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Sample records for all-solid-state ultraviolet laser

  1. All-solid-state ultraviolet laser based on frequency doubling in an external ring cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An all-solid-state ultraviolet laser based on frequency doubling in an external ring cavity with low input pump power is reported. Both second harmonic generation (SHG) and fourth harmonic generation (FHG) occurred in an external threemirrors ring cavity. The need for impedance matching of this cavity to the input radiation was eliminated and the cavity adaptation was simplified, because the mirrors were not highly reflecting at 1064 nm and the cavity resonates only at 532 nm. Experiment results demonstrate that the conversion efficiency of this external cavity is higher than that of the singlepass condition.

  2. All-solid-state deep ultraviolet laser for single-photon ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengqian; Liu, Xianhu; Zeng, Chenghui; Zhang, Hanyu; Jia, Meiye; Wu, Yishi; Luo, Zhixun; Fu, Hongbing; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-02-01

    We report here the development of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing single-photon ionization based on an all-solid-state deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser system. The DUV laser was achieved from the second harmonic generation using a novel nonlinear optical crystal KBe2BO3F2 under the condition of high-purity N2 purging. The unique property of this laser system (177.3-nm wavelength, 15.5-ps pulse duration, and small pulse energy at ∼15 μJ) bears a transient low power density but a high single-photon energy up to 7 eV, allowing for ionization of chemicals, especially organic compounds free of fragmentation. Taking this advantage, we have designed both pulsed nanospray and thermal evaporation sources to form supersonic expansion molecular beams for DUV single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (DUV-SPI-MS). Several aromatic amine compounds have been tested revealing the fragmentation-free performance of the DUV-SPI-MS instrument, enabling applications to identify chemicals from an unknown mixture.

  3. Applications and Technologies of All-Solid State Blue Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Zhuo; XUE Jun-wen; JIA Fu-qiang; ZHENG Quan; YE Zi-qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Along with the matureness of laser diode (LD) manufacturing technology, the performance of LD has been improved greatly since 1980s, so various kinds of laser devices based on LD have been developed rapidly, especially the all-solid state lasers. After early experiments and researches, the all-solid state lasers have been commercialized successfully.

  4. Subpicosecond pulse generation from an all solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, S. J.; Ferguson, A. I.

    1989-11-01

    An all-solid-state (holosteric) laser source which produces subpicosecond pulses at 1.4 microns is described. The system consists of a diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser which is frequency-modulated (FM) mode-locked and Q-switched at 1.32 microns. In continuous wave operation the laser produces pulses of 19 ps while simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking result in 30 ps pulses being contained in a Q-switched envelope of energy 2.1 microJ. The output of the laser, when passed through a 1 km single-mode optical fiber, produces a spectrally broad Raman signal with its peak at 1.4 microns and the overall conversion efficiency at 12 percent. The pulse duration at 1.4 microns has been measured to be 280 fs. This is the first time that subpicosecond light pulses have been generated by an all-solid-state laser system.

  5. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  6. An all-solid-state CO2 laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Daniel

    1991-03-01

    New, all-solid-state pulse generators are described which meet military requirements for an efficient, reliable pulsed power source to drive a space based CO2 laser. These SCR-commutated, nonlinear magnetic pulse compressors are fully-compatible with the present Spectra Technologies laser head design planned for use on LOWKATER. By employing SCRs rather than thyratron commutators, these pulsers should provide a significant increase in reliability over the current generation of pulsed power drivers. The first pulser which was designed and constructed was denoted COLD-I. COLD-I was designed to meet the original LOWKATER specifications and delivered at 150 joule, 20 kV pulse into a laser load at 10 to 20 Hz repetition rate. The second pulser, denoted COLD-II, was designed to provide a 45 joule, 500 nsec duration pulse at a voltage of 20 kV and a repetition rate of 1 kHz peak and 50 to 100 Hz average. The electrical efficiency was measured to be 80 percent with an input drive of 500 VDC. This pulse served as a design verification testbed for a third pulser, presently designed but not constructed and denoted COLD-III. COLD-III would be capable of producing 36 joules at the same pulse length and repetition rate at voltages of 20 kV. The Phase-II effort was a high risk, high payoff effort aimed at developing a light weight, high reliability RF power source for advanced RF CO2 laser heads under development. COLD-IV a Branched Magnetic RF Nonlinear Magnetic Pulse Compressor was built as a bread

  7. Optical Fiber Lasers and All Solid-State Passively Modulated Microchip Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junewen; Chen; Pie-Yau; Chien; Yu-Ting; Lee

    2003-01-01

    Erbium fiber lasers of continuous mode outputs and of pulsed picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses train are reported. Compact all solid state passively modulated microchip lasers are also developed to the same degree.

  8. All-Solid-State Multi-wavelength Laser System from 208 to 830 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shang-Hong; CHEN Guo-Fu; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yi-Shan; YU Lian-Jun

    2001-01-01

    Four-wavelength lasers from the near-infrared to deep-ultraviolet range, 532, 830, 415 and 208nm, have been developed in one all-solid-state laser system. The laser system is pumped by a diode-Q-YLF laser at 532nm,a Ti:sapphire laser, and the nonlinear second-harmonic-generation crystals LBO and BBO are used to generate different wavelengths. Maximum average powers (repetition rate 1 kHz) of 1.1 W at 830nm, 380m W at 415nm and 39mW at 208nm are obtained when the pumping power is 3.6 W. The main characteristics of this system are presented.

  9. All solid-state high power visible laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase 2 effort was to develop and deliver to NASA a high repetition rate laser-diode-pumped solid-state pulsed laser system with output in the green portion of the spectrum. The laser is for use in data communications, and high efficiency, short pulses, and low timing jitter are important features. A short-pulse 1 micron laser oscillator, a new multi-pass amplifier to boost the infrared power, and a frequency doubler to take the amplified infrared pulsed laser light into the green. This produced 1.5 W of light in the visible at a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz in the laboratory. The pulses have a full-width at half maximum of near 1 ns. The results of this program are being commercialized.

  10. All-Solid-State Four-Color Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, T.R.; Xie, P.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to develop a solid state laser that produces visible output wavelengths, including the commercially compelling blue wavelength. The basic architecture of the device consists of a single-mode optical fiber doped with Pr{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions. When the ions are simultaneously pumped with a near infrared laser (860 nm), complex energy transfer processes involving multiple excited ions leads to population of a high-lying energy level of Pr{sup 3+}. Results include the demonstration of the existence of a photon avalanche mechanism responsible for creation of the population inversion and demonstration of the highest optical-to-optical efficiency of any up-conversion laser reported to date. A US Patent was awarded for this invention in 1998.

  11. All-solid-state narrow-linewidth 455-nm blue laser based on Ti: sapphire crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shankui Rong; Xiaolei Zhu; Weibiao Chen

    2009-01-01

    A compact, all-solid-state, narrow-linewidth, pulsed 455-nm blue laser based on Ti:sapphire crystal is developed. Pumped by a 10-Hz, frequency-doubled all-solid-state Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded by an external cavity laser diode, the narrow-linewidth 910-nm laser with pulse width of 20 ns is obtained from a Tirsapphire laser. 3.43-mJ blue laser can be obtained from the laser system by frequency-doubling with BBO crystal. This research is very useful to determine the roadmap of developing the practical, high power blue laser. This kind of laser will have potential application for underwater communication.

  12. High repetition rate, compact micro-pulse all-solid-state laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutong Feng; Junqing Meng; Weibiao Chen

    2007-01-01

    A high repetition rate, compact micro-pulse all-solid-state laser is designed. The diffusion bonded crystal of YAG, Nd:YAG, and Cr4+:YAG is taken as a monolithic cavity. The optimized initial transmission,output coupling, and pumping size of Cr4+:YAG are calculated. The experimental results show that the laser satisfies the requirement of a spaceborne laser range finder.

  13. High power all-solid-state quasi-continuous-wave tunable Ti: sapphire laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zou; Xin Ding; Yue Zou; Hongmei Ma; Wuqi Wen; Peng Wang; Jianquan Yao

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a high power, all-solid-state, quasi-continuous-wave tunable Ti:sapphire laser system pumped by laser diode (LD) pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The maximum tuned output power of 4.2 W (797 nm) and tuned average power of 3.7 W were achieved when fixing the Ti:sapphire broadband output power at 5.0 W and applying 750-850 nm broadband coated mirror.

  14. All solid-state, injection-seeded Ti: sapphire ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Yu; Weibiao Chen; Jun Zhou; Jinzi Bi; Junwen Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this letter, we present an all solid-state, injection-seeded Ti:sapphire laser. The laser is pumped by a laser diode pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, and injection-seeded by an external cavity laser diode with the wavelength between 770 and 780 nm. The single longitude mode and the doubling efficiency of the laser are obtained after injection seeding. The experimental setup and relative results are reported.It is a good candidate laser source for mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system.

  15. 1047-nm all-solid-state laser based on Nd: LuLF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Li; Ting Yu; Lianhan Zhang; Weibiao Chen; Yin Hang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A compact all-solid-state continuous-wave (CW) laser at 1047 nm is developed based on Nd:LuLF, which is grown through the Czochralski technique. From the laser system, 1.3-W laser can be obtained, which corresponds to the slope efficiencies of 20.1% and 49.5% with respect to the incident and absorbed pump powers, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power level achieved at 1047 nm based on the Nd:LuLF crystal.%A compact all-solid-state continuous-wave (CW) laser at 1047 nm is developed based on Nd:LuLF, which is grown through the Czochralski technique. From the laser system, 1.3-W laser can be obtained, which corresponds to the slope efficiencies of 20.1% and 49.5% with respect to the incident and absorbed pump powers, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power level achieved at 1047 nm based on the Nd:LuLF crystal.

  16. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of <2. The single frequency UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  17. An all-solid-state laser source at 671 nm for cold atom experiments with lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Ulrich; Canalias, Carlota; Zukauskas, Andrius; Trénec, Gérard; Vigué, Jacques; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We present an all solid-state narrow line-width laser source emitting $670\\,\\mathrm{mW}$ output power at $671\\,\\mathrm{nm}$ delivered in a diffraction-limited beam. The source is based on a frequency-doubled diode-end-pumped ring laser operating on the ${^4F}_{3/2} \\rightarrow {^4I}_{13/2}$ transition in Nd:YVO$_4$. By using periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (ppKTP) in an external build-up cavity, doubling efficiencies of up to 86% are obtained. Tunability of the source over $100\\,\\rm GHz$ is accomplished. We demonstrate the suitability of this robust frequency-stabilized light source for laser cooling of lithium atoms. Finally a simplified design based on intra-cavity doubling is described and first results are presented.

  18. High Power Widely Tunable Narrow Linewidth All-Solid-State Pulsed Titanium-Doped Sapphire Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xin; LI Xue; SHENG Quan; SHI Chun-Peng; YIN Su-Jia; LI Bin; YU Xuan-Yi; WEN Wu-Qi; YAO Jian-Quan

    2011-01-01

    We report a widely tunable, narrow linewidth, pulsed Ti:sapphire laser pumped by an all-solid-state Q-switched intra-cavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. By using four dense Bint glass prisms as intra-cavity dispersive elements, the output wavelength can be continuously tuned over 675-970 nm and the spectral linewidth is shortened to 0.5nm. The maximum output power of 6.65 W at 780 nm is obtained under 23.4 Wpump power with repetition rate of 5.5 kHz; corresponding to an conversion efficiency of 28.4%. Due to the gain-switching characteristics of the Ti:sapphire laser, the output pulse duration is as short as 17.6ns.%@@ We report a widely tunable,narrow linewidth,pulsed Th:sapphire laser pumped by an all-solid-state Q-switched intra-cavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser.By using four dense flint glass prisms as intra-cavity dispersive elements,the output wavelength can be continuously tuned over 675-970nm and the spectral linewidth is shortened to 0.5 nm.The maximum output power of 6.65 W at 780 run is obtained under 23.4 W pump power with repetition rate of 5.5 kHz,corresponding to an conversion efficiency of 28.4%.Due to the gain-switching characteristics of the Ti:sapphire laser,the output pulse duration is as short as 17.6ns.

  19. Development and Research on All-solid-state Intracavity Sum-frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOLan-lan; TANHui-ming

    2005-01-01

    Generation of intracavity multi-wavelength and the basic principle of sum-frequency lasers are discused, and the current research status and development of laser diode pumped lasers are introduced in detail.

  20. Diode-pumped, All-solid-state Cr: LiSGaF Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jianming; ZHANG Lizhe; ZHANG Weili; CHAI Lu; WANG Yong; XING Qirong; WANG Qingyue

    2000-01-01

    A compact and efficient CW Cr: LiSGaF laser pumped by two 670 nm laser diodes was reported. Average power as high as 125 mW was generated with a absorbed pump power of 800 mW. The slope efficiency was 17.2%, and the threshold was 72 mW. The tunability of the laser in detail was investigated and a tuning range of 100 nm from 790 to 890 nm was obtained.

  1. Q-switched all-solid-state lasers and application in processing of thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangqing; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Societal pressure to renewable clean energy is increasing which is expected to be used as part of an overall strategy to address global warming and oil crisis. Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by government, of which the costs and prices lower continuously. The next generation thin-film devices are considered to be more efficiency and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. All-solid-state Q-switched lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, due to their advantages of compact configuration, high peak-value power, high repeat rate, excellent beam quality and stability, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. The end pumped all-solid-state lasers could achieve 1064nm IR resources with pulse width of nanoseconds adopting acoustic-optics Q-switch, shorter than 20ns. The repeat rate is up to 100kHz and the beam quality is close to diffraction limit. Based on this, 532nm green lasers, 355nm UV lasers and 266nm DUV lasers could be carried out through nonlinear frequency conversion. Different wave length lasers are chose to process selective materials. For example, 8-15 W IR lasers are used to scribe the TCO film (P1); 1-5 W green lasers are suitable for scribing the active semiconductor layers (P2) and the back contact layers (P3). Our company, Wuhan Lingyun Photo-electronic System Co. Ltd, has developed 20W IR and 5W green end-pumped Q-switched all-solid-state lasers for thin-film solar industry. Operating in high repeat rates, the speed of processing is up to 2.0 m/s.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of Self-Pulsing All-Solid-State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres,y Aplicaciones (CEILAP), , , 8...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 1. Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones...de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones (CEILAP), CITEDEF-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, (1603) Villa Martelli, Argentina. Nahuel M. Granese

  3. Research and Applications of All-Solid-State Blue Lasers%全固体蓝激光器的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Huiming

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with traditional gas lasers and lamp pumped solid state lasers, laser diode(LD) pumped or laser diode array (LDA) pumped solid state lasers called all-solid-state lasers are developed quickly in recent years. With the advantages of compact size, long lifetime,

  4. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  5. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  6. High-power and high-efficiency operation of an all-solid-state,quasi-continuous-wave,titanium sapphire laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanfu Wei(魏权夫); Xin Ding(丁欣); Wuqi Wen(温午麒); Lijuan Fan(范丽娟); Jianquan Yao(姚建铨)

    2004-01-01

    High-power and high-efficiency operation of an all-solid-state, quasi-continuous-wave, titanium sapphire laser is obtained with a diode-laser-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. A maximum output power of 2.5 W is obtained for 16-W power of 532-nm pump light. A much higher conversion efficiency of 15.7% is obtained when at the maximum output power.

  7. Self-Starting Passively Mode-Locking All-Solid-State Laser with GaAs Absorber Grown at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yu-Lei; LING Wei-Jun; WEI Zhi-Yi; WANG Yong-Gang; MA Xiao-Yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ We realize a stable self-starting passively mode-locking all-solid-state laser by using novel GaAs mirrors as the absorber and output coupler. The GaAs mirror is grown by the technology of metal organic chemical vapour deposition at low temperature. With such an absorber as the output coupler in the laser resonator, laser pulses with duration of 42ps were generated at a repetition rate of 400MHz, corresponding to the average power of 590mW.

  8. Generation of 3.5W high efficiency blue-violet laser by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state tunable Ti:sapphire laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Wang, R; Zhang, H; Wen, W Q; Huang, L; Wang, P; Yao, J Q; Yu, X Y; Li, Z

    2008-03-31

    In this paper, we report a high power, high efficiency blue-violet laser obtained by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state Q-switched tunable Ti:sapphire laser, which was pumped by a 532 nm intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. A beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal was used for frequency-doubling of the Ti:sapphire laser and a V-shape folded three-mirror cavity was optimized to obtain high power high efficiency second harmonic generation (SHG). At an incident pump power of 22 W, the tunable output from 355 nm to 475 nm was achieved, involving the maximum average output of 3.5 W at 400 nm with an optical conversion efficiency of 16% from the 532 nm pump laser to the blue-violet output. The beam quality factor M(2) was measured to be Mx(2)=2.15, My(2)=2.38 for characterizing the tunable blue laser.

  9. A repetitively pulsed xenon chloride excimer laser with all ferrite magnetic cores (AFMC) based all solid state exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benerji, N. S.; Varshnay, N. K.; Ghodke, D. V.; Singh, A.

    2016-10-01

    Performance of repetitively pulsed xenon chloride excimer laser (λ~308 nm) with solid state pulser consisting of magnetic pulse compression circuit (MPC) using all ferrite magnetic cores (AFMC) is reported. Laser system suitable for 100 Hz operation with inbuilt pre-ionizer, compact gas circulation and cooling has been developed and presented. In this configuration, high voltage pulses of ~8 μs duration are compressed to ~100 ns by magnetic pulse compression circuit with overall compression factor of ~80. Pulse energy of ~18 J stored in the primary capacitor is transferred to the laser head with an efficiency of ~85% compared to ~70% that is normally achieved in such configurations using annealed met-glass core. This is a significant improvement of about 21%. Maximum output laser pulse energy of ~100 mJ was achieved at repetition rate of 100 Hz with a typical pulse to pulse energy stability of ±5% and laser pulse energy of 150 mJ was generated at low rep-rate of ~40 Hz. This exciter uses a low current and low voltage solid state switch (SCR) that replaces high voltage and high current switch i. e, thyratron completely. The use of solid state exciter in turn reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects particularly in excimer lasers where high EMI is present due to high di/dt. The laser is focused on a thin copper sheet for generation of micro-hole and the SEM image of the generated micro hole shows the energy stability of the laser at high repetition rate operation. Nearly homogeneous, regular and well developed xenon chloride (XeCl) laser beam spot was achieved using the laser.

  10. All-solid-state continuous-wave laser systems for ionization, cooling and quantum state manipulation of beryllium ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, H -Y; Kienzler, D; Keitch, B C; de Clercq, L E; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P

    2013-01-01

    We describe laser systems for photoionization, Doppler cooling and quantum state manipulation of beryllium ions. For photoionization of neutral beryllium, we have developed a continuous-wave 235 nm source obtained by two stages of frequency doubling from a diode laser at 940 nm. The system delivers up to 400 mW at 470 nm and 28 mW at 235 nm. For control of the beryllium ion, three laser wavelengths at 313 nm are produced by sum-frequency generation and second-harmonic generation from four infrared fiber lasers. Up to 7.2 W at 626 nm and 1.9 W at 313 nm are obtained using two pump beams at 1051 and 1551 nm. Intensity fluctuations below 0.5 % per hour (during 8 hours of operation) have been measured at a 313 nm power of 1 W. These systems are used to load beryllium ions into a segmented ion trap.

  11. Threshold characteristic of intracavity optical parametric oscillator pumped by all-solid-state Q-switched laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuye Wang; Degang Xu; Yizhong Yu; Wuqi Wen; Xifu Li; Jianquan Yao

    2008-01-01

    We derive the threshold pump intensity for a singly resonant intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO)based on a temporal coupled field model.Particular attention is Paid to the dependence of the intracavity singly resonant OPO(SRO)threshold intensity on the signal wave output coupling.Meanwhile,a Nd:YAG laser pumped KTiOPO4(KTP)IOPO for eye-safe laser output is studied experimentally.The experiment is performed with four signal wave output reflectivities of 60%,70%,80%,and 90%,respectively.The measured values are in good agreement with the theoretical results.With an output coupler reflectivity of 80%,a peak power of 70 kW at 1572 nm has been obtained at a repetition rate of 3.5 kHz.The pulse width is 4.9 ns.Such investigation is helpful to identifying suitable operational regime of low pump intensity.

  12. Features of the extreme events observed in the all-solid state laser with a saturable absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Bonazzola, Carlos R; Kovalsky, Marcelo G; Tredicce, Jorge R

    2015-01-01

    Extreme events (sometimes also called optical rogue waves), in the form of pulses of extraordinary intensity, are easily observed in its chaotic regime if the Fresnel number of the cavity is high. This result suggests that the nonlinear interaction among transverse modes is an essential ingredient in the formation of extreme events in this type of lasers, but there is no theoretical description of the phenomenon yet. We report here a set of experimental results on the regularities of these extreme events, to provide a basis for the development of such a description. Among these results, we point out here: i) the decay of the correlation across the transversal section of the laser beam, and ii) the appearance of extreme events even if the time elapsed since the previous pulse is relatively short (in terms of the average inter-pulse separation), what indicates the existence of some unknown mechanism of energy storage. We hypothesize that this mechanism is related with the imperfect depletion of the gain by some...

  13. All-solid-state lithium secondary batteries using NiS-carbon fiber composite electrodes coated with Li₂S-P₂S₅ solid electrolytes by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Keigo; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    Composite materials including NiS active materials, sulfide-based solid electrolytes (SE), and conductive additives (VGCF: vapor grown carbon fiber) were prepared by coating a highly conductive Li(2)S-P(2)S(5) solid electrolyte onto NiS-VGCF composite using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). From scanning electron microscopy, NiS nanoparticles were on VGCF surface after coating of solid electrolytes using PLD. All-solid-state cells using the SE-coated NiS-VGCF composite and the uncoated NiS-VGCF composite were fabricated, and then the coating effects on the electrochemical performance by forming the SE thin film onto the NiS-VGCF composite were investigated. At a high current density of 3.8 mA cm(-2) (corresponding to ca. 1 C), an all-solid-state cell fabricated using the SE-coated NiS-VGCF composite as a working electrode showed the initial discharge capacity of 300 mA h g(-1), and exhibited better cycle performance than the cell using the uncoated NiS-VGCF composite.

  14. A Compact All-Solid-State 630-ps 9.43-kHz High Power Nd: YAG/ Nd: YVO4 Hybrid Laser System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Xiang; WEI Xiao-Yu; DU Ke-Ming; LI Jing-Zhen

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and compact design for an all-solid-state laser amplifier system which can output 9.43-kHz 630-ps, 3.5-W pulse trains under 20W absorbed pumping power. The excellent matching between the repetition of its seed source and the fluorescence lifetime of the amplifying medium makes it quiet efficient for the four-pass amplifier to be pumped in cw mode without need of any synchronization device between the oscillator and the amplifier. The entire setup just covers an area of 55×25cm2. The output average power fluctuation is less than ±1.5% within 10min and 3% within 6h.

  15. Single Pass Third-Harmonic Generation of 310 mW of 355 nm with an All-Solid-State Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉磊; 何京良; 王慧田; 祝世宁; 朱永元

    2001-01-01

    A maximum of 310mW average output power at 355nm has been obtained by extracavity frequency tripling with a BBO crystal in a Q-switched Nd:YV04 laser with 11.2 W of laser diode pump power. The single pass frequency conversion efficiency (infrared-to-ultraviolet) is 14.3%. The power stability of the ultraviolet laser is better than 1% in 30min.

  16. 2.1-watts intracavity-frequency-doubled all-solid-state light source at 671 nm for laser cooling of lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Ulrich; Salomon, Christophe; Chevy, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    We present an all-solid-state laser source emitting up to 2.1 W of single-frequency light at 671 nm developed for laser cooling of lithium atoms. It is based on a diode-pumped, neodymium-doped orthovanadate (Nd:YVO$_4$) ring laser operating at 1342 nm. Optimization of the thermal management in the gain medium results in a maximum multi-frequency output power of 2.5 W at the fundamental wavelength. We develop a simple theory for the efficient implementation of intracavity second harmonic generation, and its application to our system allows us to obtain nonlinear conversion efficiencies of up to 88%. Single-mode operation and tuning is established by adding an etalon to the resonator. The second-harmonic wavelength can be tuned over 0.5 nm, and mode-hop-free scanning over more than 6 GHz is demonstrated, corresponding to around ten times the laser cavity free spectral range. The output frequency can be locked with respect to the lithium $D$-line transitions for atomic physics applications. Furthermore, we obser...

  17. 2.1-watts intracavity-frequency-doubled all-solid-state light source at 671 nm for laser cooling of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, U; Bergschneider, A; Sievers, F; Kretzschmar, N; Salomon, C; Chevy, F

    2013-04-08

    We present an all-solid-state laser source emitting up to 2.1 W of single-frequency light at 671 nm developed for laser cooling of lithium atoms. It is based on a diode-pumped, neodymium-doped orthovanadate (Nd:YVO(4)) ring laser operating at 1342 nm. Optimization of the thermal management in the gain medium results in a maximum multi-frequency output power of 2.5 W at the fundamental wavelength. We develop a simple theory for the efficient implementation of intracavity second harmonic generation, and its application to our system allows us to obtain nonlinear conversion efficiencies of up to 88%. Single-mode operation and tuning is established by adding an etalon to the resonator. The second-harmonic wavelength can be tuned over 0.5 nm, and mode-hop-free scanning over more than 6 GHz is demonstrated, corresponding to around ten times the laser cavity free spectral range. The output frequency can be locked with respect to the lithium D-line transitions for atomic physics applications. Furthermore, we observe parametric Kerr-lens mode-locking when detuning the phase-matching temperature sufficiently far from the optimum value.

  18. 我国全固态激光技术研发情况及发展趋势%New Progress on All Solid State Laser Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建铨

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Significance of All Solid State Laser (DPL)Technology in Field of Laser Because of the advantages of high conversion efficiency, good beam quality, small size and light weight, DPL becomes the hotspot and priority of development of laser technology. It may be the main body of laser in the future and replace gas laser and liquid laser. It is a great revolution of laser technology.

  19. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  20. In operando scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy studies of lithium/sulfur cells using all solid-state polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Hugues; Kim, Chi-Su; Paolella, Andrea; Ladouceur, Sébastien; Lagacé, Marin; Chaker, Mohamed; Vijh, Ashok; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Julien, Christian M.; Mauger, Alain; Armand, Michel; Hovington, Pierre; Zaghib, Karim

    2016-07-01

    Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (SPE)/sulfur cells were studied in operando by two techniques: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). During the operation of the cell, extensive polysulfide dissolution in the solid polymer electrolyte (cross-linked polyethylene oxide) leads to the formation of a catholyte. A clear micrograph of the thick passivation layer on the sulfur-rich anode and the decreased SPE thickness by cycling confirmed the failure mechanism; the capacity decays by reducing the amount of active material, and by contributing to a charge inhibiting mechanism called polysulfide shuttle. The formation of elemental sulfur is clearly visible in real time during the charge process beyond 2.3 V. The non-destructive in operando UV-vis study also shows the presence of characteristic absorption peaks evolving with cycling, demonstrating the accumulation of various polysulfide species, and the predominant formation of S42- and of S62- during discharge and charge, respectively. This finding implies that the charge and discharge reactions are not completely reversible and proceed along different pathways.

  1. Compact all-solid-state 266 nm pulse laser%紧凑型全固态266 nm脉冲激光器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辰; 高兰兰; 邵志强

    2014-01-01

    报道了利用激光二极管端面抽运Nd ∶YAG晶体,通过Cr4+∶YAG晶体可饱和吸收被动调Q,KTP晶体腔外倍频及BBO晶体腔外四倍频,实现266 nm连续脉冲输出。简要分析了被动调Q基本原理,计算并模拟了1064 nm基频光在理想状态下Cr4+∶YAG晶体不同初始透过率对脉冲激光单脉冲能量的影响。LD抽运功率为4.8 W时,得到266 nm紫外激光平均输出功率为5.63 mW,单脉冲能量约为0.5μJ。在紧凑型毫瓦级266 nm激光器实用化方面取得了一定进展。%266 nm ultraviolet pulse laser is achieved by KTP crystal extra-cavity frequency doubling and BBO crystal extra-cavity frequency quadrupling of a laser in Nd ∶YAG end-pumped by LD and passively Q-switched by Cr4+∶YAG.The basic principle of passively Q-switched is analyzed,and the influence of the initial transmission of the Cr4+∶YAG on single pulse energy of the 1 064nm laser under the ideal condition is calculated and simulated.When the pump power is 4.8W,the output power of 5.63mW and single pulse energy of 0.5μJ at 266 nm laser is ob-tained.Certain progress of practicability of compact milliwatt levels 266nm laser has been made.

  2. 1.2 MW peak power, all-solid-state picosecond laser with a microchip laser seed and a high gain single-passing bounce geometry amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Shen, Lifeng; Zhao, Zhiliang; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Hongbo; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong

    2016-11-01

    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) based passively Q-switched microchip Nd:YVO4 seed laser with pulse duration of 90 ps at repetition rate of 100 kHz is amplified by single-passing a Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier with varying seed input power from 20 μW to 10 mW. The liquid pure metal greasy thermally conductive material is used to replace the traditional thin indium foil as the thermal contact material for better heat load transfer of the Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier. Temperature distribution at the pump surface is measured by an infrared imager to compare with the numerically simulated results. A highest single-passing output power of 11.3 W is obtained for 10 mW averaged seed power, achieving a pulse peak power of ~1.25 MW and pulse energy of ~113 μJ. The beam quality is well preserved with M2 ≤1.25. The simple configuration of this bounce laser amplifier made the system flexible, robust and cost-effective, showing attractive potential for further applications.

  3. A Q-Swicthed All-Solid-State Single-Longitudinal-Mode Laser with Adjustable Pulse-Width and High Repetition Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jun; XU Shi-Zhong; HOU Xia; WEI Hui; CHEN Wei-Biao

    2006-01-01

    A single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) laser-diode pumped Nd: YAG laser with adjustable pulse width is developed by using the techniques of pre-lasing and changing polarization of birefingent crystal. The Q-switching voltage is triggered by the peak of the pre-lasing pulse to achieve the higher stability of output pulse energy. The output energy of more than 1mJ is obtained with output energy stability of 3% (rms) at 100 Hz. The pulsewidth can be adjusted from 30ns to 300ns by changing the Q-switching voltage. The probability of putting out single-longitudinal-mode pulses is almost 100%. The laser can be run over four hours continually without mode hopping.

  4. All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-BiBO laser with 2.8-W output power at 473 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeranowsky, C; Heumann, E; Huber, G

    2003-03-15

    We report on a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 4.6 W of linear polarized continuous-wave (cw) output power on the 4F3/2 --> 4I9/2 transitions at 946 nm. Three different crystals, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, are used for the intracavity frequency doubling of the laser: 10-mm-long LiBaO5 (LBO), an 8-mm-long beta-BaB2O4 (BBO), and a 10.4-mm-long BiB3O6 (BiBO) grown by FEE GmbH. Up to 2.8 W of cw output power in the blue spectral range at 473 nm has been achieved with the BiBO crystal (2.1 W with BBO and 1.5 W with LBO).

  5. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  6. LBO晶体长度对全固态473nm蓝光激光器效率的影响%LBO Crystal Length on the Efficiency of All Solid-State 473 nm Blue Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李业秋; 刘艳娟; 李勇; 岱钦

    2012-01-01

    报道了结构紧凑、输出稳定的473 nm连续全固态蓝光激光器.模拟分析了LBO晶体长度与激光输出效率的关系,选择了最佳长度为10 mm的Ⅰ类相位匹配的LBO晶体.当抽运功率为3W时,获得了210 mW的473 nm蓝光激光输出功率,光-光转换效率为7%,激光输出功率起伏小于3%.%A compact and stable 473 nm continuous all-solid-state blue laser is reported. Simulation analysis of the relationship between the LBO crystal length and the laser output efficiency is done. An optimal length of 10 mm type I phase-matching LBO crystal is chosen. Under the pump power of 3 W, 210 mW of the blue laser at 473 nm is obtained. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is up to 7% . The fluctuation of laser output power is less than 3%.

  7. 7.13W全固态1 319 nm宏微脉冲激光器%7.13 W all-solid-state 1 319 nm macro-micro pulse laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁燕华; 张雷; 刘东; 马毅; 唐淳; 王卫民

    2009-01-01

    研制了一台高效率全固态平均功率7.13 W的1 319 nm宏微脉冲激光器.激光器采用热稳Z形折叠腔,增益模块采用自行研制的准连续15个二极管芯片环形泵浦的Nd:YAG模块,采用主动声光锁模器作为锁模元件,并在腔内插入倍频KTP晶体对激光器的输出尖峰进行抑制.为了获得稳定的锁模状态,对激光器腔长进行了精确设计和调节.当激光器腔长与锁模器驱动频率匹配时,获取了宏脉冲重复频率400 Hz、脉宽约190 μs,微脉冲重复频率95.6 MHz、脉宽小于1.0 ns的1 319 nm激光脉冲.%A high-efficiency, all-solid-state, 7.13 W macro-micro pulse 1 319 nm laser has been developed. The laser used thermal stabilized Z-shaped folded cavity. The gain module developed by ourselves adopted quasi continuous wave 15 diode bars ring-pumped Nd:YAG module. An active acousto-optics mode locker was used as the mode locked device. A second harmonic generation KTP crystal was inserted into the resonator for spike suppression. To get stable mode locked state, the length of the laser was exactly designed and adjusted. When the cavity length was matched to the drive frequency of the acousto-optics mode locker, the macro-micro pulse 1 319 nm laser was successfully obtained. The repetition rate of macro pulses was 400 Hz and the pulse width was about 190 μs. The repetition rate of micro pulses was 95.6 MHz and the pulse width was less than 1.0 ns.

  8. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  9. All Solid-State Optical Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-30

    a specially prepared ZBLAN glass sample doped with 2% Yb in a multi-pass geometry. Care is taken to cut the sample without cracking; all surfaces are...hours and the measured Tim (hwm) temperature immediately drops. A Fig. I Laser cooling of Yb-doped ZBLAN glass by an amount 88 corrected sample...avenues of research: First, we explored new rare-earth-doped glasses and crystals that have improved cooling efficiencies and/or lower operating

  10. Efficient all solid-state continuous-wave yellow-orange light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW IR lasers using periodically poled KTP. The system is based on the 1064 and 1342 nm laser-lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range. The system is optimized in terms...

  11. Novel All Solid-state Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Jiang; Shibi Fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction All solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium battery was proved to be an attractive direction. Compared with prevenient polymer electrolytes all solid-state polymer electrolytes were superiority in more broad electrochemical window, more stable/low interfacial resistance especially when situ-polymerization utilized, excellent mechanical properties and dissepiment free. A lithium secondary battery using all solid-state polymer electrolyte meet the challenge of energy source for both portable electronic devices and electric vehicles (EV) or engine/battery hybrid vehicles (HEV). All solid-state comb-like network polymer electrolytes (CNPE) based on polysiloxane with internal plasticizing chain (IPC) has been designed and synthesized. See Fig. 1.

  12. Research and Development of 200 W High Beam Quality All-Solid-State Nd:YVO4 Slab Laser%200 W高光束质量全固态Nd:YVO4板条激光器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛叶飞; 张恒利; 徐浏; 何京良; 孙肖; 邢冀川; 辛建国

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the laser beam with high quality and medium power, a laser diode stack dual-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 slab laser with folded hybrid cavity has been developed. Its maximum output power is 202 W and optical conversion efficiency is 47. 5%. The M2 factor in horizontal and vertical direction is 1. 7 and 2. 3, respectively.%为了获得高光束质量的中功率激光,利用激光二极管阵列双端抽运Nd:YVO4,采用折叠混合腔结构的板条结构,获得激光的最大输出功率为202 W,光-光转换效率为47.5%;光束质量M2因子在水平方向和垂直方向分别为1.72和2.25.

  13. Low temperature pulsed laser deposition of garnet Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 films as all solid-state lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccoccio, Mattia; Yu, Jing; Lu, Ziheng; Kwok, Stephen C. T.; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Kan Kan; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    With its stability against Li and good ionic conductivity, Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) has emerged as a promising electrolyte material for lithium-based solid-state batteries (SSBs). Thin layers of solid electrolyte are needed to enable the practical use of SSBs. We report the first deposition of Li-conductive crystalline Ta-doped LLZO thin films on MgO (100) substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Further, we investigate the impact of laser fluence, deposition temperature (in the 50 °C-700 °C range), and post-deposition annealing on the structural, compositional, and transport properties of the film. We analyze the structure of the deposited films via grazing incident X-ray diffraction, their morphology via scanning electron microscopy, and the composition via depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Li ionic conductivity is investigated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Contrary to previous reports for LLZO films, the crystalline Ta-doped films presents a pure cubic LLZO structure for deposition temperatures as low as 50 °C, with resulting conductivities not significantly influenced by the temperature deposition. Instead, the laser fluence has a major effect on the growth rate of the thin films.

  14. PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottermann, Clemens R.; Segner, Johannes G.; Bange, Klaus

    1992-11-01

    The electrochromic properties of all solid state devices (ASSDs) are strongly defined by thin film materials used as well as the method of deposition. Various thin film materials deposited by evaporation and sputtering are described serving as electrode, reflector, electrolyte, storage medium, or electrochromic film in ASSD. The impact of process parameters upon the device functionality is shown. In addition, the long-term stability of ASSDs for the different thin film systems is reported.

  15. All-solid-state extracavity double-frequency laser for 355 mn UV source%用于355nm紫外光源的腔外倍频全固态激光器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿爱丛; 赵慈; 李宝河; 徐登辉; 李熊

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ensure high output power and high beam quality of 1064 nm and 532 nm laser collinear output. Firstly, the beam quality of 1064 nm laser fundamental frequency was effectively controlled by using a master oscillator and power amplifier (MOPA) ,to achieve maximum average power of 70 W,repetition rate of 10 kHz,pulse width of 60 ns,and beam quality factor/MF of 3. 9.Then using two power amplifiers, a 1 064 nm beam with average output power of 182.9 W and pulse width of 80 ns was generated. Finally, by extra-cavity double-frequency generation with a KTP crystal,which ensures that fundamental laser and double-frequency laser are isochronous and collinear, a green laser at 532 nm with average power of 65.7W and pulse width of about 60 ns was obtained. The corresponding frequency-doubling effidency is 35.9% ,and green beam quality M2 is controlled at 6.%为保证高输出功率前提下获得高光束质量的1064和532 nm激光共向输出,实验中,首先采用主振荡功率放大器系统有效地控制基频光束质量,获得平均功率为70 W、重复频率为10 kHz、脉宽为60 ns和光束质量因子M2约为3.9的1064 nm基频激光;接着利用二级放大器,获得平均功率为182.9 W,脉宽为80 ns的1064nm激光.然后,采用KTP晶体腔外倍频技术保证了基频和倍频激光同时、共向输出,最终获得了平均功率为65.7 W、脉宽约为60 ns的532 nm绿光,相应的倍频效率为35.9%.通过有效措施,绿光的光束质量因子M2约控制在6,为开展355 nm紫外激光研究奠定了良好的基础.

  16. All solid-state 191.7 nm deep-UV light source by seventh harmonic generation of an 888 nm pumped, Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser with excellent beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2014-06-02

    In this paper we report on the realization of a deep-UV light source using the 1.3 μm transition of neodymium as pumping wavelength. The 191.7 nm radiation was obtained by generating the seventh harmonic of a high-power Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser. A cesium lithium borate crystal was used for sum frequency mixing of the sixth harmonic and the fundamental. With a total of four conversion stages, up to 240 mW were achieved, with excellent beam quality at 155 mW (M2 < 1.7) and 190 mW (M2 < 1.9).

  17. Design of LD Pumped Er~(3+):Yb~(3+) Codoped All-solid-state Laser%LD泵浦Er^3+:Yb^3+共掺全固态激光器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠莲; 王斌科; 王雯洁

    2012-01-01

    By using the method of matrix optics,the formula was deduced for computing the beamwidth and image distance of the Gauss beam after focusing by coupling system.Considering the thermal-lens effect,numerical simulations were performed on the active plano-concave cavity.Finally,according to the conditions of laser resonator,the coating program for the output mirror and filterwas confirmed.%对LD泵浦Er3+:Yb3+共掺全固态激光器进行了整体设计,利用矩阵光学方法推导了高斯光束经耦合系统聚焦后束腰宽度和像距的计算公式。考虑激光棒的热透镜效应,对有源平平腔、平凹腔进行了数值计算,分析了谐振腔的稳定性。最后,根据激光谐振条件,确定了激光输出镜及滤光片的镀膜方案,为最终获得高效率、稳定的激光输出提供了理论依据。

  18. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  19. All-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-08-06

    The current rapid industrial development causes the serious energy and environmental crises. Photocatalyts provide a potential strategy to solve these problems because these materials not only can directly convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources but also can decompose organic pollutants under solar-light irradiation. However, the aforementioned applications require photocatalysts with a wide absorption range, long-term stability, high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for a single-component photocatalyst to simultaneously fulfill all these requirements. The artificial heterogeneous Z-scheme photocatalytic systems, mimicking the natural photosynthesis process, overcome the drawbacks of single-component photocatalysts and satisfy those aforementioned requirements. Such multi-task systems have been extensively investigated in the past decade. Especially, the all-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems without redox pair have been widely used in the water splitting, solar cells, degradation of pollutants and CO2 conversion, which have a huge potential to solve the current energy and environmental crises facing the modern industrial development. Thus, this review gives a concise overview of the all-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems, including their composition, construction, optimization and applications.

  20. Characterization of an all solid-state electrochromic window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonazzi, Juan C. L.; Valla, Bruno; Macedo, Marcelo A.; Baudry, Paul; Aegerter, Michel A.; Martins Rodrigues, Ana C.; Bulhoes, Luis O.

    1990-11-01

    Sol-gel cerium - titanium oxide layers present potential application as transparent counter-electrode (ion storage layer) in electrochromic windows and mirrors using lithium conducting electrolyte and W03 electrochromic coating. The precursor sol, prepared by mixing Ti(OPri)4 and Ce(N03)6 (NH4)2 in ethanol, is initially dark red and becomes transparent after a few days aging indicating the presence of Ce3 complexes. The layers have been obtained by dip coating technique and heat treated at 4509C during 15 minutes.They have been characterized by XRD, SIMS, optical absorption and electrochemical techniques; it is shown that the electrochemical reaction corresponds to a reversible insertion-extraction oflithium ions within a Ti02 amorphous film containing small Ce02 crystallites. At low sweep frequencies the process is controlled by a diffusion mechanism (DLi ~= 6.4 lOl2cm2/s at 259C). Characterizations of an all solid state electrochromic window/glass/JTO/ W03/ POE-Li N (502 CF3)2 1 Ti02 - Ce02 I ITO I glass I are also presented.

  1. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  2. All-Solid-State UV Transmitter Development for Ozone Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Armstrong, Darrell Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress made in the development of an all-solid-state UV transmitter suitable for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms is discussed. A nonlinear optics based UV setup based on Rotated Image Singly Resonant Twisted Rectangle (RISTRA) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) module was effectively coupled to a diode pumped, single longitudinal mode, conductively cooled, short-pulsed, high-energy Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with 50 Hz PRF. An estimated 10 mJ/pulse with 10% conversion efficiency at 320 nm has been demonstrated limited only by the pump pulse spatial profile. The current arrangement has the potential for obtaining greater than 200 mJ/pulse. Previously, using a flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG laser with round, top-hat profile, up to 24% IR-UV conversion efficiency was achieved with the same UV module. Efforts are underway to increase the IR-UV conversion efficiency of the all solid-state setup by modifying the pump laser spatial profile along with incorporating improved OPO crystals.

  3. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  4. 大功率空间全固态激光器高效传导冷却技术研究%Study of High-Efficiency Conduction Cooling Technique for High Power Space-Based All-Solid-State Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 谢可迪; 马秀华; 朱小磊; 陈卫标

    2011-01-01

    The novel high power micro-gravity heat pipes are applied for the conduction cooling of a high power and high repetition space-based all-solid-state laser. The waste heat of laser amplifiers can be dissipated effectively and thereby the laser output with high beam quality and high power is obtained. In view of the pumping laser diode (LD) stacks and slab gain medium being major thermal sources in slab amplifiers, the novel amplifier structures for heat dissipating are designed. In the experiment, the heat-sinking capability of two stage simulated amplifiers in series is measured with the single-channel micro-gravity heat pipe and the two-channel micro-gravity heat pipe, respectively. The experimental results show that the temperature of both stage pre-amplifiers stabilizes in the range of operating temperature for the laser diode array. In the end, the average output power more than 20 W, magnification times greater than 20, Ml of 1.42 and M\\ of 1.31 are achieved successfully.%采用全新设计的大功率微重力热管,对大功率空间全固态激光器实施高效传导冷却,实现了对激光放大器废热的有效耗散,获得高光束质量、高功率的激光输出.鉴于激光板条放大器的主要热源为抽运激光二极管(LD)叠层及板条增益介质,实验设计了新型放大器散热结构,分别采用单通道和并行双通道微重力热管对两级串接放大器进行散热实验.结果表明,两级放大器热沉的温度均可稳定在设定的LD工作温度范围内,获得平均功率大于20 W,放大倍数大于20倍,光束质量因子M_x~2,M_y~2控制在1.42和1.31的激光脉冲输出.

  5. All solid-state high power microwave source with high repetition frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, J-W B; Sullivan, W W; Mauch, D; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C

    2013-05-01

    An all solid-state, megawatt-class high power microwave system featuring a silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and a ferrimagnetic-based, coaxial nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) is presented. A 1.62 cm(2), 50 kV 4H-SiC PCSS is hard-switched to produce electrical pulses with 7 ns full width-half max (FWHM) pulse widths at 2 ns risetimes in single shot and burst-mode operation. The PCSS resistance drops to sub-ohm when illuminated with approximately 3 mJ of laser energy at 355 nm (tripled Nd:YAG) in a single pulse. Utilizing a fiber optic based optical delivery system, a laser pulse train of four 7 ns (FWHM) signals was generated at 65 MHz repetition frequency. The resulting electrical pulse train from the PCSS closely follows the optical input and is utilized to feed the NLTL generating microwave pulses with a base microwave-frequency of about 2.1 GHz at 65 MHz pulse repetition frequency (prf). Under typical experimental conditions, the NLTL produces sharpened output risetimes of 120 ps and microwave oscillations at 2-4 GHz that are generated due to damped gyromagnetic precession of the ferrimagnetic material's axially pre-biased magnetic moments. The complete system is discussed in detail with its output matched into 50 Ω, and results covering MHz-prf in burst-mode operation as well as frequency agility in single shot operation are discussed.

  6. BBO晶体四倍频全固态小功率紫外激光器%Fourth harmonic all-solid-state low power ultraviolet laser by BBO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡淼; 葛剑虹; 陈军; 刘崇

    2009-01-01

    利用KTP晶体和BBO晶体,进行了激光二极管泵浦的Nd;YVO4声光调Q激光脉冲四倍频实验.在不同绿光功率入射时,获得光束的束腰半径和紫外转换效率的依赖关系:当绿光功率为1.10 w,束腰半径为12.4 μm时,得到了210 mw的准连续266 nm紫外脉冲输出,四倍频转换效率为19.1%.实验还对紫外远场光斑分别在o光振动面和e光振动面内进行分析,指出了BBO晶体在该两平面内不同的倍频接受角是造成椭圆形紫外光斑和主光斑附近明暗条纹的主要原因.

  7. Freestanding mesoporous VN/CNT hybrid electrodes for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Peng, Xiang; Jin, Huanyu; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Chengcheng; Gao, Biao; Hu, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Zhou, Jun

    2013-09-25

    High-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) are fabricated based on thin, lightweight, and flexible freestanding MVNN/CNT hybrid electrodes. The device shows a high volume capacitance of 7.9 F/cm(3) , volume energy and power density of 0.54 mWh/cm(3) and 0.4 W/cm(3) at a current density of 0.025 A/cm(3) . By being highly flexible, environmentally friendly, and easily connectable in series and parallel, the all-solid-state SCs promise potential applications in portable/wearable electronics.

  8. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms.

  9. Ultraviolet laser technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, David L

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet Laser Technology and Applications is a hands-on reference text that identifies the main areas of UV laser technology; describes how each is applied; offers clearly illustrated examples of UV opticalsystems applications; and includes technical data on optics, lasers, materials, and systems. This book is unique for its comprehensive, in-depth coverage. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the subject, beginning with UV light itself; moving through the optics, sources, and systems; and concluding with detailed descriptions of applications in various fields.The text enables pr

  10. High-Energy All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries with Ultralong Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiayin; Liu, Deng; Wang, Chunsheng; Long, Peng; Peng, Gang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-11-09

    High energy and power densities are the greatest challenge for all-solid-state lithium batteries due to the poor interfacial compatibility between electrodes and electrolytes as well as low lithium ion transfer kinetics in solid materials. Intimate contact at the cathode-solid electrolyte interface and high ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte are crucial to realizing high-performance all-solid-state lithium batteries. Here, we report a general interfacial architecture, i.e., Li7P3S11 electrolyte particles anchored on cobalt sulfide nanosheets, by an in situ liquid-phase approach. The anchored Li7P3S11 electrolyte particle size is around 10 nm, which is the smallest sulfide electrolyte particles reported to date, leading to an increased contact area and intimate contact interface between electrolyte and active materials. The neat Li7P3S11 electrolyte synthesized by the same liquid-phase approach exhibits a very high ionic conductivity of 1.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) with a particle size of 0.4-1.0 μm. All-solid-state lithium batteries employing cobalt sulfide-Li7P3S11 nanocomposites in combination with the neat Li7P3S11 electrolyte and Super P as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability, showing reversible discharge capacity of 421 mAh g(-1) at 1.27 mA cm(-2) after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the obtained all-solid-state lithium batteries possesses very high energy and power densities, exhibiting 360 Wh kg(-1) and 3823 W kg(-1) at current densities of 0.13 and 12.73 mA cm(-2), respectively. This contribution demonstrates a new interfacial design for all-solid-state battery with high performance.

  11. High Performance All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-Pseudocapacitor Based on Hierarchically Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuezhen; Liu, Hewei; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-12-23

    Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) are promising energy storage devices to power miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. With the increasing attention on all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors, new strategies for high-performance flexible MSCs are highly desired. Here, we demonstrate all-solid-state, flexible micropseudocapacitors via direct laser patterning on crack-free, flexible WO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites containing high levels of porous hierarchically structured WO3 nanomaterials (up to 50 wt %) and limited binder (PVDF, work leads to an areal capacitance of 62.4 mF·cm(-2) and a volumetric capacitance of 10.4 F·cm(-3), exceeding that of graphene based flexible MSCs by a factor of 26 and 3, respectively. As a noncarbon based flexible MSC, hierarchically nanostructured WO3 in the narrow finger electrode is essential to such enhancement in energy density due to its pseudocapacitive property. The effects of WO3/PVDF/MWCNTs composite composition and the dimensions of interdigital structure on the performance of the flexible MSCs are investigated.

  12. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  13. Sub-micrometer-thick all-solid-state supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanhui [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ding, Yi [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Applied Research Center for Gold Technology (Au-SDARC), Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A sub-micrometer-thick, flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated. Through simultaneous realization of high dispersity of pseudocapacitance materials and quick electrode response, the hybrid nanostructures show enhanced volumetric capacitance and excellent stability, as well as very high power and energy densities. This suggests their potential as next-generation, high-performance energy conversion and storage devices for wearable electronics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Comprehensive characterization of all-solid-state thin films commercial microbatteries by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larfaillou, S.; Guy-Bouyssou, D.; le Cras, F.; Franger, S.

    2016-07-01

    Constant miniaturization of electronic devices opens the way to the development of thin film microbatteries (TFB). For this type of devices, the use of an all-solid-state thin film technology has many advantages over conventional lithium cells. These microbatteries are thin, bendable and can be produced with a customizable shape for integration in microelectronic devices. Moreover, without liquid electrolyte, they are safer. With the aim to support the industrial production of these TFBs, adequate tools for understanding the electrochemical behavior of the complete microbattery and the identification of their possible failures that can occur have to be developed. In this context, the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy seems to be a good compromise for cells characterization. Widely used for the characterization of liquid electrolyte-based batteries, this technique has been less applied to all solid state batteries, mainly because of the difficulty to work with a two-electrode system. There has been no comprehensive study deeply explaining the impedance evolution during the entire life of a microbattery. In this paper, physical characterizations of individual active materials and aging experiments have been performed in order to undoubtedly assign each EIS contributions, and to propose a more comprehensive electrical model for this family of commercial all-solid-state microbatteries.

  15. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-26

    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  16. An all-solid-state lithium ion battery electrolyte membrane fabricated by hot-pressing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhu, Yuewu; Liu, Jin

    2015-06-01

    A cross-linked polymer electrolyte membrane (SPE) was fabricated by a solvent-free hot-pressing method for all-solid-state lithium ion battery. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte is 1.34 × 10-3 S cm-1 and the decomposition potential is 4.87 V at the ethylene oxide (EO):LiN(SO2CF3)2 (LiTFSI) molar ratio of 20:1 and 120 °C. TG-DSC results show that the SPE is thermally stable up to 230 °C in argon atmosphere. The assembled LiFePO4/SPE/Li all-solid-state battery can stably work in the temperature range of 80-140 °C. At 120 °C, the initial discharge capacity of the battery is 156.7 mAh g-1 at 1C which is close to the theoretical capacity of the cathode material, showing that the solvent-free filming method is low-cost and environment-friendly for solid polymer electrolyte and all-solid-state lithium ion battery.

  17. Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Based on All-Solid-State-Pumped Periodically Poled LiNbO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林学春; 毕勇; 姚爱云; 孔宇鹏; 张瑛; 孙志培; 李瑞宁; 崔大复; 许祖彦; 李健

    2003-01-01

    We report the tunable mid-infrared generation with a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN). Using an all-solid-statepumped Nd: YVO4 laser as the pump source and a PPLN nonlinear crystal with grating periods of 28.2-30.8 μm,we have achieved wavelength conversion in the 2.90-4.05 μm spectral range by period tuning. The use of confocal cavity design has brought a compact, all-solid-state configuration with an average output powers of idler up to ~ 200 mW. The maximum power of 277mW was obtained at the wavelength of 3.35μm.

  18. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  19. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  20. All-Solid-State Iodide Selective Electrode for Iodimetry of Iodized Salts and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    TIRUWORK MEQUANINT; GHIRMA MOGES; MERID TESSMA; SOLOMON MEHRETU

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory-made all-solid state iodide selective electrode, with Ag2S-AgI coated on a graphite rod recovered from dry cell battery, was prepared according to previous procedures. The electrode’s linear response to iodide was in the concentration range of 10-6 M to 10-1 M with a slope of 56.85 mV/decade and a detection limit of 6×10-7M. Iodate recovery test for laboratory formulated iodate-iodized salt was found to be 98.6 % with a standard deviation of 1.14%. The titratability of the iodize...

  1. Nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon electrolyte for all-solid-states batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Small size and high power density secondary batteries are desired for a large number of applications based on miniature wireless devices and sensors that need to be compatible with the microelectronic fabrication technology. This fact resulted in the development of solid electrolytes, like lithium...... phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon), that can be compacted with the anode and cathode electrodes in an all-solid-states structure where the nitrogen incorporation is considered one of the key parameters for controlling the ionic conductivity. In this work the nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon...

  2. An all-solid-state metal hydride - Sulfur lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aranguren, Pedro; Berti, Nicola; Dao, Anh Ha; Zhang, Junxian; Cuevas, Fermín; Latroche, Michel; Jordy, Christian

    2017-07-01

    A metal hydride is used for the first time as anode in a complete all-solid-state battery with sulfur as cathode and LiBH4 as solid electrolyte. The hydride is a nanocomposite made of MgH2 and TiH2 counterparts. The battery exhibits a high reversible capacity of 910 mAh g-1 with discharge plateaus at 1.8 V and 1.4 V. Moreover, the capacity remains to 85% of the initial value over the 25 first charge/discharge cycles.

  3. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  4. Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, Klaus; Ottermann, Clemens R.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Rauch, Friedrich

    1990-08-01

    Electrochromic all-solid-state devices (ASSD) produced by reactive evaporation have been investigated by iaeans of reflectance measurements in the VIS/NIR range and cyclovoltammetry. Hydrogen depth proil were then by a NRA-technique employing the resonant reaction H( N, ar) C. Two different types of designs have been characterized. The electrochromic behaviour of ASSD's can not be described by models based on H transport for devices containing only W03 layers as active materials. Using NiOXH films as electrochromic substances, the injected/ejected charge corelates with changes in the H content.

  5. An all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using two solid electrolytes having different functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Chikusa, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    All-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries are expected to be valuable next generation batteries. To improve the performance of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries, it is essential to raise both the reactivity of sulfur and the ionic conductivity of the positive composite electrode. For achieving this, we investigate a positive composite electrode prepared using P2S5 and a solid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity. As a result, we have found that the lithium-sulfur cell exhibits a relatively low activation energy together with high ionic conductivity. The positive composite electrode exhibits an extremely high capacity of 1550 mA h g-1 (sulfur) at 1.3 mA cm-2 and 25 °C. Moreover, when using the positive electrode, the energy densities at the cell level (18650) are 540 W h kg-1 and 990 W h L-1, estimated from the equivalent structure of a current lithium-ion battery.

  6. Fe3O4@Carbon Nanosheets for All-Solid-State Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Huailin; Niu, Ruiting; Duan, Jiaqi; Liu, Wei; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-08-03

    Fe3O4@carbon nanosheet composites were synthesized using ammonium ferric citrate as the Fe3O4/carbon precursor and graphene oxide as the structure-directing agent under a hydrothermal process. The surface chemical compositions, pore structures, and morphology of the composite were analyzed and characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, TG analysis, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron energy spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The composites showed excellent specific capacitance of 586 F/g, 340 F/g at 0.5 A/g and 10 A/g. The all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device assembled using carbon nanosheets in situ embedded Fe3O4 composite and porous carbon showed a largest energy density of 18.3 Wh/kg at power density of 351 W/kg in KOH/PVA gel electrolyte. The synergism of high special surface to volume ratio, mesoporous structure, graphene-based conduction paths, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles provided a high surface area of ion-accessibility, high electric conductivity, and the utmost utilization of Fe3O4 and resulted in excellent specific capacitance, outstanding rate capability and cycling life as all-solid-state supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. 'All-solid-state' electrochemistry of a protein-confined polymer electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Meera; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K; Mulla, Imtiaz S; Shabab, Mohammed; Khan, M I

    2007-12-07

    Interfacial redox behavior of a heme protein (hemoglobin) confined in a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, Nafion (a perfluoro sulfonic acid ionomer) is investigated using a unique 'all-solid-state' electrochemical methodology. The supple phase-separated structure of the polymer electrolyte membrane, with hydrophilic pools containing solvated protons and water molecules, is found to preserve the incorporated protein in its active form even in the solid-state, using UV-visible, Fluorescence (of Tryptophan and Tyrosine residues) and DRIFT (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) spectroscopy. More specifically, solid-state cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance of the protein-incorporated polymer films reveal that the Fe2+-form of the entrapped protein is found to bind molecular oxygen more strongly than the native protein. In the 'all-solid-state' methodology, as there is no need to dip the protein-modified electrode in a liquid electrolyte (like the conventional electrochemical methods), it offers an easier means to study a number of proteins in a variety of polymer matrices (even biomimetic assemblies). In addition, the results of the present investigation could find interesting application in a variety of research disciplines, in addition to its fundamental scientific interest, including protein biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomimetic chemistry.

  8. Design and characterization of novel all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array dedicated to physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyłowska-Mamińska, Renata; Kloch, Monika; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Bala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    A novel construction of all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array designed for physiological measurements has been presented. The planar construction and elimination of liquid phase creates broad opportunities for the modifications in the sensing part of the sensor. The designed construction is based on all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes integrated with the ionic-liquid based reference electrode. Work parameters of the sensor arrays were characterized. It has been shown that presented sensor design indicates high sensitivity (55.2±1mV/dec, 56.3±2mV/dec, 58.4±1mV/dec and 53.5±1mV/pH for sodium-, potassium-, chloride- and pH-selective electrodes, respectively in 10(-5)-10(-1.5)M range of primary ions), low response time (t95 did not exceed 10s), high potential stability (potential drift in 28-h measurement was ca. ±2mV) and potential repeatability ca. ±1mV. The system was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of K(+), Cl(-), Na(+) and pH in the model physiological solution and for the ion flux studies in human colon epithelium Caco-2 cell line as well.

  9. Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bo Shim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen ion selective membranes formulated with 3140 RTV silicone rubber (SR in PVC were studied to extend the life time of solid state ion sensors through improved membrane adhesion. All solid state hydrogen ion selective electrodes were prepared by incorporation of tridodecyl amine (TDDA as an ionophore, potassium tetrakis[3.5-bis(p-chlorophenylborate (KTpClPB as a lipophilic additive, bis(2-ethylhexyladipate (DOA as a plasticizer. Their linear dynamic range was pH 2.0-11.0 and showed the near Nernstian slope of 55.1±0.2 mV/pH (r=0.999. The ifluences from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were studied for the response of the final ISE membrane composition. Impedance spectroscopic data showed that the resistance was increased by increasing SR content in PVC. Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM image showed clear differences according to the SR compositions in PVC. Life time of the all solid state membrane electrode was extended to about 2 months by preparing the membrane with PVC and SR. The standard reference material from NIST (2181 HEPES Free acid and 2182 NaHEPESate was tested for the ISE and it gave good result.

  10. Polymer-Rich Composite Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Li-S Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judez, Xabier; Zhang, Heng; Li, Chunmei; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Zhang, Yan; González-Marcos, José A; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M

    2017-08-03

    Polymer-rich composite electrolytes with lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/poly(ethylene oxide) (LiFSI/PEO) containing either Li-ion conducting glass ceramic (LICGC) or inorganic Al2O3 fillers are investigated in all-solid-state Li-S cells. In the presence of the fillers, the ionic conductivity of the composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) does not increase compared to the plain LiFSI/PEO electrolyte at various tested temperatures. The CPE with Al2O3 fillers improves the stability of the Li/electrolyte interface, while the Li-S cell with a LICGC-based CPE delivers high sulfur utilization of 1111 mAh g(-1) and areal capacity of 1.14 mAh cm(-2). In particular, the cell performance gets further enhanced when combining these two CPEs (Li | Al2O3-CPE/LICGC-CPE | S), reaching a capacity of 518 mAh g(-1) and 0.53 mAh cm(-2) with Coulombic efficiency higher than 99% at the end of 50 cycles at 70 °C. This study shows that the CPEs can be promising electrolyte candidates to develop safe and high-performance all-solid-state Li-S batteries.

  11. A Plastic-Crystal Electrolyte Interphase for All-Solid-State Sodium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongcai; Xue, Leigang; Xin, Sen; Park, Kyusung; Goodenough, John B

    2017-05-08

    The development of all-solid-state rechargeable batteries is plagued by a large interfacial resistance between a solid cathode and a solid electrolyte that increases with each charge-discharge cycle. The introduction of a plastic-crystal electrolyte interphase between a solid electrolyte and solid cathode particles reduces the interfacial resistance, increases the cycle life, and allows a high rate performance. Comparison of solid-state sodium cells with 1) solid electrolyte Na3 Zr2 (Si2 PO4 ) particles versus 2) plastic-crystal electrolyte in the cathode composites shows that the former suffers from a huge irreversible capacity loss on cycling whereas the latter exhibits a dramatically improved electrochemical performance with retention of capacity for over 100 cycles and cycling at 5 C rate. The application of a plastic-crystal electrolyte interphase between a solid electrolyte and a solid cathode may be extended to other all-solid-state battery cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Composite Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries: Low-Temperature Fabrication and Conductivity Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Don; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Hyeongil; Shin, Hyun-Seop; Song, Seung-Wan; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-05-22

    All-solid-state lithium batteries offer notable advantages over conventional Li-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes in terms of energy density, stability, and safety. To realize this technology, it is critical to develop highly reliable solid-state inorganic electrolytes with high ionic conductivities and adequate processability. Li1+x Alx Ti2-x (PO4 )3 (LATP) with a NASICON (Na superionic conductor)-like structure is regarded as a potential solid electrolyte, owing to its high "bulk" conductivity (ca. 10(-3)  S cm(-1) ) and excellent stability against air and moisture. However, the solid LATP electrolyte still suffers from a low "total" conductivity, mainly owing to the blocking effect of grain boundaries to Li(+) conduction. In this study, an LATP-Bi2 O3 composite solid electrolyte shows very high total conductivity (9.4×10(-4)  S cm(-1) ) at room temperature. Bi2 O3 acts as a microstructural modifier to effectively reduce the fabrication temperature of the electrolyte and to enhance its ionic conductivity. Bi2 O3 promotes the densification of the LATP electrolyte, thereby improving its structural integrity, and at the same time, it facilitates Li(+) conduction, leading to reduced grain-boundary resistance. The feasibility of the LATP-Bi2 O3 composite electrolyte in all-solid-state Li batteries is also examined in this study. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sintered Cathodes for All-Solid-State Structural Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, William; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state structural lithium ion batteries serve as both structural load-bearing components and as electrical energy storage devices to achieve system level weight savings in aerospace and other transportation applications. This multifunctional design goal is critical for the realization of next generation hybrid or all-electric propulsion systems. Additionally, transitioning to solid state technology improves upon battery safety from previous volatile architectures. This research established baseline solid state processing conditions and performance benchmarks for intercalation-type layered oxide materials for multifunctional application. Under consideration were lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. Pertinent characteristics such as electrical conductivity, strength, chemical stability, and microstructure were characterized for future application in all-solid-state structural battery cathodes. The study includes characterization by XRD, ICP, SEM, ring-on-ring mechanical testing, and electrical impedance spectroscopy to elucidate optimal processing parameters, material characteristics, and multifunctional performance benchmarks. These findings provide initial conditions for implementing existing cathode materials in load bearing applications.

  14. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Functionalized Tannic Acids from Natural Resources for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-12-21

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are prepared by simple one-pot polymerization induced by ultraviolet (UV) light using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as an ion-conducting monomeric unit and tannic acid (TA)-based crosslinking agent and plasticizer. The crosslinking agent and plasticizer based on natural resources are obtained from the reaction of TA with glycidyl methacrylate and glycidyl poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Dimensionally stable free-standing SPE having a large ionic conductivity of 5.6×10(-4)  Scm(-1) at room temperature can be obtained by the polymerization of PEGMA into P(PEGMA) with a very small amount (0.1 wt %) of the crosslinking agent and 2.0 wt % of the plasticizer. The ionic conductivity value of SPE with a crosslinked structure is one order of magnitude larger than that of linear P(PEGMA) in the waxy state.

  15. An All Solid-State Pulsed Power Generator for Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PⅢ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kefu; QIU Jian; WU Yifan

    2009-01-01

    An all solid-state pulsed power generator for plasma immersion ion implantation (PⅢ) is described. The pulsed power system is based on a Marx circuit configuration and semi-conductor switches, which have many advantages in adjustable repetition frequency, pulse width modulation and long serving life compared with the conventional circuit category, tube-based technologies such as gridded vacuum tubes, thyratrons, pulse forming networks and transformers.The operation of PⅢ with pulse repetition frequencies up to 500 Hz has been achieved at a pulse voltage amplitude from 2 kV to 60 kV, with an adjustable pulse duration from 1 μs to 100 μs.The proposed system and its performance, as used to drive a plasma ion implantation chamber,axe described in detail on the basis of the experimental results.

  16. Laminated all-solid state NiO/WO3 complementary electrochromic device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡行方; 陈晓峰; 李智勇; 高濂; 严东生

    1997-01-01

    Based on the previous studies on the rf reactive sputtered nickel oxide film with nanostructure and its electrochromism, i. e. electrochromic effect of the films is attributed to the reversible change of the non-stoichiometry in the nanocrystaltine gram boundaries and interfaces due to the injection and ejection of Li+ ions, a prototype of all-solid-state NiO/WO3 complementary electrochromic device using LixTaOy thin film as inorganic electrolyte was designed and prepared. The results indicate that the solar reflectance of the device could be modulated from 0. 15 in colored state to 0.60 in bleached state with excellent cyclic reversibility, durability and high response speed (less than 0.3 s from colored state to bleached state).

  17. Nonenzymatic all-solid-state coated wire electrode for acetylcholine determination in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Wang, Zhan; Wang, You; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2016-11-15

    A nonenzymatic all-solid-state coated wire acetylcholine electrode was investigated. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) as conducting polymer was coated on one end of a gold wire (0.5mm in diameter). The acetylcholine selective membrane containing heptakis(2,3,6-tri-Ο-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin as an ionophore covered the conducting polymer layer. The electrode could work stably in a pH range of 6.5-8.5 and a temperature range of 15-40°C. It covered an acetylcholine concentration range of 10(-5)-10(-1)M with a slope of 54.04±1.70mV/decade, while detection limit was 5.69±1.06µM. The selectivity, dynamic response, reproducibility and stability were evaluated. The electrode could work properly in the rat brain homogenate to detect different concentrations of acetylcholine.

  18. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  19. All-solid-state micro-supercapacitors based on inkjet printed graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Mishukova, Viktoriia; Östling, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are fabricated simply through reliable inkjet printing of pristine graphene in interdigitated structure on silicon wafers to serve as both electrodes and current collectors, and a following drop casting of polymer electrolytes (polyvinyl alcohol/H3PO4). Benefiting from the printing processing, an attractive porous electrode microstructure with a large number of vertically orientated graphene flakes is observed. The devices exhibit commendable areal capacitance over 0.1 mF/cm2 and a long cycle life of over 1000 times. The simple and scalable fabrication technique for efficient micro-supercapacitors is promising for on-chip energy storage applications in emerging electronics.

  20. Sulfide Solid Electrolyte with Favorable Mechanical Property for All-Solid-State Lithium Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    All-solid-state secondary batteries that employ inorganic solid electrolytes are desirable because they are potentially safer than conventional batteries. The ionic conductivities of solid electrolytes are currently attracting great attention. In addition to the conductivity, the mechanical properties of solid electrolytes are important for improving the energy density and cycle performance. However, the mechanical properties of sulfide electrolytes have not been clarified in detail. Here, we demonstrate the unique mechanical properties of sulfide electrolytes. Sulfide electrolytes show room temperature pressure sintering. Ionic materials with low bond energies and a highly covalent character, which is promising for achieving a high ionic conductivity, tend to be suitable for room-temperature processing. The Young's moduli of sulfide electrolytes were measured to be about 20 GPa, which is an intermediate value between those of typical oxides and organic polymers. PMID:23877241

  1. End-pumped all solid-state high repetition rate Tm, Ho:LuLF laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijiang Shu; Ting Yu; Junyan Hou; Rongtao Liu; Minjie Huang; Weibiao Chen

    2011-01-01

    @@ The characteristics of diode end-pumped Tm,Ho:LuLiF for continuous wave (CW) running and high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) Q-switched operation are illustrated. In the CW mode, 950-mW output power with a slope efficiency of 24% is obtained. In the Q-switched mode, output energy of 78 μJ under 10 kHz with a slope efficiency of 23% is achieved. The pulse stability, pulse width as a function of pump intensity, and spectral characteristics are also analyzed.%The characteristics of diode end-pumped Tm,Ho:LuLiF for continuous wave (CW) running and high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) Q-switched operation are illustrated. In the CW mode, 950-mW output power with a slope efficiency of 24% is obtained. In the Q-switched mode, output energy of 78μJ under 10 kHz with a slope efficiency of 23% is achieved. The pulse stability, pulse width as a function of pump intensity, and spectral characteristics are also analyzed.

  2. Fiber-Based Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser system for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system...

  3. Developments of high-voltage all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzel, J.; Thangadurai, V.; Weppner, W.

    Powders of Li 2MMn 3O 8 (M = Fe, Co) were prepared by glycine nitrate combustion from the corresponding metal nitrates. The reaction products were pressed into pellets with the addition of 20 wt.% excess LiNO 3, which were used as targets for e-beam evaporation. A high-voltage all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery was demonstrated by the sequential deposition of spinel structured Li 2MMn 3O 8 (M = Co, Fe) as positive electrode by e-beam evaporation, LiPON as electrolyte, and metallic Al as negative electrode by sputtering in N 2 and Ar gas mixtures with specific power and gas flow rates. A lithium ion conductivity of ∼10 -6 S cm -1 was observed for the optimized thin-film LiPON electrolyte prepared under the condition of a chamber pressure of 2.6 × 10 -2 mbar and a power of 60-100 W. The chemical diffusion coefficient (D ˜) was found to be in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 cm 2 s -1 for any composition x of Li 2- xMMn 3O 8 (M = Fe, Co) in the range from 0.1 to 1.6 by employing the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). AC impedance studies revealed a charge transfer resistance of 260-290 Ω, a double layer capacity of ∼45-70 μF for an electrode area of 6.7 cm 2.

  4. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated.

  5. Superior Electrical Conductivity in Hydrogenated Layered Ternary Chalcogenide Nanosheets for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Shao, Wei; Hang, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Wenguang; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-04

    As the properties of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystals are strongly related to their electronic structures, more and more attempts were carried out to tune their electronic structures to meet the high standards for the construction of next-generation smart electronics. Herein, for the first time, we show that the conductive nature of layered ternary chalcogenide with formula of Cu2 WS4 can be switched from semiconducting to metallic by hydrogen incorporation, accompanied by a high increase in electrical conductivity. In detail, the room-temperature electrical conductivity of hydrogenated-Cu2 WS4 nanosheet film was almost 10(10) times higher than that of pristine bulk sample with a value of about 2.9×10(4)  S m(-1) , which is among the best values for conductive 2D nanosheets. In addition, the metallicity in the hydrogenated-Cu2 WS4 is robust and can be retained under high-temperature treatment. The fabricated all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor based on the hydrogenated-Cu2 WS4 nanosheet film shows promising electrochemical performances with capacitance of 583.3 F cm(-3) at a current density of 0.31 A cm(-3) . This work not only offers a prototype material for the study of electronic structure regulation in 2D crystals, but also paves the way in searching for highly conductive electrodes.

  6. All-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on screen-printed carbon paste electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhan; Rong, Yuanzhen; Hu, Ruifen; Luo, Zhiyuan; Wang, You

    2017-02-01

    A novel disposable all-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (POT) as an ion-to-electron transducer has been developed. The POT was dropped onto the reaction area of the carbon paste electrode covered by the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains N,N-Dioctyl-3α,12α-bis(4-trifluoroacetylbenzoyloxy)-5β-cholan-24-amide as a carbonate ionophore. The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of  -27.5 mV/decade with a detection limit of 3.6 * 10-5 mol l-1. Generally, the detection time was 30 s. Because these electrodes are fast, convenient and low in cost, they have the potential to be mass produced and used in on-site testing as disposable sensors. Furthermore, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability have been studied to evaluate the properties of the electrodes. Measurement of the carbonate was also conducted in a human blood solution and achieved good performance.

  7. All-solid-state repetitive semiconductor opening switch-based short pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Liu, Guozhi

    2009-09-01

    The operating characteristics of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are determined by its pumping circuit parameters. SOS is still able to cut off the current when pumping current duration falls to the order of tens of nanoseconds and a short pulse forms simultaneously in the output load. An all-solid-state repetitive SOS-based short pulse generator (SPG100) with a three-level magnetic pulse compression unit was successfully constructed. The generator adopts magnetic pulse compression unit with metallic glass and ferrite cores, which compresses a 600 V, 10 mus primary pulse into short pulse with forward pumping current of 825 A, 60 ns and reverse pumping current of 1.3 kA, 30 ns. The current is sent to SOS in which the reverse pumping current is interrupted. The generator is capable of providing a pulse with the voltage of 120 kV and duration of 5-6 ns while output load being 125 Omega. The highest repetition rate is up to 1 kHz.

  8. All-Solid-State Iodide Selective Electrode for Iodimetry of Iodized Salts and Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIRUWORK MEQUANINT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-made all-solid state iodide selective electrode, with Ag2S-AgI coated on a graphite rod recovered from dry cell battery, was prepared according to previous procedures. The electrode’s linear response to iodide was in the concentration range of 10-6 M to 10-1 M with a slope of 56.85 mV/decade and a detection limit of 6×10-7M. Iodate recovery test for laboratory formulated iodate-iodized salt was found to be 98.6 % with a standard deviation of 1.14%. The titratability of the iodized salt solution was at least 10-200 ppm potassium iodate (6-120 ppm iodine, exhibiting distinct endpoints in the range wider than the ones set in regulatory standards and reflecting that QC monitoring in production and stability decline of iodine content upon storage can be performed with the electrode method. On the basis this potentiometric titration, the application of the laboratory-made iodide electrode (vs. a saturated calomel reference electrode was extended to the determination of iodine in commercial iodized salts. In all the iodine assays, the iodate-iodized salt was initially treated with acid and an excess of iodide before titration against Na2S2O3 solution. The iodine content in table salts iodized with iodide was determined by direct potentiometry. The electrode was further used for vitamin C (ascorbic acid determinations in pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice by back titrating excess I3- against standard Na2S2O3 in acidic media. The overall outcome is that the iodide ISE can be used as sharp endpoint indicator for these titrimetric reactions in place of the well known official, but visually monitored, starch- triodide end-point reaction detection.

  9. Efficient Storing Energy Harvested by Triboelectric Nanogenerators Using a Safe and Durable All-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huidan; Xu, Qingkai; Pang, Yaokun; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Chunwen

    2017-08-01

    Storing energy harvested by triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) from ambient mechanical motion is still a great challenge for achieving low-cost and environmental benign power sources. Here, an all-solid-state Na-ion battery with safe and durable performance used for efficient storing pulsed energy harvested by the TENG is demonstrated. The solid-state sodium-ion batteries are charged by galvanostatic mode and pulse mode with the TENG, respectively. The all-solid-state sodium-ion battery displays excellent cyclic performance up to 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of about 85% even at a high charge and discharge current density of 48 mA g(-1). When charged by the TENG, an energy conversion efficiency of 62.3% is demonstrated. The integration of TENGs with the safe and durable all-solid-state sodium-ion batteries is potential for providing more stable power output for self-powered systems.

  10. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  11. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-07-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  12. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: all-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Q.; Schelen, B.; Schouten, R., et al.

    2012-01-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device des

  13. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  14. All-solid-state reduced graphene oxide supercapacitor with large volumetric capacitance and ultralong stability prepared by electrophoretic deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Mai, Nguyen Thi; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, Youngjun; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Ye Chan; Jang, Woojin; Lee, Youngkwan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2015-01-21

    Portable energy storage devices have gained special attention due to the growing demand for portable electronics. Herein, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is successfully fabricated based on a poly(vinyl alcohol)-H3PO4 (PVA-H3PO4) polymer electrolyte and a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) membrane electrode prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The RGO electrode fabricated by EPD contains an in-plane layer-by-layer alignment and a moderate porosity that accommodate the electrolyte ions. The all-solid-state RGO supercapacitor is thoroughly tested to give high specific volumetric capacitance (108 F cm(-3)) and excellent energy and power densities (7.5 Wh cm(-3) and 2.9 W cm(-3), respectively). In addition, the all-solid-state RGO supercapacitor exhibits an ultralong lifetime for as long as 180 days (335 000 cycles), which is an ultrahigh cycling capability for a solid-state supercapacitor. The RGO is also tested for being used as a transparent supercapacitor electrode demonstrating its possible use in various transparent optoelectronic devices. Due to the facile scale-up capability of the EPD process and RGO dispersion, the developed all-solid-state supercapacitor is highly applicable to large-area portable energy storage devices.

  15. Anode properties of magnesium hydride catalyzed with niobium oxide for an all solid-state lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Suguru; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kawahito, Koji; Hirabayashi, Kazuhiro; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-08-18

    The anode properties of pristine MgH2 and MgH2 catalyzed with Nb2O5 have been investigated for an all solid-state lithium-ion battery. The catalytic effect stabilizes the plateau voltage as a result of kinetic improvement of the hydrogen transfer from the Mg phase to the Li phase.

  16. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition rate of 100 kHz pumped by continuous wave laser diodes was obtained. Compact, stable and high power DPSS laser amplifier systems with good beam qualities are excellent picosecond sources for high power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA and high-efficiency laser processing.

  17. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaxing Liu; Wei Wang; Zhaohua Wang; Zhiguo Lv; Zhiyuan Zhang; Zhiyi Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition ra...

  18. All solid-state diode pumped Nd:YAG MOPA with stimulated Brillouin phase conjugate mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, H.L.; Godfried, H.P.; Witteman, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) a 1 kHz diode-pumped Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) chain with a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Phase Conjugate mirror is designed and operated. A small Brewster angle Nd:YAG slab (2 by 2 by 20 mm) is side pumped with 200 μ

  19. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Superior Blends Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Integrated Hierarchical Architectures for All-Solid-State Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dechao; Zhang, Long; Yang, Kun; Wang, Hongqiang; Yu, Chuang; Xu, Di; Xu, Bo; Wang, Li-Min

    2017-10-06

    Exploration of advanced solid electrolytes with good interfacial stability toward electrodes is a highly relevant research topic for all-solid-state batteries. Here, we report PCL/SN blends integrating with PAN-skeleton as solid polymer electrolyte prepared by a facile method. This polymer electrolyte with hierarchical architectures exhibits high ionic conductivity, large electrochemical windows, high degree flexibility, good flame-retardance ability, and thermal stability (workable at 80 °C). Additionally, it demonstrates superior compatibility and electrochemical stability toward metallic Li as well as LiFePO4 cathode. The electrolyte/electrode interfaces are very stable even subjected to 4.5 V at charging state for long time. The LiFePO4/Li all-solid-state cells based on this electrolyte deliver high capacity, outstanding cycling stability, and superior rate capability better than those based on liquid electrolyte. This solid polymer electrolyte is eligible for next generation high energy density all-solid-state batteries.

  1. Garnet-Type Fast Li-Ion Conductors with High Ionic Conductivities for All-Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Fang; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K; Wei, Lu; Guo, Xin

    2017-04-12

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries with metallic Li anodes and solid electrolytes could offer superior energy density and safety over conventional Li-ion batteries. However, compared with organic liquid electrolytes, the low conductivity of solid electrolytes and large electrolyte/electrode interfacial resistance impede their practical application. Garnet-type Li-ion conducting oxides are among the most promising electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work, the large-radius Rb is doped at the La site of cubic Li6.10Ga0.30La3Zr2O12 to enhance the Li-ion conductivity for the first time. The Li6.20Ga0.30La2.95Rb0.05Zr2O12 electrolyte exhibits a Li-ion conductivity of 1.62 mS cm(-1) at room temperature, which is the highest conductivity reported until now. All-solid-state Li-ion batteries are constructed from the electrolyte, metallic Li anode, and LiFePO4 active cathode. The addition of Li(CF3SO2)2N electrolytic salt in the cathode effectively reduces the interfacial resistance, allowing for a high initial discharge capacity of 152 mAh g(-1) and good cycling stability with 110 mAh g(-1) retained after 20 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.05 C at 60 °C.

  2. An All-Solid-State Chirped Source for Coherent Optical Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-15

    mode of the Fabry-Perot reference cavity using a piezo to control the laser frequency. At the low end of the frequency spectrum, well within the...bandwidth of the servo, the voltage on the piezo -electric tranducer provides a good representation of the frequency noise. Above the unity gain point of the...At degeneracy the DRO would stably produce the subharmonic of the pump for periods of 20 minutes. The coherence properties of the cw DRO are also

  3. All-Solid-State 2.45-to-2.78-THz Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lin, Robert H.; Sin, Seith; Peralta, Alejandro; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Pearson, John C.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Sources in the THz range are required in order for NASA to implement heterodyne instruments in this frequency range. The source that has been demonstrated here will be used for an instrument on the SOFIA platform as well as for upcoming astrophysics missions. There are currently no electronic sources in the 2 3- THz frequency range. An electronically tunable compact source in this frequency range is needed for lab spectroscopy as well as for compact space-deployable heterodyne receivers. This solution for obtaining useful power levels in the 2 3- THz range is based on utilizing power-combined multiplier stages. Utilizing power combining, the input power can be distributed between different multiplier chips and then recombined after the frequency multiplication. A continuous wave (CW) coherent source covering 2.48 2.75 THz, with greater than 10 percent instantaneous and tuning bandwidth, and having l 14 W of output power at room temperature, has been demonstrated. This source is based on a 91.8 101.8-GHz synthesizer followed by a power amplifier and three cascaded frequency triplers. It demonstrates that purely electronic solid-state sources can generate a useful amount of power in a region of the electromagnetic spectrum where lasers (solid-state or gas) were previously the only available coherent sources. The bandwidth, agility, and operability of this THz source has enabled wideband, high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of water, methanol, and carbon monoxide with a resolution and signal-to-noise ratio unmatched by other existing systems, providing new insight in the physics of these molecules. Further - more, the power and optical beam quality are high enough to observe the Lamb-dip effect in water. The source frequency has an absolute accuracy better than 1 part in 1012, and the spectrometer achieves sub-Doppler frequency resolution better than 1 part in 108. The harmonic purity is better than 25 dB. This source can serve as a local oscillator for a

  4. The improvement of all-solid-state electrochromic devices fabricated with the reactive sputter and cathodic arc technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed for smart electrochromic (EC glass application. The EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The ion conductor layer Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better porous material structure for ion transportation and showed 1.76 times ion conductivity than devices with all sputtering process. At the same time, the EC layer WO3 and NiO deposited by the reactive DCMS have also provided the high quality and uniform characteristic to overcome the surface roughness effect of the CVAP ion conductor layer in multilayer device structure. The all-solid-state ECD with the CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 55% at 550nm and a faster-switching speed. Furthermore, the lower equipment cost and higher deposition rate could be achieved by the application of CVAP technology.

  5. The improvement of all-solid-state electrochromic devices fabricated with the reactive sputter and cathodic arc technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yung-Chih; Hsieh, Ming-Hao; Li, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Yu; Tsai, Wen-Fa; Jan, Der-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technology has been developed for smart electrochromic (EC) glass application. The EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The ion conductor layer Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better porous material structure for ion transportation and showed 1.76 times ion conductivity than devices with all sputtering process. At the same time, the EC layer WO3 and NiO deposited by the reactive DCMS have also provided the high quality and uniform characteristic to overcome the surface roughness effect of the CVAP ion conductor layer in multilayer device structure. The all-solid-state ECD with the CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (Δ T ) of 55% at 550nm and a faster-switching speed. Furthermore, the lower equipment cost and higher deposition rate could be achieved by the application of CVAP technology.

  6. Ultrahigh energy density realized by a single-layer β-Co(OH)2 all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Sun, Yongfu; Lei, Fengcai; Liang, Liang; Liu, Jiawei; Bi, Wentuan; Pan, Bicai; Xie, Yi

    2014-11-17

    A conceptually new all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor based on atomically thin sheets is presented which offers the opportunity to optimize supercapacitor properties on an atomic level. As a prototype, β-Co(OH)2 single layers with five-atoms layer thickness were synthesized through an oriented-attachment strategy. The increased density-of-states and 100 % exposed hydrogen atoms endow the β-Co(OH)2 single-layers-based electrode with a large capacitance of 2028 F g(-1) . The corresponding all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor achieves a high cell voltage of 1.8 V and an exceptional energy density of 98.9 Wh kg(-1) at an ultrahigh power density of 17 981 W kg(-1) . Also, this integrated nanodevice exhibits excellent cyclability with 93.2 % capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles, holding great promise for constructing high-energy storage nanodevices.

  7. All-Solid-State Stretchable Pseudocapacitors Enabled by Carbon Nanotube Film-Capped Sandwich-like Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Taoli; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-28

    Stretchable pseudocapacitors have demonstrated perspective potential as the power sources for stretchable/flexible electronics. However, one of the main limitations is to increase the mass loading of pseudocapacitive materials while maintaining high electrochemical performance. Therefore, the architectural design of stable and stretchable electrodes with a high mass loading of pseudocapacitive materials becomes critical and desirable. Here we report an all-solid-state sandwich-like stretchable pseudocapacitor, which overcomes the limitation of maximum loading of active pseudocapacitive materials and exhibits excellent structural and electrochemical stabilities, giving rise to outstanding cycling stability and rate capability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive performances result from the synergistic effect in the all-solid-state and binder-free structure: (1) faster ion diffusion rates and charge transport at electrode/electrolyte interfaces and (2) improved mechanical property to mitigate the electrode degradation caused by ion insertion/extraction during charge-discharge and mechanically stretching-releasing cycles. This novel component-level design offers an effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of stretchable pseudocapacitors, and more importantly, this concept can be extended for improving the performance of other electrochemical systems such as stretchable supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and solar cells, and accelerate its applications for wearable and implantable electronics.

  8. High-performance flexible all-solid-state microbatteries based on solid electrolyte of lithium boron oxynitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Lee, Ki-Chang; Park, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly growing interest and demand for wearable electronics require the development of flexible and lightweight all-solid-state batteries as power sources that guarantee high performance and safety with the absence of the risk of fire or explosion that can occur with traditional liquid electrolyte systems. Herein, we successfully fabricate new flexible all-solid-state microbatteries integrating a solid electrolyte film of lithium boron oxynitride (LiBON) on a flexible substrate using sophisticated thin-film fabrication technology. The new microbattery of Li/LiBON/LiCoO2 exhibits excellent mechanical integrity even under severe bending and twisting test conditions, enabling the realization of flexible microbatteries. The microbatteries demonstrate superior electrochemical cycling stability relative to conventional batteries, delivering an outstanding capacity retention of 90% on the 1000th cycle. Furthermore, operation at various temperatures from -10 °C to +60 °C and fast charging within 3-6 min are achieved. With various types of flexible substrates, the microbatteries can provide diverse opportunities for flexible and wearable electronics.

  9. Recent progress in all-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingyao, E-mail: wangqingyao0532@163.com [Ludong University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Chen, Chao; Liu, Wei [Tongji University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Gao, Shanmin [Ludong University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Yang, Xiuchun, E-mail: yangxc@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    All-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells have been drawing great attention to solar energy conversion, which break through restrictions in traditional solar cells, such as the high recombination at interfaces of porous TiO{sub 2} films/sensitizers/hole conductors/counter electrodes, instability of dyes, and leakage of solution electrolyte, and so the novel solar cells exhibit promising applications in the future. In this Minireview article, the assembling of solar cells including the preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoanodes, quantum dot preparation and sensitization on photoanodes, filling of hole conductors in TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, and selection of counter electrodes are overviewed, and the development course of all-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells in recent years are summarized in detail. Moreover, the influences of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoanodes, quantum dots, solid electrolyte, and counter electrodes on photon-to-current efficiencies of solar cells are summarized. In addition, current problems of solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells are analyzed, and the corresponding improvements, such as multisensitizers and passivation layers, are proposed to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency. Finally, this Minireview provides a perspective for the future development of this novel solar cell.

  10. Interfacial Processes and Influence of Composite Cathode Microstructure Controlling the Performance of All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Weber, Dominik A; Weigand, Harald; Arlt, Tobias; Manke, Ingo; Schröder, Daniel; Koerver, Raimund; Leichtweiss, Thomas; Hartmann, Pascal; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-05-31

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to become an important class of next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices. However, for achieving competitive performance, a better understanding of the interfacial processes at the electrodes is necessary for optimized electrode compositions to be developed. In this work, the interfacial processes between the solid electrolyte (Li10GeP2S12) and the electrode materials (In/InLi and LixCoO2) are monitored using impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling, showing a large resistance contribution and kinetic hindrance at the metal anode. The effect of different fractions of the solid electrolyte in the composite cathodes on the rate performance is tested. The results demonstrate the necessity of a carefully designed composite microstructure depending on the desired applications of an all-solid-state battery. While a relatively low mass fraction of solid electrolyte is sufficient for high energy density, a higher fraction of solid electrolyte is required for high power density.

  11. Fabrication and Performance of All-Solid-State Li-Air Battery with SWCNTs/LAGP Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijie; Li, Bojie; Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhang, Xueping; Han, Min; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-12

    The all-solid-state Li-air battery has been fabricated, which is constructed by a lithium foil anode, a NASICON-type solid state electrolyte Li1+xAlyGe2-y(PO4)3 (LAGP) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/LAGP nanoparticles composite as air electrode. Its electrochemical performance was investigated in air atmosphere. Particularly, this battery exhibited a larger capacity about 2800 mAh g(-1) for the first cycle, while comparatively the battery with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/LAGP as cathode had a capacity of only about 1700 mAh g(-1). Also, the battery with SWCNTs/LAGP showed improved cycling performance with a reversible capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Our result demonstrated that the all-solid-state Li-air battery with SWCNTs/LAGP as cathode catalyst has a considerable potential for practical application.

  12. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here, we propose to develop a breadboard laser system that is capable of producing radiation in two UV wavelengths.  This Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser...

  13. Inkjet-printed all solid-state electrochromic devices based on NiO/WO3 nanoparticle complementary electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Darmawan, Peter; Cui, Mengqi; Chen, Jingwei; Wang, Xu; Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Pooi See

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and WO3 nanostructured films with strong adhesion to ITO coated glass using inkjet printing for energy saving electrochromic applications. We achieved a high performance electrochromic electrode, producing porous and continuous electrochromic films without aggregation. The NiO film with 9 printed layers exhibits an optical modulation of 64.2% at 550 nm and a coloration efficiency (CE) of 136.7 cm2 C-1. An inkjet-printed complementary all solid-state device was assembled, delivering a larger optical modulation of 75.4% at 633 nm and a higher CE of 131.9 cm2 C-1 among all solid-state devices. The enhanced contrast is due to the printed NiO film that not only performs as an ion storage layer, but also as a complementary electrochromic layer.Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and

  14. Effects of cathode electrolyte interfacial (CEI) layer on long term cycling of all-solid-state thin-film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziying; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Xin, Huolin L.; Han, Lili; Grillon, Nathanael; Guy-Bouyssou, Delphine; Bouyssou, Emilien; Proust, Marina; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to not only push the current limits of energy density by utilizing Li metal, but also improve safety by avoiding flammable organic electrolyte. However, understanding the role of solid electrolyte - electrode interfaces will be critical to improve performance. In this study, we conducted long term cycling on commercially available lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)/lithium (Li) cells at elevated temperature to investigate the interfacial phenomena that lead to capacity decay. STEM-EELS analysis of samples revealed a previously unreported disordered layer between the LCO cathode and LiPON electrolyte. This electrochemically inactive layer grew in thickness leading to loss of capacity and increase of interfacial resistance when cycled at 80 °C. The stabilization of this layer through interfacial engineering is crucial to improve the long term performance of thin-film batteries especially under thermal stress.

  15. Anode properties of silicon-rich amorphous silicon suboxide films in all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Reona; Ohta, Narumi; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the effects of introducing oxygen into amorphous silicon films on their anode properties in all-solid-state lithium batteries. Although poor cycling performance is a critical issue in silicon anodes, it has been effectively improved by introducing even a small amount of oxygen, that is, even in Si-rich amorphous silicon suboxide (a-SiOx) films. Because of the small amount of oxygen in the films, high cycling performance has been achieved without lowering the capacity and power density: an a-Si film delivers discharge capacity of 2500 mAh g-1 under high discharge current density of 10 mA cm-2 (35 C). These results demonstrate that a-SiOx is a promising candidate for high-capacity anode materials in solid-state batteries.

  16. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Ryhänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  17. Flexible all solid state supercapacitor with high energy density employing black titania nanoparticles as a conductive agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Cui, Houlei; Wang, Zhou; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the electrical conductivity of pseudocapacitive materials without changing their morphology is an ideal structural solution to realize both high electrochemical performance and superior flexibility for an all solid state supercapacitor (ASSSC). Herein, we fabricate a flexible ASSSC device employing black titania (TiO2-x:N) decorated two-dimensional (2D) NiO nanosheets as the positive electrode and mesoporous graphene as the negative electrode. In this unique design, NiO nanosheets are used as pseudocapacitive materials and TiO2-x:N nanoparticles serve as the conductive agent. Owing to the excellent electrical conductivity of TiO2-x:N and well defined ``particle on sheet'' planar structure of NiO/TiO2-x:N composites, the 2D morphology of the decorated NiO nanosheets is completely retained, which efficiently reinforces the pseudocapacitive activity and flexibility of the whole all solid state device. The maximum specific capacitance of fabricated the NiO/TiO2-x:N//mesoporous graphene supercapacitor can reach 133 F g-1, which is 2 and 4 times larger than the values of the NiO based ASSSC employing graphene and carbon black as the conductive agent, respectively. In addition, the optimized ASSSC displays intriguing performances with an energy density of 47 W h kg-1 in a voltage region of 0-1.6 V, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest value for flexible ASSSC devices. The impressive results presented here may pave the way for promising applications of black titania in high energy density flexible storage systems.Increasing the electrical conductivity of pseudocapacitive materials without changing their morphology is an ideal structural solution to realize both high electrochemical performance and superior flexibility for an all solid state supercapacitor (ASSSC). Herein, we fabricate a flexible ASSSC device employing black titania (TiO2-x:N) decorated two-dimensional (2D) NiO nanosheets as the positive electrode and mesoporous graphene as the

  18. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Hu, Nantao, E-mail: hunantao@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Yanyan, E-mail: yywang@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006 (China); Zhang, Yafei, E-mail: yfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The addition of methyl orange can affect the size of polypyrrole nanoparticles. • The flexible hybrid paper has a highly-interconnected sandwich framework. • The hybrid paper shows a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance. • Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibits excellent capacitive performances. - Abstract: Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It’s a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm{sup 2} and 94.9 F/cm{sup 3} at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm{sup 2} and 26.4 mWh/cm{sup 3} are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  19. One-pot preparation of new copolymer electrolytes with tunable network structure for all-solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Yanran; Chen, Shaojie; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-11-01

    A new class of copolymer electrolytes with tunable network structure is successfully designed and prepared via a facile one-pot reaction. The trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPEG) is cross-linked with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine (NPEG) to create well-defined solid network polymer electrolyte (SNPE). The network structure could be tuned by changing the molar ratio of TMPEG and NPEG or the molecular weight of NPEG. The effects of molecular weight of NPEG and molar ratio of EO/Li+ on the ionic conductivity are systematically investigated. The optimal electrolyte TMPEG-NPEG4K[2:1]-16:1 presents a maximum conductivity of 1.10 × 10-4 S cm-1 under 30 °C, and an 18-fold ionic conductivity enhancement in that of PEO-based electrolyte. Furthermore, it also exhibits wide electrochemical window (0-5.4 V), excellent compatibility with metallic Li, and superior mechanical properties. The all-solid-state lithium batteries LiFePO4/Li are assembled with TMPEG-NPEG4K[2:1]-16:1 electrolyte, and present good cycling and rate performance under 60 °C. The initial discharge specific capacities of the batteries are 161.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 132.7 mAh g-1 at 1 C, and the capacity retention ratio can be retained at 90.6% and 90.5% after 100 cycles. This new copolymer electrolyte may become a promising candidate for applications in all-solid-state lithium battery.

  20. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1–1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

  1. Addressing the Interface Issues in All-Solid-State Bulk-Type Lithium Ion Battery via an All-Composite Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bing-Qing; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-03-22

    All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO4 particles) of ∼300 μm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm(2), exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

  2. Biological applications of ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the possibilities for biological research using the three ultraviolet free-electron lasers that are nearing operational status in the US. The projected operating characteristics of major interest in biological research of the free-electron lasers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Duke University are presented. Experimental applications in the areas of far- and vacuum ultraviolet photophysics and photochemistry, structural biology, environmental photobiology, and medical research are discussed and the prospects for advances in these areas, based upon the characteristics of the new ultraviolet free-electron lasers, are evaluated.

  3. Study on All-Solid-State Chloride Sensor Based on Tin Oxide/Indium Tin Oxide Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jui-Fu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Sun, Tai-Ping; Hsiung, Shen-Kan; Kao, Hui-Ling

    2011-03-01

    An all-solid-state chloride electrode based on a tin oxide (SnO2)/indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was developed in this study. The sensing membrane of the electrode was prepared by mixing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), [4,5-dimethy-l-3,6-bis(dodecyloxy)-1,2-phenylene] bis(mercury chloride) (ETH9033), and tridodecylmethyl ammonium chloride (TDDMACl). The mixed solution was mixed with tetrahydrofuran (THF), and then dropped on the sensing window of SnO2/ITO glass. According to the experimental results, the optimal weight ratio were PVC:DOS:ETH9033:TDDMACl=33:66:2:5. At this optimum weight ratio, the sensitivity was 54 mV/dec while the range of linear concentrations of NaCl solutions was between 10-4 and 1 M. The lower detection limit of the sensor reached 8×10-5 M and the response time was less than 1 s. The selectivity coefficient was consistent with the theory of Hofmeister lipophilicity. The lifetime was over 60 days and the repeatability was over 50 times. Moreover, the chloride ion sensor was successfully applied to detecting chloride ions in rinsing solutions for contact lenses, and the experimental results revealed that the correlation coefficient was 0.99.

  4. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-11-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It's a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm2 and 94.9 F/cm3 at 0.5 mA/cm2. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm2 and 26.4 mWh/cm3 are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  5. Preparation of high strain porous polyvinyl alcohol/polyaniline composite and its applications in all-solid-state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruofei; Zheng, Junping

    2017-10-01

    Impacted by the rapid development of the wearable and portable devices, the demands for excellent flexibility and high specific capacitance have highlighted an urgent need for developing flexible energy storage devices. In this paper, we prepare a porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyaniline (PANI) composite with perfect mechanical performance (strain deformations of 696%). Due to its three-dimensional (3D) porous structure, deformation of the PANI can be avoided when the composite is bent or stretched. The electrochemical performance of the porous PVA/PANI composite can be maintained so that it holds promise for stretchable energy storage devices. As a proof of concept, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated by using the porous PVA/PANI composite and exhibits a high areal capacitance of 300.9 mF cm-2 and long-life stability of 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. In particular, the supercapacitor can also withstand repeated bending and stretching with minimal effect on the electrochemical performance when no current collector is employed. The research presents a design approach of high strain porous composite and shows great promise for the development of stretchable energy storage devices.

  6. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  7. High-performance all-solid state asymmetric supercapacitor based on Co3O4 nanowires and carbon aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Li, Xin; Zhu, Menghua; He, Xiong

    2015-05-01

    An all-solid state asymmetric supercapacitor has been fabricated using carbon aerogel (CA) microspheres as the negative electrode and Co3O4 nanowires on nickel foam (Co3O4-NF) as the positive electrode separated by PVA-KOH membrane as the electrolyte. For the desirable porous structure, high specific capacitance and rate capability of CA and Co3O4-NF, broader potential window of the two electrodes, no binder and conductive agent added, the asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in a wide potential window of 0-1.5 V with an energy density of 17.9 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 750 W kg-1. The energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor is significantly improved in comparison with those of the symmetric supercapacitors based on CA (6.28 Wh kg-1) and Co3O4-NF (2.42 Wh kg-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor can also deliver a high energy density of 10.44 Wh kg-1, even at a high power density of 7.5 kW kg-1. In addition, the asymmetric device shows good stability with approximately 85% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles.

  8. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  9. Development and characterization of an all-solid-state potentiometric biosensor array microfluidic device for multiple ion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Weng, Chen-Hsun; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2006-10-01

    A microfluidic device with an all-solid-state potentiometric biosensor array was developed using microfabrication technology. The sensor array included a pH indicator, and potassium and calcium ion-selective microelectrodes. The pH indicator was an iridium oxide thin film modified platinum microelectrode and the iridium oxide was deposited by an electrochemical method. The potassium and calcium ion-selective microelectrodes were platinum coated with silicon rubber based ion-selective membranes with respectively potassium (valinomycin) and calcium (ETH 1001) ionophores. The detection system was integrated with a micro-pneumatic pump which can continuously drive fluids into the microchannel through sensors at flow rates ranging from 52.4 microl min(-1) to 7.67 microl min(-1). The sensor array microfluidic device showed near-Nernstian responses with slopes of 62.62 mV +/- 2.5 mV pH(-1), 53.76 mV +/- 3 mV -log[K+](-1) and 25.77 mV +/- 2 mV -log[Ca2+](-1) at 25 degrees C +/- 5 degrees C, and a linear response within the pH range of 2-10, with potassium and calcium concentrations between 0.1 M and 10(-6) M. In this study the device provided a convenient way to measure the concentration of hydrogen, potassium and calcium ions, which are important physiological parameters.

  10. In situ and nonvolatile photoluminescence tuning and nanodomain writing demonstrated by all-solid-state devices based on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Aono, Masakazu

    2015-02-24

    In situ and nonvolatile tuning of photoluminescence (PL) has been achieved based on graphene oxide (GO), the PL of which is receiving much attention because of various potential applications of the oxide (e.g., display, lighting, and nano-biosensor). The technique is based on in situ and nonvolatile tuning of the sp(2) domain fraction to the sp(3) domain fraction (sp(2)/sp(3) fraction) in GO through an electrochemical redox reaction achieved by solid electrolyte thin films. The all-solid-state variable PL device was fabricated by GO and proton-conducting mesoporous SiO2 thin films, which showed an extremely low PL background. The device successfully tuned the PL peak wavelength in a very wide range from 393 to 712 nm, covering that for chemically tuned GO, by adjusting the applied DC voltage within several hundred seconds. We also demonstrate the sp(2)/sp(3) fraction tuning using a conductive atomic force microscope. The device achieved not only writing, but also erasing of the sp(2)/sp(3)-fraction-tuned nanodomain (both directions operation). The combination of these techniques is applicable to a wide range of nano-optoelectronic devices including nonvolatile PL memory devices and on-demand rewritable biosensors that can be integrated into nano- and microtips which are transparent, ultrathin, flexible, and inexpensive.

  11. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: all-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaole; Schelen, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van den Oever, Rein; Leenen, René; van Kuijk, Harry; Peters, Inge; Polderdijk, Frank; Bosiers, Jan; Raspe, Marcel; Jalink, Kees; Geert Sander de Jong, Jan; van Geest, Bert; Stoop, Karel; Young, Ian Ted

    2012-12-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sampling density, sensitivity, linearity of photometric response, and optical transfer function have been studied through experiments. We are able to do lifetime measurement using our modulated, electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (MEM-FLIM) camera for various objects, e.g., fluorescein solution, fixed green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, and GFP-actin stained live cells. A detailed comparison of a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)-based FLIM system and the MEM-FLIM system is presented. The MEM-FLIM camera shows higher resolution and a better image quality. The MEM-FLIM camera provides a new opportunity for performing frequency-domain FLIM.

  12. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-11

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated without any binders, current collectors, or electroactive additives. Because of the porous structure of the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes and the excellent electrolyte absorption properties of the CNFs present in the aerogel electrodes, the resulting flexible supercapacitors exhibited a high specific capacitance (i.e., 252 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1)) and a remarkable cycle stability (i.e., more than 99.5% of the capacitance was retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1)). Furthermore, the supercapacitors also showed extremely high areal capacitance, areal power density, and energy density (i.e., 216 mF cm(-2), 9.5 mW cm(-2), and 28.4 μWh cm(-2), respectively). In light of its excellent electrical performance, low cost, ease of large-scale manufacturing, and environmental friendliness, the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes may have a promising application in the development of flexible energy-storage devices.

  13. High performance all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor based on porous carbon made from a metal-organic framework compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Wang, Teng; Wen, Zubiao; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of porous carbon material with high specific surface area by using metal-organic framework (MOF) as precursor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have confirmed that the material was amorphous and consisted of nanoparticles (5-6 nm) and hierarchical distribution of pores. The characterization of the material by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurement have shown that the material had a high specific surface area reaching to 2618.7 m2 g-1 and abundant porosity with pore size less than 10 nm. The investigation of the electrochemical properties of the material has shown the porous carbon electrode possessed excellent rate performance with high specific capacitances of 150.8 F g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1, and 133.6 F g-1 at a current density of 50 A g-1, respectively. An all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor assembled using the as-prepared porous carbon as electrodes and Na2SO4/PVA gel as an electrolyte delivered a high power density of 13 516.4 W kg-1 with an energy density of 8.26 Wh kg-1. A high energy density of 17.37 Wh kg-1 was obtained at discharge current density of 1 A g-1. In addition, the device exhibited superior cycling performance with 94.8% retention rate after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1.

  14. A Facile Methodology for the Development of a Printable and Flexible All-Solid-State Rechargeable Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bibekananda; Yadav, Amit; Khan, Salman; Kar, Kamal K

    2017-06-14

    Development of printable and flexible energy storage devices is one of the most promising technologies for wearable electronics in textile industry. The present work involves the design of a printable and flexible all-solid-state rechargeable battery for wearable electronics in textile applications. Copper-coated carbon fiber is used to make a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based polymer nanocomposite for a flexible and conductive current collector layer. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are utilized to prepare the cathode and anode layers, respectively, with PEO and carbon black composites. The PEO- and Li salt-based solid composite separator layer is utilized for the solid-state and safe electrolyte. Fabrication of all these layers and assembly of them through coating on fabrics are performed in the open atmosphere without using any complex processing, as PEO prevents the degradation of the materials in the open atmosphere. The performance of the battery is evaluated through charge-discharge and open-circuit voltage analyses. The battery shows an open-circuit voltage of ∼2.67 V and discharge time ∼2000 s. It shows similar performance at different repeated bending angles (0° to 180°) and continuous bending along with long cycle life. The application of the battery is also investigated for printable and wearable textile applications. Therefore, this printable, flexible, easily processable, and nontoxic battery with this performance has great potential to be used in portable and wearable textile electronics.

  15. Compact and efficient ultraviolet laser for astrobiology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system will be a...

  16. An All-Solid-State, Room-Temperature, Heterodyne Receiver for Atmospheric Spectroscopy at 1.2 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Jose V.; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Gulkis, Samuel; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Thomas, Bertrand; Maestrini, Alain E.

    2013-01-01

    Heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths have played a major role in astrophysics as well as Earth and planetary remote sensing. All-solid-state heterodyne receivers using both MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) Schottky-diode-based LO (local oscillator) sources and mixers are uniquely suited for long-term planetary missions or Earth climate monitoring missions as they can operate for decades without the need for any active cryogenic cooling. However, the main concern in using Schottky-diode-based mixers at frequencies beyond 1 THz has been the lack of enough LO power to drive the devices because 1 to 3 mW are required to properly pump Schottky diode mixers. Recent progress in HEMT- (high-electron-mobility- transistor) based power amplifier technology, with output power levels in excess of 1 W recently demonstrated at W-band, as well as advances in MMIC Schottky diode circuit technology, have led to measured output powers up to 1.4 mW at 0.9 THz. Here the first room-temperature tunable, all-planar, Schottky-diode-based receiver is reported that is operating at 1.2 THz over a wide (˜20%) bandwidth. The receiver front-end (see figure) consists of a Schottky-diode-based 540 to 640 GHz multiplied LO chain (featuring a cascade of W-band power amplifiers providing around 120 to 180 mW at W-band), a 200-GHz MMIC frequency doubler, and a 600-GHz MMIC frequency tripler, plus a biasable 1.2-THz MMIC sub-harmonic Schottky-diode mixer. The LO chain has been designed, fabricated, and tested at JPL and provides around 1 to 1.5 mW at 540 o 640 GHz. The sub-harmonic mixer consists of two Schottky diodes on a thin GaAs membrane in an anti-parallel configuration. An integrated metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor has been included on-chip to allow dc bias for the Schottky diodes. A bias voltage of around 0.5 V/diode is necessary to reduce the LO power required down to the 1 to 1.5 mW available from the LO chain. The epilayer thickness and doping profiles have

  17. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  18. Pulsed, all solid-state light source in the visible spectral region based on non-linear cavity dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Andersen, Martin; Johansson, Sandra

    We propose a novel generic approach for generation of pulsed light in the visible spectrum, based on SFG between the high circulating intra-cavity power of a high finesse CW laser and a single-passed pulsed laser....

  19. Pulsed, all solid-state light source in the visible spectral region based on non-linear cavity dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Andersen, Martin; Johansson, Sandra

    We propose a novel generic approach for generation of pulsed light in the visible spectrum, based on SFG between the high circulating intra-cavity power of a high finesse CW laser and a single-passed pulsed laser.......We propose a novel generic approach for generation of pulsed light in the visible spectrum, based on SFG between the high circulating intra-cavity power of a high finesse CW laser and a single-passed pulsed laser....

  20. Patterning of lithium lanthanum titanium oxide films by soft lithography as electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.; Gobel, O.F.; Ham, van den E.J.; Elshof, ten J.E.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of sol–gel processing and soft-lithographic patterning presents a promising route towards three-dimensional (3D) micro Li-ion electrodes, and may offer a viable approach for the fabrication of all-solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries. The methods are relatively simple and therefore cheap

  1. A magnetic field-directed self-assembly solid contact for construction of an all-solid-state polymeric membrane Ca(2+)-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tanji; Jiang, Xiaojing; Qin, Wei

    2017-10-09

    A magnetic field-directed self-assembly solid contact has been proposed for developing an all-solid-state polymeric membrane Ca(2+)-selective electrode. The solid contact is prepared by physically adsorbing magnetic graphene powder on a magnetic gold electrode under the direction of the magnetic field. The proposed method for preparing solid contact avoids using the aqueous solutions and is simple, fast and general as compared to the multilayer drop-casting and electrodeposition methods. The all-solid-state Ca(2+)-selective electrode based on magnetic graphene as solid contact shows a stable potential response in the linear range of 1.0 × 10(-6)-1.0 × 10(-3) M with a slope of 28.2 mV/decade, and the detection limit is about 4.0 × 10(-7) M. Additionally, the magnetic graphene-based electrode shows a comparable potential stability performance to other graphene-based all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes, such as reduced undesirable water layer and insensitive to the interferences of O2, CO2 and light. This work provides a favorable way to prepare solid contact for use in the field of all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resonance ionization spectroscopy using ultraviolet laser

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J M; Ko, D K; Park, H M; Rhee, Y J

    2002-01-01

    In this study, Ti:sapphire laser which is pumped by the enhanced Nd:YAG laser using laser diode, was designed and manufactured. The AO Q-switched CW Nd:YAG laser was converted into a high repetition plus-type laser using the AO Q-switch, and two heads were installed inside the cavity in order to improve the laser beam quality. The Nd:YAG laser enhancement was completed by optimization using a simulation for the cavity length, structure and thermal lens effect that greatly effected the laser beam output and quality. As the result of the enhancement, a 30W laser at 532nm and at 5k-Hz was successfully made. Also, the Ti:sapphire laser that will be used for atomic spectroscopy which is pumped by the Nd:YAG laser, was completely designed. As a basic experiment for laser oscillation. We measured the tunability of the laser, and it turned out that the wave tunability range was 730 850 nm. A self-seeding type tunable laser using grating for narrow line width, is planned to be designed due to the fact that the Ti:sapp...

  3. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  4. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Cells using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAO SHOJI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li+-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZAl, which is a Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ with Li+-ion conductivity of ~10–4 S cm–1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 um depth holes in 700 x 700 um2 area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO2 / LLZAl / lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO2-LLZAl interface is formed by point to point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, the application of mechanically soft Li3BO3 with a low melting point at around 700 °C was also performed as a supporting

  5. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-01-09

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  6. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  7. Toward ambient temperature operation with all-solid-state lithium metal batteries with a sp3 boron-based solid single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei; Rohan, Rupesh; Pan, Meize; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xupo; Li, Cuicui; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    The ionic conductivity decay problem of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) when increase the lithium salt of the SPEs up to high concentration is here functionally overcome by the incorporation of a charge delocalized sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with poly(ethylene oxide) to fabricate solid-state sp3 boron based SIPE membranes (S-BSMs). By characterizations, particularly differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and ionic conductivity studies, the fabricated S-BSMs showed decreased melting points and increased ionic conductivity as steadily increase the content of sp3 boron based SIPE, which significantly improved the low temperature performance of the all-solid-state lithium batteries. The fabricated Li | S-BSMs | LiFePO4 cells exhibit highly electrochemical stability and excellent cycling at temperature below melting point of PEO, which has never been reported so far for SIPEs based all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  8. Investigating the all-solid-state batteries based on lithium garnets and a high potential cathode - LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Christian; Afyon, Semih; Rupp, Jennifer L M

    2016-11-03

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on lithium garnets give new prospects for safer battery operations avoiding liquids, and could enable the integration of high energy density electrode materials. Herein, we critically investigate the structural and chemical stability of the high voltage cathode material, LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, based on the solid lithium garnet electrolyte LLZO (c-Li6.4Ga0.2La3Zr2O12) for all-solid Li-ion batteries. We manufacture battery cells based on nano-grained synthesized LLZO and composite cathodes (LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4/LLZO/C) fabricated via direct slurry casting of the cathode material and additives on sintered LLZO pellets against metallic Li anodes. The galvanostatic tests of such all-solid-state batteries up to 4.9 V at 95 °C reveal the incompatibility of the solid electrolyte and the cathode material under given conditions. Post-mortem analyses of the all-solid-state batteries demonstrate the formation of new inactive phases at the LLZO/LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 interfacial region through an irreversible reaction starting at ∼3.8 V during charging. The discovered limited chemical stability under the investigated conditions raises the question if LLZO could be a promising solid-electrolyte for future all-solid-state Li-ion batteries especially at higher operation potentials and demanding operation conditions.

  9. NiCo2O4@TiN Core-shell Electrodes through Conformal Atomic Layer Deposition for All-solid-state Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ruiqi

    2016-03-04

    Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo2O4 show great promise as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo2O4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo2O4@TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo2O4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm−3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm−3. To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo2O4-based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo2O4@TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2. These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes for sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.

  10. All-solid-state electrochemical capacitors using MnO2 electrode/SiO2-Nafion electrolyte composite prepared by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kazushi; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Electrode-electrolyte composites of MnO2 active material, acetylene black (AB), and SiO2-Nafion solid electrolyte were prepared using the sol-gel process to form good solid-solid interfaces. The composites were obtained by the addition of MnO2 and AB into a sol of hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane with Nafion, and successive solidification of the precursor sol. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements show that good solid-solid interface is formed between electrodes and solid electrolytes in the composites. All-solid-state hybrid capacitors were fabricated using the composites or the hand-grinding mixture of MnO2, AB and SiO2-Nafion powder as positive electrodes, activated carbon powder as a negative electrode, and phosphosilicate gel as a solid electrolyte. The all-solid-state hybrid capacitors using the composites exhibit larger capacitances and better rate performance than the capacitors using the electrode prepared by hand-mixing of powders. Specific discharge capacitances of the capacitor with the composite are 85 F g-1 for the one with the composite electrode and 48 F g-1 for the one with the hand-mixed electrode, at 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, the all-solid-state capacitors using the composite electrode can be operated at temperatures between -30 °C and 60 °C.

  11. Room-Temperature All-solid-state Rechargeable Sodium-ion Batteries with a Cl-doped Na3PS4 Superionic Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Kompella, Christopher S; Nguyen, Han; Zhu, Zhuoying; Hy, Sunny; Deng, Zhi; Meng, Ying Shirley; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-09-20

    All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage applications. The key enabler for an all-solid-state architecture is a sodium solid electrolyte that exhibits high Na(+) conductivity at ambient temperatures, as well as excellent phase and electrochemical stability. In this work, we present a first-principles-guided discovery and synthesis of a novel Cl-doped tetragonal Na3PS4 (t-Na3-xPS4-xClx) solid electrolyte with a room-temperature Na(+) conductivity exceeding 1 mS cm(-1). We demonstrate that an all-solid-state TiS2/t-Na3-xPS4-xClx/Na cell utilizing this solid electrolyte can be cycled at room-temperature at a rate of C/10 with a capacity of about 80 mAh g(-1) over 10 cycles. We provide evidence from density functional theory calculations that this excellent electrochemical performance is not only due to the high Na(+) conductivity of the solid electrolyte, but also due to the effect that "salting" Na3PS4 has on the formation of an electronically insulating, ionically conducting solid electrolyte interphase.

  12. An all-solid-state polymeric membrane Pb²⁺-selective electrode with bimodal pore C₆₀ as solid contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghui; Yin, Tanji; Qin, Wei

    2015-05-30

    An all-solid-state polymeric membrane Pb(2+) ion-selective electrode (Pb(2+)-ISE) based on bimodal pore C60 (BP-C60) as solid contact has been developed. A BP-C60 film can be readily formed on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by electrochemical deposition. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the BP-C60 film. The large double layer capacitance and fast charge-transfer capability make BP-C60 favorable to be used as solid contact for developing all-solid-state ISEs. The all-solid-state BP-C60-based Pb(2+)-ISE shows a Nernstian response in the range from 1.0×10(-9) to 1.0×10(-3)M with a detection limit of 5.0×10(-10)M. The membrane electrode not only displays an excellent potential stability with the absence of a water layer between the ion-selective membrane and the underlying BP-C60 solid contact, but also is insensitive to interferences from O2, CO2 and light. The proposed solid-contact Pb(2+)-ISE has been applied to determine Pb(2+) in real water samples and the results agree well with those obtained by anodic stripping voltammetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Electrochemical Delithiation Induced Structure Evolution of LiCoO2 Cathode in a Working All-Solid-State Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yue; Zhang, Jienan; Jiang, Liwei; Shi, Jin-An; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Zhenzhong; Zou, Dongli; Wang, Jiangyong; Yu, Xiqian; Xiao, Ruijuan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2017-03-29

    We report a method for in situ atomic-scale observation of electrochemical delithiation in a working all-solid-state battery using a state-of-the-art chip based in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) holder and focused ion beam milling to prepare an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery sample. A battery consisting of LiCoO2 cathode, LLZO solid state electrolyte and gold anode was constructed, delithiated and observed in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope at atomic scale. We found that the pristine single crystal LiCoO2 became nanosized polycrystal connected by coherent twin boundaries and antiphase domain boundaries after high voltage delithiation. This is different from liquid electrolyte batteries, where a series of phase transitions take place at LiCoO2 cathode during delithiation. Both grain boundaries become more energy favorable along with extraction of lithium ions through theoretical calculation. We also proposed a lithium migration pathway before and after polycrystallization. This new methodology could stimulate atomic scale in situ scanning/TEM studies of battery materials and provide important mechanistic insight for designing better all-solid-state battery.

  14. Narrow-Bandwidth Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu; FANG Zhan-Jun; ZANG Er-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A compact, tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented. A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064 nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10 kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity. Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290mW. In a first frequency-doubling stage, about 47 mW of green light at 532nm is generated by using a periodical// poled KTP crystal. Subsequent second-harwonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30μW of ultraviolet light at 266nm.%A compact,tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented.A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity.Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290 mW.In a first frequency-doubling stage,about 47mW of green light at 532nm is generated by using a periodically poled KTP crystal.Subsequent second-harmonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30 μ W of ultraviolet light at 266nm.Hg is,so far,the heaviest nonradioactive atom that has been laser-cooled and trapped.Systematic evaluation of various sources of uncertainty for the Hg-based optical lattice clock is obtained and an accuracy of better than 10-1s is attainable,which is an order of magnitude of improvement over Sr or Yb based clocks because of the reduced susceptibility to the blackbody radiation field,which sets a major limitation on the accuracy of atomic clocks.[1] The 1S0-3p0 transition at 265.6 nm will be exploited as a clock transition.

  15. Classifying the Basic Parameters of Ultraviolet Copper Bromide Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Iliev, I. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Sabotinov, N. V.

    2009-10-01

    The performance of deep ultraviolet copper bromide lasers is of great importance because of their applications in medicine, microbiology, high-precision processing of new materials, high-resolution laser lithography in microelectronics, high-density optical recording of information, laser-induced fluorescence in plasma and wide-gap semiconductors and more. In this paper we present a statistical study on the classification of 12 basic lasing parameters, by using different agglomerative methods of cluster analysis. The results are based on a big amount of experimental data for UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr laser with wavelengths 248.6 nm, 252.9 nm, 260.0 nm and 270.3 nm, obtained in Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The relevant influence of parameters on laser generation is also evaluated. The results are applicable in computer modeling and planning the experiments and further laser development with improved output characteristics.

  16. Analysis of Ultraviolet and Visible Laser Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Schriempf, J.T., Cronburg, T.L., Eninger , J.E., and Woodroffe, J.A., "Pulsed CO 2 Laser Interaction with a Metal Surface at Oblique Incidence," Appl...Woodroffe, J.A., "Modelling of Momentum Transfer to a Surface by Laser Supported Absorption Waves ," AIAA J. 17, 1098 (1979). 8. Pirri, A.N., Root...the two extremes, the relative magnitude of the photo- ionization and electron impact ionization rates de- termined whether a plasma is present. 2

  17. Epitaxial growth and lithium ion conductivity of lithium-oxide garnet for an all solid-state battery electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangryun; Hirayama, Masaaki; Taminato, Sou; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-09-28

    Epitaxial thin films of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with a cubic garnet-type structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the lithium ion conduction in grains. Two orientations of the films were obtained depending on the Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) substrate orientation, LLZO(001)/GGG(001) and LLZO(111)/GGG(111). The ionic conductivities in the grains of the (001) and (111) films were 2.5 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 298 K, respectively, which were lower than those of polycrystalline LLZO of over 10(-4) S cm(-1). X-ray reflectometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed a large amount of Al(3+) of over 0.6 moles substituted for Li(+). These results indicate that the Al(3+) substitution in the LLZO lattice decreases the number of movable lithium ions and blocks the three-dimensional lithium migration pathway. The lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate induced the lattice distortion of the LLZO, resulting in different conductivities between the (001) and (111) films. The epitaxial-film model system directly clarified a substantial impact of the Al substitution and the lattice distortion on the lithium ion conductivity in the LLZO.

  18. Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Ki-Beom; Moehl, Thomas; Marchioro, Arianna; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Yum, Jun-Ho; Moser, Jacques E.; Grätzel, Michael; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells. PMID:22912919

  19. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hui-Seon

    2012-08-21

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI(2) and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO(2) film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (J(SC)) exceeding 17 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V(OC)) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO(2) film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) -sensitized liquid junction cells.

  20. Ultraviolet laser ablation of polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Braren, B.; Dreyfus, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed laser radiation at 193, 248, or 308 nm can etch films of polyimide (DuPont KaptonTM). The mechanism of this process has been examined by the chemical analysis of the condensible products, by laser-induced fluorescence analysis of the diatomic products, and by the measurement of the etch depth per pulse over a range of fluences of the laser pulse. The most important product as well as the only one condensible at room temperature is carbon. Laser-induced fluorescence analysis showed that C2 and CN were present in the ablation plume. At 248 nm, even well below the fluence threshold of 0.08 J/cm2 for significant ablation, these diatomic species are readily detected and are measured to leave the polymer surface with translational energy of ˜5 eV. These results, when combined with the photoacoustic studies of Dyer and Srinivasan [Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 445 (1986)], show that a simple photochemical mechanism in which one photon or less (on average) is absorbed per monomer is inadequate. The ablation process must involve many photons per monomer unit to account for the production of predominantly small (<4 atoms) products and the ejection of these fragments at supersonic velocities.

  1. Facile template-free synthesis of vertically aligned polypyrrole nanosheets on nickel foams for flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangwen; Lin, Zhixing; Zheng, Jingxu; Huang, Yingjuan; Chen, Bin; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg-1 were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window.This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg-1 were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ESI

  2. Ultraviolet laser patterning of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Fidel, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu [Departament d' Òptica i Optometria, UPC, Violinista Vellsolà 37, 08222 Terrasa (Spain); Peláez, Ramón J.; Kuhn, Timo; Afonso, Carmen N. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Martín-Palma, Raúl J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    This work reports on the fabrication of 1D fringed patterns on nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) layers (563, 372, and 290 nm thick). The patterns are fabricated by phase-mask laser interference using single pulses of an UV excimer laser (193 nm, 20 ns pulse duration). The method is a single-step and flexible approach to produce a large variety of patterns formed by alternate regions of almost untransformed nanoPS and regions where its surface has melted and transformed into Si nanoparticles (NPs). The role of laser fluence (5–80 mJ cm{sup −2}), and pattern period (6.3–16 μm) on pattern features and surface structuring are discussed. The results show that the diameter of Si NPs increases with fluence up to a saturation value of 75 nm for a fluence ≈40 mJ cm{sup −2}. In addition, the percentage of transformed to non-transformed region normalized to the pattern period follows similar fluence dependence regardless the period and thus becomes an excellent control parameter. This dependence is fitted within a thermal model that allows for predicting the in-depth profile of the pattern. The model assumes that transformation occurs whenever the laser-induced temperature increase reaches the melting temperature of nanoPS that has been found to be 0.7 of that of crystalline silicon for a porosity of around 79%. The role of thermal gradients across the pattern is discussed in the light of the experimental results and the calculated temperature profiles, and shows that the contribution of lateral thermal flow to melting is not significant for pattern periods ≥6.3 μm.

  3. Ultrasensitive Self-Powered Solar-Blind Deep-Ultraviolet Photodetector Based on All-Solid-State Polyaniline/MgZnO Bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyu; Yu, Pingping; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Teng, Feng; Zheng, Lingxia; Hu, Kai; Fang, Xiaosheng

    2016-09-05

    A high sensitivity self-powered solar-blind photodetector is successfully constructed based on the polyaniline/MgZnO bilayer. The maximum responsivity of the photodetector is 160 μA W(-1) at 250 nm under 0 V bias. The device also exhibits a high on/off ratio of ≈10(4) under 250 nm illumination at a relatively weak light intensity of 130 μW cm(-2) without any power.

  4. Polishing Sapphire Substrates by 355 nm Ultraviolet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate a novel polishing technology with high efficiency and nice surface quality for sapphire crystal that has high hardness, wear resistance, and chemical stability. A Q-switched 355 nm ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses was set up and used to polish sapphire substrate in different conditions in this paper. Surface roughness Ra of polished sapphire was measured with surface profiler, and the surface topography was observed with scanning electronic microscope. The effects of processing parameters as laser energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed, incident angle, scanning patterns, and initial surface conditions on surface roughness were analyzed.

  5. Deep ultraviolet laser micromachining of novel fibre optic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Dou, J.; Herman, P. R.; Fricke-Begemann, T.; Ihlemann, J.; Marowsky, G.

    2007-04-01

    A deep ultraviolet F2 laser, with output at 157-nm wavelength, has been adopted for micro-shaping the end facets of single and multi-mode silica optical fibres. The high energy 7.9-eV photons drive strong interactions in the wide-bandgap silica fibres to enable the fabrication of surface-relief microstructures with high spatial resolution and smooth surface morphology. Diffraction gratings, focusing lenses, and Mach-Zehnder interferometric structures have been micromachined onto the cleaved-fibre facets and optically characterized. F2-laser micromachining is shown to be a rapid and facile means for direct-writing of novel infibre photonic components.

  6. Nitrogen-doped graphene by all-solid-state ball-milling graphite with urea as a high-power lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Xingang; Tan, Jiang; Wang, Qingfu; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Chuhong

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (NGNS) are prepared by a novel mechanochemical method via all-solid-state ball-milling graphite with urea. The ball-milling process does not only successfully exfoliate the graphite into multi-layer (low cost and good water solubility that can simplify the fabrication process. The as-prepared NGNS are investigated in detail by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, TGA, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The doping nitrogens are around 3.15% and dominated (>94%) by pyrindic-N and pyrrolic-N which facilitates the NGNS with enhanced electronic conductivity and Li-ion storage capability. For the first time, we demonstrate that the all-solid-state prepared NGNS exhibits, especially at high currents, enhanced cycling stability and rate capability as Lithium ion battery (LIB) anode active material when compared to pristine graphite and undoped graphene in half-cell configuration. The method presented in this article may provide a simple, clean, economical and scalable strategy for preparation of NGNS as a feasible and promising anode material for LIBs.

  7. All-solid-state electrochromic device integrated with near-IR blocking layer for image sensor and energy-saving glass application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Hao; Chen, Yung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) integrated with near-IR (NIR) blocking layer fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique has been developed for image sensor and energy-saving glass applications. The all-solid-state ECD with the single-substrate structure of glass/NIR-blocking transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/NiO/Ta2O5/WO3/ITO could potentially modulate the optical transmittance between 81.9% and 17.5% at 550 nm in the visible region and between 38.0% and 9.5% at the NIR wavelength larger than 1100 nm. The better energy-saving and light blocking performance, including the larger optical density difference (ΔOD) and lower solar heat-gain coefficient (SHGC) could be achieved in the NIR-blocking ECD structure, even with the general criteria SHGC(bleach)/SHGC(colored) device onto an image sensor and energy-saving glass with the NIR rejection function even in the bleached state. Furthermore, the NIR-blocking TCO with the low sheet resistance and high transparency characteristics also provides the lower power consumption in the switching cycle at voltages as low as 5 V, and makes ECDs the ideal components for applications of large area and battery powered devices.

  8. Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-04-15

    Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. Facile fabrication of all-solid-state flexible interdigitated MnO2 supercapacitor via in-situ catalytic solution route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiao; Zeng, Zhigang; Guo, Erjuan; Shi, Xiaobo; Zhou, Haijun; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of wearable and portable electronics, the demand for all-solid-state flexible energy storage devices with high performance, long-term cycling stability and bending stability has been aroused. Physical and chemical method for preparing thin-film materials has enabled planar flexible supercapacitors (SCs) to be fabricated for a variety of applications. In this work, we report on the facile fabrication of an all-solid-state flexible interdigitated supercapacitor with a convenient and efficient two-step method. 3-D nanostructured α-MnO2 has been prepared on the surface of interdigitated Pt metal pattern on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate as high-performance electrode material via in-situ catalytic solution route without any assistance of template or surfactant. The SCs are fabricated with PVA/H3PO4 as solid-state electrolyte, which exhibited good electrochemical performance with areal capacitance as much as 20 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1, relatively high energy density (3.6 × 10-7 Wh cm-2-1.9 × 10-6 Wh cm-2) and power density (9 × 10-5 W cm-2-1.6 × 10-4 W cm-2), and excellent long-term cycling stability with capacitance retention of 82.2% (10,000 times charge and discharge), and bending stability with capacitance retention of 89.6%.

  10. Characterization of Sputter-Deposited LiCoO2 Thin Film Grown on NASICON-type Electrolyte for Application in All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Soo; Oh, Yoong; Kang, Ki Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Joosun; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2017-05-17

    All-solid-state Li-rechargeable batteries using a 500 nm-thick LiCoO2 (LCO) film deposited on two NASICON-type solid electrolyte substrates, LICGC (OHARA Inc.) and Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), are constructed. The postdeposition annealing temperature prior to the cell assembly is critical to produce a stable sharp LCO/electrolyte interface and to develop a strong crystallographic texture in the LCO film, conducive to migration of Li ions. Although the cells deliver a limited discharge capacity, the cells cycled stably for 50 cycles. The analysis of the LCO/electrolyte interfaces after cycling demonstrates that the sharp interface, once formed by proper thermal annealing, will remain stable without any evidence for contamination and with minimal intermixing of the constituent elements during cycling. Hence, although ionic conductivity of the NASICON-type solid electrolyte is lower than that of the sulfide electrolytes, the NACSICON-type electrolytes will maintain a stable interface in contact with a LCO cathode, which should be beneficial to improving the capacity retention as well as the rate capability of the all-solid state cell.

  11. Ultraviolet Laser-induced ignition of RDX single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhonghua; Zhang, Chuanchao; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Ming; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Guorui; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Zongwei; Li, Zhijie; Li, Li; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-02-01

    The RDX single crystals are ignited by ultraviolet laser (355 nm, 6.4 ns) pulses. The laser-induced damage morphology consisted of two distinct regions: a core region of layered fracture and a peripheral region of stripped material surrounding the core. As laser fluence increases, the area of the whole crack region increases all the way, while both the area and depth of the core region increase firstly, and then stay stable over the laser fluence of 12 J/cm2. The experimental details indicate the dynamics during laser ignition process. Plasma fireball of high temperature and pressure occurs firstly, followed by the micro-explosions on the (210) surface, and finally shock waves propagate through the materials to further strip materials outside and yield in-depth cracks in larger surrounding region. The plasma fireball evolves from isotropic to anisotropic under higher laser fluence resulting in the damage expansion only in lateral direction while maintaining the fixed depth. The primary insights into the interaction dynamics between laser and energetic materials can help developing the superior laser ignition technique.

  12. Palomar Ultraviolet Laser for the Study of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Dekany, R.; van Dam, M.; Burruss, R.

    2013-09-01

    PULSE is a new concept to augment the currently operating 5.1-m Hale PALM-3000 exoplanet adaptive optics system with an ultraviolet Rayleigh laser and associated wavefront sensor. By using an ultraviolet laser to measure the high spatial and temporal order turbulence near the telescope aperture, where it dominates, one can extend the faintness limit of natural guide stars needed by PALM-3000. Initial simulations indicate that very-high infrared contrast ratios and good visible-light adaptive optics performance will be achieved by such an upgraded system on stars as faint as mV = 16-17 using an optimized low-order NGS sensor. This will enable direct imaging searches for, and subsequent characterization of, companions around cool, low-mass stars for the first time, as well as routine visible-light imaging twice as sharp as HST for fainter targets. PULSE will reuse the laser and wavefront sensor technology developed for the automated Robo-AO laser system currently operating at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, as well as take advantage of pending optimization of low-order NGS wavefront sensing and planned new interfaces to the PALM-3000 real-time reconstruction computer. A copy of the Robo-AO laser will be installed in the prime focus cage of the 5.1-m, and a new ultraviolet high-order wavefront sensor, fed by an ultraviolet dichroic, will be installed in the space above the PALM-3000 optical bench near the calibration sources. The laser measurements will drive the 3,388 active element high-order deformable mirror in open-loop, while an adaptive optics sharpened faint natural source will be measured by the current PALM-3000 wavefront sensor in its lowest spatial sampling mode, with commands sent in closed-loop to the 241 active element low-order deformable mirror. The natural guide star loop corrects for both the relatively weak low-order high-altitude turbulence as well as functioning as both the tip-tilt and low-bandwidth `truth' sensor loops in a traditional laser

  13. PULSE: Palomar Ultraviolet Laser for the Study of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; van Dam, Marcos; Burruss, Rick

    2013-01-01

    PULSE is a new concept to augment the currently operating 5.1-m Hale PALM-3000 exoplanet adaptive optics system with an ultraviolet Rayleigh laser and associated wavefront sensor. By using an ultraviolet laser to measure the high spatial and temporal order turbulence near the telescope aperture, where it dominates, one can extend the faintness limit of natural guide stars needed by PALM-3000. Initial simulations indicate that very-high infrared contrast ratios and good visible-light adaptive optics performance will be achieved by such an upgraded system on stars as faint as mV = 16-17 using an optimized low-order NGS sensor. This will enable direct imaging searches for, and subsequent characterization of, companions around cool, low-mass stars for the first time, as well as routine visible-light imaging twice as sharp as HST for fainter targets. PULSE will reuse the laser and wavefront sensor technologies developed for the automated Robo-AO laser system currently operating at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, as...

  14. Analysis of fabric materials cut using ultraviolet laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Andrew Yeh, J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser ablation technology has widely been applied in the clothing industry in recent years. However, the laser mechanism would affect the quality of fabric contours and its components. Hence, this study examined carbonization and oxidation conditions and contour variation in nonwoven, cotton, and composite leather fabrics cut by using an ultraviolet laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. Processing parameters such as laser power, pulse frequency, scanning speed, and number of pulses per spot were adjusted to investigate component variation of the materials and to determine suitable cutting parameters for the fabrics. The experimental results showed that the weights of the component changed substantially by pulse frequency but slightly by laser power, so pulse frequency of 100 kHz and laser power of 14 W were the approximate parameters for three fabrics for the smaller carbonization and a sufficient energy for rapidly cutting, which the pulse duration of laser system was fixed at 300 μs and laser irradiance was 0.98 J/mm2 simultaneously. In addition, the etiolate phenomenon of nonwoven was reduced, and the component weight of cotton and composite leather was closed to the value of knife-cut fabric as the scanning speed increased. The approximate scanning speed for nonwoven and composite leather was 200 mm/s, and one for cotton was 150 mm/s, respectively. The sharper and firmer edge is obtained by laser ablation mechanism in comparison with traditional knife cutting. Experimental results can serve as the reference for laser cutting in the clothing industry, for rapidly providing smoother patterns with lower carbonization and oxidation edge in the fashion industry.

  15. Laser-diode pumped Nd:GdVO4 ultraviolet laser with LBO frequency tripling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; FAN Xiu-wei; PENG Qian-qian; LIU Jie; HE Jing-liang

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a laser-diode pumped Nd:GdVO4 extra-cavity frequency tripling ultraviolet laser with a LBO crystal in this paper.Under the acousto-optic (A-O) Q-switched operation,we have obtained 355 nm ultraviolet laser,with pulse width of 25 ns and pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz.By using a type Ⅰ non-critical phase-matched LBO crystal,the SHG output power of 822 mW is achieved at the incident pump power of 16 W. The output power of 355nm UV laser is 260mW with a type Ⅱ phase-matched LBO crystal,and the conversion efficiency (1 064 nm-355 nm ) is 5.9 %.The power stability of 355 nm laser is 1.7% in 1 h.

  16. Solid-state laser source of narrowband ultraviolet B light for skin disease care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong

    2013-03-01

    We report about the development of all-solid-state laser source of narrowband UV-B light for medical applications. The device is based on a gain-switched Ti: Sapphire laser with volume Bragg grating, pumped at 532 nm and operating at 931.8 nm, followed by a third harmonic generator and a fiber optic beam homogenizer. The maximum available pulse energy exceeded 5 mJ at 310.6 nm, with a pulse repetition rates of 50 Hz. The output characteristics satisfy the medical requirements for psoriasis and vitiligo treatment. A new optical scheme for third harmonic generation enhancement at moderate levels of input intensities is proposed and investigated. As a result, 40% harmonic efficiency was obtained, when input pulse power was only 300 kW.

  17. In Situ Tuning of Magnetization and Magnetoresistance in Fe3O4 Thin Film Achieved with All-Solid-State Redox Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Terabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Masanori; Higuchi, Tohru; Osada, Minoru; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Shigenori; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-01-26

    An all-solid-state redox device composed of Fe3O4 thin film and Li(+) ion conducting solid electrolyte was fabricated for use in tuning magnetization and magnetoresistance (MR), which are key factors in the creation of high-density magnetic storage devices. Electrical conductivity, magnetization, and MR were reversibly tuned by Li(+) insertion and removal. Tuning of the various Fe3O4 thin film properties was achieved by donation of an electron to the Fe(3+) ions. This technique should lead to the development of spintronics devices based on the reversible switching of magnetization and spin polarization (P). It should also improve the performance of conventional magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices in which the ON/OFF ratio has been limited to a small value due to a decrease in P near the tunnel barrier.

  18. Facile fabrication of all-solid-state SnO2/NiCo2O4 biosensor for self-powered glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Mao, Weiwei; Ye, Zhizhen; Huang, Jingyun

    2016-09-01

    With increasing attention on daily diabetes management, we develop an all-solid-state self-powered glucose biosensor, with simultaneous solar energy conversion, electrochemical energy storage and glucose sensing. The SnO2 nanosheet arrays are used to obtain photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and rhombus-shaped NiCo2O4 nanorod arrays are developed for solar energy storage. A stable open circuit voltage ~0.58 V is obtained after being fully charged, which is a suitable voltage for the oxidation of glucose. The biosensor can work under two different modes without any external bias voltage, and both show large linear range and excellent selectivity. Under the sunlight, photocurrent shows a sensitive decrease upon different glucose additions. Meanwhile, in the dark condition, the open circuit voltage of the charged biosensor also exhibits a corresponding response to glucose.

  19. Effect of Poly(Ether Urethane)Introduction on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-Fang; XIANG Wan-Chun; FANG Shi-Bi; CHEN Shen; ZHOU Xiao-Wen; ZHANG Jing-Bo; LIN Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of poly(ether urethane)(PEUR)into polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide),LiI and I_2,has significantly increased the ionic conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitudes.An increment of I_3~- diffusion coefficient is also observed.All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are constructed using the polymer electrolytes.It was found that PEUR incorporation has a beneficial effect on the enhancement of open circuit voltage V_(OC) by shifting the band edge of TiO_2 to a negative value.Scanning electron microscope images indicate the perfect interfacial contact between the TiO_2 electrode and the blend electrolyte.

  20. Bendable and thin sulfide solid electrolyte film: a new electrolyte opportunity for free-standing and stackable high-energy all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Cho, Sung-Ju; Oh, Dae Yang; Lim, Jun-Muk; Kim, Sung Youb; Song, Jun Ho; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Sang-Young; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-05-13

    Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium batteries (ASLBs) are considered a promising candidate to outperform the conventional lithium-ion batteries. Unfortunately, the current technology level of ASLBs is in a stage of infancy in terms of cell-based (not electrode-material-based) energy densities and scalable fabrication. Here, we report on the first ever bendable and thin sulfide solid electrolyte films reinforced with a mechanically compliant poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide) nonwoven (NW) scaffold, which enables the fabrication of free-standing and stackable ASLBs with high energy density and high rate capabilities. The ASLB, using a thin (∼70 μm) NW-reinforced SE film, exhibits a 3-fold increase of the cell-energy-density compared to that of a conventional cell without the NW scaffold.

  1. 1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Brooks, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate (1), a novel, pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal (POIPC) with a wide plastic crystalline phase, has been explored as a proof-of-principle anhydrous proton conductor for all-solid-state high temperature hydrogen/air fuel cells. Its physicochemical...... weakening of hydrogen bonds at 82 C seems to be coupled with the onset of orientational or rotational disorder of the ions. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity in the solid and molten states is measured via impedance spectroscopy and current interruption technique, respectively. The Arrhenius......), plastic crystalline (phase II and I) and melt phases successively from 173 C to 200 C. Differential scanning calorimetry and temperature dependent powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements together with polarized optical microscopy and thermomechanical analysis reveal the two solid–solid phase...

  2. Controllable light filters using an all-solid-state switchable mirror with a Mg-Ir thin film for preterm infant incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Kazuki; Shimoike, Mika; Li, Heng; Inagaki, Masumi; Izumi, Hitomi; Akiyama, Misaki; Matsushima, Yukiko; Ohta, Hidenobu

    2013-04-01

    We have fabricated a controllable light filter using an all-solid-state switchable mirror incorporating a Mg-Ir thin film for use in preterm infant incubators. The solid-state switchable mirror device was fabricated by depositing a multilayer on a glass substrate. The mixed hydride of MgH2 and Mg6Ir2H11 created from the Mg-Ir thin film is red in the transparent state. The optical switching speeds between the reflective and transparent red states depended on applied voltage. The device showed three states, namely, reflective, black, and transparent red, due to the properties of the switchable mirror material. These results suggest that the material could be used as a controllable light filter for preterm infant incubators, since it eliminates the light wavelength that disturbs regular sleep-wake cycles of preterm infants.

  3. Semi-interpenetrating solid polymer electrolyte based on thiol-ene cross-linker for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jungdon; Lee, Yu Hwa; Kim, Do Youb; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Song Yun; Kim, Ji Man; Kang, Yongku

    2016-12-01

    We developed highly promising solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on a novel cross-linker containing star-shaped phosphazene with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) branches with very high ionic conductivity (7.6 × 10-4 S cm-1), improved mechanical stability, and good electrochemical stability for all-solid-state lithium batteries. In particular, allyl groups were introduced at the ends of the cross-linker in order to overcome the easy self-polymerization of existing cross-linking acrylate end groups. A novel semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) SPE was prepared by in-situ radical polymerization of a precursor solution containing lithium salt, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether as a plasticizer, and a mixture of pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) and a synthesized hexakis(allyloxy)cyclotriphosphazene (thiol-ene PAL) as the cross-linker. Batteries employing LiFePO4 as the cathode, lithium foil as the anode, and the SPE thin film as the electrolyte were assembled and tested. At ambient temperature, the initial discharge capacity was 147 mAh/g at 0.1 °C and 132 mAh/g at 0.5 °C, and 97% of the capacity was retained at the 100th cycle. All-solid-state pouch-package lithium cells assembled with the SPEs exhibited stable electrochemical performance, even under a severely wrinkled state. These outstanding properties of SPEs based on thiol-ene PAL demonstrate feasibility for practical battery applications with improved reliability and safety.

  4. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Pan, Zilong

    2017-03-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in a number of fields. Defense and industrial applications stimulated intense interests in the area of pulsed power technology towards the system with high power, high repetition rate, solid state characteristics, and compact structure. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on a fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network is proposed in this paper. This generator consists of a charging system, a step-up system, and a modulating system. In this generator, the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer is the key component since it acts as a step-up transformer and a main switch during the working process. Demonstrative experiments show that if the primary storage capacitors are charged to 400 V, a quasi-square pulse with amplitude of about 29 kV can be achieved on a 3500 Ω resistive load, as well as the pulse duration (full width at half maximum) of about 1.3 μs. Preliminary repetition rate experiments are also carried out, which indicate that this pulse generator could work stably with the repetition rates of 30 Hz and 50 Hz. It can be concluded that this kind of all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator can not only lower both the operating voltage of the primary windings and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings, thus ideally realizing the magnetic switch function of the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer, but also achieve a quasi-square pulse with high quality and fixed flat top after the modulation of a two-section anti-resonance network. This generator can be applied in areas of large power microwave sources, sterilization, disinfection, and wastewater treatment.

  5. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Pan, Zilong

    2017-03-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in a number of fields. Defense and industrial applications stimulated intense interests in the area of pulsed power technology towards the system with high power, high repetition rate, solid state characteristics, and compact structure. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on a fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network is proposed in this paper. This generator consists of a charging system, a step-up system, and a modulating system. In this generator, the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer is the key component since it acts as a step-up transformer and a main switch during the working process. Demonstrative experiments show that if the primary storage capacitors are charged to 400 V, a quasi-square pulse with amplitude of about 29 kV can be achieved on a 3500 Ω resistive load, as well as the pulse duration (full width at half maximum) of about 1.3 μs. Preliminary repetition rate experiments are also carried out, which indicate that this pulse generator could work stably with the repetition rates of 30 Hz and 50 Hz. It can be concluded that this kind of all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator can not only lower both the operating voltage of the primary windings and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings, thus ideally realizing the magnetic switch function of the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer, but also achieve a quasi-square pulse with high quality and fixed flat top after the modulation of a two-section anti-resonance network. This generator can be applied in areas of large power microwave sources, sterilization, disinfection, and wastewater treatment.

  6. High-Performance All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery Enabled by a Mixed-Conductive Li2S Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fudong; Yue, Jie; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Luo, Chao; Ma, Zhaohui; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-07-13

    All-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (ASSLSBs) using highly conductive sulfide-based solid electrolytes suffer from low sulfur utilization, poor cycle life, and low rate performance due to the huge volume change of the electrode and the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of S and Li2S. The most promising approach to mitigate these challenges lies in the fabrication of a sulfur nanocomposite electrode consisting of a homogeneous distribution of nanosized active material, solid electrolyte, and carbon. Here, we reported a novel bottom-up method to synthesize such a nanocomposite by dissolving Li2S as the active material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the carbon precursor, and Li6PS5Cl as the solid electrolyte in ethanol, followed by a coprecipitation and high-temperature carbonization process. Li2S active material and Li6PS5Cl solid electrolyte with a particle size of ∼4 nm were uniformly confined in a nanoscale carbon matrix. The homogeneous nanocomposite electrode consisting of different nanoparticles with distinct properties of lithium storage capability, mechanical reinforcement, and ionic and electronic conductivities enabled a mechanical robust and mixed conductive (ionic and electronic conductive) sulfur electrode for ASSLSB. A large reversible capacity of 830 mAh/g (71% utilization of Li2S) at 50 mA/g for 60 cycles with a high rate performance was achieved at room temperature even at a high loading of Li2S (∼3.6 mg/cm(2)). This work provides a new strategy to design a mechanically robust, mixed conductive nanocomposite electrode for high-performance all-solid-state lithium sulfur batteries.

  7. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Toshiyuki; Miranda, Martin; Inoue, Ryotaro; Kozuma, Mikio

    2015-07-01

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

  8. Extreme-Ultraviolet Vortices from a Free-Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Rebernik Ribič

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extreme-ultraviolet vortices may be exploited to steer the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, increase the resolution in microscopy, and gain insight into local symmetry and chirality of a material; they might even be used to increase the bandwidth in long-distance space communications. However, in contrast to the generation of vortex beams in the infrared and visible spectral regions, production of intense, extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray optical vortices still remains a challenge. Here, we present an in-situ and an ex-situ technique for generating intense, femtosecond, coherent optical vortices at a free-electron laser in the extreme ultraviolet. The first method takes advantage of nonlinear harmonic generation in a helical undulator, producing vortex beams at the second harmonic without the need for additional optical elements, while the latter one relies on the use of a spiral zone plate to generate a focused, micron-size optical vortex with a peak intensity approaching 10^{14}  W/cm^{2}, paving the way to nonlinear optical experiments with vortex beams at short wavelengths.

  9. Deep ultraviolet laser micromachining of novel fibre optic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Dou, J [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Herman, P R [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Fricke-Begemann, T [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Ihlemann, J [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Marowsky, G [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A deep ultraviolet F{sub 2} laser, with output at 157-nm wavelength, has been adopted for micro-shaping the end facets of single and multi-mode silica optical fibres. The high energy 7.9-eV photons drive strong interactions in the wide-bandgap silica fibres to enable the fabrication of surface-relief microstructures with high spatial resolution and smooth surface morphology. Diffraction gratings, focusing lenses, and Mach-Zehnder interferometric structures have been micromachined onto the cleaved-fibre facets and optically characterized. F{sub 2}-laser micromachining is shown to be a rapid and facile means for direct-writing of novel infibre photonic components.

  10. Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. [ed.

    1993-02-01

    This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

  11. Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. (ed.)

    1993-02-01

    This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

  12. Development of Lithium Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Inada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion battery (LiB is expected as one of the next generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based one, they have other advantages such as their chemical stability and easiness for handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium stuffed garnet-type oxide with the formula of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ have been widely studied because of their high conductivity above 10-4 Scm-1 at room temperature, excellent thermal performance and stability against Li metal anode.Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type solid electrolytes with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta5+ into Zr4+ site and Ba2+ into La3+ site in LLZ. Li+ concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formulae of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li6.5La3-xBaxZr1.5-xTa0.5+xO12 (LLBZT and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As results, all LLBZT samples have cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba2+ contents x < 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba2+ and Ta5+ substitution levels. Relative densities of LLBZT are in the range between 89% and 93% and not influenced so much by the compositions. From AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain conductivity at 27ºC of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 x 10-4 S cm-1 at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 x 10-4 S cm-1 of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0. Activation energy of the conductivity tends to become lower by Ba substation, while excess Ba substitution degrades the conductivity in LLBZT. LLBZT has wide electrochemical potential window of 0-6 V vs. Li+/Li and

  13. An electronic tongue using potentiometric all-solid-state PVC-membrane sensors for the simultaneous quantification of ammonium and potassium ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, J; Alegret, S; Muñoz, R; De-Román, M; Leija, L; Hernández, P R; del Valle, M

    2003-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of NH(4)(+) and K(+) in solution has been attempted using a potentiometric sensor array and multivariate calibration. The sensors used are rather non-specific and of all-solid-state type, employing polymeric (PVC) membranes. The subsequent data processing is based on the use of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). This approach is given the name "electronic tongue" because it mimics the sense of taste in animals. The sensors incorporate, as recognition elements, neutral carriers belonging to the family of the ionophoric antibiotics. In this work the ANN type is optimized by studying its topology, the training algorithm, and the transfer functions. Also, different pretreatments of the starting data are evaluated. The chosen ANN is formed by 8 input neurons, 20 neurons in the hidden layer and 2 neurons in the output layer. The transfer function selected for the hidden layer was sigmoidal and linear for the output layer. It is also recommended to scale the starting data before training. A correct fit for the test data set is obtained when it is trained with the Bayesian regularization algorithm. The viability for the determination of ammonium and potassium ions in synthetic samples was evaluated; cumulative prediction errors of approximately 1% (relative values) were obtained. These results were comparable with those obtained with a generalized regression ANN as a reference algorithm. In a final application, results close to the expected values were obtained for the two considered ions, with concentrations between 0 and 40 mmol L(-1).

  14. All-solid-state supercapacitors with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-coated carbon fiber paper electrodes and ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Rastogi, A. C.; Westgate, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    All-solid-state thin supercapacitors have been fabricated using current pulse polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) over carbon fiber paper and ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte. The PEDOT-coated carbon paper electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which confirm the porous morphology of PEDOT at the nanoscale and a high degree of ClO4- dopant ion conjugation. The performance characteristics of the supercapacitor cells have been evaluated by ac impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The PEDOT electrode shows specific capacitance of ∼154.5 F g-1, which correspond to the cell area-normalized capacitance of 85 mF cm-2. The maximum specific energy and specific power of the solid-state supercapacitor cell, calculated from charge-discharge characteristics, are 6.5 Wh kg-1 and 11.3 kW kg-1, respectively. The solid-state supercapacitor shows good cycle durability and time stability. The thin, lightweight, gel electrolyte based supercapacitor shows considerable potential for low-cost, high-performance energy storage applications.

  15. Enhanced cycling stability of NiCo2S4@NiO core-shell nanowire arrays for all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Tielin; Jiang, Shulan; Cheng, Siyi; Tao, Xiangxu; Zhong, Yan; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong

    2016-12-07

    As a new class of pseudocapacitive material, metal sulfides possess high electrochemical performance. However, their cycling performance as conventional electrodes is rather poor for practical applications. In this article, we report an original composite electrode based on NiCo2S4@NiO core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) with enhanced cycling stability. This three-dimensional electrode also has a high specific capacitance of 12.2 F cm(-2) at the current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and excellent cycling stability (about 89% retention after 10,000 cycles). Moreover, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device has been assembled with NiCo2S4@NiO NWAs as the positive electrode and active carbon (AC) as the negative electrode, delivering a high energy density of 30.38 W h kg(-1) at 0.288 KW kg(-1) and good cycling stability (about 109% retention after 5000 cycles). The results show that NiCo2S4@NiO NWAs are promising for high-performance supercapacitors with stable cycling based on the unique core-shell structure and well-designed combinations.

  16. Characteristics of rapid-thermal-annealed LiCoO2 cathode film for an all-solid-state thin film microbattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Ki; Yoon, Young Soo

    2004-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of a LiCoO2 film for an all-solid-state thin film microbattery by using a rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) process. The LiCoO2 films were grown by rf magnetron sputtering using a synthesized LiCoO2 target in a [O2/(Ar+O2)] ratio of 10%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis results showed that the surface layer on the as-deposited LiCoO2 film was completely removed by rapid thermal annealing process in oxygen ambient for 20 min. In addition, the thin film microbattery fabricated with the annealed LiCoO2 film shows fairly stable cyclability with a specific discharge capacity of 56.49 μAh/cm2 μm. These results show the possibility of the RTA LiCoO2 film and rapid thermal annealing process being a promising cathode material and annealing process for thin film microbatteries, respectively. .

  17. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  18. On the impedance and phase transition of thin film all-solid-state batteries based on the Li4Ti5O12 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichtel, Patrick; Geiß, Matthias; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Sann, Joachim; Weber, Dominik A.; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Model-type thin film all-solid-state batteries (ASSB) of the type Li/;LiPON;/Li4Ti5O12 are characterized by impedance spectroscopy as function of the state of charge. Both the contact of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to the substrate and current collector as well as the Li ion transport through the LTO thin film prove to be important factors for the rate limitation of the cell. The ionic charge transfer resistance between Li4Ti5O12 and ;LiPON; is proven to not be a rate limiting factor. The impedance measurements are interpreted in terms of the mechanism of phase change in the Li4Ti5O12 thin film and the data indicate a solid solution mechanism of phase change. The resulting data are compared to recent results for the Li/;LiPON;/LiCoO2 system, and several key similarities and differences are highlighted mostly involving the solid electrolyte/Li interface and the degradation thereof. The results are meant to improve the understanding of interfaces in ASSB in general rather than to advance high performance batteries.

  19. Disposable all-solid-state pH and glucose sensors based on conductive polymer covered hierarchical AuZn oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Cho, Seong Je; Cho, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Bok; Kim, Min-Yeong; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2016-05-15

    Poly(terthiophene benzoic acid) (pTBA) layered-AuZn alloy oxide (AuZnOx) deposited on the screen printed carbon electrode (pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE) was prepared to create a disposable all-solid-state pH sensor at first. Further, FAD-glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE to fabricate a glucose sensor. The characterizations of the sensor probe reveal that AuZnOx forms a homogeneous hierarchical structure, and that the polymerized pTBA layer on the alloy oxide surface captures GOx covalently. The benzoic acid group of pTBA coated on the probe layer synergetically improved the pH response of the alloy oxide and provide chemical binding sites to enzyme, which resulted in a Nernstian behavior (59.2 ± 0.5 mV/pH) in the pH range of 2-13. The experimental parameters affecting the glucose analysis were studied in terms of pH, temperature, humidity, and interferences. The sensor exhibited a fast response time <1s and a dynamic range between 30 and 500 mg/dL glucose with a detection limit of 17.23 ± 0.32 mg/dL. The reliabilities of the disposable pH and glucose sensors were examined for biological samples.

  20. High-energy-density, all-solid-state microsupercapacitors with three-dimensional interdigital electrodes of carbon/polymer electrolyte composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tianyi; Li, Siwei; Liu, Jinghe; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Novel all-solid-state microsupercapacitors (MSCs) with three-dimensional (3D) electrodes consisting of active materials (i.e., graphene or activated carbon (AC) particles) and polymer electrolyte (PE) designed for high-energy-density storage applications were fabricated and tested in this work. The incorporation of PE in the electrode material enhances the accessibility of electrolyte ions to the surface of active materials and decreases the ion diffusion path during electrochemical charge/discharge. For a scan rate of 5 mV s-1, the MSCs with graphene/PE and AC/PE composite electrodes demonstrate a very high areal capacitance of 95 and 134 mF cm-2, respectively, comparable to that of 3D MSCs with liquid electrolyte. In addition, the graphene/PE MSCs show a ˜70% increase in specific capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles, attributed to an electro-activation process resulting from ion intercalation between the graphene nanosheets. The AC/PE MSCs also demonstrate excellent stability. The results of this study illustrate the potential of the present 3D MSCs for various high-density solid-state energy storage applications.

  1. A new solid polymer electrolyte incorporating Li10GeP2S12 into a polyethylene oxide matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanran; Wu, Chuan; Peng, Gang; Chen, Xiaotian; Yao, Xiayin; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Chen, Shaojie; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) is incorporated into polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix to fabricate composite solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes. The lithium ion conductivities of as-prepared composite membranes are evaluated, and the optimal composite membrane exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.21 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 80 °C and an electrochemical window of 0-5.7 V. The phase transition behaviors for electrolytes are characterized by DSC, and the possible reasons for their enhanced ionic conductivities are discussed. The LGPS microparticles, acting as active fillers incorporation into the PEO matrix, have a positive effect on the ionic conductivity, lithium ion transference number and electrochemical stabilities. In addition, two kinds of all-solid-state lithium batteries (LiFeO4/SPE/Li and LiCoO2/SPE/Li) are fabricated to demonstrate the good compatibility between this new SPE membrane and different electrodes. And the LiFePO4/Li battery exhibits fascinating electrochemical performance with high capacity retention (92.5% after 50 cycles at 60 °C) and attractive capacities of 158, 148, 138 and 99 mAh g-1 at current rates of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C, respectively. It is demonstrated that this new composite SPE should be a promising electrolyte applied in solid state batteries based on lithium metal electrode.

  2. Enhanced cycling stability of NiCo2S4@NiO core-shell nanowire arrays for all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Tielin; Jiang, Shulan; Cheng, Siyi; Tao, Xiangxu; Zhong, Yan; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong

    2016-12-01

    As a new class of pseudocapacitive material, metal sulfides possess high electrochemical performance. However, their cycling performance as conventional electrodes is rather poor for practical applications. In this article, we report an original composite electrode based on NiCo2S4@NiO core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) with enhanced cycling stability. This three-dimensional electrode also has a high specific capacitance of 12.2 F cm-2 at the current density of 1 mA cm-2 and excellent cycling stability (about 89% retention after 10,000 cycles). Moreover, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device has been assembled with NiCo2S4@NiO NWAs as the positive electrode and active carbon (AC) as the negative electrode, delivering a high energy density of 30.38 W h kg-1 at 0.288 KW kg-1 and good cycling stability (about 109% retention after 5000 cycles). The results show that NiCo2S4@NiO NWAs are promising for high-performance supercapacitors with stable cycling based on the unique core-shell structure and well-designed combinations.

  3. High Energy Density All Solid State Asymmetric Pseudocapacitors Based on Free Standing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Co3O4 Composite Aerogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Lim, Joonwon; Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-31

    Modern flexible consumer electronics require efficient energy storage devices with flexible free-standing electrodes. We report a simple and cost-effective route to a graphene-based composite aerogel encapsulating metal oxide nanoparticles for high energy density, free-standing, binder-free flexible pseudocapacitive electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully housed inside the microporous graphene aerogel network during the room temperature interfacial gelation at the Zn surface. The resultant three-dimensional (3D) rGO-Co3O4 composite aerogel shows mesoporous quasiparallel layer stack morphology with a high loading of Co3O4, which offers numerous channels for ion transport and a 3D interconnected network for high electrical conductivity. All solid state asymmetric pseudocapacitors employing the composite aerogel electrodes have demonstrated high areal energy density of 35.92 μWh/cm(2) and power density of 17.79 mW/cm(2) accompanied by excellent cycle life.

  4. Coatable Li4 SnS4 Solid Electrolytes Prepared from Aqueous Solutions for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Eun; Park, Kern Ho; Kim, Dong Hyeon; Oh, Dae Yang; Kwak, Hi Ram; Lee, Young-Gi; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2017-06-22

    Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) for large-scale energy-storage applications have emerged as a promising alternative to conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior safety. However, the electrochemical performance of bulk-type ASLBs is critically limited by the low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes (SEs) and poor ionic contact between the active materials and SEs. Herein, highly conductive (0.14 mS cm(-1) ) and dry-air-stable SEs (Li4 SnS4 ) are reported, which are prepared using a scalable aqueous-solution process. An active material (LiCoO2 ) coated by solidified Li4 SnS4 from aqueous solutions results in a significant improvement in the electrochemical performance of ASLBs. Side-effects of the exposure of LiCoO2 to aqueous solutions are minimized by using predissolved Li4 SnS4 solution. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Comparative Study of PVC-Free All-Solid-State, PVC Membrane, and Carbon Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes for the Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azza; Khamees, Nesrin; Mohamed, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah; Derar, Abeer Rashad

    2016-11-01

    The potentiometric response characteristics and analytical applications of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-free all-solid-state ion-selective electrode for dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) are examined. The Nernstian response of the electrode was evaluated by comparison with PVC-based liquid membrane and carbon paste electrodes. The PVC-free electrode is prepared by direct incorporation of dapoxetine-tetraphenyl borate (DAP-TPB) as a sensing element into a commercial nail varnish containing cellulose acetate propionate. The composite was applied onto a 3 mm diameter graphite disk electrode. The electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope of 56.0 mV/decade in the concentration range of 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-2 mol/L with an LOD of 2 × 10-5 mol/L. The electrode is independent of pH in the range of 2 to 6 and showed good selectivity for DAP with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and amino acids. Comparable Nernstian slope, sensitivity, pH range, and selectivity pattern were obtained with a PVC membrane and a carbon paste incorporating DAP-TPB as a sensing element and dioctylphthalate as a solvent mediator. The electrodes were used for the determination of DAP in pure solution and in tablets without extraction with high accuracy and precision (RSD ≤ 2%). The nail varnish solid-state electrode is simple, economical, and rapid when compared with PVC membrane and carbon paste electrodes.

  6. Wet-Chemical Synthesis of 3D Stacked Thin Film Metal-Oxides for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ham, Evert Jonathan; Maino, Giulia; Bonneux, Gilles; Marchal, Wouter; Elen, Ken; Gielis, Sven; Detavernier, Christophe; Notten, Peter H. L.; Van Bael, Marlies K.; Hardy, An

    2017-01-01

    By ultrasonic spray deposition of precursors, conformal deposition on 3D surfaces of tungsten oxide (WO3) negative electrode and amorphous lithium lanthanum titanium oxide (LLT) solid-electrolyte has been achieved as well as an all-solid-state half-cell. Electrochemical activity was achieved of the WO3 layers, annealed at temperatures of 500 °C. Galvanostatic measurements show a volumetric capacity (415 mAh·cm−3) of the deposited electrode material. In addition, electrochemical activity was shown for half-cells, created by coating WO3 with LLT as the solid-state electrolyte. The electron blocking properties of the LLT solid-electrolyte was shown by ferrocene reduction. 3D depositions were done on various micro-sized Si template structures, showing fully covering coatings of both WO3 and LLT. Finally, the thermal budget required for WO3 layer deposition was minimized, which enabled attaining active WO3 on 3D TiN/Si micro-cylinders. A 2.6-fold capacity increase for the 3D-structured WO3 was shown, with the same current density per coated area. PMID:28895931

  7. Ablation of Submicrometer Holes Using an Extreme-Ultraviolet Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossall, Andrew K.; Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg J.; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Rocca, Jorge J.; Menoni, Carmen S.

    2015-06-01

    Simulations and experiments are used to study extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) laser drilling of submicrometer holes. The ablation process is studied with a 2D Eulerian hydrodynamic code that includes bound-free absorption processes relevant to the interaction of EUV lasers with a solid material. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured ablated depths for on-target irradiances of up to 1×10 10 W cm-2 . An increase in the irradiance to 1×10 12 W cm-2 is predicted to ablate material to a depth of 3.8 μ m from a single pulse with a hole diameter 3 to 4 times larger than the focal spot size. The model allows for the simulation of the interaction of a laser pulse with the crater created by a previous shot. Multiple-pulse lower-fluence irradiation configurations under optimized focusing conditions, i.e., approaching the diffraction limit, are shown to be advantageous for applications requiring mesoscale [(100 nm )- (1 μ m ) ] features and a high level of control over the ablation profile.

  8. Subpicosecond vacuum ultraviolet laser system for advanced materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Taniguchi, Yuta; Hosotani, Akira; Katto, Masahito; Yokotani, Atsushi; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Mima, Kunioki

    2007-02-01

    We have been developing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources and novel applications using such short wavelength emission sources. High quality amorphous Si thin films were successfully produced at room temperature as a result of photo-dissociation of SiH 4 gas by using an Ar II* excimer lamp irradiation at 126 nm. To enhance such novel VUV processing applications, a compact VUV amplifier at 126 nm was developed by use of the optical-field-ionization (OFI) electrons. The gain-length product around 5 was obtained as a result of the optical feedback by using a VUV mirror. This amplifier was operated in a table-top size with a high repetition rate up to several kHz, which should be appropriate for any process applications. We also describe the schematic concept of the ultrashort pulse high-intensity VUV laser system at 126 nm with a pulse width of 100 fs.

  9. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun

    2014-11-01

    A compact multifunctional optical correlator system for pulse width measurement of ultrashort ultraviolet (UV) pulses has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Both autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions are measured using a single nonlinear crystal, and the switching between two measurements requires no adjustment of phase matching and detector. The system can measure UV pulse widths from sub-picoseconds to 100 ps, and it involves no auxiliary pulse in the measurement. The measurement results on a burst-mode picosecond UV laser show a high-quality performance on speed, accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range. The proposed correlator can be applied to measure any ultrashort UV pulses produced through sum-frequency generation or second-harmonic generation.

  10. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  11. An electronic tongue using potentiometric all-solid-state PVC-membrane sensors for the simultaneous quantification of ammonium and potassium ions in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J.; Alegret, S.; del Valle, M. [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Munoz, R.; De-Roman, M.; Leija, L.; Hernandez, P.R. [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2003-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and K{sup +} in solution has been attempted using a potentiometric sensor array and multivariate calibration. The sensors used are rather non-specific and of all-solid-state type, employing polymeric (PVC) membranes. The subsequent data processing is based on the use of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). This approach is given the name ''electronic tongue'' because it mimics the sense of taste in animals. The sensors incorporate, as recognition elements, neutral carriers belonging to the family of the ionophoric antibiotics. In this work the ANN type is optimized by studying its topology, the training algorithm, and the transfer functions. Also, different pretreatments of the starting data are evaluated. The chosen ANN is formed by 8 input neurons, 20 neurons in the hidden layer and 2 neurons in the output layer. The transfer function selected for the hidden layer was sigmoidal and linear for the output layer. It is also recommended to scale the starting data before training. A correct fit for the test data set is obtained when it is trained with the Bayesian regularization algorithm. The viability for the determination of ammonium and potassium ions in synthetic samples was evaluated; cumulative prediction errors of approximately 1% (relative values) were obtained. These results were comparable with those obtained with a generalized regression ANN as a reference algorithm. In a final application, results close to the expected values were obtained for the two considered ions, with concentrations between 0 and 40 mmol L{sup -1}. (orig.)

  12. Spectral and spatial structure of extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser plasma-wall interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Stuik, R.; F. Bijkerk,; Shevelko, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation was observed during the interaction of low-temperature laser plasmas and wall materials. Laser plasmas with electron temperature T-e similar to 40 eV were created on massive solid targets (CF2 and Al) by an excimer KrF laser (248 nm/0.5 J/13 ns/1 Hz). The

  13. Electrospun fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure made of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension for all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Junsheng; Su, Shijie; Fang, Xu [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Dazhi, E-mail: d.wang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Shuangchao [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun PANI/MWCNT fibrous electrodes for supercapacitor were prepared. • Microstructure of electrodes is tunable by changing the electrospin parameters. • Fiber-diameter dependence of the electrode performance was observed. • High performance and good stability of electrospun electrodes were obtained. - Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare high performance fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure for all-solid-state electrochemical supercapacitor. Symmetrically sandwiched supercapacitors consisting of flexible electrospun polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) gel electrolyte were assembled. Tunable microstructure of the fibrous electrode was obtained by changing the electrospinning parameters including the collector–needle distance (CND) and the suspension flow rate (SFR). Results show that, higher CND combining with lower SFR can result in a smaller average diameter of the electrospun fibers and hence improve the electrode performance. When the CND changes from 80 to 140 mm, the average fiber diameter will decrease from 2.89 to 1.21 μm, and the specific surface area of the electrode can increase from 57 to 83 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}. The corresponding specific capacitance of the electrospun electrode will therefore increase from 129.5 to 180 F·g{sup −1}, leading to a synchronous improvement of the energy density of the supercapacitor from 18 to 25 Wh·kg{sup −1}. On the other hand, the supercapacitors using fibrous electrodes in this work also show good rate capability and cycling stability. Using the electrode with an average fiber diameter of 1.21 μm, the specific capacitances can maintain 131 F·g{sup −1} at a current density of 4 A·g{sup −1}, which is 73% of the specific capacitance of the same sample at a current density of 0.5 A·g{sup −1}. And the specific capacitance of the electrode can retain 89

  14. Electrodeposited polyethylenedioxythiophene with infiltrated gel electrolyte interface: a close contest of an all-solid-state supercapacitor with its liquid-state counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A. T, Arun; Bhange, Siddheshwar N.; Badiger, Manohar V.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2014-05-01

    We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions. The prototype is made by electro-depositing polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) onto the individual carbon fibers of a porous carbon substrate followed by intercalating the matrix with polyvinyl alcohol-sulphuric acid (PVA-H2SO4) gel electrolyte. The electrodeposited layer of PEDOT maintained a flower-like growth pattern along the threads of each carbon fiber. This morphology and the alignment of PEDOT led to an enhanced surface area and electrical conductivity, and the pores in the system enabled effective intercalation of the polymer-gel electrolyte. Thus, the established electrode-electrolyte interface nearly mimics that of its counterpart based on the liquid electrolyte. Consequently, the solid device attained very low internal resistance (1.1 Ω cm-2) and a high specific capacitance (181 F g-1) for PEDOT at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. Even with a high areal capacitance of 836 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 28 F cm-3, the solid device retained a mass-specific capacitance of 111 F g-1 for PEDOT. This is in close agreement with the value displayed by the corresponding liquid-state system (112 F g-1), which was fabricated by replacing the gel electrolyte with 0.5 M H2SO4. The device also showed excellent charge-discharge stability for 12 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. The performance of the device was consistent even under wide-ranging humidity (30-80%) and temperature (-10 to 80 °C) conditions. Finally, a device fabricated by increasing the electrode area four times was used to light an LED, which validated the scalability of the process.We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions

  15. Temperature measurement using ultraviolet laser absorption of carbon dioxide behind shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B

    2005-11-01

    A diagnostic for microsecond time-resolved temperature measurements behind shock waves, using ultraviolet laser absorption of vibrationally hot carbon dioxide, is demonstrated. Continuous-wave laser radiation at 244 and 266 nm was employed to probe the spectrally smooth CO2 ultraviolet absorption, and an absorbance ratio technique was used to determine temperature. Measurements behind shock waves in both nonreacting and reacting (ignition) systems were made, and comparisons with isentropic and constant-volume calculations are reported.

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet argon excimer laser at 126 nm excited by a high intensity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Masanori; Harano, Shinya; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2010-09-01

    We have observed the optical amplification of the Ar2* excimer at 126 nm pumped by optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) caused by an infrared high-intensity laser. We have evaluated similar small signal gain coefficients of approximately 1.0 cm-1 in two different experiments, where OFI Ar plasmas as gain media were produced in free space filled with Ar and inside an Ar-filled hollow fiber. This indicates that the function of a hollow fiber was to guide the infrared excitation laser and VUV Ar2* emissions, and not to regulate the OFI plasma. Despite the gain coefficient value at 126 nm, the laser oscillation has not been observed. This was limited by the optical quality of available state-of-the-art vacuum ultraviolet optics.

  17. Broadly tunable ultraviolet miniature cerium-doped LiLuF lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Spence, D J; Coutts, D W; Sato, H; Fukuda, T

    2008-02-04

    Ultraviolet (UV) miniature cerium fluoride lasers have been demonstrated using a low cost, frequency-quadrupled microchip Nd:YAG pump laser. The use of miniature laser cavities was shown to significantly improve the laser performance in the low pump power region. We have achieved slope efficiencies up to 70% and pump thresholds as low as 100 nJ. Continuous tuning from 306 nm to 338 nm was achieved using a Brewster angle prism.

  18. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xinbing, E-mail: xbwang@hust.edu.cn; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Peixiang [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue over the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangjun; Li, Xin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Shuting

    2017-05-01

    In the present research work, the ternary indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme nanoheterojunctions, graphitic-C3N4/reduced graphene oxide/anatase TiO2 (g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2) with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance were successfully prepared via a simple liquid-precipitation strategy. The photocatalytic activities of indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the introduction of RGO as an interfacial mediator into direct Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposites can remarkably enhance their photocatalytic activities. The as-obtained indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions, with the optimal loading amount of 10 wt% RGO, exhibited the highest rate towards the photocatalytic degradation of MB under simulated solar light irradiation. The degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the apparent first-order kinetics model. The highest degradation rate constant of 0.0137 min-1 is about 4.7 and 3.2 times greater than those of the pure g-C3N4 (0.0029 min-1) and direct Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 (0.0043 min-1), respectively. An indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge-separation mechanism was proposed based on the photoluminescence spectra and the trapping experiment procedure of the photo-generated active species. It was believed that the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge separation mechanism in g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions could lead to the promoted charge separation and transfer, improved oxygen-reduction capacity of electrons in g-C3N4 and the formation of hydroxyl radicals driven by the holes in TiO2, respectively, thus achieving the highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance. This work might provide new insights and understanding on the graphene as electron mediators to design highly efficient all-solid-state Z-scheme nanoheterojunctions with enhanced visible-light driven photoactivity for various photocatalytic

  20. 1.9-W flash-lamp-pumped solid-state 266-nm ultraviolet laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Xiang; Jianhong Ge; Zhigang Zhao; Sha Wang; Chong Liu; Jun Chen

    2009-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet lasers have various applications in industries and scientific researches.For 266-nrn ultraviolet (UV) laser generation,the good beam quality of 1064-nm laser and the elimination of gray-tracking effect of KTP crystal are two key factors.Using a dynamically stable resonator design,1064-nnl laser with an average power of 52 W is realized with repetition rate of 16 kHz.The measured M2 factor characterizing the beam quality is 1.5.By the elimination of gray-tracking effect of KTP crystal,an 18-W green laser is realized with the M2 factor of 1.6.Using a BBO crystal for tire fourth harmonic generation,a 1.9-W 266-nm UV laser is achieved.

  1. Study on damage of K9 glass under 248nm ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Fang, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    The damage of K9 glass under 248nm ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation was studied. The laser pulse energy was kept within the range of 60mJ to 160mJ, and the repetition rate was adjusted within the range of 1Hz to 40Hz. The damage morphologies of single-pulse and multi-pulse laser irradiation were characterized by optical microscope, and the damage mechanism was discussed. The experimental results indicated that the damage of K9 glass irradiated by 248nm ultraviolet laser mainly followed the thermal-mechanical coupling mechanism and the damage threshold of K9 glass was 2.8J/cm2. The intensity of damage area increased gradually with the increase of the laser pulse number. It was shown that accumulation effect of laser induced damage to K9 glass was obvious.

  2. Preparation and properties of all-solid-state inorganic thin film glass/ITO/WO3/LiNbO3/NiOx/ITO electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhonghou; Diao, Xungang; Dong, Guobo

    2016-01-01

    The all-thin-film inorganic electrochromic device (ECD) with LiNbO3 as the ion conductor layer was prepared. The ECD was fabricated monolithically in a same vacuum chamber layer by layer using DC reactive sputtering for WO3, NiOx and ITO, and radio frequency (RF) sputtering for LiNbO3. The properties and performance of WO3 thin film and the ECD were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectrometry. WO3 thin film has more than 60% optical modulation with porous amorphous structure. The visible transmittance modulation of the ECD is more than 65%, and the response time of coloring and bleaching are 45 s and 25 s, respectively.

  3. Electrochemical and structural evaluation for bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using Li4GeS4-Li3PS4 electrolyte coating on LiCoO2 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Otoyama, Misae; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Ohtomo, Takamasa; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    Bulk-type all-solid-state batteries, which use composite electrodes with a powder mixture of active materials and solid electrolytes, are anticipated for large-scale power sources. However, conventional powder mixing protocols are insufficient to maintain ion-conductive pathways within composite electrodes. Herein, sulfide electrolyte coatings have attracted attention as a promising means to overcome this difficulty. We assessed the effects of sulfide electrolyte coatings for active materials on the electrochemical properties and structural changes in all-solid-state cells. A favorable electrode-electrolyte interface was formed by coating significantly small amounts (ca. 3 wt%) of Li4GeS4-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte (SE) onto LiCoO2 particles via vapor phase process. The all-solid-state cell (In/Li2S-P2S5/SE-coated LiCoO2) was charged and discharged with a larger capacity than that using non-SE-coated LiCoO2 particles, indicating that the SE-coating is effective in forming a favorable ion-conductive pathway to LiCoO2 particles. Improvement of the cell performance after heat treatment was considered to derive not only from the enhancement of ionic conductivity in the SE-coating layer, but also from the reduction of voids in the composite electrode. Less ionic resistance and denser environment are beneficial for the Li-ion supply to the deepest part in the composite electrode, which results in more homogeneous electrochemical reaction in all-solid-state cells.

  4. Structure analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure for amorphous MS3 (M: Ti, Mo) electrodes in all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Takuya; Deguchi, Minako; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Kowada, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Electronic structure changes of sulfurs in amorphous TiS3 and MoS3 for positive electrodes of all-solid-state lithium batteries are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The all-solid-state cell with amorphous TiS3 electrode shows the reversible capacity of about 510 mAh g-1 for 10 cycles with sulfur-redox in amorphous TiS3 during charge-discharge process. On the other hand, the cell with amorphous MoS3 shows the 1st reversible capacity of about 720 mAh g-1. The obtained capacity is based on the redox of both sulfur and molybdenum in amorphous MoS3. The irreversible capacity of about 50 mAh g-1 is observed at the 1st cycle, which is attributed to the irreversible electronic structure change of sulfur during the 1st cycle. The electronic structure of sulfur in amorphous MoS3 after the 10th charge is similar to that after the 1st charge. Therefore, the all-solid-state cell with amorphous MoS3 electrode shows relatively good cyclability after the 1st cycle.

  5. High Capacity, Superior Cyclic Performances in All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on 78Li2S-22P2S5 Glass-Ceramic Electrolytes Prepared via Simple Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Highly Li-ion conductive 78Li2S-22P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolytes were prepared by simple heat treatment of the glass phase obtained via mechanical ball milling. A high ionic conductivity of ∼1.78 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) is achieved at room temperature and is attributed to the formation of a crystalline phase of high lithium-ion conduction. All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on these glass-ceramic electrolytes are assembled by using Li2S nanoparticles or low-cost commercially available FeS2 as active cathode materials and Li-In alloys as anode. A high discharge capacity of 535 mAh g(-1) is achieved after at least 50 cycles for the all-solid-state cells with Li2S as cathode materials, suggesting a rather high capacity retention of 97.4%. Even for the cells using low-cost FeS2 as cathode materials, same high discharge capacity of 560 mAh g(-1) is also achieved after at least 50 cycles. Moreover, the Coulombic efficiency remain at ∼99% for these all-solid-state cells during the charge-discharge cycles.

  6. Synthesis Of Materials With Infrared And Ultraviolet Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, John L.

    1989-05-01

    This paper discusses three divergent examples of synthesis of materials with lasers. The three techniques are: (1) Infrared (CO2) laser synthesis of silane (SiH4) from disilane (Si2H6); (2) Excimer (ArF) laser production of fine silicon powders from methyl-and chlorosubstituted silanes; and, (3) Excimer (KrF) laser production of fine metallic powders by laser ablation. The mechanism for each process is discussed along with some conclusions about the features of the laser radiation that enable each application.

  7. All solid-state solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuchun; Liu, Wei; Ren, Peng

    2016-09-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTAs) were firstly used as photoanode in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite/TiO2 NTAs heterojunction solar cell, where CH3NH3PbI3 functions as both light absorber and hole conductor. The composition, structure and photoelectrochemical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer and electrochemical workstation. The results indicate that the as-prepared CH3NH3PbI3 belongs to the cubic crystal system, and TiO2 NTAs sensitized by 0.3 M CH3NH3I and PbI2 exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with an open-circuit voltage of 0.422 V and a short-circuit current density of 173.4 μA cm-2. The EIS result shows that the extremely large resistance at CH3NH3PbI3/FTO interface contributes to the low current density of the perovskite solar cell.

  8. Evolution of Oxygen Deficiency Center on Fused Silica Surface Irradiated by Ultraviolet Laser and Posttreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bing Lü

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of oxygen deficiency centers (ODCs on a fused silica surface irradiated using a 355 nm ultraviolet (UV laser beam in both vacuum and atmospheric conditions was quantitatively studied using photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When the fusedsilica surface was exposed to the UV laser in vacuum, the laser damage threshold was decreased whereas the concentration of the ODCs was increased. For the fuse silica operated under the high power lasers, creation of ODCs on their surface resulted from the UV laser irradiation, and this is more severe in a high vacuum. The laser fluence and/or laser intensity have significant effects on the increase of the ODCs concentration. The ODCs can be effectively repaired using postoxygen plasma treatment and UV laser irradiation in an excessive oxygen environment. Results also demonstrated that the “gain” and “loss” of oxygen at the silica surface is a reversible and dynamic process.

  9. Passive intrinsic-linewidth narrowing of ultraviolet extended-cavity diode laser by weak optical feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Samutpraphoot, Polnop; Lin, Qian; Gangloff, Dorian; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Raab, Christoph; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Vuletić, Vladan

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method for narrowing the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth of a commercial ultraviolet grating extended-cavity diode laser (TOPTICA DL Pro) using weak optical feedback from a long external cavity. We achieve a suppression in frequency noise spectral density of 20 dB measured at frequencies around 1 MHz, corresponding to the narrowing of the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth from 200 kHz to 2 kHz. The system is suitable for experiments requiring a tunable ultraviolet laser with narrow linewidth and low high-frequency noise, such as precision spectroscopy, optical clocks, and quantum information science experiments.

  10. Numerical simulation of temperature field in K9 glass irradiated by ultraviolet pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Fang, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    The optical component of photoelectric system was easy to be damaged by irradiation of high power pulse laser, so the effect of high power pulse laser irradiation on K9 glass was researched. A thermodynamic model of K9 glass irradiated by ultraviolet pulse laser was established using the finite element software ANSYS. The article analyzed some key problems in simulation process of ultraviolet pulse laser damage of K9 glass based on ANSYS from the finite element models foundation, meshing, loading of pulse laser, setting initial conditions and boundary conditions and setting the thermal physical parameters of material. The finite element method (FEM) model was established and a numerical analysis was performed to calculate temperature field in K9 glass irradiated by ultraviolet pulse laser. The simulation results showed that the temperature of irradiation area exceeded the melting point of K9 glass, while the incident laser energy was low. The thermal damage dominated in the damage mechanism of K9 glass, the melting phenomenon should be much more distinct.

  11. Plasma channel formed by ultraviolet laser pulses at 193 nm in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Ma; Xin Lu; Tingting Xi; Qihuang Gong; Jie Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of picosecond deep ultraviolet laser pulse at wavelength of 193 nm in air is numerically investigated.Long plasma channel can be formed due to the competition between Kerr self-focusing and ionization induced defocusing.The plasma channel with electron density of above 1013/cma can be formed over 70 m by 50-ps,20-mJ laser pulses.The fluctuation of laser intensity and electron density inside ultraviolet(UV)plasma channel is significantly lower than that of infrared pulse.The linear absorption of UV laser by air is considered in the simulation and it is shown that the linear absorption is important for the limit of the length of plasma channel.

  12. Successful treatment of laser induced hypopigmentation with narrowband ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Venkataram; Anitha, B; Hosthota, Abhineetha

    2013-04-01

    Q-switched 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG) laser plays an important role in the treatment of pigmentary skin disorders, including tattoos. Although it has high efficacy and safety, adverse effect like hypopigmentation may occur causing anxiety to patients. We present a case report of Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser induced hypopigmentation which was successfully treated with ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy, with rapid and satisfactory re-pigmentation.

  13. Successful treatment of laser induced hypopigmentation with narrowband ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Q-switched 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser plays an important role in the treatment of pigmentary skin disorders, including tattoos. Although it has high efficacy and safety, adverse effect like hypopigmentation may occur causing anxiety to patients. We present a case report of Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser induced hypopigmentation which was successfully treated with ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy, with rapid and satisfactory re-pigmentation.

  14. Absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer using a stabilized laser and a cryogenic cavity radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniskis, L.; Foukal, P.; Kochling, H.

    1992-01-01

    We carry out the calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer by using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer and intensity-stabilized laser sources. A comparison of the error budgets for the laser-based calibration described here and for a calibration using a type-FEL tungsten spectral-irradiance standard indicates that this technique could provide an improvement of a factor of about three in the uncertainty of the spectrometer calibration, resulting in an absolute accuracy (standard deviation of three) of about 1 percent at 257 nm. The technique described here might significantly improve the accuracy of calibrations on NASA ozone-monitoring and solar ultraviolet-monitoring spectrophotometers when used to complement present procedures that employ lamps and the SURF II synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  15. Deep-ultraviolet frequency metrology with a narrowband titanium:sapphire laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, S.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis resaerch project a narrow band titanium:sapphire laser was built. It provides nanosecond pulses that are subsequently upconverted to the deep ultraviolet frequency range. Absolute frequency calibration is achieved by linking the injection seeding light to a

  16. Unravelling Li-Ion Transport from Picoseconds to Seconds: Bulk versus Interfaces in an Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl-Li2S All-Solid-State Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Klerk, Niek J J; Roslon, Irek; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2016-09-01

    One of the main challenges of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is the restricted power density due to the poor Li-ion transport between the electrodes via the electrolyte. However, to establish what diffusional process is the bottleneck for Li-ion transport requires the ability to distinguish the various processes. The present work investigates the Li-ion diffusion in argyrodite Li6PS5Cl, a promising electrolyte based on its high Li-ion conductivity, using a combination of (7)Li NMR experiments and DFT based molecular dynamics simulations. This allows us to distinguish the local Li-ion mobility from the long-range Li-ion motional process, quantifying both and giving a coherent and consistent picture of the bulk diffusion in Li6PS5Cl. NMR exchange experiments are used to unambiguously characterize Li-ion transport over the solid electrolyte-electrode interface for the electrolyte-electrode combination Li6PS5Cl-Li2S, giving unprecedented and direct quantitative insight into the impact of the interface on Li-ion charge transport in all-solid-state batteries. The limited Li-ion transport over the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S interface, orders of magnitude smaller compared with that in the bulk Li6PS5Cl, appears to be the bottleneck for the performance of the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S battery, quantifying one of the major challenges toward improved performance of all-solid-state batteries.

  17. Comparing Vacuum and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation for Postionization of Laser Desorbed Neutrals from Bacterial Biofilms and Organic Fullerene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspera, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moored, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation from 8 - 24 eV generated at a synchrotron was used to postionize laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotic-treated biofilms and a modified fullerene using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). Results show detection of the parent ion, various fragments, and extracellular material from biofilms using LDPI-MS with both vacuum and extreme ultraviolet photons. Parent ions were observed for both cases, but extreme ultraviolet photons (16-24 eV) induced more fragmentation than vacuum ultraviolet (8-14 eV) photons.

  18. Sub-surface channels in sapphire made by ultraviolet picosecond laser irradiation and selective etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rüdiger; Ojha, Nirdesh; Kunzer, Michael; Schwarz, Ulrich T

    2011-11-21

    We demonstrate the realization of sub-surface channels in sapphire prepared by ultraviolet picosecond laser irradiation and subsequent selective wet etching. By optimizing the pulse energy and the separation between individual laser pulses, an optimization of channel length can be achieved with an aspect ratio as high as 3200. Due to strong variation in channel length, further investigation was done to improve the reproducibility. By multiple irradiations the standard deviation of the channel length could be reduced to 2.2%. The achieved channel length together with the high reproducibility and the use of a commercial picosecond laser system makes the process attractive for industrial application.

  19. Preparation of thick-film LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 electrodes by aerosol deposition and its application to all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Hamanaka, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Tomohiro; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Motoyama, Munekazu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2014-12-01

    We prepared thick and dense-crystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) composite films at room temperature that can work well as cathodes in all-solid-state battery cells. The thick films were fabricated by aerosol deposition using NMC powder (D50 = 10.61 μm) as a source material. Commercially-obtained NMC powder did not form films at all on silicon wafer substrates, and cracking of the substrates was observed. However, a few tens of nanometer coating with amorphous niobium oxide resulted in the deposition of 7 μm-thick crystalline dense composite films. The films were successfully fabricated also on Li+-conductive glass-ceramic sheets with 150 μm in thickness, and all-solid-state batteries were fabricated. The solid-state battery provided a cathode-basis discharge capacity of 152 mAh g-1 (3.0-4.2 V, 0.025 C, 333 K) and repeated charge-discharge cycles for 20 cycles.

  20. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10-6%), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon-acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  1. Visible and ultraviolet light sources based nonlinear interaction of lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jain, Mayank;

    Different light sources can be used for optically stimulated luminescence measurements and usually a halogen lamp in combination with filters or light emitting diodes (LED’s) are used to provide the desired stimulation wavelength. However lasers can provide a much more well-defined beam, very...

  2. Proton Acceleration Drived by High-intensity Ultraviolet Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of energetic protons from a solid thin-foil by the interactions of ultra-short and intense laser pulses is investigated in numerous experiments in the last decade. The energetic proton beams are promising candidates for proton fast ignitor (PFI)

  3. Lifetime Calculations on Collector Optics from Laser Plasma Extreme Ultraviolet Sources with Minimum Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; WANG Xin-Bing

    2011-01-01

    An ion flux and its kinetic energy spectrum are obtained using a self similar spherically symmetric fluid model of expansion of a collisionless plasma into vacuum. According to the ion flux and energy distribution, the collector optical lifetime is estimated by knowledge of the sputtering yield of conventional Mo/Si multilayer coatings for the CO2 and Nd:YAG pulsed-laser produced plasmas based on the minimum mass tin droplet target without debris mitigation. The results show that the longer wavelength of the CO2 laser produced plasma light source is more suitable for extreme ultraviolet lithography than Nd:YAG laser in respect of fast ion debris induced sputtering damage to the collector mirror.%@@ An ion flux and its kinetic energy spectrum are obtained using a self similar spherically symmetric fluid model of expansion of a collisionless plasma into vacuum.According to the ion flux and energy distribution,the collector optical lifetime is estimated by knowledge of the sputtering yield of conventional Mo/Si multilayer coatings for the CO2 and Nd:YAG pulsed-laser produced plasmas based on the minimum mass tin droplet target without debris mitigation.The results show that the longer wavelength of the CO2 laser produced plasma light source is more suitable for extreme ultraviolet lithography than Nd:YAG laser in respect of fast ion debris induced sputtering damage to the collector mirror.

  4. Bombyx mori silk protein films microprocessing with a nanosecond ultraviolet laser and a femtosecond laser workstation: theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, S.; Sionkowska, A.; Zaborowicz, M.; Planecka, A.; Lopez, J.; Dijoux, M.; Louména, C.; Hernandez, M.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Laser microprocessing of several biopolymers from renewable resources is studied. Three proteinic materials were either extracted from the extracellular matrix like Silk Fibroin/Sericin and collagen, or coming from a commercial source like gelatin. All can find future applications in biomedical experimentation, in particular for cell scaffolding. Films of ˜hundred of microns thick were made by aqueous solution drying and laser irradiation. Attention is paid to the properties making them processable with two laser sources: the ultraviolet and nanosecond (ns) KrF (248 nm) excimer and the infrared and femtosecond (fs) Yb:KGW laser. The UV radiation is absorbed in a one-photon resonant process to yield ablation and the surface foaming characteristics of a laser-induced pressure wave. To the contrary, resonant absorption of the IR photons of the fs laser is not possible and does not take place. However, the high field of the intense I>˜1012 W/cm2 femtosecond laser pulse ionizes the film by the multiphoton absorption followed by the electron impact mechanism, yielding a dense plasma capable to further absorb the incident radiation of the end of the pulse. The theoretical model of this absorption is described in detail, and used to discuss the presented experimental effects (cutting, ablation and foaming) of the fs laser. The ultraviolet laser was used to perform simultaneous multiple spots experiments in which energetic foaming yields melt ejection and filament spinning. Airborne nanosize filaments "horizontally suspended by both ends" (0.25 μm diameter and 10 μm length) of silk biopolymer were observed upon irradiation with large fluences.

  5. Investigations into ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Theodore W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) is a technique for converting large biomolecules into gas phase ions. Some characteristics of the commonly used uv matrices are determined. Solubilities in methanol range from 0.1 to 0.5 M. Solid phase absorption spectra are found to be similar to solution, but slightly red-shifted. Acoustic and quartz crystal microbalance signals are investigated as possible means of uv-MALD quantitation. Evidence for the existence of desorption thresholds is presented. Threshold values are determined to be in the range of 2 to 3 MW/cm2. A transient imaging technique based on laser-excited fluorescence for monitoring MALD plumes is described. Sensitivity is well within the levels required for studying matrix-assisted laser desorption, where analyte concentrations are significantly lower than those in conventional laser desorption. Results showing the effect of film morphology, particularly film thickness, on plume dynamics are presented. In particular, MALD plumes from thicker films tend to exhibit higher axial velocities. Fluorescent labeling of protein and of DNA is used to allow imaging of their uv-MALD generated plumes. Integrated concentrations are available with respect to time, making it possible to assess the rate of fragmentation. The spatial and temporal distributions are important for the design of secondary ionization schemes to enhance ion yields and for the optimization of ion collection in time-of-flight MS instruments to maximize resolution. Such information could also provide insight into whether ionization is closely associated with the desorption step or whether it is a result of subsequent collisions with the matrix gas (e.g., proton transfer). Although the present study involves plumes in a normal atmosphere, adaptation to measurements in vacuum (e.g., inside a mass spectrometer) should be straightforward.

  6. Second Topical Meeting on Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-10

    William T. Silfvast, Commissariat a I’Energle Atomique, Centre d’Etudes Obert R. Wood II, John J. Macklin and Hans Lundberg, AT&T il- Valenton, Villeneuve...L’l-uillier, L A. Lompre, G. MaInfray, and C. Manus, Centre Multiphotn Excitlation Techniques. P. M. Dehmer, S. T. Pratt, d’Etudes Nucliaires de...Houston,* Centre for Molecular Seams and Laser Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of

  7. The Laser-assisted photoelectric effect of He, Ne, Ar and Xe in intense extreme ultraviolet and infrared laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, P.; Dardis, J.; Hough, P.; Richardson, V.; Kennedy, E. T.; Costello, J. T.; Düsterer, S.; Redlin, H.; Feldhaus, J.; Li, W. B.; Cubaynes, D.; Meyer, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report results on two-colour above-threshold ionisation, where extreme ultraviolet pulses of femtosecond duration were synchronised to intense infrared laser pulses of picosecond duration, in order to study the laser-assisted photoelectric effect of atomic helium, neon, krypton and xenon which leads to the appearance of characteristic sidebands in the photoelectron spectra. The observed trends are found to be well described by a simple model based on the soft-photon approximation, at least for the relatively low optical intensities of up to ? employed in these early experiments.

  8. Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraggia, S.; Frassetto, F. [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Aznarez, J.A.; Larruquert, J.I.; Mendez, J.A. [GOLD-Instituto de Optica-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Negro, M.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C. [Department of Physics-Politecnico of Milano and CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.i [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    The experimental study of the optical properties of thin carbon films to be used as grazing-incidence coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics is presented. The carbon samples were deposited on plane glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique. The optical constants (real and imaginary parts of the refraction index) have been calculated through reflectivity measurements. The results are in good agreement with what reported in the literature, and confirm that carbon-coated optics operated at grazing incidence have a remarkable gain over conventional metallic coatings in the extreme ultraviolet. Since the harmonics co-propagate with the intense infrared laser generating beam, the carbon damage threshold when exposed to ultrashort infrared laser pulses has been measured.

  9. 全固态锂电池技术的研究现状与展望%All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries:State-of-the-art development and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓雄; 邱志军; 官亦标; 黄祯; 金翼

    2013-01-01

      Conventional lithium-ion secondary batteries have been widely used in portable electronic devices and are now developed for large-scale applications in hybrid-type electric vehicles and stationary-type distributed power sources. However, there are inherent safety issues associated with thermal management and combustible organic electrolytes in such battery systems. The demands for batteries with high energy and power densities make these issues increasingly important. All-solid-state lithium batteries based on solid-state polymer and inorganic electrolytes are leak-proof and have been shown to exhibit excellent safety performance, making them a suitable candidate for the large-scale applications. This paper presents a brief review of the state-of-the-art development of all-solid-state lithium batteries including working principles, design and construction, and electrochemical properties and performance. Major issues associated with solid-state battery technologies are then evaluated. Finally, remarks are made on the further development of all-solid-state lithium cells.%  现有电化学储能锂离子电池系统采用液体电解质,易泄露、易腐蚀、服役寿命短,具有安全隐患。薄膜型全固态锂电池、大容量聚合物全固态锂电池和大容量无机全固态锂电池是一类以非可燃性固体电解质取代传统锂离子电池中液态电解质,锂离子通过在正负极间嵌入-脱出并与电子发生电荷交换后实现电能与化学能转换的新型高安全性锂二次电池。作者综述了各种全固态锂电池的研究和开发现状,包括固态锂电池的构造、工作原理和性能特征,锂离子固体电解质材料与电极/电解质界面调控,固态整电池技术等方面,提出并详细分析了该技术面临的主要科学与技术问题,最后指出了全固态锂电池技术未来的发展趋势。

  10. Study on (100-x)(70Li2S-30P2S5)-xLi2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Penghao; Ding, Fei; Xu, Zhibin; Liu, Jiaquan; Liu, Xingjiang; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    A novel glass-ceramic electrolyte of (100-x)(70Li2S-30P2S5)-xLi2ZrO3 (x = 0, 1, 2, 5) is successfully prepared by a vibratory ball-milling method and followed by a heat-treatment process. Composition of the ternary sulfide electrolyte and the heat-treatment process are optimized by physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements. The testing results show that the optimal substitution quantity of Li2ZrO3 into the Li2S-P2S5 electrolyte substrate is 1 mol %. An appropriate heat-treatment temperature of 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte is 285 °C. Among the as-prepared ternary electrolyte samples, 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte may exhibit the highest conductivity of 2.85 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of the 70Li2S-30P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. Compared to that of the all-solid-state lithium-ion battery of LiCoO2/70Li2S-30P2S5/In-Li, discharge capacities of all-solid-state lithium-ion battery of LiCoO2/99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3/In-Li may increase 41.0% at the 10th charge-discharge cycle and 21.9% at the 50th charge-discharge cycle, respectively. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries reveal that addition of Li2ZrO3 into the Li2S-P2S5 electrolyte substrate may decrease the interfacial resistance between the electrodes and solid electrolyte. The improvement of electrochemical performances of 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte is ascribed to both the stable crystal structure and a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of Li2ZrO3.

  11. Pulsed laser ablation of dental calculus in the near ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E; Seka, Wolf; Rechmann, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Pulsed lasers emitting wavelengths near 400 nm can selectively ablate dental calculus without damaging underlying and surrounding sound dental hard tissue. Our results indicate that calculus ablation at this wavelength relies on the absorption of porphyrins endogenous to oral bacteria commonly found in calculus. Sub- and supragingival calculus on extracted human teeth, irradiated with 400-nm, 60-ns laser pulses at ≤8  J/cm2, exhibits a photobleached surface layer. Blue-light microscopy indicates this layer highly scatters 400-nm photons, whereas fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that bacterial porphyrins are permanently photobleached. A modified blow-off model for ablation is proposed that is based upon these observations and also reproduces our calculus ablation rates measured from laser profilometry. Tissue scattering and a stratified layering of absorbers within the calculus medium explain the gradual decrease in ablation rate from successive pulses. Depending on the calculus thickness, ablation stalling may occur at <5  J/cm2 but has not been observed above this fluence.

  12. Status of polarization control experiment at Shanghai deep ultraviolet free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Haixiao; Feng, Lie; Liu, Bo; Chen, Jianhui; Dai, Zhimin; Fan, Yong; Feng, Chao; He, Yongzhou; Lan, Taihe; Song, Lin; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xingtao; Wang, Zhishan; Zhang, Jidong; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Zhentang

    2012-01-01

    A polarization control experiment by utilizing a pair of crossed undulators has been proposed for the Shanghai deep ultraviolet free electron laser test facility. Numerical simulations indicate that, with the electromagnetic phase-shifter located between the two crossed planar undulators, fully coherent radiation with 100 nJ order pulse energy, 5 picoseconds pulse length and circular polarization degree above 90% could be generated. The physical design study and the preparation status of the experiment are presented in the paper.

  13. A picosecond widely tunable deep-ultraviolet laser for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Xu Zhi; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We develop a picosecond widely tunable laser in a deep-ultraviolet region from 175 nm to 210 nm,generated by two stages of frequency doubling of a 80-MHz mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire laser.A β-BaB2O4 walk-off compensation configuration and a KBe2BO3F2 prism-coupled device are adopted for the generation of second harmonic and fourth harmonics,respectively.The highest power is 3.72 mW at 193 nm,and the fluctuation at 2.85 mW in 130 min is less than ±2%.

  14. Suppression of Lithium Dendrite Formation by Using LAGP-PEO (LiTFSI) Composite Solid Electrolyte and Lithium Metal Anode Modified by PEO (LiTFSI) in All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Yang, Yifu; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhong, Hai; Xu, Han; Xu, Zhibin; Shao, Huixia; Ding, Fei

    2017-04-19

    The formation of lithium dendrites is suppressed using a Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-poly(ethylene oxide) (LAGP-PEO) composite solid electrolyte and a PEO (lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide) [PEO (LiTFSI)]-modified lithium metal anode in all-solid-state lithium batteries. The effects on the anode performance based on the PEO content in the composite solid electrolyte and the molecular weight of PEO used to modify the Li anode are studied. The structure, surface morphology, and stability of the composite solid electrolyte are examined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical tests. Results show that the presence of a PEO-500000(LiTFSI) film on a Li anode results in good mechanical properties and satisfactory interface contact features. The film can also prevent Li from reacting with LAGP. Furthermore, the formation of lithium dendrites can be effectively inhibited as the composite solid electrolyte is combined with the PEO film on the Li anode. The ratio of PEO in the composite solid electrolyte can be reduced to a low level of 1 wt %. PEO remains stable even at a high potential of 5.12 V (vs Li/Li(+)). The assembled Li-PEO (LiTFSI)/LAGP-PEO/LiMn0.8Fe0.2PO4 all-solid-state cell can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 160.8 mAh g(-1) and exhibit good cycling stability and rate performance at 50 °C.

  15. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M. [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Sergio, L.P.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  16. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K S; Sergio, L P S; Guimarães, O R; Geller, M; Paoli, F; Fonseca, A S

    2015-10-01

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia colicells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficientE. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out.

  17. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC. Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out.

  18. Capillary discharge extreme ultraviolet lasers. [Colorado State Univ. , Ft. Collins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The project objective is to explore the generation of soft X-ray laser radiation in a plasma column created by a fast capillary discharge. The proposed capillary lasing scheme offers the potential for compact, simple and efficient soft X-ray laser sources. For this purpose a compact, fast pulse generator which produces 100 kA current pulses with a risetime of 11 ns was constructed. Initial experiments were conducted in evacuated capillaries, in which the plasma is produced by ablation of the capillary walls. The soft X-ray emission from discharges in polyethylene capillary channels was studied to investigate the possibility of amplification in the 3-2 transition of C VI, at {lambda} = 18.2 nm. Time-resolved spectra in which this transition appears anomalously intense with respect to the 4--2 transition of the same ion were obtained. To date, however, this phenomenoa could not be confirmed as gain, as the intensity of the 18.2 nm line has not been observed to increase exponentially as a function of the capillary length. Encouraging results were obtained by fast pulse discharge excitation of capillaries filled with preionized gas. High temperature (Te > 150 eV), small diameter ({approximately}200 {mu}m) plasma columns were efficiently generated. Fast current pulse excitation of a selected low mass density of uniformly preionized material Mag the capillary was observed to detach rapidly the plasma from the capillary walls, and form a plasma channel of a diameter much smaller and significantly hotter than those produced by a similar current pulse in evacuated capillaries of the same size. Discharges in argon-filled capillaries at currents between 20 and 60 kA produced plasmas with ArX-Ar{sub XIV} line emission, and with spectra that are similar to those of plasmas generated by > I MA current implosions in large pulsed power machines. The characteristic of these plasmas approach those necessary for soft X-ray amplification in low Z elements.

  19. Infrared and ultraviolet laser removal of crustose lichens on dolomite heritage stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Mikel; Oujja, Mohamed [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR), CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ascaso, Carmen; Ríos, Asunción de los; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio [Museo Nacional de Ciencia Naturales (MNCN), CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Souza-Egipsy, Virginia [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Wierzchos, Jacek; Speranza, Mariela [Museo Nacional de Ciencia Naturales (MNCN), CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cañamares, Maria Vega [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (ICEM), CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Castillejo, Marta, E-mail: marta.castillejo@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR), CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser irradiation at 1064 nm (IR) or 355 nm (UV) partially removes epilithic lichens on dolostone. • Irradiation in a sequential, dual IR–UV mode efficiently eliminates lichen thalli. • Dual IR–UV irradiation mode induces severe damage on endolithic colonizers of dolostone. - Abstract: Laser removal of biodeteriogen layers warrants detailed studies due to the advantages it brings with respect to mechanical elimination or the use of biocides. We have investigated elimination of biological crusts on dolomite stones from heritage sites in central Spain. The samples were colonized by epilithic crustose lichens of different species, such as Caloplaca sp. and Verrucaria nigrescens. A comparative study was carried out by applying infrared (1064 nm) and ultraviolet (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses and sequences pulses of the two wavelengths using a Q-switched Nd:YAG system. To detect anatomical and ultrastructural damage to the lichens, and to assess possible morphological and chemical changes on the underlying stone induced by laser irradiation, we used stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The optimal conditions for removal of the colonization crust, while ensuring preservation of the lithic substrate, were obtained for dual infrared-ultraviolet sequential irradiation.

  20. Chlorpromazine transformation by exposure to ultraviolet laser beams in droplet and bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Ionut Relu; Tozar, Tatiana; Dinache, Andra; Boni, Mihai; Nastasa, Viorel; Pascu, Mihail Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance requires a flexible approach to find medicines able to overcome it. One method could be the exposure of existing medicines to ultraviolet laser beams to generate photoproducts that are efficient against bacteria and/or malignant tumors. This can be done in droplets or bulk volumes. In the present work are reported results about the interaction of 266nm and 355nm pulsed laser radiation with microdroplets and bulk containing solutions of 10mg/ml Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride (CPZ) in ultrapure water. The irradiation effects on CPZ solution at larger time intervals (more than 30min) are similar in terms of generated photoproducts if the two ultraviolet wavelengths are utilized. The understanding of the CPZ parent compound transformation may be better evidenced, as shown in this paper, if studies at shorter than 30minute exposure times are made coupled with properly chosen volumes to irradiate. We show that at exposure to a 355nm laser beam faster molecular modifications of CPZ in ultrapure water solution are produced than at irradiation with 266nm, for both microdroplet and bulk volume samples. These effects are evidenced by thin layer chromatography technique and laser induced fluorescence measurements.

  1. III-N Wide Bandgap Deep-Ultraviolet Lasers and Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Detchprohm, T.

    2016-11-05

    The III-N wide-bandgap alloys in the AlInGaN system have many important and unique electrical and optical properties which have been exploited to develop deep-ultraviolet (DUV) optical devices operating at wavelengths < 300 nm, including light-emitting diodes, optically pumped lasers, and photodetectors. In this chapter, we review some aspects of the development and current state of the art of these DUV materials and devices. We describe the growth of III-N materials in the UV region by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition as well as the properties of epitaxial layers and heterostructure devices. In addition, we discuss the simulation and design of DUV laser diodes, the processing of III-N optical devices, and the description of the current state of the art of DUV lasers and photodetectors.

  2. All-solid-state Lithium Ion Battery: Research and Industrial Prospects%全固态锂离子电池的研究及产业化前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋; 徐俊毅; 林月; 李劼; 赖延清; 袁长福; 张锦; 朱凯

    2013-01-01

    All-solid-state lithium ion battery has become an important focus due to higher safety,higher energy density and wider operating temperature compared to the commercial lithium ion battery with liquid organic electrolyte.Research and development of solid electrolyte are the keys for the successful market penetration of all-solid-state lithium ion battery.Nowadays,three kinds of solid electrolytes,polyethylene-oxide (PEO) as well as its derivatives based polymer electrolyte,LiPON thin film electrolyte,and glassy sulfide electrolyte,are widely studied and open very interesting new application prospects of all-solid-state lithium ion battery.Three major parameters of ionic conductivity,compatibility with elecμrodes,and manufacμuring cosμs are used μo evaluaμe μhe applicaμion prospecμs of μhe elecμrolyμe.Based on μhaμ,PEO and iμs derivatives have low fabricating cost and good compatibility with electrodes.However,because of low lithium ionic conductivity at ambient temperature,the batteries using this electrolyte needs to work at high temperatures with a temperature control system.LiPON is most suitable for ultra-thin-battery and micro-battery,which present long cycle life and good rate performance.But,it is difficult for large-scale production of the batteries due to high cost and complex manufacturing processes.Glassy sulfide electrolyte exhibits the highest lithium ion conductivity (10-3~ 10-2 S/cm at 25 ℃) among the three electrolytes,which is close to the level of liquid organic electrolyte and meet the requirement in industrial application.However,advanced manufacturing technologies of the battery are required for the improvement of contacts at electrolyte/electrodes interface.In recent years,all-solid-state battery samples and pilot production lines are available on the market.In this review,we summarize the research progresses and production technologies of batteries based on the three solid electrolytes,and attempt to explore the commercial

  3. Control of HOD photodissociation dynamics via bond-selective infrared multiphoton excitation and a femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Bjarne; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1992-01-01

    A scheme for controlling the outcome of a photodissociation process is studied. It involves two lasers—one intense laser in the infrared region which is supposed to excite a particular bond in the electronic ground state, and a second short laser pulse in the ultraviolet region which, at the righ...

  4. Studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasmas, as sources for next generation lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily concerned with the optimisation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoemission around 13.5 nm, from laser produced tin (Sn) plasmas. EUV lithography has been identified as the leading next generation technology to take over from the current optical lithography systems, due to its potential of printing smaller feature sizes on integrated circuits. Many of the problems hindering the implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing have been overcome during the past 20 years of development. However, the lack of source power is a major concern for realising EUV lithography and remains a major roadblock that must be overcome. Therefore in order to optimise and improve the EUV emission from Sn laser plasma sources, many parameters contributing to the make-up of an EUV source are investigated. Chapter 3 presents the results of varying several different experimental parameters on the EUV emission from Sn laser plasmas. Several of the laser parameters including the energy, gas mixture, focusing lens position and angle of incidence are changed, while their effect on the EUV emission is studied. Double laser pulse experiments are also carried out by creating plasma targets for the main laser pulse to interact with. The resulting emission is compared to that of a single laser pulse on solid Sn. Chapter 4 investigates tailoring the CO2 laser pulse duration to improve the efficiency of an EUV source set-up. In doing so a new technique for shortening the time duration of the pulse is described. The direct effects of shortening the CO2 laser pulse duration on the EUV emission from Sn are then studied and shown to improve the efficiency of the source. In Chapter 5 a new plasma target type is studied and compared to the previous dual laser experiments. Laser produced colliding plasma jet targets form a new plasma layer, with densities that can be optimised for re-heating with the main CO2 laser pulse. Chapter 6 will present

  5. High-intensity coherent vacuum ultraviolet source using unfocussed commercial dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Daniel R; Proctor, David L; Davis, H Floyd

    2013-06-01

    Using two or three commercial pulsed nanosecond dye lasers pumped by a single 30 Hz Nd:YAG laser, generation of 0.10 mJ pulses at 125 nm (6 × 10(13) photons∕pulse) has been demonstrated by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of collimated (unfocussed) laser beams in mercury (Hg) vapor. Phase matching at various vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths is achieved by tuning one laser in the vicinity of the 6 (1)S0 → 6 (3)P1 resonance near 253.1 nm. A number of different mixing schemes are characterized. Our observations using broadband lasers (~0.15 cm(-1) bandwidths) are compared to previous calculations pertaining to four-wave mixing of low intensity narrowband laser beams. Prospects for further increases in pulse energies are discussed. We find that VUV tuning curves and intensities are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The utility of the VUV light source is demonstrated by "soft universal" single-photon VUV ionization in crossed molecular beam studies and for generation of light at 130.2 nm for oxygen atom Rydberg time-of-flight experiments.

  6. Development of 3D Urchin-Shaped Coaxial Manganese Dioxide@Polyaniline (MnO2@PANI) Composite and Self-Assembled 3D Pillared Graphene Foam for Asymmetric All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kalyan; Yue, Chee Yoon; Sk, Md Moniruzzaman; Jena, Rajeeb Kumar

    2017-05-10

    We have fabricated high-energy-density all-solid-state flexible asymmetric supercapacitor by using a facile novel 3D hollow urchin-shaped coaxial manganese dioxide@polyaniline (MnO2@PANI) composite as positive electrode and 3D graphene foam (GF) as negative electrode materials with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/KOH gel electrolyte. The coaxial MnO2@PANI composite was fabricated by hydrothermal route followed by oxidation without use of an external oxidant. The formation mechanism of the 3D hollow MnO2@PANI composite occurs first by nucleation and growth of the MnO2 crystal species via dissolution-recrystallization and oriented attachment mechanisms followed by the oxidation of aniline monomers on the MnO2 crystalline template. The self-assembled 3D graphene block was synthesized by hydrothermal route using vitamin C as a reducing agent. The microstructures of the composites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which clearly showed the formation of urchin-shaped coaxial MnO2@PANI composite. The electrochemical studies are explored by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectrometry, and cyclic charge-discharge tests. The symmetric all-solid-state flexible MnO2@PANI//MnO2@PANI and GF//GF supercapacitors exhibit the specific capacitance of 129.2 and 82.1 F g(-1) at 0.5 A/g current density, respectively. The solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor shows higher energy density (37 Wh kg(-1)) with respect to the solid-state symmetric supercapacitors MnO2@PANI//MnO2@PANI and GF//GF, where the obtained energy density are found to be 17.9 and 11.4 Wh kg(-1), respectively, at 0.5 A/g current density. Surprisingly, the asymmetric supercapacitor shows a high energy density of 22.3 Wh kg(-1) at a high current density of 5 A g(-1). The solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor shows a

  7. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  8. Generation of intense attosecond x-ray pulses using ultraviolet laser induced microbunching in electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a scheme that combines the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique with the bunch compression and allows one to generate harmonic numbers of a few hundred in a microbunched beam through up-conversion of the frequency of an ultraviolet seed laser. A few-cycle intense laser is used to generate the required energy chirp in the beam for bunch compression and for selection of an attosecond x-ray pulse. Sending this beam through a short undulator results in an intense isolated attosecond x-ray pulse. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 1 nm x-ray pulse with peak power of a few hundred MW and duration as short as 20 attoseconds (FWHM can be generated from a 200 nm ultraviolet seed laser. The proposed scheme may enable the study of electronic dynamics with a resolution beyond the atomic unit of time (∼24 attoseconds and may open a new regime of ultrafast sciences.

  9. An experimental study on ultrafast lamps for an ultraviolet solid state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderighi, Daniele; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo

    2005-06-01

    In this work we present an accurate experimental study of Xenon filled flash-lamps developed to achieve a fast submicrosecond light pulse with high emission in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. This study has been initiated to obtain an efficient pump for solid state lasers with Ce3+ activated crystal as active medium. For Ce3+ doped fluorides the absorption bands lie in the UV spectrum, in the region between 248 and 288nm. Due to the very short lifetime (-4Ons) of the upper level ofthe laser transition (5d->4f), Cerium activated hosts must be pumped with a fast rising light pulse. To our best knowledge, no direct ultraviolet laser action from a Ce3+ activated host with incoherent pumping has been reported. To achieve a threshold population inversion, an unusually fast lamp pulse is required making necessary the development of a lamp system opposite to what it is usually required in terms of duration and stability. We present here a detailed characterization of the lamp and ofthe discharge circuit parameters. Furthermore we discuss the opportunity to use an excimer mixture or a Silicon-Xenon based gas mixture to optimize the spectral coupling of lamp emission to the active medium adsorption.

  10. Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 Japan (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); D’Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-09-15

    Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38 nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8−12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

  11. Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on strontium barium niobate crystals using focused ultraviolet laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boes, Andreas; Crasto, Tristan; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ARC Center for Ultra-High Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Frohnhaus, Jakob; Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-09-30

    We report ferroelectric domain inversion in strontium barium niobate (SBN) single crystals by irradiating the surface locally with a strongly focused ultraviolet (UV) laser beam. The generated domains are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. We propose a simple model that allows predicting the domain width as a function of the irradiation intensity, which indeed applies for both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3}. Evidently, though fundamentally different, the domain structure of both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3} can be engineered through similar UV irradiation.

  12. Dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules by extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars Bojer; Leth, Henriette Astrup

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in dissociative multiple ionization processes of diatomic molecules exposed to extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses is studied theoretically using the Monte Carlo wave packet approach. By simulated detection of the emitted electrons, the model reduces a full propagation...... of the system to propagations of the nuclear wave packet in one specific electronic charge state at a time. Suggested ionization channels can be examined, and kinetic energy release spectra for the nuclei can be calculated and compared with experiments. Double ionization of O2 is studied as an example, and good...

  13. Self-optimization of optical confinement in ultraviolet photonic crystal slab laser

    CERN Document Server

    Yamilov, A; Chang, R P H; Liu, X; Wu, X; Yamilov, Alexey

    2005-01-01

    We studied numerically and experimentally the effects of structural disorder on the performance of ultraviolet photonic crystal slab lasers. Optical gain selectively amplifies the high-quality modes of the passive system. For these modes, the in-plane and out-of-plane leakage rates may be automatically balanced in the presence of disorder. The spontaneous optimization of in-plane and out-of-plane confinement of light in a photonic crystal slab may lead to a reduction of the lasing threshold.

  14. Research progress of polymer electrolyte used in all solid-state electrochromic device%全固态电致变色器件用聚合物电解质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙通; 李晓霞; 郭宇翔

    2012-01-01

    固体电解质是构成全固态电致变色器件(ECD)的关键材料之一,其在器件中作为电解质和电极间隔膜,为电致变色反应提供所需要的补偿离子.主要概述了ECD的结构及其对聚合物电解质的要求,重点介绍固体聚合物电解质的类别和改性方法,综述其在ECD方面应用的最新研究及发展方向.%Polymer electrolyte is a fundamental part in an all solid-state electrochromic device (ECD). It works as electrolyte and inter-electrode diaphragm, and provides ions for electrochromism occurrence. The paper introduces the structure of a typical ECD and its requirements for polymer electrolyte. The classification and raodificating ways of some solid polymer electrolyte are presented, and their application progress in ECDs is reviewed.

  15. Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene/carbon black nanoparticle film electrodes and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H2SO4 porous gel electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Haojie; Yang, Chongyang; Bao, Hua; Wang, Gengchao

    2014-11-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) are fabricated using graphene/carbon black nanoparticle (GCB) film electrodes and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H2SO4 porous gel electrolytes (gPVAP-H2SO4). The GCB composite films, with carbon black (CB) nanoparticles uniformly distributed in the graphene nanosheets, greatly improve the active surface areas and ion transportation of pristine graphene film. The porous structure of as-prepared gPVAP-H2SO4 membrane improves the equilibrium swelling ratio in electrolyte and provides interconnected ion transport channels. The chemical crosslinking solves the fluidity problem of PVA-H2SO4 gel electrolyte at high temperature. As-fabricated GCB//gPVAP(20)-H2SO4//GCB flexible SC displays an increased specific capacitance (144.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and a higher specific capacitance retention (67.9% from 0.2 to 4 A g-1). More importantly, the flexible SC possesses good electrochemical performance at high temperature (capacitance retention of 78.3% after 1000 cycles at 70 °C).

  16. Construction of All-Solid-State Batteries based on a Sulfur-Graphene Composite and Li9.54 Si1.74 P1.44 S11.7 Cl0.3 Solid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruochen; Wu, Zhang; Zhang, Shenzhao; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Yan; Xia, Xinhui; Huang, Xiaohua; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-07-19

    Herein an effective way for construction of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) with sulfur/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and Li9.54 Si1.74 P1.44 S11.7 Cl0.3 solid electrolyte is reported. In the composite cathode, the Li9.54 Si1.74 P1.44 S11.7 Cl0.3 powder is homogeneously mixed with the S/rGO composite to enhance the ionic conductivity. Coupled with a metallic Li anode and solid electrolyte, the designed S/rGO-Li9.54 Si1.74 P1.44 S11.7 Cl0.3 composite cathode exhibits a high specific capacity and good cycling stability. A high initial discharge capacity of 969 mAh g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 80 mA g(-1) at room temperature and the cell retains a reversible capacity of over 827 mAh g(-1) after 60 cycles. The enhanced performance is attributed to the intimate contact between the S/rGO and Li9.54 Si1.74 P1.44 S11.7 Cl0.3 electrolyte, and high electrical conductivity of rGO and high ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chirped pulse amplification in an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David; Allaria, Enrico; Coreno, Marcello; Cudin, Ivan; Dacasa, Hugo; Danailov, Miltcho Boyanov; Demidovich, Alexander; di Mitri, Simone; Diviacco, Bruno; Ferrari, Eugenio; Finetti, Paola; Frassetto, Fabio; Garzella, David; Künzel, Swen; Leroux, Vincent; Mahieu, Benoît; Mahne, Nicola; Meyer, Michael; Mazza, Tommaso; Miotti, Paolo; Penco, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; Richter, Robert; Roussel, Eléonore; Schulz, Sebastian; Sturari, Luca; Svetina, Cristian; Trovò, Mauro; Walker, Paul Andreas; Zangrando, Marco; Callegari, Carlo; Fajardo, Marta; Poletto, Luca; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca; de Ninno, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Chirped pulse amplification in optical lasers is a revolutionary technique, which allows the generation of extremely powerful femtosecond pulses in the infrared and visible spectral ranges. Such pulses are nowadays an indispensable tool for a myriad of applications, both in fundamental and applied research. In recent years, a strong need emerged for light sources producing ultra-short and intense laser-like X-ray pulses, to be used for experiments in a variety of disciplines, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and material sciences. This demand was satisfied by the advent of short-wavelength free-electron lasers. However, for any given free-electron laser setup, a limit presently exists in the generation of ultra-short pulses carrying substantial energy. Here we present the experimental implementation of chirped pulse amplification on a seeded free-electron laser in the extreme-ultraviolet, paving the way to the generation of fully coherent sub-femtosecond gigawatt pulses in the water window (2.3-4.4 nm).

  18. Chirped pulse amplification in an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David; Allaria, Enrico; Coreno, Marcello; Cudin, Ivan; Dacasa, Hugo; Danailov, Miltcho Boyanov; Demidovich, Alexander; Di Mitri, Simone; Diviacco, Bruno; Ferrari, Eugenio; Finetti, Paola; Frassetto, Fabio; Garzella, David; Künzel, Swen; Leroux, Vincent; Mahieu, Benoît; Mahne, Nicola; Meyer, Michael; Mazza, Tommaso; Miotti, Paolo; Penco, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; Richter, Robert; Roussel, Eléonore; Schulz, Sebastian; Sturari, Luca; Svetina, Cristian; Trovò, Mauro; Walker, Paul Andreas; Zangrando, Marco; Callegari, Carlo; Fajardo, Marta; Poletto, Luca; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca; De Ninno, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Chirped pulse amplification in optical lasers is a revolutionary technique, which allows the generation of extremely powerful femtosecond pulses in the infrared and visible spectral ranges. Such pulses are nowadays an indispensable tool for a myriad of applications, both in fundamental and applied research. In recent years, a strong need emerged for light sources producing ultra-short and intense laser-like X-ray pulses, to be used for experiments in a variety of disciplines, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and material sciences. This demand was satisfied by the advent of short-wavelength free-electron lasers. However, for any given free-electron laser setup, a limit presently exists in the generation of ultra-short pulses carrying substantial energy. Here we present the experimental implementation of chirped pulse amplification on a seeded free-electron laser in the extreme-ultraviolet, paving the way to the generation of fully coherent sub-femtosecond gigawatt pulses in the water window (2.3-4.4 nm).

  19. Ion intensity and thermal proton transfer in ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Chung; Lee, Chuping; Chen, Hui-Yuan; Lin, Hou-Yu; Hung, Sheng-Wei; Dyakov, Yuri A; Hsu, Kuo-Tung; Liao, Chih-Yu; Lee, Yin-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2014-04-17

    The ionization mechanism of ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) was investigated by measuring the total cation intensity (not including sodiated and potasiated ions) as a function of analyte concentration (arginine, histidine, and glycine) in a matrix of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP). The total ion intensity increased up to 55 times near the laser fluence threshold as the arginine concentration increased from 0% to 1%. The increases were small for histidine, and a minimal increase occurred for glycine. Time-resolved fluorescence intensity was employed to investigate how analytes affected the energy pooling of the matrix. No detectable energy pooling was observed for pure THAP and THAP/analyte mixtures. The results can be described by using a thermal proton transfer model, which suggested that thermally induced proton transfer is crucial in the primary ion generation in UV-MALDI.

  20. Laser Ion Source Project at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Moore, I. D., E-mail: iain.moore@php.jyu.fi [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Flanagan, K. T. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Geppert, Ch. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Kessler, T. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Marsh, B. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Tordoff, B. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Wendt, K. D. A. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    The application of laser ionisation is being developed for the IGISOL mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The conceived laser ion source will have two independent pulsed laser systems based on all solid-state lasers and dye lasers for maximal coverage of ionisation schemes throughout the periodic table. A laser ion source trap, LIST, method will be pursued for optimal selectivity.

  1. Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum with a multicycle chirped laser and a static electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Bai Ting-Ting; Zhang Mei-Guang

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically present a method for generating an ultrabroad extreme ultraviolet (XUV) supercontinuum by using the combination of a multicycle chirped laser and a static electric field.At a low laser intensity,the spectral cutoff is extended to the 495th order harmonic,and the bandwidth of the supercontinuum spectrum is broadened to 535 eV.At a high laser intensity,the harmonic cutoff is enlarged to the 667th order,and a supercontinuum covering a bandwidth of 1035 eV is generated.In these two cases,the long quantum path is removed,and the short quantum path is selected.Especially for the relatively high laser intensity,an isolated 23-attosecond pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.6 eV is directly obtained.Finally,we also analyze the influences of the chirp parameter and the duration of the chirped pulse as well as the static field strength on the supercontinuum.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry of laser plasma material between the critical and ablation surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartside, L. M. R.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Wagenaars, E.; Whittaker, D. S.; Kozlová, M.; Nejdl, J.; Sawicka, M.; Polan, J.; Kalal, M.; Rus, B.

    2011-06-01

    Interferometric probing using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser has measured both transmission and phase information through laser-irradiated plastic (parylene-N C 8H 8) targets (thickness 350 nm). Unusually, the probe beam is incident longitudinally in approximately the same direction as the incident optical laser. Agreement of the experimental interferometry results has been obtained with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code (h2d) simulations of EUV (21.2 nm) probe transmissions and phase shifts. We show that the transmission of the EUV probe beam provides a measure of the rate of target ablation, as ablated plasma becomes close to transparent when the photon energy is less than the ionization energy of the predominate ion species. Here C 3+ ions with ionization energy 64.5 eV are transparent, while lower carbon ionization stages, present in the unablated target and close to the ablation surface, absorb the 58.5 eV photons. Similarly, we show that refractive indices η below the solid parylene-N ( ηsolid = 0.946) and expected plasma values are produced in the warm dense plasma created by laser irradiation due to bound-free absorption in C +.

  3. Ultrafast, high repetition rate, ultraviolet, fiber based laser source: application towards Yb+ fast quantum-logic

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, Andre R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David

    2016-01-01

    Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb$^+$ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.

  4. Characterization of material ablation driven by laser generated intense extreme ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Nozomi, E-mail: tanaka-n@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Masaya; Deguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We present a comparative study on the hydrodynamic behaviour of plasmas generated by material ablation by the irradiation of nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV or XUV) or infrared laser pulses on solid samples. It was clarified that the difference in the photon energy deposition and following material heating mechanism between these two lights result in the difference in the plasma parameters and plasma expansion characteristics. Silicon plate was ablated by either focused intense EUV pulse (λ = 9–25 nm, 10 ns) or laser pulse (λ = 1064 nm, 10 ns), both with an intensity of ∼10{sup 9 }W/cm{sup 2}. Both the angular distributions and energy spectra of the expanding ions revealed that the photoionized plasma generated by the EUV light differs significantly from that produced by the laser. The laser-generated plasma undergoes spherical expansion, whereas the EUV-generated plasma undergoes planar expansion in a comparatively narrow angular range. It is presumed that the EUV radiation is transmitted through the expanding plasma and directly photoionizes the samples in the solid phase, consequently forming a high-density and high-pressure plasma. Due to a steep pressure gradient along the direction of the target normal, the EUV plasma expands straightforward resulting in the narrower angular distribution observed.

  5. Droplet-based, high-brightness extreme ultraviolet laser plasma source for metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of a high brightness source of extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) with a working wavelength of 13.5 nm. The source is based on a laser-produced plasma driven by pulsed radiation of a Nd:YAG laser system. Liquid droplets of Sn-In eutectic alloy were used as the source fuel. The droplets were created by a droplet generator operating in the jet break-up regime. The EUV emission properties of the plasma, including the emission spectrum, time profile, and conversion efficiency of laser radiation into useful 13.5 nm photons, have been characterized. Using the shadowgraphy technique, we demonstrated the production of corpuscular debris by the plasma source and the influence of the plasma on the neighboring droplet targets. The high-frequency laser operation was simulated by usage of the dual pulse regime. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the physical phenomena that could affect the source operation at high repetition rates. Finally, we estimate that an average source brightness of 1.2 kW/mm2 sr is feasible at a high repetition rate.

  6. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%).

  7. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state Li batteries based LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cathode and NASICON-type electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Zhao, X.B.; Cao, G.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Imanishi, N.; Zhang, T.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} thin films have been deposited on the NASICON-type glass ceramics, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATSP), by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering followed by annealing. The films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. All-solid-state Li/PEO{sub 18}-Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N/LATSP/LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Au cells are fabricated using the LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} thin films and the LATSP electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the cells is investigated by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry (CV), potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Interfacial reactions between LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} and LATSP occur at a temperature as low as 300 C with the formation of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, resulting in an increased obstacle for Li-ion diffusion across the LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/LATSP interface. The electrochemical performance of the cells is limited by the interfacial resistance between LATSP and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} as well as the Li-ion diffusion kinetics in LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} bulk. (author)

  8. Enhancement of lithium ion conductivity by doping Li3BO3 in Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Minyong; Choi, Sunho; Son, Seunghyeon; Choi, Lakyoung; Park, Chanhwi; Shin, Dongwook

    2016-11-01

    (100-x) (0.78Li2S·0.22P2S5)·xLi3BO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) solid electrolytes are prepared via mechanical milling and a post heat-treatment process, and the resulting electrochemical properties are investigated in conjunction with structural analysis. Adding of Li3BO3 into the (100-x) (0.78Li2S·0.22P2S5)·xLi3BO3 solid electrolyte is expected to enhance the conductivity and lower the activation energy as a consequence of changing the structural unit in the glass network. It turned out that the doping of Li3BO3 enhances the conductivity by enlarging the glass forming region and promoting precipitation of high lithium ion conductive thio-LISICON II analog. 97 (0.78Li2S·0.22P2S5)·3Li3BO3 (x = 3) glass-ceramics exhibits the highest conductivity (1.03 × 10-3 S cm-1). Structural analysis shows that the samples with Li3BO3 added to the electrolyte are composed of the main structural unit of PS43- with partially-modified structural unit of PO43-, which are believed to effectively enhance the conductivity and decrease the activation energy. In glass-ceramics produced from these materials, the thio-LISICON II phase with higher ionic conductivity tends to be stabilized by the addition of Li3BO3. Additionally, the formation of space-charge layer is relaxed by Li3BO3 doping. As a result, the all-solid-state cell shows high initial discharge capacity of 156 mAh g-1, and the capacity is retained to be 149 mAh g-1 for 40 cycles.

  9. Ultraviolet excimer laser ablation: the effect of wavelength and repetition rate on in vivo guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, J.; Kibbi, A.G.; Farinelli, W.; Boll, J.; Tan, O.T.

    1987-06-01

    Multiple dermatologic conditions that are currently treated with traditional cold-knife surgery are amenable to laser therapy. The ideal surgical treatment would be precise and total removal of abnormal tissue with maximal sparing of remaining structures. The ultraviolet (UV) excimer laser is capable of such precise tissue removal due to the penetration depth of 193 nm and 248 nm irradiation of 1 micron per pulse. This type of ablative tissue removal requires a high repetition rate for efficient lesional destruction. Excimer laser radiation at 193 nm is capable of high repetition rates, which are necessary while 248 nm radiation causes increasing nonspecific thermal injury as the laser repetition rate is increased.

  10. An ultraviolet laser system for laser cooling and trapping of metastable magnesium

    CERN Document Server

    Kulosa, A P; Riedmann, M P; Pape, A; Wübbena, T W; Fim, D B; Rühmann, S; Zipfel, K H; Kelkar, H; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2012-01-01

    We report on a reliable laser system for cooling magnesium in the metastable 3P manifold. The three relevant transitions coupling the 3P to the 3D manifold are separated by several hundred GHz and can be excited with light at 383 nm. The light is generated with master oscillator power amplifiers at 766 nm that feed resonant second harmonic generation stages each yielding 100 mW of UV light. The Pound-Drever-Hall stabilisation scheme is used to lock all three lasers to one stabilised reference cavity. We generate specific sidebands on each laser beam via diode current modulation in order to read out the error signals with a single photo diode. In addition, the same sidebands are used for locking the second harmonic generation cavities to the master oscillators. In this way, the complexity of the laser system is largely reduced providing a high reliability as necessary for experiments such as the magnesium lattice clock.

  11. Ultraviolet light and laser irradiation enhances the antibacterial activity of glucosamine-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Saravanan; Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Ahn, Sang Jung; Yun, Kyusik

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a novel method for the synthesis of glucosamine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (GlcN-AuNPs) using biocompatible and biodegradable glucosamine for antibacterial activity. GlcN-AuNPs were prepared using different concentrations of glucosamine. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized for surface plasmon resonance, surface morphology, fluorescence spectroscopy, and antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AuNPs, GlcN-AuNPs, and GlcN-AuNPs when irradiated by ultraviolet light and laser were investigated and compared with the MIC of standard kanamycin using Escherichia coli by the microdilution method. Laser-irradiated GlcN-AuNPs exhibited significant bactericidal activity against E. coli. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopic analysis supported the cell death mechanism in the presence of GlcN-AuNP-treated bacteria. Further, morphological changes in E. coli after laser treatment were investigated using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The overall results of this study suggest that the prepared nanoparticles have potential as a potent antibacterial agent for the treatment of a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.

  12. Thermal proton transfer reactions in ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuan Yu; Lee, Sheng; Tsai, Ming-Tsang; Lu, I-Chung; Dyakov, Yuri A; Lai, Yin Hung; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2014-03-01

    One of the reasons that thermally induced reactions are not considered a crucial mechanism in ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (UV-MALDI) is the low ion-to-neutral ratios. Large ion-to-neutral ratios (10(-4)) have been used to justify the unimportance of thermally induced reactions in UV-MALDI. Recent experimental measurements have shown that the upper limit of the total ion-to-neutral ratio is approximately 10(-7) at a high laser fluence and less than 10(-7) at a low laser fluence. Therefore, reexamining the possible contributions of thermally induced reactions in MALDI may be worthwhile. In this study, the concept of polar fluid was employed to explain the generation of primary ions in MALDI. A simple model, namely thermal proton transfer, was used to estimate the ion-to-neutral ratios in MALDI. We demonstrated that the theoretical calculations of ion-to-neutral ratios exhibit the same trend and similar orders of magnitude compared with those of experimental measurements. Although thermal proton transfer may not generate all of the ions observed in MALDI, the calculations demonstrated that thermally induced reactions play a crucial role in UV-MALDI.

  13. All-solid-state high-repetition-rate magnetic pulse compression generator%全固态高重复频率磁脉冲压缩发生器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东东; 周媛; 李文峰; 许家雨; 王珏; 邵涛; 赵莹; 徐蓉

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an all-solid-state high-repetition-rate pulse generator with adjustable output amplitude based on magnetic pulse compression (MPC) technique. The pulse compression network makes use of commercially available IGBTs switching a capacitor bank into a metglas transformer together with a voltage doubling circuit. The capacitor bank is charged to 500 V by a resonant LC charger, and also switched by a commercial diode. The output of the pulse generator is controlled by the gate voltage of the IGBTs. Pulses with a width of 70 ns can be generated with repetition rates up to 5 kHz. The amplitude can be controlled from 4 kV to 40 kV into a 500 Ω load. Equivalent circuits for the final operation stage of the compressor accounting for pre-pulse in magnetic switches are presented and analyzed, and the pre-pulse generation process of the MPC system is discussed. Simulation results show that, increasing the unsaturated inductance of the magnetic switch and reducing the load resistance enhance the pre-pulse peak. Thus to diminish the pre-pulse, a better ferrite core with higher permeability should be considered.%设计制作了全固态高重复频率磁脉冲压缩发生器,最高重复频率5 kHz,脉宽70 ns,通过调节初始储能电容上的电压可在500 Ω阻性负载上获得4~40 kV连续可调的输出电压.通过分析简化的磁压缩末级回路,分析了预脉冲产生的过程,得出了预脉冲的电压表达式,选取适当的磁芯相对磁导率,经过求解,得出在磁开关未饱和电感一定时预脉冲随负载阻值变化的曲线簇,从曲线中可以看出:随着负载的阻值的增大,预脉冲的峰值绝对值也增大;在负载恒定的情况下,增大磁开关未饱和电感的大小可以显著地减小负载两端预脉冲的峰值绝对值,这要求磁开关磁芯有更高的相对磁导率.

  14. Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Degang; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zongshun; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Desheng; Shi, Yongsheng; Wang, Hai; Duan, Lihong; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Two kinds of continuous-wave GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes (LDs) operated at room temperature and with different emission wavelengths are demonstrated. The LDs epitaxial layers are grown on GaN substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, with a 10 × 600 μm2 ridge waveguide structure. The electrical and optical characteristics of the ultraviolet LDs are investigated under direct-current injection at room temperature. The stimulated emission peak wavelength of first LD is 392.9 nm, the threshold current density and voltage is 1.5 kA/cm2 and 5.0 V, respectively. The output light power is 80 mW under the 4.0 kA/cm2 injection current density. The stimulated emission peak wavelength of second LD is 381.9 nm, the threshold current density the voltage is 2.8 kA/cm2 and 5.5 V, respectively. The output light power is 14 mW under a 4.0 kA/cm2 injection current density. Projects the supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2016YFB0401801, 2016YFB0400803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61674138, 61674139, 61604145, 61574135, 61574134, 61474142, 61474110, 61377020, 61376089), the Science Challenge Project (No. JCKY2016212A503), and the One Hundred Person Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Deposition and sputtering yields on EUV collector mirror from Laser Plasma Extreme Ultraviolet Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Tao [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao Zhiming [Depart of Computer Science, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, Jiangxi (China); Wang Shifang, E-mail: flatime@163.com [School of Physics and Electric Information, Hubei University of Education 1 Nanhuan Road, Wuhan East High-Tech. Zone, Wuhan 430205, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    Based on the self-similar solution of gas dynamic equations, spherical expansion of the highly ionized plasma with limited mass into a vacuum is investigated for the droplet target laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (LPP-EUV) sources. Using partially numerical and partially analytical technology, the velocity, the temperature and the density profiles in the plume versus ionization degree, adiabatic index and initial conditions are presented. Furthermore, the spatial thickness variations of the deposited substrate witness and ion sputtering yields for Ru, Mo, and Si under Sn ion bombardment are theoretically calculated, which can be useful to enable LPP-EUV sources suppliers to estimate collector lifetime and improve debris mitigation systems.

  16. A desktop extreme ultraviolet microscope based on a compact laser-plasma light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulak, P. W.; Torrisi, A.; Bartnik, A.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fok, T.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-01-01

    A compact, desktop size microscope, based on laser-plasma source and equipped with reflective condenser and diffractive Fresnel zone plate objective, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region at the wavelength of 13.8 nm, was developed. The microscope is capable of capturing magnified images of objects with 95-nm full-pitch spatial resolution (48 nm 25-75% KE) and exposure time as low as a few seconds, combining reasonable acquisition conditions with stand-alone desktop footprint. Such EUV microscope can be regarded as a complementary imaging tool to already existing, well-established ones. Details about the microscope, characterization, resolution estimation and real sample images are presented and discussed.

  17. An ultraviolet laser communication system using frequency-shift keying modulation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di-yong; Shi, Jun; Peng, Guang-hui; Xiao, Sha-li; Xu, Shan-he; Wang, Shan; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A communication system based on an ultraviolet (UV) laser at 266 nm is presented to improve the communication distance. The pulse frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation scheme is studied and improved in order to reduce the bit error rate (BER), and is put into practice on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The mathematical models of the modulation and demodulation are established. A test platform is set up to measure the energy density and pulse response under different distances and receiver elevation angles. It is shown that the omnibearing communication can be realized, and the bit rate is limited to 12.5 Mbit/s. The BER is estimated to be less than 10-7 at distance of 300 m in line-of-sight (LOS) communication model and to be less than 10-6 at distance of 80 m in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication model.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet emission from dense plasmas generated with sub-10-fs laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Osterholz, J; Cerchez, M; Fischer, T; Hemmers, D; Hidding, B; Pipahl, A; Pretzler, G; Rose, S J; Willi, O

    2008-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission from dense plasmas generated with sub-10-fs laser pulses with varying peak intensities up to 3*10^16 W/cm^2 is investigated for different target materials. K shell spectra are obtained from low Z targets (carbon and boron nitride). In the spectra a series limit for the hydrogen and helium like resonance lines is observed indicating that the plasma is at high density and pressure ionization has removed the higher levels. In addition, L shell spectra from titanium targets were obtained. Basic features of the K and L shell spectra are reproduced with computer simulations. The calculations include hydrodynamic simulation of the plasma expansion and collisional radiative calculations of the XUV emission.

  19. Comparison of ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis in glass, monazite, and zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S; Freydier, Rémi; Russo, Richard E

    2003-11-15

    We compared the analytical performance of ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The benefit of ultrafast lasers was evaluated regarding thermal-induced chemical fractionation, that is otherwise well known to limit LA-ICPMS. Both lasers had a Gaussian beam energy profile and were tested using the same ablation system and ICPMS analyzer. Resulting crater morphologies and analytical signals showed more straightforward femtosecond laser ablation processes, with minimal thermal effects. Despite a less stable energy output, the ultrafast laser yielded elemental (Pb/U, Pb/Th) and Pb isotopic ratios that were more precise, repeatable, and accurate, even when compared to the best analytical conditions for the nanosecond laser. Measurements on NIST glasses, monazites, and zircon also showed that femtosecond LA-ICPMS calibration was less matrix-matched dependent and therefore more versatile.

  20. X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission from Small-Sized Kr Clusters Irradiated by 150-fs Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骐; 程元丽; 赵永蓬; 夏元钦; 陈建新; 肖亦凡

    2003-01-01

    x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from Kr clusters irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at the peak laser intensity of 5×1015W/cm2 was experimentally investigated. Strong transitions (10nm-13nm) from Kr X and Kr 1X were observed and some spectral lines from Kr ⅩⅢ and Kr ⅩⅣ, which have been predicted to be not produced by optical-field-ionization at the laser intensity used, also appeared. The laser energy absorption and the intensity of x-ray emission started to grow remarkably above the backing pressure of 0.5 MPa and to decrease at the backing pressure of 3 MPa. It is suggested that an optimum backing pressure may exist for Kr clusters heated by 150 fs laser pulses at a certain laser intensity to produce x-ray emission.

  1. BBO四倍频全固态Nd:YVO4紫外激光器%ALL-SOLID-STATE Nd:YVO4 UV LASER AT 266nm BY FOURTH HARMONIC USING A BBO CRYSTAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何京良; 卢兴强; 贾玉磊; 满宝元; 祝世宁; 朱永元

    2000-01-01

    报道了用BBO晶体对激光二极管抽运Nd:YVO4晶体声光调Q产生的1.064μm激光进行四倍频,实现平均功率为63mW准连续波266nm紫外激光运转,重复频率为12.5kHz、单脉冲能量5μJ、峰值功率达252W,绿光-紫外光转换效率达11%.

  2. Double-control Driver in New Model of Acousto-optic Q-switched All-solid-state Green Laser%声光调Q全固态绿光激光器中的双控驱动电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁喆; 霍玉晶; 何淑芳; 潘志文

    2007-01-01

    研制出新型双控声光驱动器,能够同步控制声光Q开关和LD抽运源的工作时间,并具有10W以上的输出功率及15ns(1个声光驱动射频周期)内的调Q开关时间.应用该驱动器的全固态调Q绿光激光器的能耗减少50%以上,温升减少10℃以上,热稳定时间减少到22%,用1W的LD抽运,得到了脉宽14.5ns、峰值功率lkW的无寄生脉冲绿激光输出.

  3. Determining the polarization state of an extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser beam using atomic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, T; Ilchen, M; Rafipoor, A J; Callegari, C; Finetti, P; Plekan, O; Prince, K C; Richter, R; Danailov, M B; Demidovich, A; De Ninno, G; Grazioli, C; Ivanov, R; Mahne, N; Raimondi, L; Svetina, C; Avaldi, L; Bolognesi, P; Coreno, M; O'Keeffe, P; Di Fraia, M; Devetta, M; Ovcharenko, Y; Möller, Th; Lyamayev, V; Stienkemeier, F; Düsterer, S; Ueda, K; Costello, J T; Kazansky, A K; Kabachnik, N M; Meyer, M

    2014-04-16

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers are set to revolutionize many domains such as bio-photonics and materials science, in a manner similar to optical lasers over the past two decades. Although their number will grow steadily over the coming decade, their complete characterization remains an elusive goal. This represents a significant barrier to their wider adoption and hence to the full realization of their potential in modern photon sciences. Although a great deal of progress has been made on temporal characterization and wavefront measurements at ultrahigh extreme ultraviolet and X-ray intensities, only few, if any progress on accurately measuring other key parameters such as the state of polarization has emerged. Here we show that by combining ultra-short extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses from FERMI with near-infrared laser pulses, we can accurately measure the polarization state of a free electron laser beam in an elegant, non-invasive and straightforward manner using circular dichroism.

  4. Theoretical study of Pr3+:ZBLAN upconversion ultraviolet fiber laser based on 4f5d state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping Fang; Zhenwen Dai; Tao Luo; Guijuan Sun; Lijun Wang; Zhankui Jiang

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical study of the kinetics of two-step-excitation upconversion ultraviolet cw fiber laser based on the 4f5d state in Pr3+:ZBLAN is performed using steady population rate equations and light propagation equations. Under different Pr3+ concentrations, the dependence of the threshold pump powers on the other pump power, the variations of laser output power with reflectivity of output coupler, pump powers and fiber length as well as the dependence of the optimum fiber length on pump powers are investigated.The results predict some optimum laser parameters for maximizing output power.

  5. Ultraviolet Laser SQUID Microscope for GaN Blue Light Emitting Diode Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daibo, M [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kamiwano, D [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kurosawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Yoshizawa, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Tayama, N [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    We carried out non-contacting measurements of photocurrent distributions in GaN blue light emitting diode (LED) chips using our newly developed ultraviolet (UV) laser SQUID microscope. The UV light generates the photocurrent, and then the photocurrent induces small magnetic fields around the chip. An off-axis arranged HTS-SQUID magnetometer is employed to detect a vector magnetic field whose typical amplitude is several hundred femto-tesla. Generally, it is difficult to obtain Ohmic contacts for p-type GaN because of the low hole concentration in the p-type epitaxial layer and the lack of any available metal with a higher work function compared with the p-type GaN. Therefore, a traditional probecontacted electrical test is difficult to conduct for wide band gap semiconductors without an adequately annealed electrode. Using the UV-laser SQUID microscope, the photocurrent can be measured without any electrical contact. We show the photocurrent vector map which was reconstructed from measured magnetic fields data. We also demonstrate how we found the position of a defect of the electrical short circuits in the LED chip.

  6. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (SFG-CFWM laser sidebands in a thin BBO crystal. The ground state Raman spectrum of a laser dye Quinolon 390 in methanol that strongly absorbs at ~355 nm is systematically studied as a standard sample to provide previously unavailable spectroscopic characterization in the vibrational domain. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra can be collected by selecting different orders of SFG-CFWM sidebands as the probe pulse. The stimulated Raman gain with the 402 nm Raman pump is >21 times larger than that with the 550 nm Raman pump when measured at the 1317 cm−1 peak for the aromatic ring deformation and ring-H rocking mode of the dye molecule, demonstrating that pre-resonance enhancement is effectively achieved in the unique UV-FSRS setup. This added tunability in the versatile and compact optical setup enables FSRS to better capture transient conformational snapshots of photosensitive molecules that absorb in the UV range.

  7. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J M; Wells, J E; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca(+) ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  8. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J. M.; Wells, J. E.; Goodman, D. S.; Smith, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca+ ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  9. 150kV全固态高压脉冲发生器设计%Design of 150 kV all-solid-state high voltage pulsed power generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇; 邱剑; 刘克富

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a design of all-solid-state pulsed power generator based on Marx generator with MOSFET semiconductor switch devices. Charging resistance is replaced by fast recovery diode in the circuit, which reduces power loss in charging process. Drive circuit is integrated in and gets power supply from main circuit. Optical fiber is used to deliver the drive signal so as to protect it from the interference of discharging. A clockwise/counter-clockwise ring-shaped compact configuration is applied, which reduces the loop inductance, and makes the generator modularized and compact. The proposed generator is com-posed of 180 Marx unites in series, each of which is charged at a low voltage of 900 V, and generates a fast output pulse of voltage 150 kV, rise time less than 500 ns and duration adjustable between 1 and 5 Ωs. Some experimental results of the pulsed power generator are listed, with a load of 50 kΩ resistance and 5 pF capacitance in parallel. Through comparison and analysis, some factors affecting the rise time of output pulses are summarized, including loop inductance, drive voltage of MOSFET and distributed capacitance of main circuit. Approaches for pulse rise time improvement are also discussed.%设计了一种基于全固态MOSFET半导体开关器件的Marx脉冲发生器.充电回路用快恢复二极管代替充电电阻,减小了充电部分功率损耗;将主电路和驱动电路集成在一起,采用自取电模式给驱动电路供电;由光纤传输驱动信号,抑制了放电回路对触发信号的干扰;采用顺/逆时针方向环形分布的紧凑型拓扑结构,不仅减小了回路电感,而且实现了脉冲发生器的小型化与模块化.所设计的Marx发生器充电部分仅需提供900 V低压,用180级单元串联,获得最高幅值为150 kV、脉宽1~5 μs可调的高压快脉冲,前沿控制在500ns以内.利用该脉冲发生器在50 kΩ电阻和5 pF电容并联的等效负载上进行了一系列实验;比

  10. Performances of the NASICON type solid-state electrolyte prepared by Kaolin doping and all solid-state lithium ion battery%高岭土掺杂NASICON固体电解质及全固态电池性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫东; 水淼; 任政娟; 舒杰; 徐丹; 张瑞丰

    2012-01-01

    To improve the low ionic conductivity of LiTi2(PO4)3 based solid state electrolyte, NASICON type fast ion conductors Li1+2x+2y, AlxMgy Ti2-x-ySixP3-r O12 were prepared by Mg2+ , Al3+ and Si4+ co-doping which originated from Kaolin of Zhejiang Sanmen district. The influences of the content of the doping elements and testing temperature on ionic conductivity were studied. The results show that ionic conductivity reaches maximum 7. 86×10-1 S · cm-1 tested at T=423 K for the composite Li1.8Al0.1 Mg0.3Ti1.6 Si0.1 P2.9O12· Spray Pyrolysis was applied to fabricate the in situ all solid -state lithium ion battery Al/ Li1+χV3O8/ Li1.8Al0.1 Mg0.3Ti1.6Si0.1P2.9O12/C system and 50 charge-discharge cycles were tested between 1. 8 -3. 9 V. The battery shows rather good stability and capacity retention capability. After 30 cycles, the discharge capacities are stabilized between 190 and 205 mAh · g-1 with more than 90% discharge efficiency.%针对LiTi2 (PO4)3基固态电解质电导率低的问题,采用浙江三门高岭土矿作为主要原料,以高温固相法制备铝、镁、硅共掺杂钠超离子导体(NASICON)型快离子导体Li1+2x+2yAlxMgy Ti2-x-ySixP3-xO12.研究掺杂比例、温度对固态电解质离子电导率的影响.结果表明,组成为Li1.8Al0.1Mg0.3Ti1.6Si0.1P2.9O12固体电解质在423 K时有最高离子电导率7.86×10-4 S· cm-1.以该组成固态电解质为基片,喷雾热解原位制备Al/ Li1+xV3 O8/Li1.8Al0.1Mg0.3 Ti1.6 Si0.1 P2.9O12/C全固态电池并在1.8~3.9V电压区间进行50次充放电测试.该电池具有较好的稳定性及循环容量保持能力.30次循环以后放电容量基本稳定在190~205 mAh·g-1之间,充放电效率大于90%.

  11. High stable, high efficient ultraviolet laser with angle-phase-mismatching compensation by adjusting temperature of the nonlinear crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Houwen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Junhua; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhaojun; Cheng, Wenyong

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrated an ultraviolet laser at 355 nm using a type-I and a type-II phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of LiB3O5 (LBO). A method of adjusting temperature for compensation is presented. The crystal temperature is controlled by proportional integral derivative (PID) thermal controllers with a  ±0.01 °C resolution. The value of wave vector mismatch, distance of light propagation in nonlinear crystals, effective nonlinear coefficient, theoretical analysis and calculation of conversion efficiency versus temperature are discussed. The experimental results show that the average output power of the 355 nm laser is 1.24 W with the pump power of 13.33 W, when the repetition frequency is 15 kHz. The pulse duration is 9.8 ns, and the beam quality factors are of Mx2   =  1.8, My2   =  1.7. The conversion efficiency from 808 nm to 355 nm laser is 9.3%, which nearly reaches the optimum value reported so far and is limited by the wavelength mismatch between the pumping and absorbing lasers. The 355 nm output power instability of the laser device is 0.45% in 2 h. A compact no-water-cooling ultraviolet laser with high stability and high efficiency is obtained.

  12. Spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction applied to seeded extreme-ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni; Dacasa, Hugo; Lozano, Magali; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Zeitoun, Philippe; Garzella, David; Merdji, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    We present a setup for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers (FEL's) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Two delayed and spectrally shifted replicas are produced and used for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). We show that it can be achieved by a simple arrangement of the seed laser. Temporal shape and phase obtained in FEL simulations are well retrieved by the SPIDER reconstruction, allowing to foresee the implementation of this diagnostic on existing and future sources. This will be a significant step towards an experimental investigation and control of FEL spectral phase.

  13. Modeling of the Radial Heat Flow and Cooling Processes in a Deep Ultraviolet Cu+ Ne-CuBr Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliycho Petkov Iliev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved theoretical model of the gas temperature profile in the cross-section of an ultraviolet copper ion excited copper bromide laser is developed. The model is based on the solution of the one-dimensional heat conduction equation subject to special nonlinear boundary conditions, describing the heat interaction between the laser tube and its surroundings. It takes into account the nonuniform distribution of the volume power density along with the radius of the laser tube. The problem is reduced to the boundary value problem of the first kind. An explicit solution of this model is obtained. The model is applied for the evaluation of the gas temperature profiles of the laser in the conditions of free and forced air-cooling. Comparison with other simple models assumed constant volume power density is made. In particular, a simple expression for calculating the average gas temperature is found.

  14. Effective interface state effects in hydrogenated amorphous-crystalline silicon heterostructures using ultraviolet laser photocarrier radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet photocarrier radiometry (UV-PCR) was used for the characterization of thin-film (nanolayer) intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) on c-Si. The small absorption depth (approximately 10 nm at 355 nm laser excitation) leads to strong influence of the nanolayer parameters on the propagation and recombination of the photocarrier density wave (CDW) within the layer and the substrate. A theoretical PCR model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was developed and used to evaluate the transport parameters of the substrate c-Si as well as those of the i-a-Si:H nanolayer. Unlike conventional optoelectronic characterization methods such as photoconductance, photovoltage, and photoluminescence, UV-PCR can be applied to more complete quantitative characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells, including transport properties and defect structures. The quantitative results elucidate the strong effect of a front-surface passivating nanolayer on the transport properties of the entire structure as the result of effective a-Si:H/c-Si interface trap neutralization through occupation. A further dramatic improvement of those properties with the addition of a back-surface passivating nanolayer is observed and interpreted as the result of the interaction of the increased excess bulk CDW with, and more complete occupation and neutralization of, effective front interface traps.

  15. Stable droplet generator for a high brightness laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A.; Krivokorytov, M.; Sidelnikov, Yu.; Krivtsun, V.; Medvedev, V.; Bushuev, V.; Koshelev, K.; Glushkov, D.; Ellwi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the low-melting liquid metal droplets generation based on excited Rayleigh jet breakup. We discuss on the operation of the industrial and in-house designed and manufactured dispensing devices for the droplets generation. Droplet diameter can be varied in the range of 30-90 μm. The working frequency of the droplets, velocity, and the operating temperature were in the ranges of 20-150 kHz, 4-15 m/s, and up to 250 °C, respectively. The standard deviations for the droplet center of mass position both their diameter σ < 1 μm at the distance of 45 mm from the nozzle. Stable operation in the long-term (over 1.5 h) was demonstrated for a wide range of the droplet parameters: diameters, frequencies, and velocities. Physical factors affecting the stability of the generator operation have been identified. The technique for droplet synchronization, allowing using the droplet as a target for laser produced plasma, has been created; in particular, the generator has been successfully used in a high brightness extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source. The operation with frequency up to 8 kHz was demonstrated as a result of the experimental simulation, which can provide an average brightness of the EUV source up to ˜1.2 kW/mm2 sr.

  16. Compact 13.5-nm free-electron laser for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Socol

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical lithography has been actively used over the past decades to produce more and more dense integrated circuits. To keep with the pace of the miniaturization, light of shorter and shorter wavelength was used with time. The capabilities of the present 193-nm UV photolithography were expanded time after time, but it is now believed that further progress will require deployment of extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography based on the use of 13.5-nm radiation. However, presently no light source exists with sufficient average power to enable high-volume manufacturing. We report here the results of a study that shows the feasibility of a free-electron laser EUV source driven by a multiturn superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL. The proposed 40×20  m^{2} facility, using MW-scale consumption from the power grid, is estimated to provide about 5 kW of average EUV power. We elaborate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE option, which is presently technically feasible. A regenerative-amplifier option is also discussed. The proposed design is based on a short-period (2–3 cm undulator. The corresponding electron beam energy is about 0.5–1.0 GeV. The proposed accelerator consists of a photoinjector, a booster, and a multiturn ERL.

  17. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantopoulou, E., E-mail: esarant@eie.gr; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Cefalas, A. C. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Kakabakos, S. [N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Institute for Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, Patriarchou Gregoriou Str. Aghia Paraskevi, Athens 15310 (Greece); Velentzas, A. D. [University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Athens 15784 (Greece)

    2014-09-14

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm⁻²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  18. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  19. Fluorescence and Raman spectra on surface of K9 glass by high fluence ultraviolet laser irradiation at 355 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Geng, Feng; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Feng, Shiquan; Ren, Dahua; Cheng, Xinlu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo; Tang, Yongjian

    2013-11-01

    In order to explore the damage mechanisms of K9 glass irradiated by high energy density ultraviolet laser, laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectra were investigated. Compared the fluorescence spectra of damaged area, undamaged area and sub-damaged area, it can be conclude that the fluorescence spectrum of sub-damaged area is different from the structure of the other two areas. Especially, the main peak of the spectra at 415 nm reveals the unique characteristics of K9 glass. The structure at the sub-damaged area enhances intensity of the Raman scattering spectra. Three peaks of the spectra at about 500 nm and two characteristic peaks at about 550 nm exhibit the characterization of damaged area. A peak of the Raman scattering spectra at 350 nm which related to water can be observed. The relationship between intensity of Raman scattering and laser intensity at 355 nm is investigated by confocal Raman microscopy. At sub-damage area, signal of Raman scattering is rather high and decreased dramatically with respect to energy density. The major band at about 1470 cm-1 sharpened and moved to higher frequency with densification. These phenomena demonstrate that the structure of sub-damaged area has some characterization compared with the damaged area. The investigation of defect induced fluorescence and Raman spectra on surface of K9 glass is important to explore the damage mechanisms of optical materials irradiated by ultraviolet laser irradiation at 355 nm.

  20. Effect of combination of fractional CO2 laser and narrow-band ultraviolet B versus narrow-band ultraviolet B in the treatment of non-segmental vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawahry, Mohamed Bakr; Zaki, Naglaa Sameh; Wissa, Marian Youssry; Saleh, Marwah Adly

    2017-07-26

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of combining fractional CO2 laser with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) versus NB-UVB in the treatment of non-segmental vitiligo. The study included 20 patients with non-segmental stable vitiligo. They were divided into two groups. Group I received a single session of fractional CO2 laser therapy on the right side of the body followed by NB-UVB phototherapy twice per week for 8 weeks. Group II received a second session of fractional CO2 laser therapy after 4 weeks from starting treatment with NB-UVB. The vitiligo lesions were assessed before treatment and after 8 weeks of treatment by VASI. At the end of the study period, the vitiligo area score index (VASI) in group I decreased insignificantly on both the right (-2.6%) and left (-16.4%) sides. In group II, VASI increased insignificantly on the right (+14.4%) and left (+2.5%) sides. Using Adobe Photoshop CS6 extended program to measure the area of vitiligo lesions, group I showed a decrease of -1.02 and -6.12% in the mean area percentage change of vitiligo lesions on the right and left sides, respectively. In group II the change was +9.84 and +9.13% on the right and left sides, respectively. In conclusion, combining fractional CO2 laser with NB-UVB for the treatment of non-segmental vitiligo did not show any significant advantage over treatment with NB-UVB alone. Further study of this combination for longer durations in the treatment of vitiligo is recommended.

  1. Ultraviolet laser ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for dye-sensitized back-contact solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Fu, Dongchuan [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Jiang, Ming [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Duan, Jun, E-mail: duans@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Zhang, Fei; Zeng, Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Bach, Udo [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, laser ablation of a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film on a glass substrate was conducted using a 355 nm Nd:YVO{sub 4} ultraviolet (UV) laser to obtain a 4 × 4 mm microstructure. The microstructure contains a symmetric set of interdigitated FTO finger electrodes of a monolithic back-contact dye-sensitized solar cell (BC-DSC) on a common substrate. The effects of UV laser ablation parameters (such as laser fluence, repetition frequency, and scanning speed) on the size precision and quality of the microstructure were investigated using a 4 × 4 orthogonal design and an assistant experimental design. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and the current–voltage characteristics of the BC-DSC base of the interdigitated FTO finger electrodes were also determined. The experimental results show that an FTO film microstructure with high precision and good quality can be produced on a glass substrate via laser ablation with high scanning speed, high repetition frequency, and appropriate laser fluence. - Highlights: ► The ablation width and depth generally depend on the laser fluence. ► The scanning speed and the repetition frequency must match each other. ► Slight ablation of the glass substrate can completely remove F-doped tin oxide.

  2. Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-05

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  3. Low thermal budget n-type doping into Ge(001) surface using ultraviolet laser irradiation in phosphoric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kouta, E-mail: ktakahas@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Nakatsuka, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kurosawa, Masashi, E-mail: ktakahas@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated phosphorus (P) doping into Ge(001) surfaces by using ultraviolet laser irradiation in phosphoric acid solution at room temperature. We demonstrated that the diffusion depth of P in Ge and the concentration of electrically activated P can be controlled by the number of laser shots. Indeed, a high concentration of electrically activated P of 2.4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} was realized by 1000-times laser shots at a laser energy of 1.0 J/cm{sup 2}, which is comparable or better than the counterparts of conventional n-type doping using a high thermal budget over 600 °C. The generation current is dominant in the reverse bias condition for the laser-doped pn-junction diodes independent on the number of laser shots, thus indicating low-damage during the pn-junction formation. These results open up the possibility for applicable low thermal budget doping process for Ge-based devices fabricated on flexible substrates as well as Si electronics.

  4. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Brenner, G.; Döppner, T.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fletcher, L.; Förster, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Hartley, N. J.; Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Skruszewicz, S.; Sperling, P.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Zastrau, U.

    2014-09-01

    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  5. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Zastrau, U., E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Brenner, G.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Harmand, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Toleikis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Döppner, T.; Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Förster, E. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartley, N. J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Skruszewicz, S. [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); and others

    2014-09-08

    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  6. Amplification of femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet laser pulses at 126 nm in an optical-field-induced ionized argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito; Miyazaki, Kenzo

    2012-10-01

    Short-wavelength lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region between 100 and 200 nm have not yet been developed to the same degree as visible and infrared lasers. We have been developing the argon excimer laser at 126 nm by using an optical-field-induced ionized (OFI) argon plasma. We have observed the gain of 0.86 /cm at 126 nm in the OFI Ar plasma, which was produced inside a hollow fiber with a diameter of 250 microns and a length of 5 cm. In this paper, we have used the OFI plasma gain medium as an amplifier of the 126 nm radiation. A femtosecond 126 nm pulse was produced by the seventh-order nonlinear wavelength conversion of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 882 nm. The femtosecond wavelength-converted coherent VUV beam was then injected inside the OFI plasma that was produced by the same Ti:sapphire laser, resulting in a 2.4-fold increase of the VUV intensity with one-pass amplification. The gain-length product of 0.87 with the one-pass amplification was evaluated, which was consistent with the value we have observed in the previous measurements. The further extension of the OFI plasma by using a hollow fiber would be plausible to increase the gain-length product and the VUV amplified intensity.

  7. A High-resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Photoionization and Photoelectron Study of the Co Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Wang, Hailing; Luo, Zhihong; Shi, Xiaoyu; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We have measured the vacuum ultraviolet-photoionization efficiency (VUV-PIE) spectrum of Co in the energy range of 63,500-67,000 cm-1, which covers the photoionization transitions of Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F4), Co(3d74s2 4F7/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F3), Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F3), Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d8 3F2), and Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) \\to Co+(3d74s1 5F5). We have also recorded the pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectrum of Co in the same energy range, allowing accurate determinations of ionization energies (IEs) for the photoionization transitions from the Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) ground neutral state to the Co+(3F J ) (J = 4 and 3) and Co+(5F5) ionic states, as well as from the Co(3d74s2 4F7/2) excited neural state to the Co+(3d8 3F3) ionic state. The high-resolution nature of the VUV laser used has allowed the observation of many well-resolved autoionizing resonances in the VUV-PIE spectrum, among which an autoionizing Rydberg series, 3d74s1(5F5)np (n = 19-38), converging to the Co+(3d74s1 5F5) ionic state from the Co(3d74s2 4F9/2) ground neutral state is identified. The fact that no discernible step-like structures are present at these ionization thresholds in the VUV-PIE spectrum indicates that direct photoionization of Co is minor compared to autoionization in this energy range. The IE values, the autoionizing Rydberg series, and the photoionization cross sections obtained in this experiment are valuable for understanding the VUV opacity and abundance measurement of the Co atom in stars and solar atmospheres, as well as for benchmarking the theoretical results calculated in the Opacity Project and the IRON Project, and thus are of relevance to astrophysics.

  8. Demonstration of an ultraviolet stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compressed hundred picosecond laser in LiB3O5 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei; Jiang, Li; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong

    2017-08-01

    A hundred picosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser is demonstrated with a pulse duration of less than 200 ps and peak power of 0.6 GW. With a hundred picosecond stimulated Brillouin scattering compressed pulse as the fundamental light, the UV output at 355 nm is obtained by extra-cavity sum-frequency-mixing in two LiB3O5 crystals. Maximum UV energy was 100 mJ when the incident energy was 280 mJ, yielding an optical-to-optical efficiency of 35.7%. This result is of interest for the generation of high energy sub-nanosecond UV lasers which finds applications in shock ignition and industrial processing.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Z.; Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Bugnet, M.; Djavid, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.; Kong, X.; Ji, W.; Guo, H.; Liu, Z.; Botton, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the detailed molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire heterostructures on Si and their applications for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. The nanowires are formed under nitrogen-rich conditions without using any metal catalyst. Compared to conventional epilayers, Mg-dopant incorporation is significantly enhanced in nearly strain- and defect-free Al(Ga)N nanowire structures, leading to efficient p-type conduction. The resulting Al(Ga)N nanowire LEDs exhibit excellent performance, including a turn-on voltage of ∼5.5 V for an AlN nanowire LED operating at 207 nm. The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the UV-B band is also presented.

  10. Ultraviolet laser quantum well intermixing based prototyping of bandgap tuned heterostructures for the fabrication of superluminescent diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Romain; Moumanis, Khalid; Aimez, Vincent; Dubowski, Jan J.

    2016-04-01

    The ultraviolet laser induced quantum well intermixing process has been investigated for prototyping of multiple bandgap quantum well (QW) wafers designed for the fabrication of superluminescent diodes (SLDs). The process takes advantage of a krypton fluoride excimer laser (λ=248 nm) that by irradiating an InP layer capping GaInAs/GaInAsP QW heterostructure leads to the modification of its surface chemical composition and formation of point defects. A subsequent rapid thermal annealing step results in the selective area intermixing of the investigated heterostructures achieving a high quality bandgap tuned material for the fabrication of broad spectrum SLDs. The devices made from a 3-bandgap material are characterized by ~100 nm wide emission spectra with relatively flat profiles and emission exceeding 1 mW.

  11. Biodegradability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly( l-lactic acid) after deep-ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Akimichi; Machida, Manan; Kondo, Naonari; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the change in biodegradability of biodegradable polymer films by deep-ultraviolet laser irradiation with different pulse durations. Measurements of water absorption and mass change as well as microscopic observation revealed that the femtosecond laser irradiation significantly accelerated the degradation rate of the biodegradable polymer films, whereas the nanosecond laser irradiation did not induce a comparable degree of change. Analyses with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the difference in the biodegradability following laser irradiation with different pulse durations is attributable to the difference in chemical structure for amorphous polymers including PLGA, while the difference in chemical structure as well as crystallinity affects the biodegradability for crystalline polymer including PLLA. The obtained results suggest that deep-ultraviolet laser processing enables the fabrication of a tissue scaffold with a desirable degradation rate.

  12. Two-colour pump–probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaria, E.; Bencivenga, F.; Borghes, R.; Capotondi, F.; Castronovo, D.; Charalambous, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Danailov, M. B.; De Ninno, G.; Demidovich, A.; Di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Fausti, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Ferrari, E.; Froehlich, L.; Gauthier, D.; Gessini, A.; Giannessi, L.; Ivanov, R.; Kiskinova, M.; Kurdi, G.; Mahieu, B.; Mahne, N.; Nikolov, I.; Masciovecchio, C.; Pedersoli, E.; Penco, G.; Raimondi, L.; Serpico, C.; Sigalotti, P.; Spampinati, S.; Spezzani, C.; Svetina, C.; Trovò, M.; Zangrando, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the dynamics of matter driven to extreme non-equilibrium states by an intense ultrashort X-ray pulse is becoming reality, thanks to the advent of free-electron laser technology that allows development of different schemes for probing the response at variable time delay with a second pulse. Here we report the generation of two-colour extreme ultraviolet pulses of controlled wavelengths, intensity and timing by seeding of high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser with multiple independent laser pulses. The potential of this new scheme is demonstrated by the time evolution of a titanium-grating diffraction pattern, tuning the two coherent pulses to the titanium M-resonance and varying their intensities. This reveals that an intense pulse induces abrupt pattern changes on a time scale shorter than hydrodynamic expansion and ablation. This result exemplifies the essential capabilities of the jitter-free multiple-colour free-electron laser pulse sequences to study evolving states of matter with element sensitivity. PMID:24048228

  13. Two-colour pump-probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaria, E; Bencivenga, F; Borghes, R; Capotondi, F; Castronovo, D; Charalambous, P; Cinquegrana, P; Danailov, M B; De Ninno, G; Demidovich, A; Di Mitri, S; Diviacco, B; Fausti, D; Fawley, W M; Ferrari, E; Froehlich, L; Gauthier, D; Gessini, A; Giannessi, L; Ivanov, R; Kiskinova, M; Kurdi, G; Mahieu, B; Mahne, N; Nikolov, I; Masciovecchio, C; Pedersoli, E; Penco, G; Raimondi, L; Serpico, C; Sigalotti, P; Spampinati, S; Spezzani, C; Svetina, C; Trovò, M; Zangrando, M

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the dynamics of matter driven to extreme non-equilibrium states by an intense ultrashort X-ray pulse is becoming reality, thanks to the advent of free-electron laser technology that allows development of different schemes for probing the response at variable time delay with a second pulse. Here we report the generation of two-colour extreme ultraviolet pulses of controlled wavelengths, intensity and timing by seeding of high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser with multiple independent laser pulses. The potential of this new scheme is demonstrated by the time evolution of a titanium-grating diffraction pattern, tuning the two coherent pulses to the titanium M-resonance and varying their intensities. This reveals that an intense pulse induces abrupt pattern changes on a time scale shorter than hydrodynamic expansion and ablation. This result exemplifies the essential capabilities of the jitter-free multiple-colour free-electron laser pulse sequences to study evolving states of matter with element sensitivity.

  14. Ultrafast, high repetition rate, ultraviolet, fiber-laser-based source: application towards Yb+ fast quantum-logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Petrasiunas, Matthew Joseph; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, André R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David

    2016-07-25

    Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb+ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.

  15. Low absorption loss p-AlGaN superlattice cladding layer for current-injection deep ultraviolet laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, M.; Kuhn, C.; Ziffer, E.; Simoneit, T.; Rass, J.; Wernicke, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    Current injection into AlGaN-based laser diode structures with high aluminum mole fractions for deep ultraviolet emission is investigated. The electrical characteristics of laser diode structures with different p-AlGaN short period superlattice (SPSL) cladding layers with various aluminum mole fractions are compared. The heterostructures contain all elements that are needed for a current-injection laser diode including cladding and waveguide layers as well as an AlGaN quantum well active region emitting near 270 nm. We found that with increasing aluminum content in the p-AlGaN cladding, the diode turn-on voltage increases, while the series resistance slightly decreases. By introducing an SPSL instead of bulk layers, the operating voltage is significantly reduced. A gain guided broad area laser diode structure with transparent p-Al{sub 0.70}Ga{sub 0.30}N waveguide layers and a transparent p-cladding with an average aluminum content of 81% was designed for strong confinement of the transverse optical mode and low optical losses. Using an optimized SPSL, this diode could sustain current densities of more than 4.5 kA/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Femtosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of silver and comparison with nanosecond ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Doggett, B.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The ablation plume dynamics arising from ablation of silver with a 500 fs, 248 nm laser at ~2 J cm-2 has been studied using angle-resolved Langmuir ion probe and thin film deposition techniques. For the same laser fluence, the time-of-flight ion signals from femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablat...

  17. Ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in nitrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez del Pino, Ángel; György, Enikö; Cabana, Laura; Ballesteros, Belén; Tobias, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Laser irradiation of randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG UV laser in nitrogen gas environment. The evolution of the MWCNT morphology and structure as a function of laser fluence and number of accumulated laser pulses has been studied using electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The observed changes are discussed and correlated with thermal simulations. The obtained results indicate that laser irradiation induces very fast, high temperature thermal cycles in MWCNTs which produce the formation of different nanocarbon forms, such as nanodiamonds. Premelting processes have been observed in localized sites by irradiation at low number of laser pulses and low fluence values. The accumulation of laser pulses and the increase in the fluence cause the full melting and amorphization of MWCNTs. The observed structural changes differ from that of conventional high temperature annealing treatments of MWCNTs.

  18. Ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in nitrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez del Pino, Ángel, E-mail: aperez@icmab.es; Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); György, Enikö [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Ballesteros, Belén [ICN2—Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-07

    Laser irradiation of randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG UV laser in nitrogen gas environment. The evolution of the MWCNT morphology and structure as a function of laser fluence and number of accumulated laser pulses has been studied using electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The observed changes are discussed and correlated with thermal simulations. The obtained results indicate that laser irradiation induces very fast, high temperature thermal cycles in MWCNTs which produce the formation of different nanocarbon forms, such as nanodiamonds. Premelting processes have been observed in localized sites by irradiation at low number of laser pulses and low fluence values. The accumulation of laser pulses and the increase in the fluence cause the full melting and amorphization of MWCNTs. The observed structural changes differ from that of conventional high temperature annealing treatments of MWCNTs.

  19. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  20. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Christopher S A; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 10(10) and 10(11) W/cm(2)) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  1. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 1010 and 1011 W/cm2) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  2. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampik, D.; Ralla, B.; Keller, S.; Hirschberg, M.; Friedl, P.H.A.; Geerling, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking (CXL) of corneal collagen is a novel method of stabilizing corneal mechanical properties and preventing progression of keratectasias. This study was conducted to investigate whether CXL influences ablation rate, flap thickness, and refractive res

  3. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampik, D.; Ralla, B.; Keller, S.; Hirschberg, M.; Friedl, P.H.A.; Geerling, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking (CXL) of corneal collagen is a novel method of stabilizing corneal mechanical properties and preventing progression of keratectasias. This study was conducted to investigate whether CXL influences ablation rate, flap thickness, and refractive res

  4. A Simple Method for the Evaluation of the Pulse Width of an Ultraviolet Femtosecond Laser Used in Two-Photon Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Imasaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple method was proposed for on-site evaluation of the pulse width of an ultraviolet femtosecond laser coupled with a mass spectrometer. This technique was based on measurement of a two-photon ionization signal in mass spectrometry by translation of the prism in the pulse compressor of the femtosecond laser. The method was applied to optical pulses that were emitted at wavelengths of 267, 241, and 219 nm; the latter two pulses were generated by four-wave Raman mixing using the third harmonic emission of a Ti:sapphire laser (267 nm in hydrogen gas. The measurement results show that this approach is useful for evaluation of the pulse width of the ultraviolet femtosecond laser used in mass spectrometry for trace analysis of organic compounds.

  5. New progress in high-power picosecond ultraviolet laser%高功率皮秒紫外激光器新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小洁

    2015-01-01

    高功率皮秒紫外激光器在高精密加工、激光医疗、光电对抗和光伏产业等领域有重要应用,近年来成为固体激光新光源研究热点。本文对国内外基于和频技术的高功率皮秒紫外激光器研究新进展进行了归纳和总结。首先,阐述了和频工作原理,介绍了和频产生皮秒紫外激光的非线性晶体;然后,介绍了国内外高功率皮秒紫外激光器的新进展,包括:高功率皮秒紫外激光器、高峰值功率皮秒紫外激光器、高功率和高峰值功率皮秒紫外激光器。最后,展望了高功率皮秒紫外激光器的进一步发展及应用。归纳和总结表明:高功率皮秒紫外激光器在国外较成熟,国内在该领域的研究刚刚起步。光子晶体光纤和碟片激光器输出基频光的皮秒紫外激光器有突出的优势,已成为皮秒紫外激光产业的主力军。%High-power picosecond ultraviolet lasers have attracted considerable interests as novel laser source, due to their wide applications in high precision product, laser medical system, optoelectronic countermeasure and structuring of silicon.The research and development on high-power picosecond ultraviolet laser based on technology of sum frequency are classified and summarized.First, the mechanism of sum frequency and pico-second ultraviolet crystal are discussed.Then the high-power picosecond ultraviolet laser, the high-peak-power picosecond ultraviolet laser, and the high-power and high-peak-power picosecond ultraviolet lasers are dis-cussed.Finally, the prospect of further development and applications of high-power picosecond ultraviolet la-ser sources is put forward.According to the latest development, it is indicated that the high power picosecond ultraviolet lasers developed in abroad is in maturity stage but just in starting stage at.The high-power picosec-ond ultraviolet lasers based on photonic crystal fiber laser and thin disk laser have some merits

  6. Laser-induced plasma from pure and doped water-ice at high fluence by ultraviolet and infrared radiation - art. no. 70050X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, A.; Rodrigo, Katarzyna Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Ice made of ultrapure water or water doped with 1 % polymer (polyethylene glycol, "PEG") was irradiated by laser light with fluences between 2 and 80 J/cm(2) in the ultraviolet (UV) regime at 355 nm and in the infrared (IR) regime at 1064 nm in vacuum. In the UV regime there is a threshold for pl...

  7. Electronic Excited State and Vibrational Dynamics of Water Solution of Cytosine Observed by Time-resolved Transient Absorption Spectroscopy with Sub-10fs Deep Ultraviolet Laser Pules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Takayoshi.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy for water solution of cytosine with sub-10fs deep ultraviolet laser pulse is reported. Ultrafast electronic excited state dynamics and coherent molecular vibrational dynamics are simultaneously observed and their relaxation mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work concerns the development of a prototype of a Volume Scattering Function (VSF) sensor for measurement of this inherent optical property(IOP) of seawater....

  9. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light propagation in the sea and the consequent remote sensing signals seen by aircraft and spacecraft is fundamentally governed by the inherent optical properties...

  10. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    2017-10-10

    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  11. Polyacrylate microspheres composite for all-solid-state reference electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Donten, Mikołaj; Mieczkowski, Józef; Rius-Ruiz, F Xavier; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2010-09-01

    A novel concept is proposed for the encapsulation of components within polyacrylate microspheres, prior to their incorporation into a membrane phase. Thus finer and better controlled dispersion of heterogeneous membrane components can be achieved. This concept was verified by using a poly(n-butyl acrylate) membrane-based reference electrode as an example. In this example the proper dispersion of solid constituents of the heterogeneous membrane and prevention of their leakage are both of primary importance. Potassium chloride-loaded poly(n-butyl acrylate) microspheres were prepared and then left in contact with silver nitrate to convert some of the KCl into AgCl. The material obtained was introduced into a poly(n-butyl acrylate) membrane. The reference electrode membranes obtained in this way were characterized with much more stable potential (both in different electrolytes and over time) compared with electrodes prepared by the direct introduction of KCl and AgCl to the membrane.

  12. All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kuldeep, E-mail: mishkuldeep@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad-201009, India and Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India); Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10−4 S cm{sup −1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg−1 for low current drain.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet nanosecond laser irradiation on structural modification and optical transmission of single layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Kang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2017-03-01

    Structural modifications and optical transmission change of single layer graphene (SLG) on transparent SiO2 substrate induced by nanosecond 355 nm laser irradiation were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser-excited Raman, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis transmission spectra. In this study, to avoid damage to graphene, the selected irradiation fluence was set to be smaller than the laser damage threshold of SLG. Laser-driven formation of nano-dots, carbon clusters and spherical carbon morphologies were clearly presented using SEM magnification images, and the formation mechanism of such structures were discussed. Raman spectra revealed formation of D' peak and the continuously increasing of ID/IG intensity ratio with the concurrent increase of laser fluence, indicating the increase in amount of structural defects and disordering in SLG. XPS results disclosed that the oxygen content in SLG increases with laser fluence. The formation and relative content increase of Cdbnd O, Csbnd Osbnd C and Osbnd Cdbnd O bonds in SLG induced by laser irradiation were also revealed by XPS. Laser-driven micro-structure modifications of crystalline graphene to nano-crystalline graphene and photo-chemical reactions between graphene and O2 and H2O in air environment were suggested to be responsible for the Raman and XPS revealed modifications in SLG. It is worthy to point out that the above mentioned structural modifications only caused a slight decrease (graphene aiming at modifying its structure and thus taiorling its properties.

  14. Excimer laser therapy and narrowband ultraviolet B therapy for exfoliative cheilitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavnit K. Bhatia, BA

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Excimer laser therapy is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for refractory exfoliative cheilitis with twice weekly laser treatments of up to 700 mJ/cm2. Transitioning to the hand-held narrowband UVB device was also an effective maintenance strategy.

  15. Pulsed Blue and Ultraviolet Laser System for Fluorescence Diagnostics based on Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay

    nm laser is non-trivial. Detailed investigation into pump beam optimization has been carried out for an end-pumped 946 nm CW laser. Using an innovative external cavity tapered diode laser as pump source, a record 800 mW of output power was obtained using a single-emitter diode laser pump source....... The spatial and spectral properties of the pump source were also investigated individually, and it was concluded that a broad spectrum tapered diode pump source may be most stable and cost-effective. To generate high peak power pulsed output, Q-switched lasers were considered. In particular, synchronized Q...... a four-sigma or six-sigma definition was used. Detailed investigation into the relative timing jitter between the two synchronized pulses was also carried out, where it was found that the lower limit on the relative jitter, determined by pump power fluctuations and amplified spontaneous emission, was 6...

  16. Direct generation of intense extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum with chirped 11-mJ pulses from a femtosecond laser amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Guihua; Yao, Jinping; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-01-01

    We report on the generation of intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) supercontinuum with photon energies spanning from 35 eV to 50 eV (i. e., supporting an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of ~271 as) by loosely focusing 11-mJ chirped pulses from a femtosecond laser amplifier into a 10-mm long gas cell filled with krypton gas. We observe that when high-order harmonics are generated with transformed-limited ~35 fs pulses, only discrete harmonics can be produced; whereas for negatively chirped 188 fs pulses, EUV supercontinuum can be observed in single-shot harmonic spectrum. The dramatic change of spectral and temporal properties of the driver pulses after passing through the gas cell indicates that propagation effects play a significant role in promoting the generation of the EUV supercontinuum.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy in optically dense fireballs using broadband second-harmonic generation of a pulsed modeless dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Michael; Glumac, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Broadband frequency doubling of a modeless dye laser pulse is used to enable single-shot absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet for optically dense, energetic-materials fireball applications. Band widths of approximately 1-3 nm are generated in the 226 and 268 nm regions using a doubling crystal. Strong focusing of the fundamental beam onto the crystal is found to be sufficient to achieve 1-5% conversion efficiency with a pulse intensity sufficient to saturate the array detector even after 75% attenuation through the fireball. The technique is demonstrated with nitric oxide (NO) absorption in a gas cell and is then used to perform the first detection and temperature fitting of aluminum monofluoride (AlF) and magnesium monofluoride (MgF) in a fireball environment.

  18. Enhanced generation of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation by four-wave mixing in mercury using pulsed laser vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénais, S.; Forget, S.; Philippet, L.; Castex, M.-C.

    2007-11-01

    The efficiency of a coherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source at 125 nm, based on two-photon resonant four-wave mixing in mercury vapor, has been enhanced by up to two orders of magnitude. This enhancement was obtained by locally heating a liquid mercury surface with a pulsed excimer laser, resulting in a high-density vapor plume in which the nonlinear interaction occurred. Energies up to 5 μJ (1 kW peak power) have been achieved while keeping the overall mercury cell at room temperature, avoiding the use of a complex heat pipe. We have observed a strong saturation of the VUV yield when peak power densities of the fundamental beams exceeded the GW/cm2 range, as well as a large intensity-dependent broadening (up to ˜ 30 cm-1) of the two-photon resonance. The source has potential applications for high-resolution interference lithography and photochemistry.

  19. Ultrafast molecular photoionization by two-color orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses: Effects of relative pulse phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2017-09-01

    We present molecular photoionization by two-color 2ω1 =ω2 orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H+ by numerically solving time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Two ionization processes with one ω2 photon interfering with two ω1 photon absorption are studied at different molecular alignments. Molecular frame photoelectron momentum and angular distributions exhibit asymmetries which are functions of the relative pulse phase. For resonant excitation processes by the ω1 pulse, symmetric distributions are obtained. An attosecond ionization model is adopted to describe the ultrafast ionization dynamics. The dependence of the ionization asymmetry on the molecular alignment allows to further monitor interference effects on orbital symmetry.

  20. Quantitative Detection of Combustion Species using Ultra-Violet Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, J. S.; Peterson, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Sciences is developing a new microgravity combustion diagnostic based on UV diode lasers. The instrument will allow absolute concentration measurements of combustion species on a variety of microgravity combustion platforms including the Space Station. Our approach uses newly available room temperature UV diode lasers, thereby keeping the instrument compact, rugged and energy efficient. The feasibility of the technique was demonstrated by measurement of CH radicals in laboratory flames. Further progress in fabrication technology of UV diode lasers at shorter wavelengths and higher power will result in detection of transient species in the deeper UV. High sensitivity detection of combustion radicals is provided with wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Ultraviolet laser-induced damage on fused silica substrate and its sol-gel coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Gross, Mark; Green, Katie; Oreb, Bob; Shen, Jun

    2012-06-15

    A comparative study of the laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of fused silica substrates and their sol-gel silica coatings was carried out with 355 nm laser irradiation. Chemical etching and superpolishing were employed in different ways to improve the substrate. The laser damage tests showed that the coated substrate was no more susceptible to laser damage than the bare substrate, showing that the substrate quality was the dominant factor limiting the LIDT for UV irradiation. In addition, it was found that high value of substrate microroughness was more harmful to the LIDT of the coated than the bare substrate, and that a proper combination of etching and superpolishing can optimize the LIDT.

  2. Surface patterning of multilayer graphene by ultraviolet laser irradiation in biomolecule sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tien-Li, E-mail: tlchang@ntnu.edu.tw; Chen, Zhao-Chi

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Direct UV laser irradiation on multilayer graphene was discussed. • Multilayer graphene with screen-printed process was presented. • Surface patterning of multilayer graphene at fluence threshold was investigated. • Electrical response of glucose in sensing devices can be studied. - Abstract: The study presents a direct process for surface patterning of multilayer graphene on the glass substrate as a biosensing device. In contrast to lithography with etching, the proposed process provides simultaneous surface patterning of multilayer graphene through nanosecond laser irradiation. In this study, the multilayer graphene was prepared by a screen printing process. Additionally, the wavelength of the laser beam was 355 nm. To perform the effective laser process with the small heat affected zone, the surface patterns on the sensing devices could be directly fabricated using the laser with optimal control of the pulse overlap at a fluence threshold of 0.63 J/cm{sup 2}. The unique patterning of the laser-ablated surface exhibits their electrical and hydrophilic characteristics. The hydrophilic surface of graphene-based sensing devices was achieved in the process with the pulse overlap of 90%. Furthermore, the sensing devices for controlling the electrical response of glucose by using glucose oxidase can be used in sensors in commercial medical applications.

  3. Ultraviolet Laser Action in Ferromagnetic Zn1−x Fe x O Nanoneedles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau SP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fe-doped ZnO nanoneedles (NDs were fabricated by an Ar+ ion sputtering technique operated at room temperature. The as-grown samples show both ferromagnetic and lasing properties. The saturated magnetization moment was measured from 0.307 to 0.659 emu cm−3 at the field of 10 kOe with various Fe concentrations. Intense ultraviolet random lasing emission was observed from Zn1 − x Fe x O NDs at room temperature. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the doped Fe atoms occupy the Zn sites and lead to a decrease in oxygen deficiency.

  4. Different dynamics of ultraviolet upconversion in Tm3+:ZBLAN glass under blue laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haigui; Gao, Jinsong

    2013-10-01

    Ultraviolet upconversion luminescence around 292 nm, 350 nm and 363 nm in Tm3+:ZBLAN glass was observed clearly by pulsed excitation at 464 nm. Upconversion dynamics was discussed in detail by an analysis of the measured intensity dependence, decay curves and excitation spectra of upconversion luminescence, from which it was clarified that upconversion luminescence around 292 nm and 350 nm from 1I6 level was attributed to excited state absorption, while that around 363 nm from 1D2 level was attributed to energy transfer process.

  5. Different dynamics of ultraviolet upconversion in Tm{sup 3+}:ZBLAN glass under blue laser excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haigui, E-mail: yanghg@ciomp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Gao, Jinsong [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Ultraviolet upconversion luminescence around 292 nm, 350 nm and 363 nm in Tm{sup 3+}:ZBLAN glass was observed clearly by pulsed excitation at 464 nm. Upconversion dynamics was discussed in detail by an analysis of the measured intensity dependence, decay curves and excitation spectra of upconversion luminescence, from which it was clarified that upconversion luminescence around 292 nm and 350 nm from {sup 1}I{sub 6} level was attributed to excited state absorption, while that around 363 nm from {sup 1}D{sub 2} level was attributed to energy transfer process.

  6. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1086 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  7. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  8. Fiber-laser-based, high-repetition-rate, picosecond ultraviolet source tunable across 329-348  nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2016-10-15

    We report a compact, fiber-laser-based, high-repetition-rate picosecond source for the ultraviolet (UV), providing multi-tens of milliwatt of average power across 329-348 nm. The source is based on internal sum-frequency-generation (SFG) in a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), synchronously pumped at 532 nm by the second harmonic of a picosecond Yb-fiber laser at 80 MHz repetition rate. Using a 30-mm-long single-grating MgO:sPPLT crystal for the OPO and a 5-mm-long BiB3O6 crystal for intracavity SFG, we generate up to 115 mW of average UV power at 339.9 nm, with >50  mW over 73% of the tuning range, for 1.6 W of input pump power. The UV output exhibits a passive rms power stability of ∼2.9% rms over 1 min and 6.5% rms over 2 h in high beam quality. Angular acceptance bandwidth and cavity detuning effects have also been studied.

  9. Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Cloutis, E.

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopic instruments are highly capable in the search for organics on Mars due to the potential to perform rapid and nondestructive measurements on unprepared samples. Upcoming and future Raman instruments are likely to also incorporate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) capabilities, which can be added for modest cost and complexity. We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain sub-ns fluorescence lifetime measurements of Mars-relevant organics and minerals if a fast time-gating capability is used with an intensified detector and a short ultraviolet laser pulse. This serves a primary purpose of discriminating mineral from short-lived (less than 10 ns) organic fluorescence, considered a potential biosignature. Additionally, lifetime measurements may assist in determining if more than one fluorescing species is present and provide information concerning the molecular structure as well as the local environment. Fast time-gating is also useful at longer visible or near-IR wavelengths, as this approach increases the sensitivity of the instrument to organic material by removing the majority of the fluorescence background from the Raman signal and reducing the effect of ambient light.

  10. Surface patterning of multilayer graphene by ultraviolet laser irradiation in biomolecule sensing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Li; Chen, Zhao-Chi

    2015-12-01

    The study presents a direct process for surface patterning of multilayer graphene on the glass substrate as a biosensing device. In contrast to lithography with etching, the proposed process provides simultaneous surface patterning of multilayer graphene through nanosecond laser irradiation. In this study, the multilayer graphene was prepared by a screen printing process. Additionally, the wavelength of the laser beam was 355 nm. To perform the effective laser process with the small heat affected zone, the surface patterns on the sensing devices could be directly fabricated using the laser with optimal control of the pulse overlap at a fluence threshold of 0.63 J/cm2. The unique patterning of the laser-ablated surface exhibits their electrical and hydrophilic characteristics. The hydrophilic surface of graphene-based sensing devices was achieved in the process with the pulse overlap of 90%. Furthermore, the sensing devices for controlling the electrical response of glucose by using glucose oxidase can be used in sensors in commercial medical applications.

  11. Evidence of liquid phase during laser-induced periodic surface structures formation induced by accumulative ultraviolet picosecond laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Petit, A.; Semmar, N., E-mail: nadjib.semmar@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR7344, CNRS/University of Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, M. [ICMN, UMR 7374, CNRS/University of Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, CS 40059, 45071 Orleans Cedex (France); Sauldubois, A. [CME, UFR Sciences, University of Orleans, 1 Rue de Chartres, BP 6759, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-11-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were formed on Cu/Si or Cu/glass thin films using Nd:YAG laser beam (40 ps, 10 Hz, and 30 mJ/cm{sup 2}). The study of ablation threshold is always achieved over melting when the variation of the number of pulses increases from 1 to 1000. But the incubation effect is leading to reduce the threshold of melting as increasing the number of laser pulse. Also, real time reflectivity signals exhibit typical behavior to stress the formation of a liquid phase during the laser-processing regime and helps to determine the threshold of soft ablation. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses have shown the topology of the micro-crater containing regular spikes with different height. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) allows finally to show three distinguished zones in the close region of isolated protrusions. The central zone is a typical crystallized area of few nanometers surrounded by a mixed poly-crystalline and amorphous area. Finally, in the region far from the protrusion zone, Cu film shows an amorphous structure. The real time reflectivity, AFM, and HR-TEM analyses evidence the formation of a liquid phase during the LIPSS formation in the picosecond regime.

  12. Evidence of liquid phase during laser-induced periodic surface structures formation induced by accumulative ultraviolet picosecond laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Vayer, M.; Sauldubois, A.; Petit, A.; Semmar, N.

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were formed on Cu/Si or Cu/glass thin films using Nd:YAG laser beam (40 ps, 10 Hz, and 30 mJ/cm2). The study of ablation threshold is always achieved over melting when the variation of the number of pulses increases from 1 to 1000. But the incubation effect is leading to reduce the threshold of melting as increasing the number of laser pulse. Also, real time reflectivity signals exhibit typical behavior to stress the formation of a liquid phase during the laser-processing regime and helps to determine the threshold of soft ablation. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses have shown the topology of the micro-crater containing regular spikes with different height. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) allows finally to show three distinguished zones in the close region of isolated protrusions. The central zone is a typical crystallized area of few nanometers surrounded by a mixed poly-crystalline and amorphous area. Finally, in the region far from the protrusion zone, Cu film shows an amorphous structure. The real time reflectivity, AFM, and HR-TEM analyses evidence the formation of a liquid phase during the LIPSS formation in the picosecond regime.

  13. Dynamics of the plume produced by nanosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of the ablation plume of a partially ionized plasma produced by a nanosecond UV laser with different irradiation spot geometries has been explored. We have used an ensemble of quartz crystal microbalances to make the first systematic and quantitative study of how the shape of the plume...... varies as the aspect ratio (b/a) of the elliptical laser spot is varied by about a factor of ten. The flip-over effect can be described by the adiabatic expansion model of Anisimov using a value of the adiabatic constant of about gamma = 1.4. We have also studied the forward peaking of the ablation plume...... for a large number of metals at the same laser fluence. Contrary to earlier reports, we find that the more refractory metals have the broader angular distributions....

  14. Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

    2008-03-01

    We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems.

  15. Ultraviolet-visible absorption in highly transparent solids by laser calorimetry and wavelength modulation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J A; Bobbs, B L; Braunstein, M; Kim, R K; Stearns, R; Braunstein, R

    1978-05-15

    The requirements for low-loss optical materials for use on excimer lasers have stimulated the investigation of optical absorption in a variety of highly transparent materials at visible and uv wavelengths. To provide information over a wide spectral range at low absorption levels ( approximately 10(-5) cm(-1)), laser calorimetric and wavelength modulation spectroscopic techniques were used. Blending these two methods provided, for the first time, spectral information well below the usual levels of absorption measured in studies of the Urbach tail.

  16. Ultraviolet and infrared femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on thin polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Moreno, Pablo [Grupo de Investigacion en Microprocesado de Materiales con Laser, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Perez-Hernandez, Jose A. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados Ultracortos Ultraintensos, CLPU, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-23

    This work demonstrates the formation of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by multipulse irradiation with the fundamental and 3rd harmonic of a linearly polarized Ti:sapphire laser (795 and 265 nm) on thin films of the polymers poly (ethylene terephthalate), poly (trimethylene terephthalate), and poly (carbonate bisphenol A) prepared by spin-coating. LIPSS, inspected by atomic force microscopy, are formed upon multiple pulse UV and IR irradiation with wavelength-sized period in a narrow range of fluences below the ablation threshold. Control and tunability of the size and morphology of the periodic structures become thus possible ensuring photochemical integrity of polymer films.

  17. A 7.81 W 355 nm ultraviolet picosecond laser using La2CaB10O19 as a nonlinear optical crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Kai; Xu, Degang; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Guochun; Wang, Yuye; Wang, Lirong; Shan, Faxian; Yan, Chao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Nan; Lin, Xuechun; Wu, Yicheng; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate high-power 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) picosecond (ps) laser using a type I phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of La(2)CaB(10)O(19) (LCB), which possesses the characteristic of non-hygroscopicity. The high-power third harmonic generation was successfully achieved from two types of 1064 nm ps fundamental lasers. The maximum output power of 7.81 W of 355 nm UV laser was obtained with a pump of 35.2 W 1064 nm ps laser (80 MHz repetition rate, 10 ps pulse width) with optical conversion efficiency of 22.2%. The experimental results show that the LCB crystal is a promising candidate for generating high-power UV laser.

  18. Far-infrared-light shadowgraphy for high extraction efficiency of extreme ultraviolet light from a CO2-laser-generated tin plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukuma, Hiraku; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yosuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Kodama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    The two-color, double-pulse method is an efficient scheme to generate extreme ultraviolet light for fabricating the next generation semiconductor microchips. In this method, a Nd:YAG laser pulse is used to expand a several-tens-of-micrometers-scale tin droplet, and a CO2 laser pulse is subsequently directed at the expanded tin vapor after an appropriate delay time. We propose the use of shadowgraphy with a CO2 laser probe-pulse scheme to optimize the CO2 main-drive laser. The distribution of absorption coefficients is derived from the experiment, and the results are converted to a practical absorption rate for the CO2 main-drive laser.

  19. High-resolution threshold photoelectron study of the propargyl radical by the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Xu, Yuntao; Yang, Lei; Lam, Chow-Shing; Wang, Hailing; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C. Y.

    2011-12-01

    By employing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser velocity-map imaging (VMI) photoelectron scheme to discriminate energetic photoelectrons, we have measured the VUV-VMI-threshold photoelectrons (VUV-VMI-TPE) spectra of propargyl radical [C3H3({tilde X}{}^2B_1)] near its ionization threshold at photoelectron energy bandwidths of 3 and 7 cm-1 (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM). The simulation of the VUV-VMI-TPE spectra thus obtained, along with the Stark shift correction, has allowed the determination of a precise value 70 156 ± 4 cm-1 (8.6982 ± 0.0005 eV) for the ionization energy (IE) of C3H3. In the present VMI-TPE experiment, the Stark shift correction is determined by comparing the VUV-VMI-TPE and VUV laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (VUV-PFI-PE) spectra for the origin band of the photoelectron spectrum of the {tilde X}^ + {- tilde X} transition of chlorobenzene. The fact that the FWHMs for this origin band observed using the VUV-VMI-TPE and VUV-PFI-PE methods are nearly the same indicates that the energy resolutions achieved in the VUV-VMI-TPE and VUV-PFI-PE measurements are comparable. The IE(C3H3) value obtained based on the VUV-VMI-TPE measurement is consistent with the value determined by the VUV laser PIE spectrum of supersonically cooled C3H3({tilde X}{}^2B_1) radicals, which is also reported in this article.

  20. The use of ultraviolet Thomson scattering as a versatile diagnostic for detailed measurements of a collisional laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, M.D.

    1993-01-08

    Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach n{sub c}/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 {le} k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ii} {le} {infinity}) and ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}, where k{sub ia} is the ion- acoustic wave number, {lambda}{sub ii} is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and T{sub e}, T{sub i} are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ei}, k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ee} {ge} 1), and quasineutrality holds, ({alpha} {much_gt}1), where {alpha} = 1/k{lambda}{sub DE} and {lambda}{sub DE} is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.

  1. Selective bond breakage within the HOD molecule using optimized femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2008-01-01

    With the HOD molecule initially in its vibrational ground state, we theoretically analyze the laser-induced control of the OD/OH branching ratio D+OH H+OD in the first absorption band. In the weak-field limit, any form of UV-pulse shaping control leads to a branching ratio larger than similar to 2...

  2. Selective removal of composite sealants with near-ultraviolet laser pulses of nanosecond duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Tiffany M; Jones, Robert S; Sarma, Anupama V; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    It is often necessary to replace pit and fissure sealants and composite restorations. This task is complicated by the necessity for complete removal of the remaining composite to enable suitable adhesion of new composite. Previous studies have shown that 355-nm laser pulses from a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser can selectively remove residual composite after orthodontic bracket removal on enamel surfaces. Our objective is to determine if such laser pulses are suitable for selective removal of composite pit and fissure sealants and restorations. Optical coherence tomography is used to acquire optical cross sections of the occlusal topography nondestructively before sealant application, after sealant application, and after sealant removal. Thermocouples are used to monitor the temperature in the pulp chamber during composite removal under clinically relevant ablation rates, i.e., 30 Hz and 30 mJ/pulse. At an irradiation intensity of 1.3 J/cm2, pit and fissure sealants are completely removed without visible damage to the underlying enamel. At intensities above 1.5 J/cm2, incident laser pulses remove the resin layer while at the same time preferentially etching the surface of the enamel. Temperature excursions in the pulp chamber of extracted teeth are limited to less than 5 degrees C if air-cooling is used during the rapid removal (1 to 2 min) of sealants, water-cooling is not necessary. Selective removal of composite restorative materials is possible without damage to the underlying sound tooth structure.

  3. The analysis of fountain pen inks by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet/visible absorbance and laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, E; Vogt, C; Heineman, W R

    1998-01-01

    Information on the identity of inks adds to the circumstantial evidence in legal cases involving fraudulent documents. In combination with optical methods, multiple thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is currently the analytical tool used by forensic chemists to separate, compare and distinguish inks based on their dye composition. In our studies, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the analysis of water-soluble fountain pen inks. Inks are complex mixtures of synthetic organic and inorganic dyes, surfactants, resins and other components. The investigations included the development of an electrophoretic separation method, the optimization of an extraction procedure for inks from paper as well as the evaluation of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) absorbance and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the analysis of inks by CE. Good results for the separation of 17 blue and black inks of different manufacturers and countries of origin were obtained with 100 mM borate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 20% methanol. The electropherograms of the inks and their extracts from paper showed patterns that were in most cases distinctly different from each other. Ultraviolet/visible scans can be used to compare spectra of the separated main and trace components of inks. Fluorescence detection at different excitation and emission wavelengths was more sensitive, but added to the complexity of the electropherograms due to the excitation of coextracted fluorescing paper components. The resolution power of CE combined with the information content provided by the detection modes investigated prove CE to be a powerful tool for the identification of water-soluble inks used on paper documents.

  4. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Hayden, P.; Laasch, R.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions.

  5. Wavefront measurement of single-mode quantum cascade laser beam for seed application in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2012-12-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.

  6. An ultrashort pulse ultra-violet radiation undulator source driven by a laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anania, M. P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Grant, D. W.; Welsh, G. H.; Issac, R. C.; Cipiccia, S.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Aniculaesei, C.; Jaroszynski, D. A., E-mail: d.a.jaroszynski@strath.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Geer, S. B. van der; Loos, M. J. de [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands); Poole, M. W.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Clarke, J. A. [ASTeC, STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W. A. [SUPA, School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A. M. [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee DD1 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30

    Narrow band undulator radiation tuneable over the wavelength range of 150–260 nm has been produced by short electron bunches from a 2 mm long laser plasma wakefield accelerator based on a 20 TW femtosecond laser system. The number of photons measured is up to 9 × 10{sup 6} per shot for a 100 period undulator, with a mean peak brilliance of 1 × 10{sup 18} photons/s/mrad{sup 2}/mm{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Simulations estimate that the driving electron bunch r.m.s. duration is as short as 3 fs when the electron beam has energy of 120–130 MeV with the radiation pulse duration in the range of 50–100 fs.

  7. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Blinne, Alexander; Fuchs, Silvio; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Paulus, Gerhard G; Förster, Eckhart; Zastrau, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  8. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Fuchs, Silvio; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Zastrau, Ulf [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Blinne, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Feigl, Torsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Förster, Eckhart [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institute, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  9. The effect of quantum correction on plasma electron heating in ultraviolet laser interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, S.; Yazdani, E.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Anvari, A.; Hora, H.

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of the sub-picosecond UV laser in sub-relativistic intensities with deuterium is investigated. At high plasma temperatures, based on the quantum correction in the collision frequency, the electron heating and the ion block generation in plasma are studied. It is found that due to the quantum correction, the electron heating increases considerably and the electron temperature uniformly reaches up to the maximum value of 4.91 × 107 K. Considering the quantum correction, the electron temperature at the laser initial coupling stage is improved more than 66.55% of the amount achieved in the classical model. As a consequence, by the modified collision frequency, the ion block is accelerated quicker with higher maximum velocity in comparison with the one by the classical collision frequency. This study proves the necessity of considering a quantum mechanical correction in the collision frequency at high plasma temperatures.

  10. The effect of quantum correction on plasma electron heating in ultraviolet laser interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir; Anvari, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani, E. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2015-04-14

    The interaction of the sub-picosecond UV laser in sub-relativistic intensities with deuterium is investigated. At high plasma temperatures, based on the quantum correction in the collision frequency, the electron heating and the ion block generation in plasma are studied. It is found that due to the quantum correction, the electron heating increases considerably and the electron temperature uniformly reaches up to the maximum value of 4.91 × 10{sup 7 }K. Considering the quantum correction, the electron temperature at the laser initial coupling stage is improved more than 66.55% of the amount achieved in the classical model. As a consequence, by the modified collision frequency, the ion block is accelerated quicker with higher maximum velocity in comparison with the one by the classical collision frequency. This study proves the necessity of considering a quantum mechanical correction in the collision frequency at high plasma temperatures.

  11. Generation and characterization of 2.2 W-level 318.6 nm narrow-linewidth ultra-violet laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jieying; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a high-power and narrow-linewidth ultra-violet (UV) laser system at 318.6 nm for single-step 6S1/2-nP (n=70~100) Rydberg excitation of cesium atoms. Based on commercial fiber lasers and efficient nonlinear frequency conversion technology, our system can generate 2.26 W UV laser output from cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) followed by sum-frequency generation (SFG) of two infrared lasers at 1560.5 nm and 1076.9 nm. The maximum doubling efficiency is 57.3%. The enhanced doubling cavity is actively stabilized by using the PDH modulation method, while the 637.2 nm laser is indirectly modulated through the SFG process which transfers modulation from the 1560.5 nm seed laser to the red laser. The typical UV laser power fluctuation is less than 0.87% over 30 minutes, and the continuously tunable range of the UV laser frequency is more than 6 GHz.

  12. Self-organized micro-holes on titania based sol-gel films under continuous direct writing with a continuous wave ultraviolet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhti, S.; Destouches, N.; Gamet, E.; Reynaud, S. [University of Lyon, F. 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, 18 Rue Pr. Lauras F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); University of Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Balan, L. [Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361, Universite de Haute Alsace, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2013-05-27

    The microstructuring of titania based sol-gel films is investigated by direct writing with a continuous wave ultraviolet laser beam emitting at 244 nm. Depending on the exposure conditions, the films exhibit a volume expansion, a volume shrinkage, a self-shaped delamination, or are damaged. This paper is mainly focused on the regime where spontaneous local delamination occurs, which corresponds to a narrow range of laser irradiances and writing speeds. In this regime, self-organized round-shape micro-holes opened on the substrate are generated.

  13. Triple combination treatment with fractional CO2 laser plus topical betamethasone solution and narrowband ultraviolet B for refractory vitiligo: a prospective, randomized half-body, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wu, Yan; Li, Li; Sun, Yan; Qiu, Li; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo on extremities and/or bony prominences is very resistant to treatment. Twenty-five patients with symmetrical and stable vitiligo on extremities and/or bony prominences were enrolled. The treatment side received fractional carbon dioxide laser followed by topical compound betamethasone solution and narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy. The control side received laser treatment plus phototherapy. The result of treatment side showed that 44% patients achieved over 50% re-pigmentation and patient satisfaction score was 5.12 ± 3.23, higher than those of control (p vitiligo.

  14. Improved characteristics of ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with step-graded quantum barriers close to waveguide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) with step-graded quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional first and last QBs close to waveguide layers are proposed. The characteristics of this type of laser diodes are numerically investigated by using the software PICS3D and it is found that the performances of these LDs are greatly improved. The results indicates that the structure with step-graded QBs exhibits higher output light power, slope efficiency and emission intensity, as well as lower series resistance and threshold current density under the identical condition, compared with conventional LD structure.

  15. Compact Solid-State 213 nm Laser Enables Standoff Deep Ultraviolet Raman Spectrometer: Measurements of Nitrate Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Sergei V; Mao, Michael; Gares, Katie L; Asher, Sanford A

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new compact acousto-optically Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) intracavity frequency-tripled neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate laser capable of producing ~100 mW of 213 nm power quasi-continuous wave as 15 ns pulses at a 30 kHz repetition rate. We use this new laser in a prototype of a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman standoff spectrometer. We use a novel high-throughput, high-resolution Echelle Raman spectrograph. We measure the deep UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra of solid and solution sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) at a standoff distance of ~2.2 m. For this 2.2 m standoff distance and a 1 min spectral accumulation time, where we only monitor the symmetric stretching band, we find a solid state NaNO3 detection limit of ~100 μg/cm(2). We easily detect ~20 μM nitrate water solutions in 1 cm path length cells. As expected, the aqueous solutions UVRR spectra of NaNO3 and NH4NO3 are similar, showing selective resonance enhancement of the nitrate (NO3(-)) vibrations. The aqueous solution photochemistry is also similar, showing facile conversion of NO3(-) to nitrite (NO2(-)). In contrast, the observed UVRR spectra of NaNO3 and NH4NO3 powders significantly differ, because their solid-state photochemistries differ. Whereas solid NaNO3 photoconverts with a very low quantum yield to NaNO2, the NH4NO3 degrades with an apparent quantum yield of ~0.2 to gaseous species.

  16. A vacuum-ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron study of sulfur monoxide (SO) and its cation (SO+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chow-Shing; Wang, Hailing; Xu, Yuntao; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, C Y

    2011-04-14

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectroscopy has been applied to the study of the sulfur monoxide radical (SO) prepared by using a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on the 193 nm excimer laser photodissociation of SO(2). The vibronic VUV-PFI-PE bands for the photoionization transitions SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2); v(+) = 0) ← SO(X(3)Σ(-); v = 0); and SO(+)((2)Π(3∕2); v(+) = 0) ← SO(X(3)Σ(-); v = 0) have been recorded. On the basis of the semiempirical simulation of rotational branch contours observed in these PFI-PE bands, we have obtained highly precise ionization energies (IEs) of 83,034.2 ± 1.7 cm(-1) (10.2949 ± 0.0002 eV) and 83,400.4 ± 1.7 cm(-1) (10.3403 ± 0.0002 eV) for the formation of SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2); v(+) = 0) and SO(+)((2)Π(3∕2); v(+) = 0), respectively. The present VUV-PFI-PE measurement has enabled the direct determination of the spin-orbit coupling constant (A(0)) for SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2,3∕2)) to be 365.36 ± 0.12 cm(-1). We have also performed high-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level up to full quadruple excitations and complete basis set (CBS) extrapolation. The zero-point vibrational energy correction, the core-valence electronic correction, the spin-orbit coupling, and the high-level correction are included in the calculation. The IE[SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2,3∕2))] and A(0) predictions thus obtained are found to be in remarkable agreement with the experimental determinations.

  17. 基于有机金属卤化物钙钛矿材料的全固态太阳能电池研究进展∗%Research progress of all-solid-state solar cells based on organometal halide perovskite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵景珍; 董伟伟; 邓赞红; 陶汝华; 方晓东

    2014-01-01

    作为太阳能电池的光吸收剂,有机金属卤化物钙钛矿材料不仅具有高效的光吸收能力和载流子迁移率,还具有独特的双极性特征,能同时传输电子和空穴,使其成为优异的光伏材料,掀起了基于钙钛矿材料太阳能电池的研究热潮。介绍了近几年来基于有机金属卤化物钙钛矿材料的全固态太阳能电池的发展情况,总结了有机金属卤化物钙钛矿材料的结构和特性,对目前几类典型的钙钛矿太阳能电池进行了讨论,并展望了全固态钙钛矿太阳能电池的产业化应用前景。%The organometal halide perovskite as high-efficiency light sensitizers in solar cells can not only act as a high efficiency light absorber but also possess excellent charge carrier mobility.The perovskite has unique am-bipolar properties to transport both photogenerated holes and electrons.All properties are perfectly suitable for use as prospective photovoltaic materials.The researches of the all-solid-state solar cells based on organometal halide perovskite materials have excited great interest.The paper introduced the main research progress the all-solid-state solar cells based on organometal halide perovskite materials.The structure and properties of the or-ganometal halide perovskite were reviewed.The several typical types of the perovskite solar cells were dis-cussed.And prospects of commercial perovskite solar cells were assessed.

  18. Photoluminescence performance enhancement of ZnO/MgO heterostructured nanowires and their applications in ultraviolet laser diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Cui, Xi-Jun; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Bin; Chu, Xian-Wei; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Du, Guo-Tong

    2015-06-07

    Vertically aligned ZnO/MgO coaxial nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition combined with a sputtering system. We present a comparative investigation of the morphological and optical properties of the produced heterostructures with different MgO layer thicknesses. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the optical performances of ZnO/MgO coaxial NWs were strongly dependent on the MgO layer thickness. The intensity of deep-level emission (DLE) decreased monotonously with the increase of MgO thickness, while the enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) emission showed a critical thickness of 15 nm, achieving a maximum intensity ratio (∼226) of IUV/IDLE at the same time. The significantly improved exciton emission efficiency of the coaxial NW structures allows us to study the surface passivation effect, photogenerated carrier confinement and transfer in terms of energy band theory. More importantly, we achieved an ultralow threshold (4.5 mA, 0.58 A cm(-2)) electrically driven UV lasing action based on the ZnO/MgO NW structures by constructing an Au/MgO/ZnO metal/insulator/semiconductor diode, and the continuous-current-driven diode shows a good temperature tolerance. The results obtained on the unique optical properties of ZnO/MgO coaxial NWs shed light on the design and development of ZnO-based UV laser diodes assembled with nanoscale building blocks.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray imaging with compact, table top laser plasma EUV and SXR sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulak, P. W.; Bartnik, A.; Kostecki, J.; Wegrzynski, L.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present a few examples of imaging experiments, which were possible using a compact laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) source, based on a double stream gas puff target. This debris-free source was used in full-field EUV imaging to obtain magnified images of test samples, ZnO nanofibers and images of the membranes coated with salt crystals. The source was also employed for SXR microscopy in the "water-window" spectral range using grazing incidence Wolter type-I objective to image test samples and to perform the initial studies of biological objects. Gas puff target EUV source, spectrally tuned for 13.5 nm wavelength with multilayer mirror and thin film filters, was also used in variety of shadowgraphy experiments to study the density of newly developed modulated density gas puff targets. Finally, the source was also employed in EUV tomography experiments of low density objects with the goal to measure and optimize the density of the targets dedicated to high harmonic generation.

  20. Yb-fiber-laser-based, 1.8 W average power, picosecond ultraviolet source at 266 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S; Canals Casals, J; Sanchez Bautista, E; Devi, K; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2015-05-15

    We report a compact, stable, high-power, picosecond ultraviolet (UV) source at 266 nm based on simple single-pass two-step fourth-harmonic generation (FHG) of a mode-locked Yb-fiber laser at 79.5 MHz in LiB3O5 (LBO) and β-BaB2O4. Using a 30-mm-long LBO crystal for single-pass second-harmonic generation, we achieve up to 9.1 W of average green power at 532 nm for 16.8 W of Yb-fiber power at a conversion efficiency of 54% in 16.2 ps pulses with a TEM00 spatial profile and passive power stability better than 0.5% rms over 16 h. The generated green radiation is then used for single-pass FHG into the UV, providing as much as 1.8 W of average power at 266 nm under the optimum focusing condition in the presence of spatial walk-off, at an overall FHG conversion efficiency of ∼11%. The generated UV output exhibits passive power stability better than 4.6% rms over 1.5 h and beam pointing stability better than 84 μrad over 1 h. The UV output beam has a circularity of >80% in high beam quality with the TEM00 mode profile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of picosecond UV generation at 266 nm at megahertz repetition rates.

  1. Recent Experimental and Theoretical Advances in Microdrilling of Polymers with Ultraviolet Laser Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lazare, S; Lazare, Sylvain; Tokarev, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Laser drilling becomes of increasing importance when hole diameter is in the range of 10 to 50 mum, for which conventional alternative approaches are becoming difficult and cost inefficient. Furthermore, it is viewed as the technique of choice for a number of composite materials and hard materials which are not readily processed at the microscopic level by contact mechanical tools. We have demonstrated that suitable experimental conditions are capable of producing microholes with record aspect-ratio (up to 600) in pure polymers like PET, PI, PC, PS, PMMA, PEEK,... For example holes of diameter typically 30 mum can be as long as 18 mm, depth at which the drilling rate is getting nearly zero and the profile stationary. Other materials (metals, ceramics) which can be similarly laser microdrilled do not exhibit such very high aspect-ratio. The mechanisms of the drilling process have been studied in details and an original analytical model has been constructed recently. The various experimental results, obtained w...

  2. Fabrication and stability of fiber bragg gratings for WDM applications using a 266 nm cw-laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2003-01-01

    Diode pumped continuous wave all solid state UV-lasers operating at 266 nm offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon ion lasers. We compare photosensitivity, UV-writing of Bragg gratings and thermal decay at 244, 257 and 266 nm.......Diode pumped continuous wave all solid state UV-lasers operating at 266 nm offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon ion lasers. We compare photosensitivity, UV-writing of Bragg gratings and thermal decay at 244, 257 and 266 nm....

  3. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  4. An amorphous LiCo{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Ni{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} thin film deposited on NASICON-type electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Imanishi, N.; Zhang, T.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    Amorphous LiCo{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Ni{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} thin films were deposited on the NASICON-type Li-ion conducting glass ceramics, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATSP), by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering below 130 C. The amorphous films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Li/PEO{sub 18}-Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N/LATSP/LiCo{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Ni{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}/Au all-solid-state cells were fabricated to investigate the electrochemical performance of the amorphous films. It was found that the low-temperature deposited amorphous cathode film shows a high discharge voltage and a high discharge capacity of around 130 mAh g{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Amorphous LiCoO{sub 2} thin films on Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J., E-mail: xiejian1977@zju.edu.c [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road no.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310027 (China); Imanishi, N.; Zhang, T.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Cao, G.S.; Zhao, X.B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road no.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310027 (China)

    2010-07-30

    Amorphous LiCoO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on the NASICON-type glass ceramics, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATSP), by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering below 180 {sup o}C. The as-deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. All-solid-state Li/PEO{sub 18}-Li (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N/LATSP/LiCoO{sub 2}/Au cells were fabricated using the amorphous film. The electrochemical performance of the cells was investigated by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, potentiostatic intermittent titration technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the amorphous LiCoO{sub 2} thin film shows a promising electrochemical performance, making it a potential application in microbatteries for microelectronic devices.

  6. Capillary discharge extreme ultraviolet lasers. Progress report, December 15, 1991--December 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The project objective is to explore the generation of soft X-ray laser radiation in a plasma column created by a fast capillary discharge. The proposed capillary lasing scheme offers the potential for compact, simple and efficient soft X-ray laser sources. For this purpose a compact, fast pulse generator which produces 100 kA current pulses with a risetime of 11 ns was constructed. Initial experiments were conducted in evacuated capillaries, in which the plasma is produced by ablation of the capillary walls. The soft X-ray emission from discharges in polyethylene capillary channels was studied to investigate the possibility of amplification in the 3-2 transition of C VI, at {lambda} = 18.2 nm. Time-resolved spectra in which this transition appears anomalously intense with respect to the 4--2 transition of the same ion were obtained. To date, however, this phenomenoa could not be confirmed as gain, as the intensity of the 18.2 nm line has not been observed to increase exponentially as a function of the capillary length. Encouraging results were obtained by fast pulse discharge excitation of capillaries filled with preionized gas. High temperature (Te > 150 eV), small diameter ({approximately}200 {mu}m) plasma columns were efficiently generated. Fast current pulse excitation of a selected low mass density of uniformly preionized material Mag the capillary was observed to detach rapidly the plasma from the capillary walls, and form a plasma channel of a diameter much smaller and significantly hotter than those produced by a similar current pulse in evacuated capillaries of the same size. Discharges in argon-filled capillaries at currents between 20 and 60 kA produced plasmas with ArX-Ar{sub XIV} line emission, and with spectra that are similar to those of plasmas generated by > I MA current implosions in large pulsed power machines. The characteristic of these plasmas approach those necessary for soft X-ray amplification in low Z elements.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at a seeded free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Angela, M.; Hieke, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Sturari, L.; Bajt, S.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Ratanapreechachai, J.; Caretta, A.; Casarin, B.; Glerean, F.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Manzoni, G.; Cilento, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Simoncig, A.; Principi, E.; Masciovecchio, C.; Raimondi, L.; Mahne, N.; Svetina, C.; Zangrando, M.; Passuello, R.; Gaio, G.; Prica, M.; Scarcia, M.; Kourousias, G.; Borghes, R.; Giannessi, L.; Wurth, W.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-12-01

    In the past few years, we have been witnessing an increased interest for studying materials properties under non-equilibrium conditions. Several well established spectroscopies for experiments in the energy domain have been successfully adapted to the time domain with sub-picosecond time resolution. Here we show the realization of high resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) with a stable ultrashort X-ray source such as an externally seeded free electron laser (FEL). We have designed and constructed a RIXS experimental endstation that allowed us to successfully measure the d-d excitations in KCoF3 single crystals at the cobalt M2,3-edge at FERMI FEL (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). The FEL-RIXS spectra show an excellent agreement with the ones obtained from the same samples at the MERIXS endstation of the MERLIN beamline at the Advanced Light Source storage ring (Berkeley, USA). We established experimental protocols for performing time resolved RIXS experiments at a FEL source to avoid X ray-induced sample damage, while retaining comparable acquisition time to the synchrotron based measurements. Finally, we measured and modelled the influence of the FEL mixed electromagnetic modes, also present in externally seeded FELs, and the beam transport with ~120 meV experimental resolution achieved in the presented RIXS setup.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet annealing of thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Valentin; Craciun, Doina; Andreazza, Pascal; Perriere, Jacques; Boyd, Ian W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a post-deposition annealing treatment in 1 bar of oxygen at moderate temperatures (excimer lamp upon thin ZrO 2 and hydroxyapatite (HAp) films grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique was investigated. The optical and structural properties of the films were improved by this treatment, the lower the deposition temperature and, accordingly, the poorer the initial characteristics, the more significant the improvements. The combination of these two techniques allowed us to obtain at temperatures below 350°C highly textured (020) ZrO 2 films, exhibiting optical absorption coefficients lower than 5×10 2 cm -1 and high refractive index values of around 2.25 in the visible region of the spectrum. The VUV treatment was also beneficial for the partially crystalline HAp layers containing tetracalcium phosphate and calcium oxide phases grown by the PLD technique under a low pressure oxidising atmosphere of only 10 -5 torr without any water vapours. After the VUV-assisted anneal, the crystalline structure and the stoichiometry greatly improved while the percentage of the other crystalline phases initially present was many times reduced.

  9. Compact compressive arc and beam switchyard for energy recovery linac-driven ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, J. A. G.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Setija, I. D.

    2017-08-01

    High gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by high repetition rate recirculating accelerators have received considerable attention in the scientific and industrial communities in recent years. Cost-performance optimization of such facilities encourages limiting machine size and complexity, and a compact machine can be realized by combining bending and bunch length compression during the last stage of recirculation, just before lasing. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on electron beam quality during compression can, however, limit FEL output power. When methods to counteract CSR are implemented, appropriate beam diagnostics become critical to ensure that the target beam parameters are met before lasing, as well as to guarantee reliable, predictable performance and rapid machine setup and recovery. This article describes a beam line for bunch compression and recirculation, and beam switchyard accessing a diagnostic line for EUV lasing at 1 GeV beam energy. The footprint is modest, with 12 m compressive arc diameter and ˜20 m diagnostic line length. The design limits beam quality degradation due to CSR both in the compressor and in the switchyard. Advantages and drawbacks of two switchyard lines providing, respectively, off-line and on-line measurements are discussed. The entire design is scalable to different beam energies and charges.

  10. Compact compressive arc and beam switchyard for energy recovery linac-driven ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. G. Akkermans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High gain free electron lasers (FELs driven by high repetition rate recirculating accelerators have received considerable attention in the scientific and industrial communities in recent years. Cost-performance optimization of such facilities encourages limiting machine size and complexity, and a compact machine can be realized by combining bending and bunch length compression during the last stage of recirculation, just before lasing. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR on electron beam quality during compression can, however, limit FEL output power. When methods to counteract CSR are implemented, appropriate beam diagnostics become critical to ensure that the target beam parameters are met before lasing, as well as to guarantee reliable, predictable performance and rapid machine setup and recovery. This article describes a beam line for bunch compression and recirculation, and beam switchyard accessing a diagnostic line for EUV lasing at 1 GeV beam energy. The footprint is modest, with 12 m compressive arc diameter and ∼20  m diagnostic line length. The design limits beam quality degradation due to CSR both in the compressor and in the switchyard. Advantages and drawbacks of two switchyard lines providing, respectively, off-line and on-line measurements are discussed. The entire design is scalable to different beam energies and charges.

  11. Photoelectrolysis of water at high current density - Use of ultraviolet laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, A. B.; Bolts, J. M.; Cummins, P. G.; Wrighton, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of TiO2 and SrTiO3 photoanodes in cells for the photoelectrolysis of H2O has been investigated for high-intensity 351-,364-nm excitation from an Ar ion laser. Intensities up to 380 W/sq cm have been used. For TiO2 a small amount of surface decomposition is found after irradiation at high intensity, whereas SrTiO3 undergoes no detectable changes. Current-voltage properties for both electrodes are essentially independent of light intensity up to the level of 380 W/sq cm, and there is little if any change in quantum efficiency for electron flow. Photocurrent densities have been shown to exceed 5 A/sq cm for O2 evolution. Data show that the energy storage rate associated with the SrTiO3 photoelectrolysis can exceed 30 W/sq cm; this represents the highest demonstrated rate of sustained optical-to-chemical energy conversion.

  12. Pulse laser photolysis of aqueous ozone in the microsecond range studied by time-resolved far-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takeyoshi; Morisawa, Yusuke; Higashi, Noboru; Ikehata, Akifumi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-05-01

    Chemical dynamics of an ozone (O3) pulse-photolytic reaction in aqueous solutions were studied with pump-probe transient far-ultraviolet (FUV) absorption spectroscopy. With a nanosecond pulse laser of 266 nm as pump light, transient spectra of O3 aqueous solutions (78-480 μM, pH 2.5-11.3) were acquired in the time range from -50 to 50 μs in the wavelength region from 190 to 225 nm. The measured transient spectra were linearly decomposed into the molar absorption coefficients and the concentration-time profiles of constituted chemical components with a multivariate curve resolution method. From the dependences of the time-averaged concentrations for 20 μs of the constituted chemicals on the initial concentration of O3, it was found that the transient spectra involve the decomposition of O3 and the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a third component that is assigned to hydroxyl radical (OH) or perhydroxyl radical (HO2). Furthermore, the pH dependence of the time-averaged concentration of the third components indicates that HO2 is more probable than OH as the third component. The time-averaged concentration ratio of each chemical component to the initial O3 concentration depends on the pH conditions from -0.95 to -0.60 for O3, 0.98 to 1.2 for H2O2, 0.002 to 0.29 for OH, and 0.012 to 0.069 for HO2.

  13. In situ diagnostics of the decomposition of silacyclobutane on a hot filament by vacuum ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y J; Lo, B; Tong, L; Li, X; Eustergerling, B D; Sorensen, T S

    2007-05-01

    The gas-phase reaction products of silacyclobutane (SCB) and 1, 1-dideuterio-silacyclobutane (SCB-d(2)) from a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) chamber were diagnosed in situ using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser single-photon ionization (SPI) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The SCB molecule was found to decompose at a filament temperature as low as 900 degrees C. Both Si- (silylene, methylsilylene, and silene) and C-containing (ethene and propene) species were produced from the SCB decomposition on the filament. Ethene and propene were detected by the mass spectrometer. It is demonstrated that the formation of ethene is favored over that of propene. The experimental study of hot-wire decomposition of SCB-d(2) shows that propene is most likely produced by a process that is initiated by a 1,2-H(D) migration to form n-propylsilylene, followed by an equilibration with silacyclopropane, which then decomposes to propene. The detection of ethene in our experiment indicates that a competitive route of fragmentation exists for SCB decomposition on the filament. It has been shown that this competitive route occurs without H/D scrambling. The highly reactive silylene, silene, and methylsilylene species produced from SCB decomposition underwent either insertion reactions into the Si-H bonds of the parent molecule or pi-type addition reaction across the double and triple CC bonds. The dimerization product of silene, 1,3-disilacyclobutane, at m/z = 88 was also observed.

  14. Communication: A vibrational study of propargyl cation using the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Lu, Zhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C Y

    2012-10-28

    By employing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron (VUV-VMI-PE) method, we have obtained a vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of gaseous propargyl radical [C(3)H(3)(X(2)B(1))] in the energy range of 0-4600 cm(-1) above its ionization energy. The cold C(3)H(3) radicals were produced from a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on 193 nm ArF photodissociation of C(3)H(3)Cl. The VUV-VMI-PE spectrum of C(3)H(3) thus obtained reveals a Franck-Condon factor (FCF) pattern with a highly dominant origin band along with weak vibrational progressions associated with excitations of the C-C ν(5)(+)(a(1)) and C≡C ν(3)(+)(a(1)) symmetric stretching modes and the CCH ν(7)(+)(b(1)) out-of-plane bending mode of C(3)H(3)(+)(X(1)A(1)). The ν(5)(+)(a(1)) vibrational frequency of 1120 cm(-1) determined in the present study is lower than the value deduced from the recent Ar-tagged infrared photodissociation study by 102 cm(-1), confirming the highly accurate vibrational frequency predictions obtained by the most recent state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations. The observation of the FCF disallowed ν(7)(+)(b(1)) mode is indicative of vibronic interactions. The discrepancy observed between the FCF pattern determined in the present study and that predicted by a recent high-level quantum theoretical investigation can be taken as evidence that the potential energy surfaces used in the latter theoretical study are in need of improvement in order to provide a reliable FCF prediction for the C(3)H(3)/C(3)H(3)(+) photoionization system.

  15. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Laasch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitat Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions. - Highlights: • First dual-pulse and ambient gas deep VUV LIBS plasma emission study • Optimization of inter-pulse delay time for vacuum and ambient gas environments • A sharp intensity peak implies optimal inter-pulse delay of 100 ns for all conditions. • A broad peak appears in the microsecond delay range, but only in ambient gases. • Pressure dependence implies a different enhancement process.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy study of amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films induced by an ultraviolet single-pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.J. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Liu, F.R., E-mail: Liufr@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Han, X.X.; Zhu, Z. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Lin, X.; Liu, F. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 10072 (China); Sun, N.X. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Northeastern University, MA 02115 (United States)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Crystalline grains are plate grains for 30 nm films upon UV laser irradiation. • Crystalline colonies growth method is similar to the dendrite growth for 30 nm films. • Increasing film thickness will decrease grain size if laser fluences are the same. • Increasing laser fluence can significantly promote crystalline grain growth. • Possible crystallization processes are analyzed based on a crystallization model. - Abstract: Crystallization behaviors of α-GST films with the thickness of 80 and 30 nm induced by an ultraviolet pulse laser were investigated by using TEM integrated with SAED. Firstly, crystalline phase morphologies were shown and analyzed. Both plate grains and spherical grains were found for 80 nm thick film, while only plate grains were found for 30 nm thick film. Then the relationship between the grain size and laser fluence for the 80 nm thick film was studied and the effects of film thickness on crystallization morphology were analyzed. Finally a crystallization process model based on the relationship of the crystallization starting temperature and heating temperature was constructed to elucidate how the solid-phase crystallization and melt-cooling crystallization occurred and developed. It also unified the crystallization starting temperature under static conditions and the crystallization starting temperature under laser inducing conditions.

  17. Controlled p-type to n-type conductivity transformation in NiO thin films by ultraviolet-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pranav; Dutta, Titas; Mal, Siddhartha; Narayan, Jagdish [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We report the systematic changes in structural, electrical, and optical properties of NiO thin films on c-sapphire introduced by nanosecond ultraviolet excimer laser pulses. Epitaxial nature of as deposited NiO was determined by x-ray diffraction phi scans and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was established that NiO film growth takes place with twin domains on sapphire where two types of domains have 60 deg. in-plane rotation with respect to each other about the [111] growth direction. We determined that at pulsed laser energy density of 0.275 J/cm{sup 2}, NiO films exhibited conversion from p-type semiconducting to n-type conductive behavior with three orders of magnitude decrease in resistivity, while maintaining its cubic crystal structure and good epitaxial relationship. Our TEM and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy studies conclusively ruled out the presence of any Ni clustering or precipitation due to the laser treatment. The laser-induced n-type carrier transport and conductivity enhancement were shown to be reversible through subsequent thermal annealing in oxygen. This change in conductivity behavior was correlated with the nonequilibrium concentration of laser induced Ni{sup 0}-like defect states.

  18. Communication: A vibrational study of propargyl cation using the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hong; Lu Zhou; Yang Lei; Zhou Jingang; Ng, C. Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2012-10-28

    By employing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron (VUV-VMI-PE) method, we have obtained a vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of gaseous propargyl radical [C{sub 3}H{sub 3}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1})] in the energy range of 0-4600 cm{sup -1} above its ionization energy. The cold C{sub 3}H{sub 3} radicals were produced from a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on 193 nm ArF photodissociation of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}Cl. The VUV-VMI-PE spectrum of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} thus obtained reveals a Franck-Condon factor (FCF) pattern with a highly dominant origin band along with weak vibrational progressions associated with excitations of the C-C {nu}{sub 5}{sup +}(a{sub 1}) and C{identical_to}C {nu}{sub 3}{sup +}(a{sub 1}) symmetric stretching modes and the CCH {nu}{sub 7}{sup +}(b{sub 1}) out-of-plane bending mode of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}(X{sup 1}A{sub 1}). The {nu}{sub 5}{sup +}(a{sub 1}) vibrational frequency of 1120 cm{sup -1} determined in the present study is lower than the value deduced from the recent Ar-tagged infrared photodissociation study by 102 cm{sup -1}, confirming the highly accurate vibrational frequency predictions obtained by the most recent state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations. The observation of the FCF disallowed {nu}{sub 7}{sup +}(b{sub 1}) mode is indicative of vibronic interactions. The discrepancy observed between the FCF pattern determined in the present study and that predicted by a recent high-level quantum theoretical investigation can be taken as evidence that the potential energy surfaces used in the latter theoretical study are in need of improvement in order to provide a reliable FCF prediction for the C{sub 3}H{sub 3}/C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} photoionization system.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet argon excimer laser excited by optical-field-induced ionized electrons produced in an argon-filled hollow fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito

    2011-10-01

    Short-wavelength lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region between 100 and 200 nm have not yet been developed to the same degree as visible and infrared lasers. We have demonstrated the production of argon excimers via an optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) process by using a high-intensity infrared laser. We here report optical amplification of argon excimers at the wavelength of 126 nm by producing an extended OFI plasma inside an argon-filled hollow fiber with an inner diameter of 250 microns with a length of 5.0 cm. A gain-length product of 4.3 through the use of single-pass amplification with VUV optics was observed, indicating a small signal gain coefficient of 0.86 cm-1 with an uncertainty of 0.03. It was found that the hollow fiber served to extend the OFI plasma length and to guide the excitation of the infrared laser and the produced VUV emissions at 126 nm, but did not affect the OFI plasma conditions to produce argon excimer molecules. Short-wavelength lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region between 100 and 200 nm have not yet been developed to the same degree as visible and infrared lasers. We have demonstrated the production of argon excimers via an optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) process by using a high-intensity infrared laser. We here report optical amplification of argon excimers at the wavelength of 126 nm by producing an extended OFI plasma inside an argon-filled hollow fiber with an inner diameter of 250 microns with a length of 5.0 cm. A gain-length product of 4.3 through the use of single-pass amplification with VUV optics was observed, indicating a small signal gain coefficient of 0.86 cm-1 with an uncertainty of 0.03. It was found that the hollow fiber served to extend the OFI plasma length and to guide the excitation of the infrared laser and the produced VUV emissions at 126 nm, but did not affect the OFI plasma conditions to produce argon excimer molecules. Part of this work has been supported by

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-, amino-derivatives absorbed on particulate matter 2.5 by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using far-, deep-, and near-ultraviolet femtosecond lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Imasaka, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-06-01

    Multiphoton ionization processes of parent-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and amino-PAHs (APAHs) were examined by gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser as the ionization source. The efficiency of multiphoton ionization was examined using lasers emitting in the far-ultraviolet (200 nm), deep-ultraviolet (267 nm), and near-ultraviolet (345 nm) regions. The largest signal intensities were obtained when the far-ultraviolet laser was employed. This favorable result can be attributed to the fact that these compounds have the largest molar absorptivities in the far-ultraviolet region. On the other hand, APAHs were ionized more efficiently than NPAHs in the near-ultraviolet region because of their low ionization energies. A sample extracted from a real particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) sample was measured, and numerous signal peaks arising from PAH and its analogs were observed at 200 nm. On the other hand, only a limited number of signed peaks were observed at 345 nm, some of which were signed to PPAHs, NPAHs, and APAHs. Thus, multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry has potential for the use in comprehensive analysis of toxic environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thuy Duong; Vu, Duong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Do, Quang Hoa; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam.

  2. 基于LiCo0.8M0.2O2(M=Ni,Zr)薄膜的全固态薄膜锂电池%Physical and Electrochemical Characterization of LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M=Ni,Zr) Cathode Films for All-solid-state Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李驰麟; 刘文元; 傅正文

    2006-01-01

    LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M=Ni,Zr) films were fabricated by radio frequency sputtering deposition combined with conventional annealing methods. The structures of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD),Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. It was shown that the 700 ℃annealed LiCo0.8M0.2O2 has an α-NaFeO2-like layered structure. All-solid-state thin-film batteries (TFBs)were fabricated with these films as the cathode and their electrochemical performances were evaluated. It was found that doping of electrochemically active Ni and inactive Zr has different effects on the structural and electrochemical properties of the LiCoO2 cathode films. Ni doping increases the discharge capacity of the film while Zr doping improves its cycling stability.%用射频磁控溅射结合传统退火的方法制备LiCo0.8M0.2O2(M=Ni,Zr)阴极薄膜X射线衍射、拉曼光谱、扫描电子显微镜等手段表征了不同掺杂的LiCo0.8M0.2O2薄膜.结果显示,700 ℃退火的LiCo0.8M0.2O2薄膜具有类似Q-NaFeO2的层状结构.通过对不同掺杂锂钴氧阴极的全同态薄膜钮电池Li/LiPON/LiCo0.8M0.2O2的电化学性能研究表明,电化学活性元素Ni的掺杂使全固态电池具有更大的放电容量(56 μAh/cm2,μm),而非电化学活性元素Zr的掺杂使全固态电池具有更好的循环稳定性.

  3. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery St., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic and Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  4. Double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with ambient gas in the vacuum ultraviolet: Optimization of parameters for detection of carbon and sulfur in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physics, Atomic, Molecular and Plasma Spectroscopy Group, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-11-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) has been applied to calibrated steel samples for the low concentration level detection of the light elements, carbon and sulfur in steel. Experimental optimization parameters, aimed at enhancing the sensitivity of the technique, included short wavelength spectral detection, double-pulse (DP) operation, variable focusing conditions and different ambient environments in terms of gas type and pressure. Two lasers were employed respectively as an ablation laser (Spectron: 1.06 μm/200 mJ/15 ns) and a reheating laser (Surelite: 1.06 μm/665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear geometry. The results include insight into the most salient experimental variables and limits of detection in the parts per million range. - Highlights: • First overall optimization of TISR-LIBS in the deep VUV • First combination of double pulse VUV emission with low pressure ambient gas • The influence of each parameter on the plasm emission • Improvement of LOD for C and S in steel with optimized parameters.

  5. Ruggedized microchannel-cooled laser diode array with self-aligned microlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    2003-11-11

    A microchannel-cooled, optically corrected, laser diode array is fabricated by mounting laser diode bars onto Si surfaces. This approach allows for the highest thermal impedance, in a ruggedized, low-cost assembly that includes passive microlens attachment without the need for lens frames. The microlensed laser diode array is usable in all solid-state laser systems that require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  6. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.

    2015-01-01

    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  7. Formation of a fine-dispersed liquid-metal target under the action of femto- and picosecond laser pulses for a laser-plasma radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokhodov, A Yu; Krivokorytov, M S [EUV Labs, Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshelev, K N; Krivtsun, V M; Sidelnikov, Yu V; Medvedev, V V; Kompanets, V O; Melnikov, A A; Chekalin, S V [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We report the results of studying the dynamics of deformation and fragmentation of liquid-metal droplets under the action of ultrashort laser pulses. The experiments have been performed to optimise the shape of the droplet target used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation sources based on the laser-produced plasma using the pre-pulse technology. The pre-pulse is generated by a system incorporating a master Ti : sapphire oscillator and a regenerative amplifier, allowing one to vary the pulse duration from 50 fs to 50 ps. The power density of laser radiation at the droplet target, averaged over the pulse duration and spatial coordinates, has reached 3 × 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The production of liquid-metal droplets has been implemented by means of a droplet generator based on a nozzle with a ring piezoceramic actuator. The droplet material is the eutectic indium – tin alloy. The droplet generator could operate in the droplet and jet regime with a maximal rate of stable operation 5 and 150 kHz, respectively. The spatial stability of droplet position σ = 1% – 2% of its diameter is achieved. The size of the droplets varied within 30 – 70 μm, their velocity was 2 – 8 m s{sup -1} depending on the operation regime. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  8. On the maximum conversion efficiency into the 13.5-nm extreme ultraviolet emission under a steady-state laser ablation of tin microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basko, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical investigation has been performed on the conversion efficiency (CE) into the 13.5-nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in a scheme where spherical microspheres of tin (Sn) are simultaneously irradiated by two laser pulses with substantially different wavelengths. The low-intensity short-wavelength pulse is used to control the rate of mass ablation and the size of the EUV source, while the high-intensity long-wavelength pulse provides efficient generation of the EUV light at λ=13.5 nm. The problem of full optimization for maximizing the CE is formulated and solved numerically by performing two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RALEF-2D code under the conditions of steady-state laser illumination. It is shown that, within the implemented theoretical model, steady-state CE values approaching 9% are feasible; in a transient peak, the maximum instantaneous CE of 11.5% was calculated for the optimized laser-target configuration. The physical factors, bringing down the fully optimized steady-state CE to about one half of the absolute theoretical maximum of CE≈20 % for the uniform static Sn plasma, are analyzed in detail.

  9. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-10-01

    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  10. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-12-16

    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO2 laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  11. Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in a photoreaction chamber with a tunable mid-infrared laser and ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew T; Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; McIntyre, Thomas J; Tulip, John; Jäger, Wolfgang; McDonald, Karen

    2011-02-01

    We describe the implementation of a mid-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor with a photoreaction chamber, used for reproducing chemical transformations of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) gases that may occur in the atmosphere. The system performance was assessed in the presence of photoreaction products including aerosol particles. A mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL)-tunable from 9.41-9.88 μm (1012-1063 cm(-1))-was used to monitor gas phase concentrations of BTX simultaneously and in real time during chemical processing of these compounds with hydroxyl radicals in a photoreaction chamber. Results are compared to concurrent measurements using ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV DOAS). The EC-QCL based system provides quantitation limits of approximately 200, 200, and 600 parts in 10(9) (ppb) for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, respectively, which represents a significant improvement over our previous work with this laser system. Correspondingly, we observe the best agreement between the EC-QCL measurements and the UV DOAS measurements with benzene, followed by toluene, then p-xylene. Although BTX gas-detection limits are not as low for the EC-QCL system as for UV DOAS, an unidentified by-product of the photoreactions was observed with the EC-QCL, but not with the UV DOAS system.

  12. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2017-07-12

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021) substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  13. Order-of-magnitude power enhancement of an Er3+ 2.7-µm ZBLAN laser utilizing lifetime quenching by energy transfer to Pr3+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, there have been enormous research efforts to improve the performance of lasers emitting around 3 µm mainly because of their potential applications in medicine. The erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber is a promising candidate for the construction of a compact and efficient all-solid-state laser

  14. Picosecond green and deep ultraviolet pulses generated by a high-power 100  kHz thin-disk laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Smrž, Martin; Miura, Taisuke; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-11-15

    We report on the generation of the second (515 nm) and fourth (257.5 nm) harmonics from a 100 kHz diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at a wavelength of 1030 nm which uses one Yb:YAG thin disk in the regenerative amplifier and delivers 60 W of the average output power in pulses of 4 ps duration. Thirty-five W in green light and 6 W in deep ultraviolet (DUV) were achieved. The sensitivity of the second harmonic generation efficiency toward the lithium triborate crystal temperature is demonstrated in experiment. The overall conversion efficiency from NIR to DUV of 10% was achieved. The β-barium borate and cesium lithium borate crystals were used as green to DUV convertors and compared regarding the efficiency and spectral bandwidths. The achieved output power is unique for DUV picosecond pulses.

  15. Complexation of europium(III) with the zwitterionic form of amino acids studied with ultraviolet-visible and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Anne; Rönitz, Olivia; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert; Ackermann, Jörg-Uwe

    2010-08-01

    The complex formation of europium(III) with the zwitterionic form of amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, and threonine) has been studied in aqueous solution. Measurements were performed at I = 0.1 M (NaCl/NaClO(4)), room temperature, and trace metal concentrations in the range of pH 2 to 8 using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). While complexation leads to a significant luminescence enhancement in the emission spectrum of the metal ion, absorption in the UV-Vis spectrum of the amino acid (AA) decreases. As zwitterionic species (AAH), all three ligands form weak complexes with 1:1 stoichiometry and a general formula of EuAAH(3+) with the metal. The complex stability constants were determined to be log K approximately 1 for all complexes, indicating the negligible contribution of the amino acid side chain to the complex formation reaction.

  16. A Solid State Ultraviolet Lasers Based on Cerium-Doped LiCaAIF(sub 6) Crystal Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Le, Thanh; Schowalter, Steven J.; Rellergert, Wade; Jeet, Justin; Lin, Guoping; Hudson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of a UV laser using a high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator of Ce+: LiCaAlF6. We show that WGM resonators from LiCaAlF6 can achieve a Q of 2.6 x 10(sup 7) at UV. We demonstrated a UV laser at 290 nm with a pulsed pump laser at 266 nm. The experiments showed the low pump threshold intensity of 7.5 x 10(sup 9) W/m(sup 2) and slope efficiency of 25%. We have also observed lasing delay dynamics. These results are consistent with our modeling and theoretical estimates, and pave the way for a low threshold cw UV laser using WGM resonator cavity.

  17. A Solid State Ultraviolet Lasers Based on Cerium-Doped LiCaAIF(sub 6) Crystal Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Le, Thanh; Schowalter, Steven J.; Rellergert, Wade; Jeet, Justin; Lin, Guoping; Hudson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of a UV laser using a high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator of Ce+: LiCaAlF6. We show that WGM resonators from LiCaAlF6 can achieve a Q of 2.6 x 10(sup 7) at UV. We demonstrated a UV laser at 290 nm with a pulsed pump laser at 266 nm. The experiments showed the low pump threshold intensity of 7.5 x 10(sup 9) W/m(sup 2) and slope efficiency of 25%. We have also observed lasing delay dynamics. These results are consistent with our modeling and theoretical estimates, and pave the way for a low threshold cw UV laser using WGM resonator cavity.

  18. An ultraviolet/infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization sample stage integrating scanning knife-edge and slit devices for laser beam analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Jens; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2011-05-15

    A sample stage is described that allows the on-line analysis of laser intensity profiles and spot sizes directly in the ion source of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometer. The detector uses either a scanning knife-edge or a narrow slit in combination with diffusing disks for scattering of photons and a pyroelectric sensor for recording the light pulses. The setup was integrated into the sample holder of a oMALDI2(TM) ion source (AB Sciex) and allows parallel analysis of UV- and IR-laser beams at typical UV-/IR-MALDI laser fluences. The concept could be especially useful for a precise control of the laser spot size in MALDI imaging applications. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Study on a practical 266 nm ultraviolet laser%实用化266nm紫外激光器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书云; 肖磊; 王旭; 张弛; 刘磊

    2012-01-01

    An acousto-optic Q-switched 1064 nm quasi-continuous laser with a LD end-pumped Nd: YVO4 crystal is reported. A LBO crystal and a BBO crystal are respectively used in the cavity for intracavity frequency doubling and ext-racavity frequency quadrupling. A 266 nm ultraviolet laser output with a pulse width of 22 ns, a repetition of 20 kHz and an average power of 1. 12 W is obtained. And the optical-optical efficiency is 21. 37%.%报道了LD端面泵浦Nd∶ YVO4晶体、声光调Q 1064 nm准连续紫外激光,采用LBO晶体和BBO晶体分别进行腔内二倍频和腔外四倍频,从而获得266 nm紫外激光输出,脉冲宽度22 ns、重复频率为20 kHz、平均功率1.12W,光-光转换效率(532 ~266 nm)21.37%.

  20. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  1. Ultraviolet Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra. Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form. The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue. What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms. The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials. The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of time. In fact, it is one of the

  2. Green and ultraviolet pulse generation with a compact, fiber laser, chirped-pulse amplification system for aerosol fluorescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Janet W.; Currie, Marc; Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Eversole, Jay D.

    2010-10-01

    We use a compact chirped-pulse amplified system to harmonically generate ultrashort pulses for aerosol fluorescence measurements. The seed laser is a compact, all-normal dispersion, mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser with a 1050 nm center wavelength operating at 41 MHz. Average powers of more than 1.2 W at 525 nm and 350 mW at 262 nm are generated with biofluorescence measurements as it allows faster sampling rates as well as the higher peak powers as compared to previously demonstrated Q-switched systems while maintaining a pulse period that is longer than the typical fluorescence lifetimes. Thus, the fluorescence excitation can be considered to be quasicontinuous and requires no external synchronization and triggering.

  3. Fabrication of advanced fiber Bragg gratings by use of sequential writing with a continuous-wave ultraviolet laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Ingemar; Sahlgren, Bengt; Helmfrid, Sten; Friberg, Ari T; Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves

    2002-02-20

    We present a novel scheme based on sequential writing for fabrication of advanced fiber Bragg gratings. As opposed to earlier sequential methods this technique uses a cw UV laser source and allows for very precise control and repetitivity of the formation of the gratings. Furthermore it is possible to use high average irradiances without destroying the fiber, resulting in considerable reduction in fabrication time for complex gratings. The method has been applied to several test gratings, which proved its versatility and quality.

  4. Planar periodic structures fabricated in Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass using multi-beam ultraviolet laser holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissadakis, Stavros; Pappas, Christos

    2007-04-02

    The inscription of a two-dimensional periodic lattice in the Schott IOG1 phosphate glass, by employing a laser assisted selective chemical etching method, is presented here. A two step patterning approach is employed, wherein damage is induced into the glass volume by exposure to intense laser radiation and subsequently, a chemical development in an alkali solution, selectively etches the exposed areas. A simple four beam interferometric setup is used for defining the two-dimensional periodic pattern on the sample surface. The exposures were performed by using the output of a high coherence 213nm, 150ps Nd:YAG laser; while the chemical developing was carried out in aqueous KOH solution. The periodic structures inscribed have periodicities of the order of 500nm and depth greater than 200nm. These Bragg reflectors are characterized by means of diffraction efficiency, and surface topology by employing atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. Issues related with the interferometric and wet etching processes are also presented and discussed.

  5. Transient absorption and luminescence spectra of K9 glass at sub-damage site by ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z., E-mail: namezhangzhen@126.com [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Huang, J.; Geng, F.; Zhou, X.Y. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Feng, S.Q. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Cheng, X.L., E-mail: chengxl@scu.edu.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Jiang, X.D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wu, W.D. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Zheng, W.G.; Tang, Y.J. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. • As the energy density increases to 2.54 J/cm{sup 2}, the absorption intensity reaches to about 0.2. • The mechanism of two-photon ionization mainly plays a critical role at sub-damage site. • Intensity of Raman spectra is very high at low energy density and decreased with respect to high energy density. -- Abstract: Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. The dependence of transient absorption on laser energy and number of pulses was investigated. As the energy density increases to 2.54 and 3.18 J/cm{sup 2}, the transient absorption intensity reaches to about 0.20 range from 400 to 480 nm. With the increase of number of pulses the process of residual absorption appears, which can be used to explain the fatigue effect of K9 glass. The defects in K9 glass were investigated by fluorescence and Raman spectra. The fluorescence band centered at about 410 nm is attributed to oxygen deficiency centers. The mechanism of two-photon ionization plays a critical role at sub-damage site. Compared to the Raman spectra of pristine site, intensity of Raman spectra is very high at a lower energy density, while it decreased at a higher energy density.

  6. Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with a vacuum-ultraviolet photon source based on laser high-order harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Philippe; Gaudin, Jérôme; Godehusen, Kai; Schwarzkopf, Olaf; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    A laser-based tabletop approach to femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with photons in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) energy range is described. The femtosecond VUV pulses are produced by high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of an amplified femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system. Two generations of the same setup and results from photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase are discussed. In both generations, a toroidal grating monochromator was used to select one harmonic in the photon energy range of 20-30 eV. The first generation of the setup was used to perform photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase to determine the bandwidth of the source. We find that our HHG source has a bandwidth of 140 ± 40 meV. The second and current generation is optimized for femtosecond pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy with high flux and a small spot size at the sample of the femtosecond probe pulses. The VUV radiation is focused into the interaction region with a toroidal mirror to a spot smaller than 100 × 100 μm(2) and the flux amounts to 10(10) photons/s at the sample at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The duration of the monochromatized VUV pulses is determined to be 120 fs resulting in an overall pump-probe time resolution of 135 ± 5 fs. We show how this setup can be used to map the transient valence electronic structure in molecular dissociation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Analysis of the damage effect of femtosecond-laser irradiation on extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suman, M. [National Research Council-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, IFN-CNR, via Trasea 7, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Monaco, G., E-mail: monaco.gianni@gmail.com [National Research Council-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, IFN-CNR, via Trasea 7, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Information Engineering Department, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6B, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Zuppella, P. [National Research Council-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, IFN-CNR, via Trasea 7, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Nicolosi, P.; Pelizzo, M.G. [National Research Council-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, IFN-CNR, via Trasea 7, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Information Engineering Department, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6B, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Ferrari, F.; Lucchini, M.; Nisoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Physics and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, IFN-CNR, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    Damage analysis of Mo/Si multilayer coatings exposed to fs infrared laser irradiation has been performed. The Mo/Si a-periodic multilayer samples were specifically designed with wide reflectivity bandwidth and suitable phase chirp in order to reflect attosecond pulses. After irradiation, the mirror surface was analyzed by using an optical microscope and a profilometer. The stoichiometry of the compounds formed at the sample surface after the irradiation was investigated using X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy. The performances of the irradiated samples with the reflected pulse characteristics have been derived via reflectivity and phase measurements.

  8. Ultraviolet laser-induced poling inhibition produces bulk domains in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boes, Andreas, E-mail: s3363819@student.rmit.edu.au; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); ARC Center for Ultra-high Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Yudistira, Didit [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Mailis, Sakellaris [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We report the realization of high-resolution bulk domains achieved using a shallow, structured, domain inverted surface template obtained by UV laser-induced poling inhibition in MgO-doped lithium niobate. The quality of the obtained bulk domains is compared to those of the template and their application for second harmonic generation is demonstrated. The present method enables domain structures with a period length as small as 3 μm to be achieved. Furthermore, we propose a potential physical mechanism that leads to the transformation of the surface template into bulk domains.

  9. Kinetics modeling of a pulsed Cu{endash}Ne discharge: potential for new ultraviolet laser transitions in Cu II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, R.J. [Center for Lasers and Applications, Macquarie University, Sydney, (Australia) NSW 2109

    1996-06-01

    A rate-equation analysis has been used to investigate the feasibility of exciting new UV laser transitions in Cu II (3{ital d}{sup 9}4{ital p}{minus}3{ital d}{sup 9}4{ital s}) by use of a pulsed Cu{emdash}Ne discharge. The model predicts average output powers in excess of 100 mW at 10 kHz from the combined output at 201.5 and 211.2 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  10. Measurement of H and H/sub 2/ populations in-situ in a low-temperature plasma by vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Stearns, J.W.; Doebele, H.G.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A new technique, vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy, has been developed to quantitatively determine the absolute density of H and H/sub 2/ within a plasma. The technique is particularly well suited to measurement in a plasma, where high charged particle and photon background complicate other methods of detection. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique allows for the measurement of the rotational-vibrational state distribution of H/sub 2/ as well as the translational temperature of the atoms and molecules. The technique has been used to study both pulsed and continuous H/sup /minus// ion-source plasma discharges. H/sub 2/ state distributions in a multicusp ''volume'' H/sup /minus// ion- source plasma show a high degree of internal excitation, with levels up to v = 5 and J = 8 being observed. The method is applicable for a very wide range of plasma conditions. Emission measurements from excited states of H are also reported. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Creation of carbon onions and coils at low temperature in near-critical benzene irradiated with an ultraviolet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takahiro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Watabe, Nami [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Whitby, Raymond [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Cockroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Maekawa, Toru [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2007-10-17

    Gas-liquid coexistence curves terminate at their critical points, where second-order phase transitions occur. The specific heat and compressibility increase greatly as the fluid systems approach their critical points. As a result, thermal diffusion is suppressed and the perturbations of the temperature, pressure and density propagate as acoustic waves. In this paper, we irradiate near-critical benzene with a laser beam of 266 nm in wavelength, the energy flux of which is 1.3 and 3.9 mW mm{sup -2}, and show that benzene is dissociated and various carbon nano/microstructures such as carbon onions and coils are created. Carbon onions are produced in both subcritical (200 deg. C) and supercritical (290 deg. C) benzene, whereas carbon coils are produced on an alloy catalyst composed of (Fe:Cr:Ni = 74:18:8) in supercritical benzene irradiated with a laser beam of 3.9 mW mm{sup -2}. The operational temperature of the present method is much lower than that used in conventional carbon structure synthesizing methods and a large number of carbon structures, such as carbon onions and coils, are produced in supercritical benzene.

  12. Creation of carbon onions and coils at low temperature in near-critical benzene irradiated with an ultraviolet laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takahiro; Watabe, Nami; Whitby, Raymond; Maekawa, Toru

    2007-10-01

    Gas-liquid coexistence curves terminate at their critical points, where second-order phase transitions occur. The specific heat and compressibility increase greatly as the fluid systems approach their critical points. As a result, thermal diffusion is suppressed and the perturbations of the temperature, pressure and density propagate as acoustic waves. In this paper, we irradiate near-critical benzene with a laser beam of 266 nm in wavelength, the energy flux of which is 1.3 and 3.9 mW mm-2, and show that benzene is dissociated and various carbon nano/microstructures such as carbon onions and coils are created. Carbon onions are produced in both subcritical (200 °C) and supercritical (290 °C) benzene, whereas carbon coils are produced on an alloy catalyst composed of (Fe:Cr:Ni = 74:18:8) in supercritical benzene irradiated with a laser beam of 3.9 mW mm-2. The operational temperature of the present method is much lower than that used in conventional carbon structure synthesizing methods and a large number of carbon structures, such as carbon onions and coils, are produced in supercritical benzene.

  13. Transient absorption and luminescence spectra of K9 glass at sub-damage site by ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Huang, J.; Geng, F.; Zhou, X. Y.; Feng, S. Q.; Cheng, X. L.; Jiang, X. D.; Wu, W. D.; Zheng, W. G.; Tang, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. The dependence of transient absorption on laser energy and number of pulses was investigated. As the energy density increases to 2.54 and 3.18 J/cm2, the transient absorption intensity reaches to about 0.20 range from 400 to 480 nm. With the increase of number of pulses the process of residual absorption appears, which can be used to explain the fatigue effect of K9 glass. The defects in K9 glass were investigated by fluorescence and Raman spectra. The fluorescence band centered at about 410 nm is attributed to oxygen deficiency centers. The mechanism of two-photon ionization plays a critical role at sub-damage site. Compared to the Raman spectra of pristine site, intensity of Raman spectra is very high at a lower energy density, while it decreased at a higher energy density.

  14. 紫外超短激光驱动铜薄膜靶产生质子的实验研究%Experiment on Proton Acceleration Using Ultraviolet Ultra-short Laser Interaction With Copper Thin Foil Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路建新; 兰小飞; 戴辉; 黄永盛; 席晓峰; 王雷剑; 杨大为; 汤秀章

    2013-01-01

    Proton acceleration induced by ultraviolet laser interaction with a thin foil was studied on an ultra-short KrF laser amplifier called LLG50 in CIAE. The energy spectrum was recorded by a Thomson ion spectrometer. The ultraviolet laser system generated ultra-short pulses with energy of 30 mj and pulse duration of 500 fs, and the peak focal intensity is 1. 2×1017 W/cm2. The maximal energy of protons recorded in the target normal direction is higher than 300 keV, and fast electrons were generated by vacuum heating or resonance absorption. The advantages of ultraviolet laser proton acceleration are high contrast in the laser pulse and high absorption rate.%在中国原子能科学研究院的放电泵浦的紫外KrF超短脉冲激光放大装置上,开展了紫外超短脉冲激光与铜薄膜靶相互作用加速产生质子束的实验研究.紫外超短脉冲激光输出能量为30 mJ、波长为248 nm、脉冲宽度为500 fs,采用离轴抛物面镜聚焦获得激光聚焦功率密度为1.2×1017 W/cm2.激光以45°入射5μm厚的铜薄膜靶,质子最大能量超过300 keV.紫外超短脉冲激光的高对比度和高吸收效率是紫外激光加速的优点.

  15. Infrared spectra and ultraviolet-tunable laser induced photochemistry of matrix-isolated phenol and phenol-d{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, Barbara Michela; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Lapinski, Leszek [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-01-14

    Monomers of phenol and its ring-perdeuterated isotopologue phenol-d{sub 5} were isolated in argon matrices at 15 K. The infrared (IR) spectra of these species were recorded and analyzed. In situ photochemical transformations of phenol and phenol-d{sub 5} were induced by tunable UV laser light. The photoproducts have been characterized by IR spectroscopy supported by theoretical calculations of the infrared spectra. The primary product photogenerated from phenol was shown to be the phenoxyl radical. The analysis of the progress of the observed phototransformations led to identification of 2,5-cyclohexadienone as one of the secondary photoproducts. Spectral indications of other secondary products, such as the Dewar isomer and the open-ring ketene, were also detected. Identification of the photoproducts provided a guide for the interpretation of the mechanisms of the observed photoreactions.

  16. Free-electron lasers in the ultraviolet and X-ray regime physical principles, experimental results, technical realization

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüser, Peter; Rossbach, Jörg; Behrens, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is to provide a systematic and didactic approach to the physics and technology of free-electron lasers. Numerous figures are used for illustrating the underlying ideas and concepts, and links to other fields of physics are provided. After an introduction to undulator radiation and the low-gain FEL, the one-dimensional theory of the high-gain FEL is developed in a systematic way. Particular emphasis is put on explaining and justifying the various assumptions and approximations that are needed to obtain the differential and integral equations governing the FEL dynamics. Analytical and numerical solutions are presented and important FEL parameters are defined, such as gain length, FEL bandwidth and saturation power. One of the most important features of a high-gain FEL, the formation of microbunches, is studied at length. The increase of gain length due to beam energy spread, space charge forces, and three-dimensional effects such as betatron oscillations and optical diffraction is anal...

  17. Picosecond pulses in deep ultraviolet (257.5 nm and 206 nm) and mid-IR produced by a high-power 100 kHz solid-state thin-disk laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turčičová, Hana; Novák, Ondřej; Smrž, Martin; Miura, Taisuke; Endo, Akira; Mocek, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-04-01

    We report on the generation of picosecond deep ultraviolet pulses at 257.5 nm and 206 nm produced as the fourth and fifth harmonic frequencies of the diode-pumped Yb:YAG thin-disk laser at the fundamental wavelength of 1030 nm. We present a proposal for a picosecond pulse mid-IR source tunable between 2 and 3 μm. The laser at the fundamental wavelength is based on a chirped-pulse amplification of pulses of a sub-ps laser oscillator in a regenerative amplifier with a thin-disk active medium. The diode pumping at the zero phonon line is used. The output beam is close to the fundamental spatial mode and the pulses are characterized by a 100 kHz repetition frequency, less than 4 ps pulse duration and Picosecond output pulses tunable between 2 and 3 μm at an average power of 10 W are proposed.

  18. Corneal healing after riboflavin ultraviolet-A collagen cross-linking determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo: early and late modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Traversi, Claudio; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Orsola; Bovone, Cristina; Sparano, Maria Caterina; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Caporossi, Aldo

    2008-10-01

    To assess early and late micromorphological modifications of cross-linked corneas in vivo by means of Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) II confocal microscopy. Prospective nonrandomized open trial. Micromorphological examination of 44 cross-linked keratoconic corneas was performed in vivo by HRT II confocal laser scanning microscopy. Riboflavin ultraviolet (UV)-A-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) was performed according to the Siena protocol: pilocarpin 1% drops 30 minutes before, topical anesthesia with lidocaine 4% drops 15 minutes before irradiation, mechanical scraping of epithelium (9-mm-diameter area), preirradiation soaking for 10 minutes in riboflavin solution 0.1% (Ricrolin, Sooft, Italy) applied every 2.5 minutes for 30 minutes, 30 minutes exposure to solid-state UVA illuminator (Caporossi; Baiocchi; Mazzotta, X-linker, CSO, Italy), 8-mm-diameter irradiated area, energy delivered 3 mW/cm(2). All patients were examined by confocal scans preoperatively and at the following times after treatment: one, three, and six months, and one, two, and three years. No damage to the limbal region was observed. Epithelial regrowth was complete after four days of soft contact lens bandage. The anatomy of the subepithelial plexus was restored one year after the operation with full corneal sensitivity. Increased density of extracellular matrix in late postoperative period indicated cross-linked collagen to a depth of 340 microm expressed by a late demarcation line. In vivo confocal microscopy showed early and late modification of corneal microstructure after the treatment. The three-year stability of CXL recorded could be related to increased cross-links formation, synthesis of well-structured collagen and new lamellar interconnections.

  19. ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on soda lime glass substrates for the ultraviolet inactivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosnier, Jean-Paul; O' Haire, Richard J; McGlynn, Enda; Henry, Martin O [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); McDonnell, Stephen J [Surface and Interface Research Laboratory, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Boyle, Maria A; McGuigan, Kevin G, E-mail: jean-paul.mosnier@dcu.i [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, St Stephen' s Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2009-08-15

    We found that a ZnO film of 2 {mu}m thickness which was laser-deposited at room temperature onto a plain soda lime glass substrate, exhibits notable antibacterial activity against a biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis when back-illuminated by a UVA light source with a peak emission wavelength of about 365 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the ZnO films before and after the interactions with the biofilm and the ultraviolet light, respectively. The as-deposited film was highly textured with the wurtzite (0002) in-plane orientation (c-axis perpendicular to ZnO surface) and had a surface rms roughness of 49.7 nm. In the as-deposited film, the Zn to O ratio was 1 to 0.95. After the UV and biofilm treatments, the ZnO film surface had become rougher (rms roughness 68.1 nm) and presented uniform micron-sized pitting randomly distributed, while the zinc to oxygen ratio had become 1 to 2.2. In this case, both the UV-visible and Raman spectra pointed to degradation of the structural quality of the material. On the strength of these data, we propose a model for the mediation of the bactericidal activity in which the photogeneration of highly oxidizing species and the presence of active surface defect sites both play an important role. This study is of particular interest for the acute problem of disinfection of pathogenic biofilms which form on medical device/implant surfaces.

  20. ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on soda lime glass substrates for the ultraviolet inactivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Mosnier, Richard J O'Haire, Enda McGlynn, Martin O Henry, Stephen J McDonnell, Maria A Boyle and Kevin G McGuigan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that a ZnO film of 2 μm thickness which was laser-deposited at room temperature onto a plain soda lime glass substrate, exhibits notable antibacterial activity against a biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis when back-illuminated by a UVA light source with a peak emission wavelength of about 365 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS were used to characterize the ZnO films before and after the interactions with the biofilm and the ultraviolet light, respectively. The as-deposited film was highly textured with the wurtzite (0002 in-plane orientation (c-axis perpendicular to ZnO surface and had a surface rms roughness of 49.7 nm. In the as-deposited film, the Zn to O ratio was 1 to 0.95. After the UV and biofilm treatments, the ZnO film surface had become rougher (rms roughness 68.1 nm and presented uniform micron-sized pitting randomly distributed, while the zinc to oxygen ratio had become 1 to 2.2. In this case, both the UV-visible and Raman spectra pointed to degradation of the structural quality of the material. On the strength of these data, we propose a model for the mediation of the bactericidal activity in which the photogeneration of highly oxidizing species and the presence of active surface defect sites both play an important role. This study is of particular interest for the acute problem of disinfection of pathogenic biofilms which form on medical device/implant surfaces.

  1. Determination of the absolute photoionization cross sections of CH3 and I produced from a pyrolysis source, by combined synchrotron and vacuum ultraviolet laser studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Bérenger; Vieira Mendes, Luiz A; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Douin, Stéphane; Garcia, Gustavo; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Cunha de Miranda, Barbara K; Alcaraz, Christian; Carrasco, Nathalie; Pernot, Pascal; Gauyacq, Dolores

    2010-03-11

    A pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion has been used to produce the CH3 radical from two precursors, iodomethane CH3I and nitromethane CH3NO2. The relative ionization yield of CH3 has been recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron Radiation source in the range 9.0-11.6 eV, and its ionization threshold has been modeled by taking into account the vibrational and rotational temperature of the radical in the molecular beam. The relative photoionization yield has been normalized to an absolute cross section scale at a fixed wavelength (118.2 nm, sigma(i)(CH3) = 6.7(-1.8)(+2.4) Mb, 95% confidence interval) in an independent laboratory experiment using the same pyrolysis source, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser, and a carefully calibrated detection chain. The resulting absolute cross section curve is in good agreement with the recently published measurements by Taatjes et al., although with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. The absolute photoionization cross section of CH3I at 118.2 nm has also been measured to be sigma(i)(CH3I) = (48.2 +/- 7.9) Mb, in good agreement with previous electron impact measurements. Finally, the photoionization yield of the iodine atom in its ground state 2P(3/2) has been recorded using the synchrotron source and calibrated for the first time on an absolute cross section scale from our fixed 118.2 nm laser measurement, sigma(i)(I2P(3/2)) = 74(-23)(+33) Mb (95% confidence interval). The ionization curve of atomic iodine is in good agreement, although with slight variations, with the earlier relative ionization yield measured by Berkowitz et al. and is also compared to an earlier calculation of the iodine cross section by Robicheaux and Greene. It is demonstrated that, in the range of pyrolysis temperature used in this work, all the ionization cross sections are temperature-independent. Systematic care has been taken to include all uncertainty sources contributing to the final confidence intervals for the reported results.

  2. Matrix and energy effects during in-situ determination of Cu isotope ratios by ultraviolet-femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarov, Marina, E-mail: m.lazarov@mineralogie.uni-hannover.de; Horn, Ingo

    2015-09-01

    Copper isotope compositions in Cu-bearing metals and minerals have been measured by deep (194 nm) ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fsLA-MC-ICP-MS). Pure Cu-metal, brass, and several Cu-rich minerals (chalcopyrite, enargite, covellite, malachite and cuprite) have been investigated. A long-term reproducibility of better than 0.08‰ at the 95% confidence limit on the NIST SRM 976 (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Cu-metal standard has been achieved with this technique. The δ{sup 65}Cu values for all samples have been calculated by standard-sample-standard bracketing with NIST SRM 976. All analyses have been carried out using Ni as a mass discrimination monitor added by nebulization prior to entering the plasma torch. For further verification samples have been analysed by conventional solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS and the results obtained have been compared with those from UV-fsLA-MC-ICP-MS. Several potential matrix-induced molecular interferences on the mineral copper isotope ratio, such as ({sup 32}S{sup 33}S){sup +} and ({sup 32}S-{sup 16}O{sup 17}O){sup +} do not affect the Cu isotope measurements on sulfides, while hydrides, such as Zn–H or doubly-charged Sn{sup 2+} that interfere Ni isotopes can be either neglected or stripped by calculation. Matrix independent Cu-isotope measurements are sensitive to the energy density (fluence) applied onto the sample and can produce artificial shifts in the obtained δ{sup 65}Cu values which are on the order of 3‰ for Cu-metal, 0.5‰ for brass and 0.3‰ for malachite when using energy density of up to 2 J/cm{sup 2} for ablation. A positive correlation between applied energy density and the magnitude of the isotope ratio shift has been found in the energy density range from 0.2 to 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} which is below the ablation threshold for ns-laser ablation. The results demonstrate that by using appropriate low fluence it is possible

  3. Noninvasive Detection of Latent Fingerprints Using Ultraviolet Laser%紫外激光无损检测潜在指印技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 钮洁青; 黄云刚; 毛林杰; 陈敬蓉

    2011-01-01

    Detection of latent fingerprints is one of the key problems in the forensic science area, and ultraviolet (UV) photography technology is an important method of latent fingerprints noninvasive detection. The 266 nm UV solid state laser is used as the excitation light source. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characteristics of fingerprint ridge residuals to UV light, and by using reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects (magazine cover, glass, back of cellular phone, wood desktop paintwork), and two types of absorbing objects (manila envelope and notebook paper) are noninvasively detected and revealed. The results have identification value.%潜在指印的显现是物证检验技术中的关键问题之一,而紫外(UV)照相技术是显现潜在指印等隐性痕迹物证的重要技术手段.采用266 nm紫外固体激光器为激发光源,利用人体指印固有物质成分对紫外光具有特殊的吸收、反射、散射及荧光特性,减弱或消除指印背景上的图案和其他细节干扰,增加指印纹线与背景的亮度反差,显出或增强潜在指印.通过紫外反射照相及紫外固有荧光照相技术,分别实现了对彩色杂志纸张、玻璃、电话背面、木纹桌面油漆面4种非渗透性物证检材及牛皮纸信封、便签纸2种渗透性物证检材表面遗留的新鲜及陈旧潜在指印的无损检测显现,并具有鉴定价值.

  4. Quaternary ultraviolet AlInGaN MQW laser diode performance using quaternary AlInGaN electron blocking layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazai, A J; Thahab, S M; Abu Hassan, H; Hassan, Z

    2011-05-09

    The effect of polarization-matched Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N electron-blocking layer (EBL) on the optical performance of ultraviolet Al(0.08)In(0.08)Ga(0.84)N/Al(0.1)In(0.01)Ga(0.84)N multi-quantum well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) was investigated. The polarization-matched Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N electron blocking layer (EBL) was employed in an attempt to reduce the polarization effect inside the active region of the diodes. The device performance which is affected by piezoelectric was studied via drift-diffusion model for carrier transport, optical gain and losses using the simulation program of Integrated System Engineering Technical Computer Aided design (ISE TCAD). The optical performance of the LD using quaternary Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N EBL was compared with the LD using ternary Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N EBL where both materials have the same energy band gap of Eg = 3.53 eV. The self-consistent ISE-TCAD simulation program results showed that the polarization-matched quaternary Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N EBL is beneficial as it confines the electrons inside the quantum well region better than ternary Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N EBL. The results indicated that the use of Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N EBL has lower threshold current and higher optical intensity than those for Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N EBL. The effect of Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N EBL thickness on the performance of LDs has also been studied. Results at room temperature indicated that lower threshold current, high slope efficiency, high output power, and high differential quantum efficiency DQE occurred when the thickness of Al(0.25)In(0.08)Ga(0.67)N EBL was 0.25 µm. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. All-solid-state potassium-selective electrode using graphene as the solid contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fenghua; Ye, Junjin; Zhou, Min;

    2012-01-01

    microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of the new K+−selective electrodes was examined by a potentiometric water layer test, potentiometric measurements, and current reversal chronopotentiometry. The obtained potentiometric...

  6. Nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon electrolyte for all-solid-states batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Small size and high power density secondary batteries are desired for a large number of applications based on miniature wireless devices and sensors that need to be compatible with the microelectronic fabrication technology. This fact resulted in the development of solid electrolytes, like lithium...

  7. All-solid-state cable-type flexible zinc-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohyuk; Park, Minjoon; Nam, Gyutae; Lee, Jang-soo; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-02-25

    A cable-type flexible Zn-air battery with a spiral zinc anode, gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), and air cathode coated on a nonprecious metal catalyst is designed in order to extend its application area toward wearable electronic devices.

  8. Solidified inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte for all solid state flexible lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Wook; Honma, Itaru; Kim, Jedeok; Rangappa, Dinesh

    2017-03-01

    Solidified lithium conducting hybrid electrolyte is designed and processed to realize the large scale and flexible solid state Li battery satisfying energy capability and safety issue. This paper presents a solidified inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte to obtain commercially-acceptable ionic conductivity and a stable electrochemical window to prevent electrolyte decomposition in Li ion batteries. Li3PO4 coated with solidified [Li][EMI][TFSI] ionic liquid is developed as hybrid electrolyte material. The material has high electrochemical stability on a high-voltage cathode and metallic anode, and the solid electrolyte has high ionic conductivity. This Li3PO4-[Li][EMI][TFSI] hybrid electrolyte has the advantages of long-term operation, safety and flexibility, so it may be suitable for use in high-voltage cathodes and Li anode.

  9. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  10. All-solid-state cavity QED using Anderson-localized modes in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup;

    2010-01-01

    We employ Anderson-localized modes in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides to confine light and enhance the interaction with matter. A 15-fold enhancement of the decay rate of a single quantum dot is observed meaning that 94% of the emitted single photons are coupled to an Anderson...

  11. All-solid-state microscopic interferometer with frequencyvariation and phase-shifting capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jin-dong; ZHAO Xiao-bo; PENG Xiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel microscopic interferometry with ability of frequency-variation and phase-shifting is proposed for microstructures testing. By using acousto-optic technique, sequential carriers can be generated with different spatial frequencies so that the temporal phase unwrapping method can be applied for decoding the height information. Combined with phase-shifting technique realized by spatial light modulator, this method is especially suitable for interferometric measurement with high precision and large dynamic range.

  12. A first truly all-solid state organic electrochromic device based on polymeric ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaplov, Alexander S; Ponkratov, Denis O; Aubert, Pierre-Henri; Lozinskaya, Elena I; Plesse, Cédric; Vidal, Frédéric; Vygodskii, Yakov S

    2014-03-25

    Using polymeric ionic liquids and PEDOT as ion conducting separators and electrodes, respectively, an all-polymer-based organic electrochromic device (ECD) has been constructed. The advantages of such an ECD are: fast switching time (3 s), high coloration efficiency (390 cm(2) C(-1) at 620 nm), optical contrast up to ΔT = 22% and the possibility of working under vacuum.

  13. $Li_7La_3Zr_2O_{12}$ based all solid state thin film batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Lobe, Sandra; Tsai, Chih-Long; Finsterbusch, Martin; Dellen, Christian; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Guillon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Liquid organic electrolytes cause safety problems due to an insufficient thermal and electrochemical stability. One approach to avoid such disadvantages is the replacement of the liquid electrolyte by a solid one. Next to sulfides and phosphates, current research is focused on Li conducting ceramic oxide materials like Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ), a promising garnet-structured material with a Li ion conductivity of about 10-4 S/cm. Li ion conductivity can increased by partial substitution of Li or Zr....

  14. Green emission from Eu{sup 2+}/Dy{sup 3+} codoped SrO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-ceramic by ultraviolet light and femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Huidan; Lin, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Qiang [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chen, Danping, E-mail: d-chen@mail.siom.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liang, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yinsheng [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Guorong, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A spectroscopic investigation of Eu{sup 2+}/Dy{sup 3+} codoped SrO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-ceramic is presented. The sample exhibits green emission excited by ultraviolet (UV) light and near-IR femtosecond (fs) laser. The emission profile obtained by near-IR fs laser irradiation is similar to that by UV excitation, indicating that both of the emissions come from 5d {yields} 4f transition of the Eu{sup 2+} ions. The relationship between the upconversion luminescence (UCL) intensity and pump power reveals a two-photon process in the conversion of near-IR radiation to the green emission. The possible mechanism of UCL from such glass-ceramic is proposed.

  15. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Epilepsy-Topion-Bioplasma, (the Seizure Onset Area) Upon the Action of the Optical-Fiber-Guided Multi-Ultraviolet-Photon Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The ultraviolet photons may control the imbalance of sodium and potassium ions in the brain bioplasma and, consequently, may prove to be efficient in the prevention of epileptic seizures. A novel method is based on the multi-ultraviolet-photon beam interaction with the epilepsy-topion-bioplasma, (nonlinear coupling of an ultra high frequency mode to the brain beta phonons). It is hypothesized that epilepsy is a chaotic-dynamics phenomenon: small electrical changes in the epilepsy-topion-bioplasma lead, (within the 10s of milliseconds), to the onset of chaos, (seizure-excessive electrical discharge), and subsequent cascading into adjacent areas.

  16. Ultraviolet Photodissociation of Molecular Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-15

    Continue on reerse side if neceesry and identify by block number) Photodissociation , excimer laser, nitrocompounds, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide ...4 ULTRAVIOLET PHOTODISSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR BEAMS. * TYPE OF REPORT (TECHNICAL, FINAL, ETC.) FINAL REPOT OR PERIOD 0/01/77 - 9/30/80 AUTHOR (S... Photodissociation of Final report for period 10/01/77 - 9/30/80 Molecular Beams 6. PERFORMIN, CRG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) R

  17. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  18. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  19. Histological and molecular analysis of the long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the ultraviolet-damaged skin of hairless mice: In association with pulse duration change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Do Young; Cho, Hong Il; Park, Gyeong-Hun; Moon, Hye-Rim; Chang, Sung Eun; Won, Chong Hyun; Jung, Joon Min; Park, Ki-Young; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Deug-Chan; Goo, Boncheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonablative lasers have been widely used to improve photodamaged skin, although the mechanism underlying dermal collagen remodeling remains unclear. To investigate the effects and the molecular mechanisms of long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on dermal collagen remodeling in association with different pulse durations. Five hairless mice were pretreated with ultraviolet B irradiation for 8 weeks. The dorsal quadrant of each mouse was then irradiated twice at 1-week intervals at a pulse duration of 1 ms, 12 ms, or 50 ms, and a constant fluence of 20 J/cm(2). The levels of dermal collagen, mRNAs of procollagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and various growth factors were analyzed after 4 weeks. Long-pulse Nd:YAG treatment increased the dermal collagen level. A substantial increase in the level of procollagens, MMPs, TIMPs, and various growth factors was also observed irrespective of pulse duration, with a trend toward maximal increase at a pulse duration of 12 ms. Long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation promotes wound-healing process, which is characterized by the induction of growth factor expression and subsequent increase in MMPs and TIMPs, followed by matrix remodeling as confirmed by new procollagen production.

  20. Sources laser non linéaires accordables dans l'infrarouge et l'ultraviolet pour la métrologie des rayonnements optiques

    OpenAIRE

    Rihan, Abdallah

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this PhD dissertation details the strategy adopted to build two non-linear laser sources that are widely in the mid-infrared and blue-UV spectral ranges. These laser sources are needed for the traceability to SI units of coherent light irradiance measurements using a cryogenic radiometer of the using cryogenic radiometer of the Laboratoire commun de métrologie (LCM) .The infrared laser source is an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) resonating on the pump and signal wav...