM-1 were measured by trans-transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent quantity. Results At the end of the experiment, average tumor weight of ATRA group( 2. 750± 0. 302 ) g was lower than that of control group ( 7.150 ±1. 228 ) g( P = 0.008 ), and average tumor weight of Vitamin A deficient group( 11. 483 ± 2. 271 ) g( P = 0. 003 ). Under microscope, necrosis without inflammation was found in retinoblastoma cells in ATRA group, cells in control group appeared the same as those in original xenograft, retinoblastom cells in Vitamin A deficient group had a higher nuclear-plasma ratio than that of control group. Under electro-microscope, retinoblastoma cells in ATRA group contained swelled and bubble-like mitochondrion and much less ribosomes than those in control group. Cells in Vitamin A deficient group contained more free ribosomes and less lysosomes in the plasma than those in control group. Trans-transcription PCR and fluorescent quantity showed the relative quantity of CyclinD1 was the lowest in ATRA group( P =0.012) and highest in Vitamin A deficient group( P =0.017 ) ;the relative quantity of CDK4 was lowest in ATRA group(P =0.010) and highest in Vitamin A deficient group( P =0. 029). There was no statistical significance in ICAM-1 between ATRA group and control group(P =0.071 ) or between Vitamin A deficient group and control group ( P= 0.083 ). Conclusion The growth of retinoblastoma xenograft in ATRA group was restrained by ATRA, and Vitamin

  1. Retinoic acid receptor alpha is associated with tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Henrik J; Sanchez, Betzabe C.; Mundt, Filip; Forshed, Jenny; Kovacs, Aniko; Panizza, Elena; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Lundgren, Bo; Martens, Ulf; Máthé, Gyöngyvér; Yakhini, Zohar; Helou, Khalil; Krawiec, Kamilla; Kanter, Lena; Hjerpe, Anders

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of oestrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen relapse. Here we identify the nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor alpha as a marker of tamoxifen resistance. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we show that retinoic acid receptor alpha protein networks and levels differ in a tamoxifen-sensitive (MCF7) and a tamoxifen-resistant (LCC2) cell line. High intratumoural retinoic acid receptor alpha protein levels also correlate...

  2. Endogenous Retinoic Acid Activity in Principal Cells and Intercalated Cells of Mouse Collecting Duct System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen Fei Wong; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Catherine Roberts; Scambler, Peter J.; Yoshifusa Abe; Rankin, Alexandra C.; Neelanjana Dutt; Hendry, Bruce M.; Qihe Xu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Retinoic acid is the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, which plays an indispensible role in kidney development by activating retinoic acid receptors. Although the location, concentration and roles of endogenous retinoic acid in postnatal kidneys are poorly defined, there is accumulating evidence linking post-natal vitamin A deficiency to impaired renal concentrating and acidifying capacity associated with increased susceptibility to urolithiasis, renal inflammation and scarring. ...

  3. Retinoic acid influences neuronal migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Crandall, James E.; Goodman, Timothy; McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Duester, Gregg; Bhide, Pradeep G.; Dräger, Ursula C.; McCaffery, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The ganglionic eminence contributes cells to several forebrain structures including the cerebral cortex, for which it provides GABAergic interneurons. Migration of neuronal precursors from the retinoic-acid rich embryonic ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex is known to be regulated by several factors, but retinoic acid has not been previously implicated. We found retinoic acid to potently inhibit cell migration in slice preparations of embryonic mouse forebrains, which was reversed by ...

  4. Differences in the action and metabolism between retinol and retinoic acid in B lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    We have previously reported on the dependency of activated B lymphocytes for retinol. Here we confirm and extend these findings that cells deprived of retinol perish in cell culture within days, displaying neither signs of apoptosis nor of cell cycle arrest. Cell death can be prevented by physiological concentrations of retinol and retinal, but not by retinoic acid or three synthetic retinoic acid analogues. To exclude the possibility that retinoic acid is so rapidly degraded as to escape det...

  5. Identification Of Retinoic Acid In Face Whitening Cream By High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Berutu, Esra

    2014-01-01

    In cosmetic skin whitening agent is often added for specific purposes. Retinoic acid is one skin whitening agent which is also known as tretinoin. Tretinoin is the active ingredient in cosmetics, in the form of chemical substances, including vitamin A acid to form a working structure or layer of new skin, replacing the damaged outer layers of skin. Purpose of this test is to determine whether the sample face whitening creams containing retinoic acid. Identification of retinoic acid in faci...

  6. Characterization of a retinoic acid responsive element isolated by whole genome PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Giomi, M P; Gaub, M P; Chambon, P; Abarzúa, P

    1992-01-01

    We have used whole PCR in an attempt to isolate novel retinoic acid (RA) responsive genes. We cloned several small genomic fragments from total human DNA containing putative retinoic acid responsive elements (RAREs) selected by direct binding to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha). We report here that an oligonucleotide containing a sequence from one of the cloned human DNA fragments, and referred to as alpha 1, functions as an authentic RARE. It is shown that both RAR alpha and RAR ...

  7. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia without Maturation with a Retinoic Alpha-Receptor Deletion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Trosclair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is characterized by a t(15;17 which fuses the 17q retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence to the 15q PML gene sequence. The resulting fusion product plays a role in the development and maintenance of APL, and is very rarely found in other acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtypes. Rare complex APL genomic rearrangements have retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletions. Here we report a retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletion in a case of AML without differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletion in this AML subtype.

  8. Retinoic acid signaling and the evolution of chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Holland, Linda Z; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In chordates, which comprise urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates, the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA) has a pivotal role during development. Altering levels of endogenous RA signaling during early embryology leads to severe malformations, mainly due to incorrect positional codes specifying the embryonic anteroposterior body axis. In this review, we present our current understanding of the RA signaling pathway and its roles during chordate development. In particular, ...

  9. Retinoic acid deficiency alters second heart field formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryckebusch, Lucile; Wang, Zengxin; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lin, Song-Chang; Chi, Xuan; Schwartz, Robert; Zaffran, Stéphane; Niederreither, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in various steps of cardiovascular development. The retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) enzyme catalyzes the second oxidative step in RA biosynthesis and its loss of function creates a severe embryonic RA deficiency. Raldh2−/− knockout embryos fail to undergo heart looping and have impaired atrial and sinus venosus development. To understand the mechanism(s) producing these changes, we examined the contribution of ...

  10. Dynamics and precision in retinoic acid morphogen gradients

    OpenAIRE

    SCHILLING, THOMAS F.; Nie, Qing; Lander, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) regulates many cellular behaviors during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Like other morphogens, RA forms gradients through the use of localized sources and sinks, feedback, and interactions with other signals; this has been particularly well studied in the context of hindbrain segmentation in vertebrate embryos. Yet, as a small lipophilic molecule derived from a dietary source—vitamin A—RA differs markedly from better-studied polypeptide morphogens in its mecha...

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Murine Embryos Lacking Endogenous Retinoic Acid Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Paschaki; Carole Schneider; Muriel Rhinn; Christelle Thibault-Carpentier; Doulaye Dembélé; Karen Niederreither; Pascal Dollé

    2013-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active derivative of the liposoluble vitamin A (retinol), acts as an important signaling molecule during embryonic development, regulating phenomenons as diverse as anterior-posterior axial patterning, forebrain and optic vesicle development, specification of hindbrain rhombomeres, pharyngeal arches and second heart field, somitogenesis, and differentiation of spinal cord neurons. This small molecule directly triggers gene activation by binding to nuclear receptors (RAR...

  12. Initiating Meiosis: The Case for Retinoic Acid1

    OpenAIRE

    Griswold, Michael D.; Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction and development was first determined from studies of nutritional deficiencies. Subsequent research has shown that embryonic development and both male and female reproduction are modulated by retinoic acid (RA), the active form of vitamin A. Because RA is active in multiple developmental systems, its synthesis, transport, and degradation are tightly regulated in different tissues. A growing body of evidence implicates RA as a requirement for the...

  13. Early Retinoic acid deprivation in developing zebrafish results in microphthalmia

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hong-Gam T.; Dowling, John E.; Cameron, D. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embr...

  14. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric,; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally exp...

  15. In silico discovery of novel Retinoic Acid Receptor agonist structures

    OpenAIRE

    Samuels Herbert H; Schapira Matthieu; Raaka Bruce M; Abagyan Ruben

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Several Retinoic Acid Receptors (RAR) agonists have therapeutic activity against a variety of cancer types; however, unacceptable toxicity profiles have hindered the development of drugs. RAR agonists presenting novel structural and chemical features could therefore open new avenues for the discovery of leads against breast, lung and prostate cancer or leukemia. Results We have analysed the induced fit of the active site residues upon binding of a known ligand. The derived...

  16. Depletion of Retinoic Acid Receptors Initiates a Novel Positive Feedback Mechanism that Promotes Teratogenic Increases in Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico D'Aniello; Rydeen, Ariel B.; Jane L Anderson; Amrita Mandal; Waxman, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary Retinoic acid (RA) is the most active metabolic product of Vitamin A. Appropriate levels of RA are required for proper embryonic development and tissue maintenance in all vertebrates. Inappropriate levels of RA in human embryos can cause congenital defects that affect many organs, including the heart and limbs, and lead to numerous types of cancers. Understanding how animals maintain appropriate RA levels and the consequences of inappropriate RA signaling will therefore provide...

  17. Endogenous retinoic acid activity in principal cells and intercalated cells of mouse collecting duct system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Fei Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid is the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, which plays an indispensible role in kidney development by activating retinoic acid receptors. Although the location, concentration and roles of endogenous retinoic acid in post-natal kidneys are poorly defined, there is accumulating evidence linking post-natal vitamin A deficiency to impaired renal concentrating and acidifying capacity associated with increased susceptibility to urolithiasis, renal inflammation and scarring. The aim of this study is to examine the presence and the detailed localization of endogenous retinoic acid activity in neonatal, young and adult mouse kidneys, to establish a fundamental ground for further research into potential target genes, as well as physiological and pathophysiological roles of endogenous retinoic acid in the post-natal kidneys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RARE-hsp68-lacZ transgenic mice were employed as a reporter for endogenous retinoic acid activity that was determined by X-gal assay and immunostaining of the reporter gene product, β-galactosidase. Double immunostaining was performed for β-galactosidase and markers of kidney tubules to localize retinoic acid activity. Distinct pattern of retinoic acid activity was observed in kidneys, which is higher in neonatal and 1- to 3-week-old mice than that in 5- and 8-week-old mice. The activity was present specifically in the principal cells and the intercalated cells of the collecting duct system in all age groups, but was absent from the glomeruli, proximal tubules, thin limbs of Henle's loop and distal tubules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endogenous retinoic acid activity exists in principal cells and intercalated cells of the mouse collecting duct system after birth and persists into adulthood. This observation provides novel insights into potential roles for endogenous retinoic acid beyond nephrogenesis and warrants further studies to investigate target genes and functions of

  18. Dissection of the Critical Binding Determinants of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein II by Mutagenesis and Fluorescence Binding Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Crist, Rachael M.; Vaezeslami, Soheila; Goins, Sarah M.; Geiger, James H.; Borhan, Babak

    2009-01-01

    The binding of retinoic acid to mutants of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein II (CRABPII) was evaluated to better understand the importance of the direct protein/ligand interactions. The important role of Arg111 for the correct structure and function of the protein was verified and other residues that directly affect retinoic acid binding have been identified. Furthermore, retinoic acid binding to CRABPII mutants that lack all previously identified interacting amino acids was rescued by ...

  19. REACTIVITY PROFILE OF LIGANDS OF MAMMALIAN RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS: A PRELIMINARY COREPA ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoic acid and associated derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that bind to and activate different families of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, RXRs), and control many aspects of vertebrate development. Identification of potential RAR and RXR ligands is of interes...

  20. Non-canonical activity of retinoic acid in epigenetic control of embryonic stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li-Na

    2013-01-01

    Non-canonical cytoplasmic activities and signal transduction of retinoic acid (RA) expand RA’s pleiotropic effects in coordinating the epigenome in embryonic stem cell (ESC). Examples include RA-bound cellular retinoic acid binding protein I, which activates ERK2. By engaging both cytosolic and nuclear mediators, RA can efficiently augment ESC’s epigenome.

  1. Retinoic acid increases the sensitivity of the rat embryo fibroblast transformation assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Halazonetis, T D; Daugherty, C; Leder, P

    1988-01-01

    The rat embryo fibroblast focus assay is used to evaluate the transforming potential of several oncogenes. The sensitivity of this assay increased fivefold when retinoic acid was added to tissue culture media. Retinoic acid probably acts by selectively inhibiting the proliferation of nontransformed cells.

  2. Thyroid hormone requirement for retinoic acid induction of mouse mammary tumor virus expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolander, F F; Blackstone, M E

    1990-01-01

    In normal mouse mammary epithelium, insulin, cortisol, and prolactin are absolute requirements for mouse mammary tumor virus expression. Retinoic acid further increased mouse mammary tumor virus expression two- to threefold but only when triiodothyronine was also present; neither retinoic acid nor triiodothyronine alone had any effect.

  3. The proteosome inhibitor MG132 attenuates Retinoic Acid Receptor trans-activation and enhances trans-repression of Nuclear Factor κB. Potential relevance to chemo-preventive interventions with retinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosier Randy N

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB is a pro-malignant transcription factor with reciprocal effects on pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic gene expression. Interestingly, NFκB blockade results in the reciprocal induction of retinoic acid receptors (RARs. Given the established property of RARs as negative regulators of malignant progression, we postulated that reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs constitute a signaling module in metastatic gene expression and malignant progression. Using Line 1 tumor cells as a model for signal regulation of metastatic gene expression, we investigated the reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs in response to the pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA and the pan-RAR antagonist, AGN193109. Results At-RA [0.1–1 μM] dose-dependently activated RAR and coordinately trans-repressed NFκB, while AGN193109 [1–10 μM] dose-dependently antagonized the effects of at-RA. At-RA and AGN193109 reciprocally regulate pro-metastatic matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP 9 and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP 1, in a manner consistent with the putative roles of NFκB and RAR in malignant progression. Activation of RAR concurs with its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Accordingly, the proteosome inhibitor, MG132 [5 μM], blocked RAR degradation, quelled RAR trans-activation and enhanced RAR trans-repression of NFκB. Conclusion We conclude that reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs constitute a signaling module in metastatic gene expression and malignant progression and propose that the dissociative effect of proteosome inhibitors could be harnessed towards enhancing the anticancer activity of retinoids.

  4. Disruption of retinoic acid receptor alpha reveals the growth promoter face of retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Somenzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA, the bioactive derivative of Vitamin A, by epigenetically controlling transcription through the RA-receptors (RARs, exerts a potent antiproliferative effect on human cells. However, a number of studies show that RA can also promote cell survival and growth. In the course of one of our studies we observed that disruption of RA-receptor alpha, RARalpha, abrogates the RA-mediated growth-inhibitory effects and unmasks the growth-promoting face of RA (Ren et al., Mol. Cell. Biol., 2005, 25:10591. The objective of this study was to investigate whether RA can differentially govern cell growth, in the presence and absence of RARalpha, through differential regulation of the "rheostat" comprising ceramide (CER, the sphingolipid with growth-inhibitory activity, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, the sphingolipid with prosurvival activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that functional inhibition of endogenous RARalpha in breast cancer cells by using either RARalpha specific antagonists or a dominant negative RARalpha mutant hampers on one hand the RA-induced upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase-mediated CER synthesis, and on the other hand the RA-induced downregulation of sphingosine kinase 1, SK1, pivotal for S1P synthesis. In association with RA inability to regulate the sphingolipid rheostat, cells not only survive, but also grow more in response to RA both in vitro and in vivo. By combining genetic, pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we mechanistically demonstrated that RA-induced growth is, at least in part, due to non-RAR-mediated activation of the SK1-S1P signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the presence of functional RARalpha, RA inhibits cell growth by concertedly, and inversely, modulating the CER and S1P synthetic pathways. In the absence of a functional RARalpha, RA-in a non-RAR-mediated fashion-promotes cell growth by activating the prosurvival S1P signaling. These two distinct

  5. Induction of CYP26A1 by Metabolites of Retinoic Acid: Evidence That CYP26A1 Is an Important Enzyme in the Elimination of Active Retinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topletz, Ariel R.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Foti, Robert S.; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Nelson, Wendel L.

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, induces gene transcription via binding to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). The primary hydroxylated metabolites formed from atRA by CYP26A1, and the subsequent metabolite 4-oxo-atRA, bind to RARs and potentially have biologic activity. Hence, CYP26A1, the main atRA hydroxylase, may function either to deplete bioactive retinoids or to form active metabolites. This study aimed to determine the role of CYP26A1 in modulating RAR activation via formation and elimination of active retinoids. After treatment of HepG2 cells with atRA, (4S)-OH-atRA, (4R)-OH-atRA, 4-oxo-atRA, and 18-OH-atRA, mRNAs of CYP26A1 and RARβ were increased 300- to 3000-fold, with 4-oxo-atRA and atRA being the most potent inducers. However, >60% of the 4-OH-atRA enantiomers were converted to 4-oxo-atRA in the first 12 hours of treatment, suggesting that the activity of the 4-OH-atRA was due to 4-oxo-atRA. In human hepatocytes, atRA, 4-OH-atRA, and 4-oxo-atRA induced CYP26A1 and 4-oxo-atRA formation was observed from 4-OH-atRA. In HepG2 cells, 4-oxo-atRA formation was observed even in the absence of CYP26A1 activity and this formation was not inhibited by ketoconazole. In human liver microsomes, 4-oxo-atRA formation was supported by NAD+, suggesting that 4-oxo-atRA formation is mediated by a microsomal alcohol dehydrogenase. Although 4-oxo-atRA was not formed by CYP26A1, it was depleted by CYP26A1 (Km = 63 nM and intrinsic clearance = 90 μl/min per pmol). Similarly, CYP26A1 depleted 18-OH-atRA and the 4-OH-atRA enantiomers. These data support the role of CYP26A1 to clear bioactive retinoids, and suggest that the enzyme forming active 4-oxo-atRA may be important in modulating retinoid action. PMID:25492813

  6. Retinoic Acid and the Development of the Endoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Kelly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is an important signaling molecule in the development of the endoderm and an important molecule in protocols used to generate endodermal cell types from stem cells. In this review, we describe the RA signaling pathway and its role in the patterning and specification of the extra embryonic endoderm and different endodermal organs. The formation of endoderm is an ancient evolutionary feature and RA signaling appears to have coevolved with the vertebrate lineage. Towards that end, we describe how RA participates in many regulatory networks required for the formation of extraembryonic structures as well as the organs of the embryo proper.

  7. Retinoic acid and sodium butyrate suppress the cardiac expression of hypertrophic markers and proinflammatory mediators in Npr1 gene-disrupted haplotype mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Umadevi; Kumar, Prerna; Mani, Indra; Chen, David; Kessler, Isaac; Periyasamy, Ramu; Raghavaraju, Giri; Pandey, Kailash N

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the genetically determined differences in the natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) gene (Npr1) copies affecting the expression of cardiac hypertrophic markers, proinflammatory mediators, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in a gene-dose-dependent manner. We determined whether stimulation of Npr1 by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyric acid (SB) suppress the expression of cardiac disease markers. In the present study, we utilized Npr1 gene-disrupted heterozygous (Npr1(+/-), 1-copy), wild-type (Npr1(+/+), 2-copy), gene-duplicated (Npr1(++/+), 3-copy) mice, which were treated intraperitoneally with RA, SB, and a combination of RA/SB, a hybrid drug (HB) for 2 wk. Untreated 1-copy mice showed significantly increased heart weight-body weight (HW/BW) ratio, blood pressure, hypertrophic markers, including beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and proto-oncogenes (c-fos and c-jun), proinflammatory mediator nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9) compared with 2-copy and 3-copy mice. The heterozygous (haplotype) 1-copy mice treated with RA, SB, or HB, exhibited significant reduction in the expression of β-MHC, c-fos, c-jun, NF-κB, MMP-2, and MMP-9. In drug-treated animals, the activity and expression levels of HDAC were significantly reduced and histone acetyltransferase activity and expression levels were increased. The drug treatments significantly increased the fractional shortening and reduced the systolic and diastolic parameters of the Npr1(+/-) mice hearts. Together, the present results demonstrate that a decreased Npr1 copy number enhanced the expression of hypertrophic markers, proinflammatory mediators, and MMPs, whereas an increased Npr1 repressed the cardiac disease markers in a gene-dose-dependent manner. PMID:27199456

  8. Identification of Tazarotenic Acid as the First Xenobiotic Substrate of Human Retinoic Acid Hydroxylase CYP26A1 and CYP26B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Robert S; Isoherranen, Nina; Zelter, Alex; Dickmann, Leslie J; Buttrick, Brian R; Diaz, Philippe; Douguet, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 26A1 and 26B1 are heme-containing enzymes responsible for metabolizing all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA). No crystal structures have been solved, and therefore homology models that provide structural information are extremely valuable for the development of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 26 (CYP26). The objectives of this study were to use homology models of CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 to characterize substrate binding characteristics, to compare structural aspects of their active sites, and to support the role of CYP26 in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Each model was verified by dockingat-RA in the active site and comparing the results to known metabolic profiles ofat-RA. The models were then used to predict the metabolic sites of tazarotenic acid with results verified by in vitro metabolite identification experiments. The CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 homology models predicted that the benzothiopyranyl moiety of tazarotenic acid would be oriented toward the heme of each enzyme and suggested that tazarotenic acid would be a substrate of CYP26A1 and CYP26B1. Metabolite identification experiments indicated that CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 oxidatively metabolized tazarotenic acid on the predicted moiety, with in vitro rates of metabolite formation by CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 being the highest across a panel of enzymes. Molecular analysis of the active sites estimated the active-site volumes of CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 to be 918 Å(3)and 977 Å(3), respectively. Overall, the homology models presented herein describe the enzyme characteristics leading to the metabolism of tazarotenic acid by CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 and support a potential role for the CYP26 enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:26937021

  9. Identification and characterization of nucleolin as a COUP-TFII coactivator of retinoic acid receptor β transcription in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacey M Litchfield

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII plays an undefined role in breast cancer. Previously we reported lower COUP-TFII expression in tamoxifen/endocrine-resistant versus sensitive breast cancer cell lines. The identification of COUP-TFII-interacting proteins will help to elucidate its mechanism of action as a transcriptional regulator in breast cancer. RESULTS: FLAG-affinity purification and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT identified nucleolin among the proteins interacting with COUP-TFII in MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive breast cancer cells. Interaction of COUP-TFII and nucleolin was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. In vitro studies revealed that COUP-TFII interacts with the C-terminal arginine-glycine repeat (RGG domain of nucleolin. Functional interaction between COUP-TFII and nucleolin was indicated by studies showing that siRNA knockdown of nucleolin and an oligonucleotide aptamer that targets nucleolin, AS1411, inhibited endogenous COUP-TFII-stimulated RARB2 expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed COUP-TFII occupancy of the RARB2 promoter was increased by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA. RARβ2 regulated gene RRIG1 was increased by atRA and COUP-TFII transfection and inhibited by siCOUP-TFII. Immunohistochemical staining of breast tumor microarrays showed nuclear COUP-TFII and nucleolin staining was correlated in invasive ductal carcinomas. COUP-TFII staining correlated with ERα, SRC-1, AIB1, Pea3, MMP2, and phospho-Src and was reduced with increased tumor grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that nucleolin plays a coregulatory role in transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor RARB2 by COUP-TFII.

  10. Retinoic Acid as a Modulator of T Cell Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Maria Rosa; Tejon, Gabriela; Flores-Santibañez, Felipe; Fernandez, Dominique; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sauma, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A, a generic designation for an array of organic molecules that includes retinal, retinol and retinoic acid, is an essential nutrient needed in a wide array of aspects including the proper functioning of the visual system, maintenance of cell function and differentiation, epithelial surface integrity, erythrocyte production, reproduction, and normal immune function. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide and is associated with defects in adaptive immunity. Reports from epidemiological studies, clinical trials and experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that vitamin A plays a central role in immunity and that its deficiency is the cause of broad immune alterations including decreased humoral and cellular responses, inadequate immune regulation, weak response to vaccines and poor lymphoid organ development. In this review, we will examine the role of vitamin A in immunity and focus on several aspects of T cell biology such as T helper cell differentiation, function and homing, as well as lymphoid organ development. Further, we will provide an overview of the effects of vitamin A deficiency in the adaptive immune responses and how retinoic acid, through its effect on T cells can fine-tune the balance between tolerance and immunity. PMID:27304965

  11. In vitro differentiation process of human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells to male germ cells in the presence of gonadal and non-gonadal conditioned media with retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidi, Fardin; Ataie Nejad, Nahid; Agha Hoseini, Marziyeh; Nayernia, Karim; Mazaheri, Zohreh; Yamini, Nazila; Saeednia, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Human umbilical Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HWJMSCs) are the best candidate to get plentiful stem cells and differentiate them to germ cells under appropriate conditions to treat infertility. We sought to determine under which conditions HWJMSCs could form male germ cells in vitro. So, HWJMSCs were differentiated to male germ cells under a mixture of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and testicular and placental culture condition (TCC and PCC) medium followed by retinoic acid for 21 d. In the present study, the HWJMSCs were obtained from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords of male neonates delivered by cesarean section. At the third passage, mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiation to osteocytes and adipocytes were investigated. Then, HWJMSCs were induced to differentiate into male germ cells in the presence of BMP-4, all-trans retinoic acid, PCC, and TCC for 21 d. The profile of c-Kit, DDX4, Piwil2, and Dazl gene expression was evaluated by qPCR and ICC. Data was analyzed by ANOVA test. After 3 wk of treatment with different reagents, the morphology of these spindle-like cells changed to shiny clusters and germ cell-specific markers in mRNA were upregulated in both TCC + retinoic acid (RA) and BMP-4 + RA. Induction of HWJMSCs with TCC in the presence of RA resulted in significant upregulation (P ≤ 0.05) of all germ cell-specific genes (c-Kit 2.6795 ± 0.75, DDX4 4.3188 ± 1.18, Piwil2 4.9962 ± 1.55, Dazl 6.1199 ± 0.78) compared to control and PCC + RA. Our results indicated that TCC and RA are involved in human germ cell development. Moreover, BMP signaling also induced differentiation. Our findings provide a novel effective approach for generation of germ cells in vitro and studying the interaction of germ cells with their niche. Our work represents an essential step toward gaining knowledge of the molecular properties of HWJMSCs in the field of cell therapy. We demonstrated that under a suitable situation

  12. Metabolism of retinoic acid and retinol during differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J B; Napoli, J L

    1985-01-01

    Retinol and retinoic acid dose-response curves were obtained for promotion of the differentiation of F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cells with an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for laminin, a product of differentiated F9 cells. Retinoic acid produced a half-maximum response at 1.3 nM and a maximum response at about 30 nM; retinol was 1/175th as potent. Maximum differentiation required 48 hr of continuous exposure to retinoic acid, whereas retinol required 72 hr of exposure. The half-time ...

  13. The role of MAPK signalling pathways in acetic acid-induced cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Flávio Humberto Torres Dias Feio de

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Genética Molecular Mitogenic Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades are important signalling pathways that allow yeast cells to swiftly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Previous studies suggested that the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) MAPK pathway and ceramide production are involved in acetic-acid induced apoptosis in yeast. Evidence that changes in the levels of endogenous ceramides can affect yeast cell fate has also been put forth...

  14. Acid mediates a prolonged antinociception via substance P signaling in acid-induced chronic widespread pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Nan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance P is an important neuropeptide released from nociceptors to mediate pain signals. We recently revealed antinociceptive signaling by substance P in acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3)-expressing muscle nociceptors in a mouse model of acid-induced chronic widespread pain. However, methods to specifically trigger the substance P antinociception were still lacking. Results Here we show that acid could induce antinociceptive signaling via substance P release in muscle. We preve...

  15. Mefenamic acid-induced neutropenia and renal failure in elderly females with hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, S I; FREESTONE, S.

    1990-01-01

    We report mefenamic acid-induced non-oliguric renal failure and severe neutropenia occurring simultaneously in two elderly females. The neutropenia was due to maturation arrest of the myeloid series in one patient. Both patients were also hypothyroid, but it is not clear whether this was a predisposing factor to the development of these adverse reactions. However, it would seem prudent not to use mefenamic acid in hypothyroid patients until the hypothyroidism has been corrected.

  16. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  17. Nutrigenomic regulation of adipose tissue development - role of retinoic acid: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Qiyuan; Harris, Corrine L; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2016-10-01

    To improve the efficiency of animal production, livestock have been extensively selected or managed to reduce fat accumulation and increase lean growth, which reduces intramuscular or marbling fat content. To enhance marbling, a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipogenesis is needed. Vitamin A has recently been shown to have a profound impact on all stages of adipogenesis. Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of vitamin A, activates both retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR), inducing epigenetic changes in key regulatory genes governing adipogenesis. Additionally, Vitamin D and folates interact with the retinoic acid receptors to regulate adipogenesis. In this review, we discuss nutritional regulation of adipogenesis, focusing on retinoic acid and its impact on epigenetic modifications of key adipogenic genes. PMID:27086067

  18. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most...... common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors...... comparing protein levels of retinoic acid receptors between normal tissue of patients with SCC and controls, RARgamma protein levels were found to be significantly higher (approximately 2.7-fold) in normal esophageal tissue of SCC patients than in esophageal tissue obtained from controls. No differences...

  19. In silico discovery of novel Retinoic Acid Receptor agonist structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Herbert H

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Retinoic Acid Receptors (RAR agonists have therapeutic activity against a variety of cancer types; however, unacceptable toxicity profiles have hindered the development of drugs. RAR agonists presenting novel structural and chemical features could therefore open new avenues for the discovery of leads against breast, lung and prostate cancer or leukemia. Results We have analysed the induced fit of the active site residues upon binding of a known ligand. The derived binding site models were used to dock over 150,000 molecules in silico (or virtually to the structure of the receptor with the Internal Coordinates Mechanics (ICM program. Thirty ligand candidates were tested in vitro. Conclusions Two novel agonists resulting from the predicted receptor model were active at 50 nM. One of them displays novel structural features which may translate into the development of new ligands for cancer therapy.

  20. Retinoic acid is necessary for development of the ventral retina in zebrafish.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh-Armstrong, N; McCaffery, P; Gilbert, W; Dowling, J E; Dräger, U C

    1994-01-01

    In the embryonic zebrafish retina, as in other vertebrates, retinoic acid is synthesized from retinaldehyde by two different dehydrogenases, one localized dorsally, the other primarily ventrally. Early in eye development only the ventral enzyme is present. Citral competitively inhibits the ventral enzyme in vitro and decreases the production of retinoic acid in the ventral retina in vivo. Treatment of neurula-stage zebrafish embryos with citral during the formation of the eye primordia result...

  1. Enhancement of developmental capacity of meiotically inhibited bovine oocytes by retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Paloma; Díez, C; Royo, L.J. (Luis); Lorenzo, P.L. (Pedro); Carneiro, G.; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Facal, Nieves; Gómez, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although high vitamin A may be teratogenic to the embryo, retinol has been shown to support oocyte developmental potential in vivo. Similarly, addition of retinol metabolite 9-cis-retinoic acid to in-vitro cultured oocytes could promote cytoplasmic maturation and subsequent early embryonic development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5 nmol/l retinoic acid during in-vitro pre-maturation and maturation of bovine oocyte-cumulus complexes. METHODS AND...

  2. Association analysis of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) gene with high myopia in Chinese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Dongsheng; Xue, Anquan; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose High myopia or pathological myopia is a common refractive error. Individuals with high myopia are subject to increased risk of serious eye complications. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the role for heritability in ocular growth and in the development of high myopia. Retinoic acid and retinoic acid receptors play important roles in ocular development and in experimentally induced myopia. The purpose of this study was to determine if high myopia is associated with single nucleot...

  3. SIGNALLING THROUGH RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS IN CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT: DOING THE RIGHT THINGS AT THE RIGHT TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier-Neto, José; Costa, Ângela M. Sousa; Figueira, Ana Carolina M.; Caiaffa, Carlo Donato; do Amaral, Fabio Neves; Peres, Lara Maldanis Cerqueira; da Silva, Bárbara Santos Pires; Santos, Luana Nunes; Moise, Alexander R.; Castillo, Hozana Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a terpenoid that is synthesized from Vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and binds to the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) to control multiple developmental processes in vertebrates. The available clinic and experimental data provide uncontested evidence for the pleiotropic roles of RA signalling in development of multiple embryonic structures and organs such eyes, central nervous system, gonads, lungs and heart. The development of any of thes...

  4. Retinoic acid receptors: from molecular mechanisms to cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Masi, Alessandra; Leboffe, Loris; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Pagano, Francesca; Cicconi, Laura; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Nervi, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the major bioactive metabolite of retinol or vitamin A, induces a spectrum of pleiotropic effects in cell growth and differentiation that are relevant for embryonic development and adult physiology. The RA activity is mediated primarily by members of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subfamily, namely RARα, RARβ and RARγ, which belong to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. RARs form heterodimers with members of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) subfamily and act as ligand-regulated transcription factors through binding specific RA response elements (RAREs) located in target genes promoters. RARs also have non-genomic effects and activate kinase signaling pathways, which fine-tune the transcription of the RA target genes. The disruption of RA signaling pathways is thought to underlie the etiology of a number of hematological and non-hematological malignancies, including leukemias, skin cancer, head/neck cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. Of note, RA and its derivatives (retinoids) are employed as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents because of their differentiation, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects. In humans, retinoids reverse premalignant epithelial lesions, induce the differentiation of myeloid normal and leukemic cells, and prevent lung, liver, and breast cancer. Here, we provide an overview of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that regulate the RA and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, mechanisms through which deregulation of RA signaling pathways ultimately impact on cancer are examined. Finally, the therapeutic effects of retinoids are reported. PMID:25543955

  5. Retinoic-acid signalling in node ectoderm and posterior neural plate directs left–right patterning of somitic mesoderm

    OpenAIRE

    Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Duester, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Somitogenesis requires bilateral rhythmic segmentation of paraxial mesoderm along the antero-posterior axis1. The location of somite segmentation depends on opposing signalling gradients of retinoic acid (generated by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2; Raldh2) anteriorly and fibroblast growth factor (FGF; generated by Fgf8) posteriorly2,3. Retinoic-acid-deficient embryos exhibit somite left–right asymmetry4–6, but it remains unclear how retinoic acid mediates left–right patterning. Here, we demon...

  6. A new orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that interacts with a subset of retinoic acid response elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Baes, M.; Gulick, T; Choi, H. S.; Martinoli, M G; Simha, D; Moore, D D

    1994-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a new orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, called MB67, which is predominantly expressed in liver. MB67 binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes, both of which consist of a direct repeat hexamers related to the consensus AGGTCA, separated by 5 bp. MB67 binds these elements as a heterodimer with the 9-cis-retinoic acid rec...

  7. A negative retinoic acid response element in the rat oxytocin promoter restricts transcriptional stimulation by heterologous transactivation domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin, S. M.; Nelson, C. A.; Glass, C K; Rosenfeld, M G

    1992-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that stimulate gene transcription from promoters containing retinoic acid or thyroid hormone response elements. We describe a high-affinity binding site from the rat oxytocin promoter that mediates negative transcriptional regulation by the retinoic acid receptor. To examine whether strong, constitutive transactivation domains would be capable of stimulating gene transcription when bound to this DNA binding site that normally ...

  8. Isomerization of all-(E)-Retinoic Acid Mediated by Carbodiimide Activation - Synthesis of ATRA Ether Lipid Conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of the lysolipid 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine with all-(E)-retinoic acid, DCC and DMAP resulted in poor acylation and caused (Z)/(E) isomerization of the alpha-beta double bond. In the presence of a proton source, the carbodiimide-activated all-(E)-retinoic acid undergoes fast...... isomerization to give a final mixture of (13E)/(13Z) isomers in a 3:1 ratio. Similar treatment of (13Z)-retinoic acid leads to the same isomer ratio. The isomerization was circumvented successfully by using a Mitsunobu reaction, which provided an efficient synthesis of all-(E)-retinoic acid sn-2-conjugated to...

  9. In vitro interaction study of retinoic acid isomers with telmisartan and amlodipine by equilibrium dialysis method using UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Susheel John; Johny, Sojimol K.; Paul, David; Ravi, Thengungal Kochupappy

    2011-07-01

    The in vitro protein binding of retinoic acid isomers (isotretinoin and tretinoin) and the antihypertensive drugs (amlodipine and telmisartan) was studied by equilibrium dialysis method. In this study, free fraction of drugs and the % of binding of drugs in the mixture to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were calculated. The influence of retinoic acid isomers on the % of protein binding of telmisartan and amlodipine at physiological pH (7.4) and temperature (37 ± 0.5 °C) was also evaluated. The in vitro displacement interaction study of drugs telmisartan and amlodipine on retinoic acid isomers and also interaction of retinoic acid isomers on telmisartan and amlodipine were carried out.

  10. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend;

    -TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had an...... explanatory power of 39% in the analysis with high concentrations being most protective (p<0.001). In addition, a smaller peak retrieved later in the chromatograms also had a strong protective effect. Inclusion of this peak in the analysis increased the explanatory power of amylase on protective effect to 65...

  11. Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Izumi; Majima, Masataka

    1999-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws.Up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method.Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid.Treatment...

  12. DECREASED APOPTOSIS DURING CAR-MEDIATED HEPATOPROTECTION AGAINST LITHOCHOLIC ACID-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Beilke, Lisa D.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Olson, Erik R.; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR+/+ (WT) and CAR−/−...

  13. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced β-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Western blotting assays were also performed to a...

  14. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  15. Curcumin-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induces chronic colitis by inhibiting expression of cyclooxygenase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Ming Zhang; Jian Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanisms of curcumin in rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. METHODS: Rats with TNBS acid-induced colitis were treated with curcumin (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg per day ip). Changes of body weight and histological scores as well as survival rate were evaluated. Leukocyte infiltration was detected by myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.Inflammation cytokines were determined by RT-PCR.Local concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon mucosa was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Curcumin improved survival rate and histological image, decreased the macroscopic scores and MPO activity. Also curcumin reduced the expression of COX-2 and inflammation cytokines. In addition,treatment with curcumin increased the PGE2 level.CONCLUSION: Curcumin has therapeutic effects on TNBS acid-induced colitis, the mechanisms seem to be related to COX-2 inhibition and PGE2 improvement.

  16. Properties of acid-induced currents in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonul, Zuhal; Yang, Lei; Palmer, Lawrence G

    2016-05-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cation channels that are activated by protons (H(+)). They are expressed in neurons throughout the nervous system and may play important roles in several neurologic disorders including inflammation, cerebral ischemia, seizures, neurodegeneration, anxiety, depression, and migraine. ASICs generally produce transient currents that desensitize in response to a decrease in extracellular pH Under certain conditions, the inactivation of ASICs can be incomplete and allow them to produce sustained currents. Here, we characterize the properties of both transient and sustained acid-induced currents in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. At pH levels between 7.3 and 7.1 they include "window currents" through ASICs. With stronger acid signals sustained currents are maintained in the absence of extracellular Na(+) or the presence of the ASIC blockers amiloride and Psalmotoxin-1(PcTx1). These sustained responses may have several different origins in these cells, including acid-induced stimulation of inward Cl(-) currents, block of outward K(+) currents, and augmentation of inward H(+) currents, properties that distinguish these novel sustained currents from the well-characterized transient currents. PMID:27173673

  17. Icariin, a major constituent from Epimedium brevicornum, attenuates ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Nan; Li, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jingshan; Jin, Feng; Gong, Qihai

    2016-10-15

    Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory. Oral administration of icariin at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg rescued behavioral performance and protected against neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus by suppressing ibotenic acid induced pro-apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blott of hippocampal specimens revealed that icariin up-regulated the expression of calbindin-D28k protein following ibotenic acid administration. Additionally, icariin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, implicating the MAPK signaling and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the mechanism underlying icariin-mediated neuroprotection against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. These data suggested that icariin could be a potential agent for treatment of excitotoxicity-related diseases, including AD. PMID:27368415

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on lithocholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Su Jong; Bae, Seyeon; Kang, Jae Seung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Lee, Wang Jae; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2015-09-01

    Prevention and restoration of hepatic fibrosis from chronic liver injury is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin C is known to have hepatoprotective effects, but their underlying mechanisms are unclear, especially those associated with hepatic fibrosis. Here, we analyzed the impact of vitamin C on bile acid induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced liver injury in vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize vitamin C similarly to humans. When Huh-BAT cells were treated with bile acid, apoptosis was induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress-related JNK activation but vitamin C attenuated bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. In our in vivo experiments, LCA feeding increased plasma marker of cholestasis and resulted in more extensive liver damage and hepatic fibrosis by more prominent apoptotic cell death and recruiting more intrahepatic inflammatory CD11b(+) cells in the liver of vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice which have minimal hepatic fibrosis. However, when vitamin C was supplemented to vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, hepatic fibrosis was significantly attenuated in the liver of vitamin C-sufficient Gulo(-/-) mice like in wild type mice and this hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C was thought to be associated with both decreased hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggested that vitamin C had hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. PMID:26057690

  19. Acid-induced hyperalgesia and anxio-depressive comorbidity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shao, Yen-Wen; Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-05-28

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain (CWP) and complex comorbid symptoms. A CWP model is developed through repeated unilateral intramuscular injections of acid saline resulting in bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether both anxious and depressive comorbidities exist in this acid-induced pain model, similarly to patients with CWP syndromes. The anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the open field and elevated plus maze tests, and depression-like behaviors were measured by the forced swimming, sucrose consumption, and sucrose preference tests. The pain group receiving acidic saline displayed significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds for 4weeks than animals in the vehicle group after repetitive intramuscular injections. The pain group showed a significantly shorter duration of exploring the central zone of the open field and the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to the vehicle group. The pain group had a significantly lower preference for and consumption of the hedonic sucrose. Moreover, rats with chronic pain showed significantly longer immobility than the vehicle group in the forced swimming test. The results indicate that psychiatric behaviors are exacerbated in the CWP model. This study provides evidence for the validity of the acid-induced pain model analogous to patients with CWP syndromes. PMID:24726391

  20. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  1. Retinoic acid signaling: a new piece in the spoken language puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-Ruben eVan Rhijn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech requires precise motor control and rapid sequencing of highly complex vocal musculature. Despite its complexity, most people produce spoken language effortlessly. This is due to activity in distributed neuronal circuitry including cortico-striato-thalamic loops that control speech-motor output. Understanding the neuro-genetic mechanisms that encode these pathways will shed light on how humans can effortlessly and innately use spoken language and could elucidate what goes wrong in speech-language disorders.FOXP2 was the first single gene identified to cause speech and language disorder. Individuals with FOXP2 mutations display a severe speech deficit that also includes receptive and expressive language impairments. The underlying neuro-molecular mechanisms controlled by FOXP2, which will give insight into our capacity for speech-motor control, are only beginning to be unraveled. Recently FOXP2 was found to regulate genes involved in retinoic acid signaling and to modify the cellular response to retinoic acid, a key regulator of brain development. Herein we explore the evidence that FOXP2 and retinoic acid signaling function in the same pathways. We present evidence at molecular, cellular and behavioral levels that suggest an interplay between FOXP2 and retinoic acid that may be important for fine motor control and speech-motor output. We propose that retinoic acid signaling is an exciting new angle from which to investigate how neurogenetic mechanisms can contribute to the (spoken language ready brain.

  2. Retinoic acid suppresses intestinal mucus production and exacerbates experimental enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Oehlers

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to retinoids for the treatment of acne has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The intestinal mucus layer is an important structural barrier that is disrupted in IBD. Retinoid-induced alteration of mucus physiology has been postulated as a mechanism linking retinoid treatment to IBD; however, there is little direct evidence for this interaction. The zebrafish larva is an emerging model system for investigating the pathogenesis of IBD. Importantly, this system allows components of the innate immune system, including mucus physiology, to be studied in isolation from the adaptive immune system. This study reports the characterization of a novel zebrafish larval model of IBD-like enterocolitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. The DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to recapitulate several aspects of the zebrafish trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced enterocolitis model, including neutrophilic inflammation that was microbiota-dependent and responsive to pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, the DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to be a tractable model of stress-induced mucus production and was subsequently used to identify a role for retinoic acid (RA in suppressing both physiological and pathological intestinal mucin production. Suppression of mucin production by RA increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to enterocolitis when challenged with enterocolitic agents. This study illustrates a direct effect of retinoid administration on intestinal mucus physiology and, subsequently, on the progression of intestinal inflammation.

  3. Retinoic acid activates two pathways required for meiosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Koubova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In all sexually reproducing organisms, cells of the germ line must transition from mitosis to meiosis. In mice, retinoic acid (RA, the extrinsic signal for meiotic initiation, activates transcription of Stra8, which is required for meiotic DNA replication and the subsequent processes of meiotic prophase. Here we report that RA also activates transcription of Rec8, which encodes a component of the cohesin complex that accumulates during meiotic S phase, and which is essential for chromosome synapsis and segregation. This RA induction of Rec8 occurs in parallel with the induction of Stra8, and independently of Stra8 function, and it is conserved between the sexes. Further, RA induction of Rec8, like that of Stra8, requires the germ-cell-intrinsic competence factor Dazl. Our findings strengthen the importance of RA and Dazl in the meiotic transition, provide important details about the Stra8 pathway, and open avenues to investigate early meiosis through analysis of Rec8 induction and function.

  4. Retinoic acid signaling and the evolution of chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In chordates, which comprise urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates, the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA has a pivotal role during development. Altering levels of endogenous RA signaling during early embryology leads to severe malformations, mainly due to incorrect positional codes specifying the embryonic anteroposterior body axis. In this review, we present our current understanding of the RA signaling pathway and its roles during chordate development. In particular, we focus on the conserved roles of RA and its downstream mediators, the Hox genes, in conveying positional patterning information to different embryonic tissues, such as the endoderm and the central nervous system. We find that some of the control mechanisms governing RA-mediated patterning are well conserved between vertebrates and invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate amphioxus. In contrast, outside the chordates, evidence for roles of RA signaling is scarce and the evolutionary origin of the RA pathway itself thus remains elusive. In sum, to fully understand the evolutionary history of the RA pathway, future research should focus on identification and study of components of the RA signaling cascade in non-chordate deuterostomes (such as hemichordates and echinoderms and other invertebrates, such as insects, mollusks and cnidarians.

  5. Early retinoic acid deprivation in developing zebrafish results in microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hong-Gam T; Dowling, John E; Cameron, D Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embryos were treated for 2 h beginning at 9 h postfertilization. Gross morphology and retinal development were examined at regular intervals for 5 days after treatment. The optokinetic reflex (OKR) test, visual background adaptation (VBA) test, and the electroretinogram (ERG) were performed to assess visual function and behavior. Early treatment of zebrafish embryos with 100 μM DEAB (9 h) resulted in reduced eye size, and this microphthalmia persisted through larval development. Retinal histology revealed that DEAB eyes had significant developmental abnormalities but had relatively normal retinal lamination by 5.5 days postfertilization. However, the fish showed neither an OKR nor a VBA response. Further, the retina did not respond to light as measured by the ERG. We conclude that early deficiency of RA during eye development causes microphthalmia as well as other visual defects, and that timing of the RA deficiency is critical to the developmental outcome. PMID:23013828

  6. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T S; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R

    2012-12-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions. PMID:22942074

  7. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role.

  8. Depletion of retinoic acid receptors initiates a novel positive feedback mechanism that promotes teratogenic increases in retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico D'Aniello

    Full Text Available Normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis require precise levels of retinoic acid (RA signaling. Despite the importance of appropriate embryonic RA signaling levels, the mechanisms underlying congenital defects due to perturbations of RA signaling are not completely understood. Here, we report that zebrafish embryos deficient for RA receptor αb1 (RARαb1, a conserved RAR splice variant, have enlarged hearts with increased cardiomyocyte (CM specification, which are surprisingly the consequence of increased RA signaling. Importantly, depletion of RARαb2 or concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and RARαb2 also results in increased RA signaling, suggesting this effect is a broader consequence of RAR depletion. Concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and Cyp26a1, an enzyme that facilitates degradation of RA, and employment of a novel transgenic RA sensor line support the hypothesis that the increases in RA signaling in RAR deficient embryos are the result of increased embryonic RA coupled with compensatory RAR expression. Our results support an intriguing novel mechanism by which depletion of RARs elicits a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop that can result in developmental defects due to teratogenic increases in embryonic RA.

  9. Visible Absorption Properties of Retinoic Acid Controlled on Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Yutaka; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Goto, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of retinoic acid and LB films of retinoic acid mixed with a peptide that contains an alanine-lysine-valine (AKV) amino acid sequence deposited on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film prepared by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering were fabricated, and their light absorption spectrums were compared. A specific visible light absorption at approximately 500 nm occurred in a film that had a film thickness of more than 80 nm and a hydrogen concentration of more than 20% in the sputtering process gas. Mixing the AKV sequence peptide with retinoic acid caused a 6 nm blueshift, from 363 to 357 nm, of the absorption maximum of the composite LB film on a SiO2 substrate. Using the same peptide, a large 30 nm blueshift, from 500 to 470 nm, was induced in the composite LB film on the a-Si:H film.

  10. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  11. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

  12. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  13. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  14. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

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    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  15. Characterization of protective human CD4CD25 FOXP3 regulatory T cells generated with IL-2, TGF-β and retinoic acid.

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    Ling Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells bearing the Forkhead Foxp3 transcription factor can now be divided into three subsets: Endogenous thymus-derived cells, those induced in the periphery, and another subset induced ex-vivo with pharmacological amounts of IL-2 and TGF-β. Unfortunately, endogenous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are unstable and can be converted to effector cells by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although protective Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ cells resistant to proinflammatory cytokines have been generated in mice, in humans this result has been elusive. Our objective, therefore, was to induce human naïve CD4+ cells to become stable, functional CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory cells that were also resistant to the inhibitory effects of proinflammatory cytokines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The addition of the vitamin A metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA to human naïve CD4+ cells suboptimally activated with IL-2 and TGF-β enhanced and stabilized FOXP3 expression, and accelerated their maturation to protective regulatory T cells. AtRA, by itself, accelerated conversion of naïve to mature cells but did not induce FOXP3 or suppressive activity. The combination of atRA and TGF-β enabled CD4+CD45RA+ cells to express a phenotype and trafficking receptors similar to natural Tregs. AtRA/TGF-β-induced CD4+ regs were anergic and low producers of IL-2. They had potent in vitro suppressive activity and protected immunodeficient mice from a human-anti-mouse GVHD as well as expanded endogenous Tregs. However, treatment of endogenous Tregs with IL-1β and IL-6 decreased FOXP3 expression and diminished their protective effects in vivo while atRA-induced iTregs were resistant to these inhibitory effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a methodology that induces human CD4(+ cells to rapidly become stable, fully functional suppressor cells that are also resistant to proinflammatory cytokines. This methodology offers a practical

  16. Retinoic acid. Inhibition of the clonal growth of human myeloid leukemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Douer, D; Koeffler, H P

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin A and its analogues (retinoids) affect normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. We examined the effect of retinoids on the clonal growth in vitro of myeloid leukemia cells. Retinoic acid inhibited the clonal growth of the KG-1, acute myeloblastic leukemia, and the HL-60, acute promyelocytic leukemia, human cell lines. The KG-1 cells were extremely sensitive to retinoic acid, with 50% of the colonies inhibited by 2.4-nM concentrations of the drug. A 50% growth inhibition of HL-60 was ...

  17. Retinoic acid signalling in gastrointestinal parasite infections: lessons from mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, R J M; Else, K J

    2012-07-01

    Retinoic acid or vitamin A is important for an extensive range of biological processes, including immunomodulatory functions, however, its role in gastrointestinal parasite infections is not yet clear. Despite this, parasite infected individuals are often supplemented with vitamin A, given the co-localised prevalence of parasitic infections and vitamin deficiencies. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of this vitamin on the immune responses to gastrointestinal parasites. Here, we review data regarding the role of retinoic acid signalling in mouse models of intestinal nematode infection, with a view to understanding better the practice of giving vitamin A supplements to worm-infected people. PMID:22443219

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of murine embryos lacking endogenous retinoic acid signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paschaki

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA, an active derivative of the liposoluble vitamin A (retinol, acts as an important signaling molecule during embryonic development, regulating phenomenons as diverse as anterior-posterior axial patterning, forebrain and optic vesicle development, specification of hindbrain rhombomeres, pharyngeal arches and second heart field, somitogenesis, and differentiation of spinal cord neurons. This small molecule directly triggers gene activation by binding to nuclear receptors (RARs, switching them from potential repressors to transcriptional activators. The repertoire of RA-regulated genes in embryonic tissues is poorly characterized. We performed a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of murine wild-type and Retinaldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 null-mutant (Raldh2 (-/- embryos - unable to synthesize RA from maternally-derived retinol - using Affymetrix DNA microarrays. Transcriptomic changes were analyzed in two embryonic regions: anterior tissues including forebrain and optic vesicle, and posterior (trunk tissues, at early stages preceding the appearance of overt phenotypic abnormalities. Several genes expected to be downregulated under RA deficiency appeared in the transcriptome data (e.g. Emx2, Foxg1 anteriorly, Cdx1, Hoxa1, Rarb posteriorly, whereas reverse-transcriptase-PCR and in situ hybridization performed for additional selected genes validated the changes identified through microarray analysis. Altogether, the affected genes belonged to numerous molecular pathways and cellular/organismal functions, demonstrating the pleiotropic nature of RA-dependent events. In both tissue samples, genes upregulated were more numerous than those downregulated, probably due to feedback regulatory loops. Bioinformatic analyses highlighted groups (clusters of genes displaying similar behaviors in mutant tissues, and biological functions most significantly affected (e.g. mTOR, VEGF, ILK signaling in forebrain tissues; pyrimidine and purine

  19. Neofunctionalization in vertebrates: the example of retinoic acid receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Escriva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of gene duplications in establishing vertebrate innovations is one of the main challenges of Evo-Devo (evolution of development studies. Data on evolutionary changes in gene expression (i.e., evolution of transcription factor-cis-regulatory elements relationships tell only part of the story; protein function, best studied by biochemical and functional assays, can also change. In this study, we have investigated how gene duplication has affected both the expression and the ligand-binding specificity of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, which play a major role in chordate embryonic development. Mammals have three paralogous RAR genes--RAR alpha, beta, and gamma--which resulted from genome duplications at the origin of vertebrates. By using pharmacological ligands selective for specific paralogues, we have studied the ligand-binding capacities of RARs from diverse chordates species. We have found that RAR beta-like binding selectivity is a synapomorphy of all chordate RARs, including a reconstructed synthetic RAR representing the receptor present in the ancestor of chordates. Moreover, comparison of expression patterns of the cephalochordate amphioxus and the vertebrates suggests that, of all the RARs, RAR beta expression has remained most similar to that of the ancestral RAR. On the basis of these results together, we suggest that while RAR beta kept the ancestral RAR role, RAR alpha and RAR gamma diverged both in ligand-binding capacity and in expression patterns. We thus suggest that neofunctionalization occurred at both the expression and the functional levels to shape RAR roles during development in vertebrates.

  20. Keratinocyte lipid fluidity under the influence of cholesterols, hydrocortisones, "active lipid", tocopherol and retinoic acid--a fluorescence polarization study with regard to physiological and pathophysiological epidermopoiesis and its therapeutic accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnekoh, B; Daefler, S; Krueger, G R; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    Lipid fluidity of freshly isolated human (H) and guinea pig (GP) keratinocytes (K) was determined as the reciprocal of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) fluorescence polarization (P-value), the temperature being kept at 25 degrees C and cell density standardized to 550,000 per ml (level of statistical significance a less than 0.05). An experimental model involving short-term incubations (2.5 hours, 37 degrees C) of GPK in 1% ethanolic lipid solutions (15 mg lipid agent per ml ethanol) was set up to investigate accumulation a) of cholesterol due to terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and b) of cholesteryl sulfate due to the lack of steroid sulfatase activity in recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). In comparison to the control including 1% ethanol (P = 0.291 +/- 0.004), significant rigidifying effects were demonstrated for cholesteryl hemisuccinate (0.331 +/- 0.005) and cholesteryl sulfate (0.310 +/- 0.002). Correspondingly, a significant increase of the P-value was also induced by cholesteryl hemisuccinate in HK. Rigidification of GPK by a preincubation with cholesteryl sulfate (P = 0.306 +/- 0.002) could be antagonized by a subsequent short-term incubation with "active lipid (mixture 721)" (0.285 +/- 0.003, a less than 0.05) which may be relevant for future therapeutic strategies in RXLI. Other steran molecules such as hydrocortisone-21-hemisuccinate or hydrocortisone acetate did not affect lipid fluidity. With regard to the therapeutic potency of retinoids in epidermopoietic disorders, incubations of HK with all-trans-retinoic-acid were compared to those with also lipophilic vitamin E, i.e. d-alpha-tocopherol, for 2.5 hours at 37 degrees C using 1% DMSO as a solvent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1893078

  1. The colocalization potential of HIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells is mediated by integrin β7 but not CCR6 and regulated by retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sue Wacleche

    Full Text Available CD4(+ T-cells from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT are major targets for HIV-1 infection. Recruitment of excess effector CD8(+ T-cells in the proximity of target cells is critical for the control of viral replication. Here, we investigated the colocalization potential of HIV-specific CD8(+ and CD4(+ T-cells into the GALT and explored the role of retinoic acid (RA in regulating this process in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects with slow disease progression. The expression of the gut-homing molecules integrin β7, CCR6, and CXCR3 was identified as a "signature" for HIV-specific but not CMV-specific CD4(+ T-cells thus providing a new explanation for their enhanced permissiveness to infection in vivo. HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cells also expressed high levels of integrin β7 and CXCR3; however CCR6 was detected at superior levels on HIV-specific CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T-cells. All trans RA (ATRA upregulated the expression of integrin β7 but not CCR6 on HIV-specific T-cells. Together, these results suggest that HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cells may colocalize in excess with CD4(+ T-cells into the GALT via integrin β7 and CXCR3, but not via CCR6. Considering our previous findings that CCR6(+CD4(+ T-cells are major cellular targets for HIV-DNA integration in vivo, a limited ability of CD8(+ T-cells to migrate in the vicinity of CCR6(+CD4(+ T-cells may facilitate HIV replication and dissemination at mucosal sites.

  2. Effects of Retinoic Acid on the β-catenin/TCF Pathway in Cultured Porcine Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛; 吴人亮; 王曦; 陈文书

    2004-01-01

    The effects of retinoic acid on the β-catenin/TCF pathway in cultured porcine tracheobronchial epithelial cells (TBEC) were investigated. After TBEC were treated with retinoic acid at various concentrations, mRNA and protein changes of β-catenin in cytoplasm, nucleus and whole cell of the TBEC were observed by immunocytochemical stain, RT-PCR and Western blotting. And the changes of the target gene cyclinD1 of β-catenin/TCF pathway were also observed. It was found that there was no significant difference in β-cat mRNA level after retinoic acid treatment. However,the expression of β-catenin in the whole cell and cytoplasm was elevated with the increase of retinoic acid concentration (P<0.01). The nuclear protein β-catenin and target gene cyclinD1 of β-catenin/TCF pathway was decreased (P<0.05). It was indicated that retinoic acid could increase β-catenin level of the whole cell protein and decrease nuclear β-catenin, downregulating β-cat/TCF signaling activity and reducing target gene cyclinD1 protein level. As a result, retinoic acid can downregulate β-catenin/TCF pathway in porcine tracheobronchial epithelial cell, suggesting that retinoic acid can inhibit the proliferation and accelerate differentiation of tracheobronchial epithelial cells.

  3. Effects of retinoic acid isomers on proteomic pattern in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Macejová, D.; Bialešová, L.; Bobálová, Janette; Brtko, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2013), s. 205-209. ISSN 1210-0668 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK151 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : retinoic acid isomers * retinoid * breast cancer * malignant cells * proteomic analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  4. FOXP2 drives neuronal differentiation by interacting with retinoic acid signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Middelbeek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available FOXP2 was the first gene shown to cause a Mendelian form of speech and language disorder. Although developmentally expressed in many organs, loss of a single copy of FOXP2 leads to a phenotype that is largely restricted to orofacial impairment during articulation and linguistic processing deficits. Why perturbed FOXP2 function affects specific aspects of the developing brain remains elusive. We investigated the role of FOXP2 in neuronal differentiation and found that FOXP2 drives molecular changes consistent with neuronal differentiation in a human model system. We identified a network of FOXP2 regulated genes related to retinoic acid signaling and neuronal differentiation. FOXP2 also produced phenotypic changes associated with neuronal differentiation including increased neurite outgrowth and reduced migration. Crucially, cells expressing FOXP2 displayed increased sensitivity to retinoic acid exposure. This suggests a mechanism by which FOXP2 may be able to increase the cellular differentiation response to environmental retinoic acid cues for specific subsets of neurons in the brain. These data demonstrate that FOXP2 promotes neuronal differentiation by interacting with the retinoic acid signaling pathway and regulates key processes required for normal circuit formation such as neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth. In this way, FOXP2, which is found only in specific subpopulations of neurons in the brain, may drive precise neuronal differentiation patterns and/or control localization and connectivity of these FOXP2 positive cells.

  5. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  6. NF1 Is a Tumor Suppressor in Neuroblastoma that Determines Retinoic Acid Response and Disease Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hölzel; S. Huang; J. Koster; I. Ora; A. Lakeman; H. Caron; W. Nijkamp; J. Xie; T. Callens; S. Asgharzadeh; R.C. Seeger; L. Messiaen; R. Versteeg; R. Bernards

    2010-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) induces differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and is used with variable success to treat aggressive forms of this disease. This variability in clinical response to RA is enigmatic, as no mutations in components of the RA signaling cascade have been found. Using a large-s

  7. Study on the Structure of Supramolecular Inclusion Complex of b-Cyclodextrin with Retinoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inclusion compound of retinoic acid with b-cyclodextrin was prepared by coprecipitating method, the structure of resulting product was studied by elemental analysis, differential scanning caloriemetry(DSC) analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and the formed supramolecule self-assembles in aqueous solution according to molar ratio 2:1 of host-guest.

  8. Retinoic acid receptor beta2 and neurite outgrowth in the adult mouse spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; So, Po-Lin; Barber, Robert D; Vincent, Karen J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Maden, Malcolm

    2002-10-01

    Retinoic acid, acting through the nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), stimulates neurite outgrowth from peripheral nervous system tissue that has the capacity to regenerate neurites, namely, embryonic and adult dorsal root ganglia. Similarly, in central nervous system tissue that can regenerate, namely, embryonic mouse spinal cord, retinoic acid also stimulates neurite outgrowth and RARbeta2 is upregulated. By contrast, in the adult mouse spinal cord, which cannot regenerate, no such upregulation of RARbeta2 by retinoic acid is observed and no neurites are extended in vitro. To test our hypothesis that the upregulation of RARbeta2 is crucial to neurite regeneration, we have transduced adult mouse or rat spinal cord in vitro with a minimal equine infectious anaemia virus vector expressing RARbeta2. After transduction, prolific neurite outgrowth occurs. Outgrowth does not occur when the cord is transduced with a different isoform of RARbeta nor does it occur following treatment with nerve growth factor. These data demonstrate that RARbeta2 is involved in neurite outgrowth, at least in vitro, and that this gene may in the future be of some therapeutic use. PMID:12235288

  9. Effect of retinoic acid and vitamin D3 on osteoblast differentiation and activity in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Michela; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Calarco, Anna; Borrone, Alessia; Peluso, Gianfranco; Cannas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have evidenced that in aging, osteoblast functional activity is impaired: osteoblast proliferation is slower and matrix deposition is less efficient. Because peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and fatty acids are important inhibitory signals in osteoblast development, we have investigated in human primary osteoblasts obtained from patients of different ages, the influence of retinoic acid and calcitriol on enzymes involved in differentiative (PPARγ2, β-catenin, and insulin-like growth factor 1) and metabolic (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) intracellular pathways, and on transglutaminase 2, as enzyme fundamental for stabilizing the newly deposited extracellular matrix in bone. Retinoic acid and calcitriol influenced, respectively, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, and an increase in PPARγ2 expression was observed following retinoic acid administration, whereas a decrease was observed following calcitriol administration. Aging widely influenced all parameters analyzed (the proliferation, differentiation, and new matrix deposition are significantly reduced in aged osteoblasts), with the exception of PPARγ2, which we found to be constitutively overexpressed and not modulated by retinoic acid or calcitriol administration. Our findings show the impaired ability of aged osteoblasts to perform adequate functional response and draw attention to the therapeutic approaches for bone healing in elderly patients. PMID:25691285

  10. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

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    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  11. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:26901778

  12. Onset of meiosis in the chicken embryo; evidence of a role for retinoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopman Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiosis in higher vertebrates shows a dramatic sexual dimorphism: germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. Here we report the molecular analysis of meiosis onset in the chicken model and provide evidence for conserved regulation by retinoic acid. Results Meiosis in the chicken embryo is initiated late in embryogenesis (day 15.5, relative to gonadal sex differentiation (from day 6. Meiotic germ cells are first detectable only in female gonads from day 15.5, correlating with the expression of the meiosis marker, SCP3. Gonads isolated from day 10.5 female embryos and grown in serum-free medium could still initiate meiosis at day 16.5, suggesting that this process is controlled by an endogenous clock in the germ cells themselves, and/or that germ cells are already committed to meiosis at the time of explantation. Early commitment is supported by the analysis of chicken STRA8, a pre-meiotic marker shown to be essential for meiosis in mouse. Chicken STRA8 is expressed female-specifically from embryonic day 12.5, preceding morphological evidence of meiosis at day 15.5. Previous studies have shown that, in the mouse embryo, female-specific induction of STRA8 and meiosis are triggered by retinoic acid. A comprehensive analysis of genes regulating retinoic acid metabolism in chicken embryos reveals dynamic expression in the gonads. In particular, the retinoic acid-synthesising enzyme, RALDH2, is expressed in the left ovarian cortex at the time of STRA8 up-regulation, prior to meiosis. Conclusion This study presents the first molecular analysis of meiosis onset in an avian embryo. Although aspects of avian meiosis differ from that of mammals, a role for retinoic acid may be conserved.

  13. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

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    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  14. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21WAF1 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. ► Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. ► The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. ► Akt/p21WAF1 pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins – PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 – initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21WAF1 induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21WAF1 pathway by PERK inhibition.

  15. Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Interacts with a Cell Death Regulator, GRIM19, and Inhibits Interferon/Retinoic Acid-Induced Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Taegun; Lee, Daeyoup; Shim, Young Sam; Angell, Jon E.; Chidambaram, Natesa V.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.; Choe, Joonho

    2002-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a significant role in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. The KSHV open reading frame K9 encodes the viral interferon (IFN) factor 1 (vIRF1), which downregulates IFN- and IRF-mediated transcriptional activation, and leads to cellular transformation in rodent fibroblasts and induction of tumors in nude mice. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified genes a...

  16. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  17. Retinoic acid reduces human neuroblastoma cell migration and invasiveness: effects on DCX, LIS1, neurofilaments-68 and vimentin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroblastoma is a severe pediatric tumor, histologically characterised by a variety of cellular phenotypes. One of the pharmacological approaches to neuroblastoma is the treatment with retinoic acid. The mechanism of action of retinoic acid is still unclear, and the development of resistance to this differentiating agent is a great therapy problem. Doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a molecular marker for the detection of minimal residual disease in human neuroblastoma. Nevertheless, no information is available on the expression of doublecortin in the different cell-types composing human neuroblastoma, its correlation with neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness, and the possible modulations exerted by retinoic acid treatment. We analysed by immunofluorescence and by Western blot analysis the presence of doublecortin, lissencephaly-1 (another protein involved in neuronal migration) and of two intermediate filaments proteins, vimentin and neurofilament-68, in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line both in control conditions and under retinoic acid treatment. Migration and cell invasiveness studies were performed by wound scratch test and a modified microchemotaxis assay, respectively. Doublecortin is expressed in two cell subtypes considered to be the more aggressive and that show high migration capability and invasiveness. Vimentin expression is excluded by these cells, while lissencephaly-1 and neurofilaments-68 are immunodetected in all the cell subtypes of the SK-N-SH cell line. Treatment with retinoic acid reduces cell migration and invasiveness, down regulates doublecortin and lissencephaly-1 expression and up regulates neurofilament-68 expression. However, some cells that escape from retinoic acid action maintain migration capability and invasiveness and express doublecortin. a) Doublecortin is expressed in human neuroblastoma cells that show high motility and invasiveness; b

  18. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors in chordates: insights from three lamprey species, Lampetra fluviatilis, Petromyzon marinus, and Lethenteron japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Campo-Paysaa, Florent; Jandzik, David; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Cattell, Maria V; Neef, Haley C; Langeland, James A.; Kuratani, Shigeru; Medeiros, Daniel M.; Mazan, Sylvie; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls many developmental processes in chordates, from early axis specification to late organogenesis. The functions of RA are chiefly mediated by a subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. While RARs have been extensively studied in jawed vertebrates (that is, gnathostomes) and invertebrate chordates, very little is known about the repertoire and developmental role...

  19. Normal HC11 and ras-transformed mouse mammary cells are resistant to the antiproliferative effects of retinoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snitcovsky I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of retinoic acid on the growth of the mouse mammary cells HC11 and HC11ras, which are a model for in vitro breast cancer progression. The expression of the two classes (RARs and RXRs of retinoic acid receptor mRNAs was determined by Northern blot analysis. Receptor functional integrity was determined by testing whether RAR ß mRNA could be induced by retinoic acid. The effects of a 72-h exposure to 50 µM 13-cis retinoic acid on HC11 and HC11ras cell proliferation and HC11 cell differentiation were investigated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and by determination of ß-casein mRNA expression, respectively. The possibility that retinoic acid would induce the expression of the vitamin D receptor and synergize with vitamin D, a known inhibitor of HC11 cell growth, was also investigated. HC11 cells expressed higher mRNA levels of both RAR a and RAR g when compared to HC11ras cells. In contrast, RAR ß, as well as RXR a, ß and g expression was low in both HC11 and HC11ras cells. In addition, RAR ß mRNA was induced by retinoic acid treatment in both cells. In spite of these observations, no effects were seen on cell proliferation or differentiation upon exposure to retinoic acid. Neither vitamin D receptor induction nor synergy with vitamin D on growth inhibition was observed. We conclude that the RAR expression profile could be related to the transformed state in HC11ras cells and that the retinoic acid resistance observed merits further investigation.

  20. Synergistic action of famotidine and chlorpheniramine on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Qin; Chao Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the synergistic action of famotidine (FMD)and chlorpheniramine (CPA) on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats.METHODS: Chronic gastric lesions were induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by serosal application of the acetic acid. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n = 8), control group (n = 8), FMD group (n= 8), CPA group (n = 8), and FMD+CPA group (n = 8).Each group was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) 0.5 mL/100g distilled water, 9 g/L NaCl saline, 4 mg/kg FMD, 10mg/kg CPA, 4 mg/kg FMD+10 mg/kg CPA, respectively,daily for 10 d. On d 10, ulcer area was determined by planimetry. The level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the liver homogenation was determined by biochemical methods and the plasma levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1a)and IL-8 were determined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: The synergistic effects of FMD+CPA group on the lesion, IL-8, 6-keto-PGF1a and MPO were confirmed.The effect of FMlD+CPA group was significantly different as compared to the control and FMD groups. The lesion (mm2) was reduced from 40.18±2.6 in control group to 6.83±2.97 in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 32.9±3.27 in FMD group to 6.83±2.97 in pMlD+CPA group,P<0.01. The plasma levels of IL-8 decreased from 0.69±0.11 ng/L in control group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 0.51±0.08 ng/L in FMD group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The level of 6-keto-PGF1a increased from 7.55±1.65 ng/L in control group to 16.62±0.97 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01,and from 13.15±1.48 ng/L in FMD group to 16.62±0.97ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The levels of MPO in the liver homogenate decreased from 9.12±2.05 u/Lin control group to 4.33±0.95 u/L in PMD+CPA group,P<0.01, and from 8.3±1.29 u/L in FMD group to 4.33±0.95 u/L, P<0.01.CONCLUSION: The synergistic action of FMD and CPA on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats decreases the incidence of ulcer and also enhances the

  1. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgarten E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARα, β, γ, and RXRα, β, γ expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC, which is the most common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors (i.e. RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ in esophageal SCC and surrounding normal tissue of patients with untreated SCC and controls. Methods All study participants completed a questionnaire concerning smoking and alcohol drinking habits as well as anthropometrical parameters. Protein levels of RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ were determined by Western Blot in normal esophageal tissue and tissue obtained from SCC of 21 patients with newly diagnosed esophageal SCC and normal esophageal tissue of 10 controls. Results Protein levels of RARγ were significantly lower by ~68% in SCC compared to normal surrounding tissue in patients with SCC that smoked and/or consumed elevated amounts of alcohol. Furthermore, RARα protein levels were significantly lower (~- 45% in SCC in comparison to normal esophageal mucosa in patients with elevated alcohol intake. When comparing protein levels of retinoic acid receptors between normal tissue of patients with SCC and controls, RARγ protein levels were found to be significantly higher (~2.7-fold in normal esophageal tissue of SCC patients than in esophageal tissue obtained from controls. No differences were found for RARα, β, and RXRβ protein levels between normal esophageal tissue of patients and that of controls. Conclusion In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that alterations of retinoic acid receptors protein may contribute

  2. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  3. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  4. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  5. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Olson, Erik R; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-07-10

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression. PMID:19433268

  6. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  7. A dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase protects against kainic acid-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Calò, Margherita; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-06-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid causes inflammation and apoptosis in the brain, resulting in neuronal loss. Dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitors could represent a possible neuroprotective approach in preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. Consequently, we investigated the effects of a dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX following intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg) in rats. Animals were randomized to receive either the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX (flavocoxid, 20 mg/kg i.p.) or its vehicle (1 ml/kg i.p.) 30 min after KA administration. Sham brain injury rats were used as controls. We evaluated protein expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in the hippocampus. Animals were also observed for monitoring behavioral changes according to Racine Scale. Finally, histological analysis and brain edema evaluation were carried out. Treatment with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX decreased protein expression of p-ERK1/2 and TNF-α in hippocampus, markedly reduced MDA, LTB4 and PGE2 hippocampal levels, and also ameliorated brain edema. Histological analysis showed a reduction in cell damage in rats treated with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX, particularly in hippocampal subregion CA3c. Moreover, flavocoxid significantly improved behavioral signs following kainic acid administration. Our results suggest that dual inhibition of COX/5-LOX by flavocoxid has neuroprotective effects during kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity. PMID:25893744

  8. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  10. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ying; NAITO, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intest...

  11. Subchronic Treatment of Donepezil Rescues Impaired Social, Hyperactive, and Stereotypic Behavior in Valproic Acid-Induced Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Woon Kim; Hana Seung; Kyung Ja Kwon; Mee Jung Ko; Eun Joo Lee; Hyun Ah Oh; Chang Soon Choi; Ki Chan Kim; Edson Luck Gonzales; Jueng Soo You; Dong-Hee Choi; Jongmin Lee; Seol-Heui Han; Sung Min Yang; Jae Hoon Cheong

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). W...

  12. Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally o...

  13. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  14. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; YANG, SU-GEUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. E...

  15. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. PMID:26769837

  16. Cloning and Analyzing of Xenopus Mespo Promoter in Retinoic Acid Regulated Mespo Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hu WANG; Xiao-Yan DING

    2006-01-01

    Juring vertebrate embryogenesis, presomitic mesoderm cells enter a segmental program to generate somite, a process termed somitogenesis. Mespo, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family,plays important roles in this process. However, how Mespo expression is regulated remains unclear. To address this question, we isolated a genomic DNA sequence containing 4317 bp of Mespo 5' flanking region in Xenopus. Luciferase assays show that this upstream sequence has transcription activity. Transgenic assay shows that this genomic contig is sufficient to recapitulate the dynamic stage- and tissue-specific expression pattern of endogenous Mespo from the gastrula to the tailbud stage. We further mapped a 326 bp DNA sequence responding to retinoic acid signaling. These results shed light on how Mespo expression is regulated,and suggest that retinoic acid signaling pathways play roles in somitogenesis through regulating Mespo.

  17. Comparative evaluation of retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin lotion in acne vulgarils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety three patients suffering from acne vulgaris were treated with 0.05% retinoic acid (23 patients, 10% benzyoyl peroxide (24 patients, 2% erythromycin lotin (25 patients and 50% glycerine in methylated spirit (21 patients used as a control, for a period of 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 6 weeks by spot counting of the lesions and diagrammatic representations. Good to excellent results were obtained in 69.6% of patients of erythromycin lotion. Retinoic acid was more effective in reducing noninflammatory lesions (75.2% whereas inflammatory lesions showed better response (73.6% with erythromycin lotion and benzoyl peroxide was almost equally effective in both types of lesions.

  18. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    B S Chandrashekar; K R Ashwini; Vani Vasanth; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoi...

  19. Nuclear receptors for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone regulate transcription of keratin genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomic, M; Jiang, C K; Epstein, H S; Freedberg, I M; Samuels, H H; M. Blumenberg

    1990-01-01

    In the epidermis, retinoids regulate the expression of keratins, the intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells. We have cloned the 5' regulatory regions of four human epidermal keratin genes, K#5, K#6, K#10, and K#14, and engineered constructs in which these regions drive the expression of the CAT reporter gene. By co-transfecting the constructs into epithelial cells along with the vectors expressing nuclear receptors for retinoic acid (RA) and thyroid hormone, we have demonstrated t...

  20. Onset of meiosis in the chicken embryo; evidence of a role for retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman Peter; Bowles Josephine; Roeszler Kelly N; Smith Craig A; Sinclair Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Meiosis in higher vertebrates shows a dramatic sexual dimorphism: germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. Here we report the molecular analysis of meiosis onset in the chicken model and provide evidence for conserved regulation by retinoic acid. Results Meiosis in the chicken embryo is initiated late in embryogenesis (day 15.5), rel...

  1. Identification of a Novel Non-retinoid Pan Inverse Agonist of the Retinoic Acid Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Busby, Scott A.; Kumar, Naresh; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Istrate, Monica A.; Conkright, Juliana J.; Wang, Yongjun; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Cameron, Michael D.; Roush, William R.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are potent forms of vitamin A and are involved in a broad range of physiological processes and the pharmacological effects of retinoids are primarily mediated by the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Several natural and synthetic RAR modulators have proven to be clinically useful for a number of therapeutic indications including cancer, psoriasis, and diabetes. Unfortunately, these agents lead to a number of significant side effects. Most synthetic ...

  2. RXR alpha, a promiscuous partner of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, T H; Pohl, J.; Lonnoy, O; Stunnenberg, H G

    1992-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor (RAR), thyroid hormone receptor (T3R) and vitamin D3 receptor (VD3R) differ from steroid hormone receptors in that they bind and transactivate through responsive elements organized as direct rather than inverted repeats. We now show that recombinant RAR and T3R are monomers in solution and cannot form stable homodimeric complexes on their responsive elements. Stable binding of the receptors to their responsive elements requires heterodimerization with a nuclear factor. ...

  3. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Tara D Raftery; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-...

  4. MicroRNA 146 (Mir146) Modulates Spermatogonial Differentiation by Retinoic Acid in Mice1

    OpenAIRE

    Huszar, Jessica M.; Payne, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired biogenesis of microRNAs disrupts spermatogenesis and leads to infertility in male mice. Spermatogonial differentiation is a key step in spermatogenesis, yet the mechanisms that control this event remain poorly defined. In this study, we discovered microRNA 146 (Mir146) to be highly regulated during spermatogonial differentiation, a process dependent on retinoic acid (RA) signaling. Mir146 transcript levels were diminished nearly 180-fold in differentiating spermatogonia when compared...

  5. 13-cis-Retinoic acid in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    See, Siew-Ju; Levin, Victor A.; Yung, W.-K. Alfred; Hess, Kenneth R.; Groves, Morris D.

    2004-01-01

    Basic science and clinical investigations have demonstrated that 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) has activity against malignant gliomas. To assess its effectiveness in the setting of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records and neuroimaging results of patients with recurrent GBM who were treated with cRA. The toxicity profile of cRA, response, and effect on progression-free survival from initiation of treatment were end points of our ana...

  6. The role of retino-raphe projection in light therapy for non-seasonal depression

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaotao; 李晓涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Depression, a serious mental disorder, often leads to insomnia, depressed mood, chronic disability and even suicide. Recently, clinical trials demonstrated that bright light therapy was not only effective for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) but also working for non-seasonal depression. However, little is known about the mechanism. Our previous study indicated that light signals transmitted into dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) through retino-raphe projection which can modulate serotoni...

  7. Practical implications for the administration of 13-cis retinoic acid in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Tiene G M; Laureys, Geneviève; Van de Velde, Véronique; Benoit, Yves; Robays, Hugo

    2011-08-01

    Children with high-risk neuroblastoma are treated with polychemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and even autologous stem-cell transplantation. On top of this complex treatment, most children also receive 13-cis retinoic acid as differentiation agent. As no suitable pharmaceutical formulation is available so far, there are often problems with the administration of the product in children. The present report describes some practical recommendations for the administration of isotretinoin in children treated for high-risk neuroblastoma. PMID:21544558

  8. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert, Yann; Bernard, Laure; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Bourrat, Franck; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Pottin, Karen; Meyer, Axel; Retaux, Sylvie; Stock, David W.; Jackman, William R.; Seritrakul, Pawat; Begemann, Gerrit; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of evolutionary developmental biology is to link specific adaptations to changes in developmental pathways. The dentition of cypriniform fishes, which in contrast to many other teleost fish species possess pharyngeal teeth but lack oral teeth, provides a suitable model to study the development of feeding adaptations. Here, we have examined the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) in tooth development and show that RA is specifically required to induce the pharyngeal tooth develo...

  9. Retinoic acid signalling in gastrointestinal parasite infections: lessons from mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, R J M; Else, K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Retinoic acid or vitamin A is important for an extensive range of biological processes, including immunomodulatory functions, however, its role in gastrointestinal parasite infections is not yet clear. Despite this, parasite infected individuals are often supplemented with vitamin A, given the co-localised prevalence of parasitic infections and vitamin deficiencies. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of this vitamin on the immune responses to gastrointestinal parasite...

  10. Retinoic Acid Promotes Interleukin-4 Plasmid-Dimethylsulfoxide Topical Transdermal Delivery for Treatment of Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhong-Wen; Zhang, Yin-Bing; Chen, Xaing-Jun; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xi-Kun; Qiu, Ji; Zhang, Nan-Nan; Teng, Xiu; MAO, YONG-QIU; Liu, Chang-Yong; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that is caused by a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1-dominant immunity. It has been established as an effective treatment to counteract psoriasis by subcutaneous injection of recombinant interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-4 gene therapy by topical transdermal penetration has shown its antipsoriatic effect in mice. Retinoic acid (RA) and dimethylsulfoxide can increase the efficiency of gene transfection in the topical transdermal delivery system. Ob...

  11. Effect of Retinoic Acid on Lung Injury in Hyperoxia-Exposed Newborn Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常立文; 容志惠; 张谦慎; 钱莉玲

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether treatment with retinoic acid (RA) could improve level of lung alveolarization and influence lung collagen in newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia, newborn SpragueDawley rats aged 2 days were randomly assigned to 8 groups: (1) air, (2) O2, (3) air+NS, (4)O2 +NS, (5) air+dex, (6) O2+dex, (7) air+RA and (8) O2+RA. Group 2, 4 6 and 8 were kept in chambers containing 85 % oxygen, the values were checked 3 times a day. The other 4 groups were exposed to room air. Level of alveolarization and lung collagen were analyzed at age of 14 or 21 days through radial alveolar counts, alveolar airspace measurements, type Ⅰ , Ⅲ collagen immunohistochemical methods (SP method) and image processing system. Transforming growth factor-β receptors and procollagen mRNA accumulation were examined at age of 14 days through immunohistochemical methods and in situ hybridization. Our results showed that radial alveolar counts were increased and distal airspace was enlarged in group 8. Type I collagen was markedly increased, and transforming growth factor-β receptors and procollagen mRNA were decreased by retinoic acid in bronchial epithelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar intersitium. It is concluded that retinoic acid can partially reverse lung development arrest during exposure to hyperoxia by increasing lung collagen.

  12. Characterization of a retinoic acid responsive element isolated by whole genome PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, M P; Gaub, M P; Chambon, P; Abarzúa, P

    1992-01-01

    We have used whole PCR in an attempt to isolate novel retinoic acid (RA) responsive genes. We cloned several small genomic fragments from total human DNA containing putative retinoic acid responsive elements (RAREs) selected by direct binding to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha). We report here that an oligonucleotide containing a sequence from one of the cloned human DNA fragments, and referred to as alpha 1, functions as an authentic RARE. It is shown that both RAR alpha and RAR beta produced in Cos cells as well as in vitro translated RAR alpha bind directly and sequence-specifically to the alpha 1RARE. By mutational analysis it is demonstrated that the alpha 1RARE consists of an imperfect direct repeat of the estrogen- and thyroid hormone-related AGGTCA half-site motif separated by a 5 bp spacer. The orientation and spacing of the half-site repeats are shown to play a critical role in RAR recognition. When cloned upstream of a TK-Luc reporter, the alpha 1RARE is shown to confer responsiveness to RA in an orientation-independent fashion in F9 and CV-1 cells. The magnitude of the RA response mediated by the alpha 1RARE differed in these cell lines. Images PMID:1320257

  13. Synthesis of two possible ligature for the receivers of the acid retinoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinoic acid and their similar, play an important part in the control of the growth of the cellular diferenciation. This biological activity is due to its interaction with the nuclear receivers of the retinoic acid (RARs and RXRs). In this work was synthesized two similar of the retinoic acid: the acid (E)-3-(3 - [(5,6,7,8-tetrathido-3,5,5,8,8-pentametil-2-naftil)cartonil] fenil)-2-butenoico (1) and the acid (AND) -3-(3 - [(5,6,7,8-tethahiddro-3,5,5,8,8-pentametil-2-naftil)etenil] enil)-2-butenoico (2). The elaboration of (1) required six synthetic steps and involved a study of the joining Heck with paladio being evaluated the use of two different methods, one direct and the other one indirect. The structural elucidation of (1), (2), the synthetic precursor (6) and the isolation of four secondary compounds were interesting, being reached conclusions with regard to regal aspects - and estereoquimical of the corresponding reactions. The ceto-acid (1) resulted active with the receiving RAR, showing selectivity for the subtypes β and γ

  14. Effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng pedersen aqueous extract on healing acetic acid-induced ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and the effect of the aqueous extract of the roots from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (Amaranthaceae (AEP on the prevention of acetic acid-induced ulcer and on the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The acute toxicity was evaluated in Swiss mice after oral administration of a single dose and the chronic gastric ulcer was induced with local application of acetic acid. The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was 684.6 mg.kg-1 for the intraperitoneal administration and higher than 10 mg.kg-1by the oral route. The administration of the AEP did not prevent ulcers formation. However, the AEP increased of the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The results suggest that AEP chronically administered promote an increase of tissue healing, after the damage induced by acetic acid and the extract seemed to be destituted of toxic effects in the mice by the oral route.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (Amaranthaceae, uma planta conhecida popularmente como "Ginseng Brasileiro" e "paratudo", é utilizada para tratar distúrbios gástricos e como cicatrizante. Em estudos anteriores, foi demonstrado que o extrato aquoso bruto da P. glomerata (AEP protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra úlceras induzidas por etanol e estresse e reduziu a secreção ácida gástrica basal e estimulada em ratos com ligadura de piloro. Além disso, a secreção gástrica de animais tratados com AEP apresentou níveis de nitrato e nitrito aumentados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o AEP previne o desenvolvimento de úlceras induzidas por ácido acético e o efeito desse extrato no processo de cicatrização em úlceras previamente formadas. A administração do AEP em diferentes doses produziu efeitos tóxicos baixos e não preveniu a formação de úlceras, porém aumentou o processo de cicatrização em úlceras já existentes, como evidenciado no estudo histopatológico. Em

  15. Effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution on oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Feng; LIU Ying-long; LIU Ai-jun; WANG Dong; WANG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial dysfunction in lungs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The beneficial effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution (LPD) have been reported in lung preservation, and LPD enables injured alveolar pneumocytes to recover. So we hypothesized that systemic administration of LPD may have benefits in treating acute lung injury. We investigated the effects of LPD on arterial blood gas and levels of some cytokines in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.Methods Oleic acid (0.1 ml/kg) was intrapulmonarily administered to healthy anesthetized juvenile piglets. Ten animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5 each): oleic acid-induced group (control group) with intravenous infusion of 12.5 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's solution 30 minutes before administration of oleic acid and LPD group with systemic administration of LPD (12.5 ml/kg) 30 minutes before injecting oleic acid. Blood gas variables and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, endothelin 1 and interleukin 10 were measured before and every 1 hour for 6 hours after initial lung injury.Results Compared with control group, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure in LPD group were improved (P<0.05or 0.01). Six hours after lung injury, concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue was lower in LPD group than control group (P<0.05). Plasmic concentration of endothelin 1 showed lower in LPD group while plasmic concentration of interleukin 10 showed higher in LPD group (P<0.05).Conclusions Before lung injury, systemic administration of LPD can improve gas exchange, attenuate pulmonary hypertension, decrease plasmic levels of endothelin 1, increase interleukin 10 and decrease concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.

  16. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  17. Mitochondrial genome depletion in human liver cells abolishes bile acid-induced apoptosis: role of the Akt/mTOR survival pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose J G; Hernandez, Alicia; Revuelta, Isabel E; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Perez, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    Acute accumulation of bile acids in hepatocytes may cause cell death. However, during long-term exposure due to prolonged cholestasis, hepatocytes may develop a certain degree of chemoresistance to these compounds. Because mitochondrial adaptation to persistent oxidative stress may be involved in this process, here we have investigated the effects of complete mitochondrial genome depletion on the response to bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury. A subline (Rho) of human hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cells totally depleted of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was obtained, and bile acid-induced concentration-dependent activation of apoptosis/necrosis and survival signaling pathways was studied. In the absence of changes in intracellular ATP content, Rho cells were highly resistant to bile acid-induced apoptosis and partially resistant to bile acid-induced necrosis. In Rho cells, both basal and bile acid-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, was decreased. Bile acid-induced proapoptotic signals were also decreased, as evidenced by a reduction in the expression ratios Bax-α/Bcl-2, Bcl-xS/Bcl-2, and Bcl-xS/Bcl-xL. This was mainly due to a downregulation of Bax-α and Bcl-xS. Moreover, in these cells the Akt/mTOR pathway was constitutively activated in a ROS-independent manner and remained similarly activated in the presence of bile acid treatment. In contrast, ERK1/2 activation was constitutively reduced and was not activated by incubation with bile acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that impaired mitochondrial function associated with mtDNA alterations, which may occur in liver cells during prolonged cholestasis, may activate mechanisms of cell survival accounting for an enhanced resistance of hepatocytes to bile acid-induced apoptosis. PMID:23597504

  18. Saturated Fatty Acid Induces Insulin Resistance Partially Through Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1 Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-jun Zhou; Yin-si Tang; Yu-ling Song; Ai Li; Hui Zhou; Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), a component of the innate immune system, in mediating lipid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Methods Adipocytes from Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency mice were used for stimulation experiments. The effect of oleate/palmitate mixture on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was analyzed by reporter plasmid assay. The release of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokines production was determined by using real-time PCR. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was measured by 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake assay. Chemokine/cytokine expression and glucose uptake in adipocytes transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOD1 upon fatty acids treatment were analyzed. Results Oleate/palmitate mixture activated the NF-κB pathway and induced interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expressions in adipocytes from mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4, and these effects were blocked by siRNA targeting NOD1. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids decreased the ability of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, siRNA targeting NOD1 partially reversed saturated fatty acid-induced suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake. Conclusion NOD1 might play an important role in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes, suggesting a mechanism by which reduced NOD1 activity confers beneficial effects on insulin action.

  19. Association between cytoplasmic CRABP2, altered retinoic acid signaling, and poor prognosis in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Zong; Li, Shuai; Garcia, Elizabeth; Glubrecht, Darryl D; Yin Poon, Ho; Easaw, Jacob C; Godbout, Roseline

    2016-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is required for the regulation of growth and development. Aberrant expression of molecules involved in RA signaling has been reported in various cancer types including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) has previously been shown to play a key role in the transport of RA to retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to activate their transcription regulatory activity. Here, we demonstrate that CRABP2 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm of GBM tumors. Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, CRABP2 levels in GBM tumors are associated with poor patient survival. Treatment of malignant glioma cell lines with RA results in a dose-dependent increase in accumulation of CRABP2 in the cytoplasm. CRABP2 knockdown reduces proliferation rates of malignant glioma cells, and enhances RA-induced RAR activation. Levels of CRYAB, a small heat shock protein with anti-apoptotic activity, and GFAP, an astrocyte-specific intermediate filament protein, are greatly reduced in CRABP2-depleted cells. Restoration of CRYAB expression partially but significantly reversed the effect of CRABP2 depletion on RAR activation. Our combined in vivo and in vitro data indicate that: (i) CRABP2 is an important determinant of clinical outcome in GBM patients, and (ii) the mechanism of action of CRABP2 in GBM involves sequestration of RA in the cytoplasm and activation of an anti-apoptotic pathway, thereby enhancing proliferation and preventing RA-mediated cell death and differentiation. We propose that reducing CRABP2 levels may enhance the therapeutic index of RA in GBM patients. GLIA 2016;64:963-976. PMID:26893190

  20. Acitretin systemic and retinoic acid 0.1% cream supression of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Bao Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids have been used for years as monotherapy and/or in combination for treatment and suppression of cutaneous malignancies in patients with basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL basal cell carcinoma (BCC. We report 4 cases with BCC confirmed by histopathology who were treated by short-term systemic acitretin combined with retinoic acid 0.1% cream. The 4 cases with BCC showed good response to the treatment without severe adverse effects during treatment and follow-up. The finding suggests that acitretin may be an appropriate treatment option for elderly patients who require less invasive treatment for BCC.