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Sample records for all-sky infrared sasir

  1. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Joshua S; Lee, William; González, J Jesús; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bolte, Michael; Franco, José; Guichard, José; Carramiñana, Alberto; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Bernstein, Rebecca; Bigelow, Bruce; Brodwin, Mark; Burgasser, Adam; Butler, Nat; Chávez, Miguel; Cobb, Bethany; Cook, Kem; Cruz-González, Irene; de Diego, José Antonio; Farah, Alejandro; Georgiev, Leonid; Girard, Julien; Hernández-Toledo, Hector; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Krongold, Yair; Mayya, Divakara; Meza, Juan; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Mújica, Raúl; Nugent, Peter; Porras, Alicia; Poznanski, Dovi; Raga, Alejandro; Richer, Michael; Rodríguez, Lino; Rosa, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Thomas, Rollin; Valenzuela, Octavio; Watson, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    We are proposing to conduct a multicolor, synoptic infrared (IR) imaging survey of the Northern sky with a new, dedicated 6.5-meter telescope at San Pedro M\\'artir (SPM) Observatory. This initiative is being developed in partnership with astronomy institutions in Mexico and the University of California. The 4-year, dedicated survey, planned to begin in 2017, will reach more than 100 times deeper than 2MASS. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey will reveal the missing sample of faint red dwarf stars in the local solar neighborhood, and the unprecedented sensitivity over such a wide field will result in the discovery of thousands of z ~ 7 quasars (and reaching to z > 10), allowing detailed study (in concert with JWST and Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes) of the timing and the origin(s) of reionization. As a time-domain survey, SASIR will reveal the dynamic infrared universe, opening new phase space for discovery. Synoptic observations of over 10^6 supernovae and variable stars will provide better dista...

  2. AKARI Far-Infrared All Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Y; White, G; Figuered, E; Chinone, Y; Hattori, M; Ikeda, N; Kitamura, Y; Komugi, S; Nakagawa, T; Yamauchi, C; Matsuoka, Y; Kaneda, H; Kawada, M; Shibai, H

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the capability of AKARI for mapping diffuse far-infrared emission and achieved reliability of all-sky diffuse map. We have conducted an all-sky survey for more than 94 % of the whole sky during cold phase of AKARI observation in 2006 Feb. -- 2007 Aug. The survey in far-infrared waveband covers 50 um -- 180 um with four bands centered at 65 um, 90 um, 140 um, and 160 um and spatial resolution of 3000 -- 4000 (FWHM).This survey has allowed us to make a revolutionary improvement compared to the IRAS survey that was conducted in 1983 in both spatial resolution and sensitivity after more than a quarter of a century. Additionally, it will provide us the first all-sky survey data with high-spatial resolution beyond 100 um. Considering its extreme importance of the AKARI far-infrared diffuse emission map, we are now investigating carefully the quality of the data for possible release of the archival data. Critical subjects in making image of diffuse emission from detected signal are the transient respo...

  3. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  4. The Structure of Molecular Clouds: I - All Sky Near Infrared Extinction Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, J; Froebrich, D.

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the column density distribution of all nearby giant molecular clouds. As part of this project we generated several all sky extinction maps. They are calculated using the median near infrared colour excess technique applied to data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Our large scale approach allows us to fit spline functions to extinction free regions in order to accurately determine the colour excess values. Two types of maps are presented: i) Maps with a constant nois...

  5. Total infrared luminosity estimation from local galaxies in AKARI all sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Solarz, A; Pollo, A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use the a new and improved version of AKARI all sky survey catalogue of far-infrared sources to recalibrate the formula to derive the total infrared luminosity. We cross-match the faint source catalogue (FSC) of IRAS with the new AKARI-FIS and obtained a sample of 2430 objects. Then we calculate the total infrared (TIR) luminosity $L_{\\textrm{TIR}}$ from the Sanders at al. (1996) formula and compare it with total infrared luminosity from AKARI FIS bands to obtain new coefficients for the general relation to convert FIR luminosity from AKARI bands to the TIR luminosity.

  6. Star-galaxy separation strategies for WISE-2MASS all-sky infrared galaxy catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, András; Szapudi, István

    2015-04-01

    We combine photometric information of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) all-sky infrared data bases, and demonstrate how to produce clean and complete galaxy catalogues for future analyses. Adding 2MASS colours to WISE photometry improves star-galaxy separation efficiency substantially at the expense of losing a small fraction of the galaxies. We find that 93 per cent of the WISE objects within W1 data set. We constructed a training set from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey PhotoObj table with known star-galaxy separation, and determined redshift distribution of our sample from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly spectroscopic survey. Varying the combination of photometric parameters input into our algorithm we show that W1WISE - J2MASS is a simple and effective star-galaxy separator, capable of producing results comparable to the multidimensional SVM classification. We present a detailed description of our star-galaxy separation methods, and characterize the robustness of our tools in terms of contamination, completeness, and accuracy. We explore systematics of the full sky WISE-2MASS galaxy map, such as contamination from moon glow. We show that the homogeneity of the full sky galaxy map is improved by an additional J2MASS < 16.5 mag flux limit. The all-sky galaxy catalogue we present in this paper covers 21 200 deg2 with dusty regions masked out, and has an estimated stellar contamination of 1.2 per cent and completeness of 70.1 per cent among 2.4 million galaxies with zmed ≈ 0.14. WISE-2MASS galaxy maps with well controlled stellar contamination will be useful for spatial statistical analyses, including cross-correlations with other cosmological random fields, such as the cosmic microwave background. The same techniques also yield a statistically controlled sample of stars as well.

  7. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  8. The AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Salama, Alberto; Alfageme, Carlos; Cassatella, Angelo; Cox, Nick; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Stephenson, Craig; Cohen, Martin; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kim, Woojung; Matsuhara, Hideo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Ohyama, Youichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takita, Satoshi; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Wada, Takehiko; Watarai, Hiden ori; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato

    2010-01-01

    Context : AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrar ed astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 and 200um during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9um and 18um b ands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the Infrar ed Camera (IRC). Aims : We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 and 18um AKARI al l-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point s ource detection and measurements. Methods : The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan and point sources candidates, above the 5-sigma noise level per single scan, are der ived. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statisti cally and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detect ions of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Resu...

  9. The AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, D.; Onaka, T.; Kataza, H.; Salama, A.; Alfageme, C.; Cassatella, A.; Cox, N.; García-Lario, P.; Stephenson, C.; Cohen, M.; Fujishiro, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Ita, Y.; Kim, W.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, H.; Müller, T. G.; Nakagawa, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Pyo, J.; Sakon, I.; Shibai, H.; Takita, S.; Tanabé, T.; Uemizu, K.; Ueno, M.; Usui, F.; Wada, T.; Watarai, H.; Yamamura, I.; Yamauchi, C.

    2010-05-01

    Context. AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 μm and 200 μm during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9 μm and 18 μm bands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the infrared camera (IRC). Aims: We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 μm and 18 μm AKARI all-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point source detection and measurements. Methods: The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan, and the point sources candidates are derived above the 5σ noise level per single scan. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statistically and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detections of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Results: The sky coverage is more than 90% for both bands. A total of 877 091 sources (851 189 for 9 μm, 195 893 for 18 μm) are confirmed and included in the current release of the point source catalog. The detection limit for point sources is 50 mJy and 90 mJy for the 9 μm and 18 μm bands, respectively. The position accuracy is estimated to be better than 2''. Uncertainties in the in-flight absolute flux calibration are estimated to be 3% for the 9 μm band and 4% for the 18 μm band. The coordinates and fluxes of detected sources in this survey are also compared with those of the IRAS survey and are found to be statistically consistent. Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/514/A1

  10. WISE-2MASS all-sky infrared galaxy catalog for large scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, András

    2014-01-01

    We combine photometric information of the WISE and 2MASS infrared all-sky surveys to produce a clean galaxy sample for large-scale structure research. Adding 2MASS colors improves star-galaxy separation substantially at the expense of loosing a small fraction of the galaxies: 93% of the WISE objects within the W1<15.2 mag limit have 2MASS observation as well. We use a class of supervised machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines (SVM), to classify objects in our large data set. We used SDSS PhotoObj table with known star-galaxy separation for a training set on classification, and the GAMA spectroscopic survey for determining the redshift distribution of our sample. Varying the combination of photometric parameters input into our algorithm revealed that W1-J is a simple and effective star-galaxy separator, capable of producing results comparable to the multi-dimensional SVM classification. The final catalog has an estimated ~2% stellar contamination among 5 million galaxies with median redshift o...

  11. Modeling of the zodiacal emission for the AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky diffuse maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, T; Kaneda, H; Nakamichi, K; Takaba, S; Kobayashi, H; Ootsubo, T; Pyo, J; Onaka, T

    2016-01-01

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our Solar System, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. We therefore aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al. 1998, using the AKARI 9 and 18 micron all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest ...

  12. Modeling of the Zodiacal Emission for the AKARI/IRC Mid-infrared All-sky Diffuse Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Takaba, Sachi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Onaka, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our solar system, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. Therefore, we aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al., using the AKARI 9 and 18 μm all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest that the size of the smooth cloud, a dominant component in the model, is about 10% more compact than previously thought, and that the dust sizes are not large enough to emit blackbody radiation in the mid-IR. Furthermore, we detect a significant isotropically distributed IPD component, owing to an accurate baseline measurement with AKARI.

  13. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P. [Cosmology Laboratory (Code 665), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Amblard, Alexandre [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fleuren, Simone [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cava, Antonio [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, David [Imperial College, Astrophysics Group, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, Ali [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  14. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the WISE All-Sky and Herschel Atlas Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Amblard, Alexandre; Temi, Pasquale; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J.; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Dye, Simon; Baes, Maarten; Bonfield, David; Bourne, Nathan; Bridge,Carrie

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over approx. 36 deg2 of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5(sigma) point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 microns and 3.4 microns, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of approx. 630 deg-2. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z or approx. 20.5) have 250-350 microns flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z > or approx. 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T < or approx. 20). Their small 3.4-250 microns flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (approx. 30%) in a 12 microns flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  15. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over ∼36 deg2 of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5σ point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 μm and 3.4 μm, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of ∼630 deg–2. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z 9-1010.5 L☉. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r ∼> 20.5) have 250-350 μm flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z ∼> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T ∼< 20). Their small 3.4-250 μm flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction (∼30%) in a 12 μm flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  16. Albedo Properties of Main Belt Asteroids Based on the Infrared All-Sky Survey of the Astronomical Satellite AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mueller, Thomas G; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the Standard Thermal Model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes. Main belt asteroids, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06 to 3.27 AU. AcuA provides a complete data set of all main belt asteroids brighter than the absolute magnitude of H 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the main belt asteroids is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite ...

  17. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Yasuki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$ images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm and cold dust components by decomposing 6-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of the total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morpholog...

  18. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-04-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  19. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  20. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands

  1. ALBEDO PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS BASED ON THE ALL-SKY SURVEY OF THE INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE AKARI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids (MBAs) detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the standard thermal model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes measured at optical wavelengths. MBAs, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06-3.27 AU, except for the near-Earth asteroids. AcuA provides a complete data set of all MBAs brighter than the absolute magnitude of H 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the MBAs is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. The bimodal distribution in each group consists of low-albedo components in C-type asteroids and high-albedo components in S-type asteroids. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-types, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-types, which are the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the abundance of P-types increases beyond 3 AU. This

  2. Potential impacts of assimilating all-sky infrared satellite radiances from GOES-R on convection-permitting analysis and prediction of tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuqing; Minamide, Masashi; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2016-03-01

    The potential impacts of GOES-R satellite radiances on tropical cyclone analysis and prediction were examined through ensemble correlations between simulated infrared brightness temperatures and various model state variables. The impacts of assimilating GOES-R all-sky infrared brightness temperatures on tropical cyclone analysis and prediction were further demonstrated through a series of convection-permitting observing system simulation experiments using an ensemble Kalman filter under both perfect and imperfect model scenarios. Assimilation of the high temporal and spatial resolution infrared radiances not only constrained well the thermodynamic variables, including temperature, moisture, and hydrometeors, but also considerably reduced analysis and forecast errors in the wind fields. The potential of all-sky radiances is further demonstrated through an additional proof-of-concept experiment assimilating real-data infrared brightness temperatures from GOES 13 satellite which was operational in an enhanced scanning mode during Hurricane Karl (2010).

  3. Infrared and hard X-ray diagnostics of AGN identification from the Swift/BAT and AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuta, Keiko; Dotani, Tadayasu; Nakagawa, Takao; Isobe, Naoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Yamamura, Issei; Stawarz, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    We combine data from two all-sky surveys in order to study the connection between the infrared and hard X-ray (>10keV) properties for local active galactic nuclei (AGN). The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope all-sky survey provides an unbiased, flux-limited selection of hard X-ray detected AGN. Cross-correlating the 22-month hard X-ray survey with the AKARI all-sky survey, we studied 158 AGN detected by the AKARI instruments. We find a strong correlation for most AGN between the infrared (9, 18, and 90 micron) and hard X-ray (14-195 keV) luminosities, and quantify the correlation for various subsamples of AGN. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution. The correlation for radio galaxies has a slope and normalization identical to that for Seyfert 1s, implying similar hard X-ray/infrared emission processes in both. In contrast, Compton-thick sources show a large deficit in the hard X-ray band, because high gas column densities diminish even their hard X-r...

  4. INFRARED AND HARD X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IDENTIFICATION FROM THE SWIFT/BAT AND AKARI ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine data from two all-sky surveys in order to study the connection between the infrared and hard X-ray (>10 keV) properties for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope all-sky survey provides an unbiased, flux-limited selection of hard X-ray-detected AGNs. Cross-correlating the 22 month hard X-ray survey with the AKARI all-sky survey, we studied 158 AGNs detected by the AKARI instruments. We find a strong correlation for most AGNs between the infrared (9, 18, and 90 μm) and hard X-ray (14-195 keV) luminosities, and quantify the correlation for various subsamples of AGNs. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution. The correlation for radio galaxies has a slope and normalization identical to that for Seyfert 1 galaxies, implying similar hard X-ray/infrared emission processes in both. In contrast, Compton-thick (CT) sources show a large deficit in the hard X-ray band, because high gas column densities diminish even their hard X-ray luminosities. We propose two photometric diagnostics for source classification: one is an X-ray luminosity versus infrared color diagram, in which type 1 radio-loud AGNs are well isolated from the others in the sample. The other uses the X-ray versus infrared color as a useful redshift-independent indicator for identifying CT AGNs. Importantly, CT AGNs and starburst galaxies in composite systems can also be differentiated in this plane based upon their hard X-ray fluxes and dust temperatures. This diagram may be useful as a new indicator to classify objects in new and upcoming surveys such as WISE and NuSTAR.

  5. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the WISE all-sky and Herschel-ATLAS Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Nicholas A; Gardner, Jonathan P; Amblard, Alexandre; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J B; Maddox, Steve J; Hoyos, Carlos; Baes, Maarten; Bonfield, David; Bourne, Nathan; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Driver, Simon; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve; Eisenhardt, Peter; Hopwood, Rosalind; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob J; Jarvis, Matt J; Kelvin, Lee; Robotham, Aaron S G; Temi, Pasquale; Thompson, Mark; Tsai, Chao-Wei; van der Werf, Paul; Wright, Edward L; Wu, Jingwen; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over ~36 deg^2 of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5-sigma point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 micron and 3.4 micron, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of ~630 deg^{-2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z~20.5) have 250-350 micron flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z>~1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T<~20). Their small 3.4-250 micron flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (~30%) in ...

  6. Galactic distributions of carbon- and oxygen-rich AGB stars revealed by the AKARI mid-infrared all-sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Matsuura, Mikako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Context: The environmental conditions for asympotic giant branch (AGB) stars to reach the carbon-rich (C-rich) phase are important to understand the evolutionary process of AGB stars. The difference between the spatial distributions of C-rich and oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars is essential for the study of the Galactic structure and the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: We quantitatively investigate the spatial distributions of C-rich and O-rich AGB stars in our Galaxy. We discuss the difference between them and its origin. Methods: We classify a large number of AGB stars newly detected by the AKARI id-infrared all-sky survey. In the color-color diagrams, we define their occupation zones based on the locations of known objects. We then obtain the spatial distributions of C-rich and O-rich AGB stars, assuming that they have the same luminosity for a given mass-loss rate. Results: We find that O-rich AGB stars are concentrated toward the Galactic center and that the density decreases wi...

  7. A quality check of the $AKARI$ mid-infrared all-sky diffuse map toward the massive star-forming regions NGC 6334 and NGC 6357

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Toru; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of CO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission toward a region including the massive star-forming regions of NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We use the NANTEN $^{12}$CO($J$ = 1--0) data and the $AKARI$ 9 $\\mu$m All-Sky diffuse map in order to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the $AKARI$ data. We confirm that the overall CO distribution shows a good spatial correspondence with the PAH emission, and their intensities exhibit a good power-law correlation with a spatial resolution down to 4$'$ over the region of 10$^\\circ$$\\times$10$^\\circ$. We also reveal poorer correlation for small scale structures between the two quantities toward NGC 6357, due to strong UV radiation from local sources. Larger scatter in the correlation toward NGC 6357 indicates higher ionization degree and/or PAH excitation than that of NGC 6334.

  8. Science Impacts of the SPHEREx All-Sky Optical to Near-Infrared Spectral Survey: Report of a Community Workshop Examining Extragalactic, Galactic, Stellar and Planetary Science

    CERN Document Server

    Doré, Olivier; Ashby, Matt; Banerjee, Pancha; Battaglia, Nick; Bauer, James; Benjamin, Robert A; Bleem, Lindsey E; Bock, Jamie; Boogert, Adwin; Bull, Philip; Capak, Peter; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chiar, Jean; Cohen, Seth H; Cooray, Asantha; Crill, Brendan; Cushing, Michael; de Putter, Roland; Driver, Simon P; Eifler, Tim; Feng, Chang; Ferraro, Simone; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Gaudi, B Scott; Greene, Tom; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Höflich, Peter A; Hsiao, Eric; Huffenberger, Kevin; Jansen, Rolf A; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Joshi, Bhavin; Kim, Duho; Kim, Minjin; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Korngut, Phil; Krause, Elisabeth; Kriek, Mariska; Leistedt, Boris; Li, Aigen; Lisse, Carey M; Mauskopf, Phil; Mechtley, Matt; Melnick, Gary; Mohr, Joseph; Murphy, Jeremiah; Neben, Abraham; Neufeld, David; Nguyen, Hien; Pierpaoli, Elena; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Rhodes, Jason; Sandstrom, Karin; Schaan, Emmanuel; Schlaufman, Kevin C; Silverman, John; Su, Kate; Stassun, Keivan; Stevens, Daniel; Strauss, Michael A; Tielens, Xander; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Tolls, Volker; Unwin, Stephen; Viero, Marco; Windhorst, Rogier A; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx is a proposed SMEX mission selected for Phase A. SPHEREx will carry out the first all-sky spectral survey and provide for every 6.2" pixel a spectra between 0.75 and 4.18 $\\mu$m [with R$\\sim$41.4] and 4.18 and 5.00 $\\mu$m [with R$\\sim$135]. The SPHEREx team has proposed three specific science investigations to be carried out with this unique data set: cosmic inflation, interstellar and circumstellar ices, and the extra-galactic background light. It is readily apparent, however, that many other questions in astrophysics and planetary sciences could be addressed with the SPHEREx data. The SPHEREx team convened a community workshop in February 2016, with the intent of enlisting the aid of a larger group of scientists in defining these questions. This paper summarizes the rich and varied menu of investigations that was laid out. It includes studies of the composition of main belt and Trojan/Greek asteroids; mapping the zodiacal light with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution; identifying and stud...

  9. Cosmology with all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Various aspects of cosmology require comprehensive all-sky mapping of the cosmic web to considerable depths. In order to probe the whole extragalactic sky beyond 100 Mpc, one must draw on multiwavelength datasets and state-of-the-art photometric redshift techniques. Here I summarize our dedicated program that employs the largest photometric all-sky surveys -- 2MASS, WISE and SuperCOSMOS -- to obtain accurate redshift estimates of millions of galaxies. The first outcome of these efforts -- the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) -- was publicly released in 2013 and includes almost 1 million galaxies with a median redshift of z~0.1. I discuss how this catalog was constructed and how it is being used for various cosmological tests. I also present how combining the WISE mid-infrared survey with SuperCOSMOS optical data allowed us to push to depths over 1 Gpc on unprecedented angular scales. These photometric redshift samples, with about 20 million sources in total, provide access to volumes large enough to ...

  10. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Doré, Olivier; Capak, Peter; de Putter, Roland; Eifler, Tim; Hirata, Chris; Korngut, Phil; Krause, Elisabeth; Masters, Daniel; Raccanelli, Alvise; Zemcov, Mike; Cooray, Asantha; Flagey, Nicolas; Gong, Yan; Katti, Raj; Melnick, Gary; Mennesson, Bertrand; Unwin, Steve; Viero, Marco; Werner, Mike; Ashby, Matthew; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Mauskopf, Phil; Nguyen, Hien; Öberg, Karin; Smith, Roger; Song, Yong-Seon; Tolls, Volker; Venumadhav, Tejaswi

    2014-01-01

    SPHEREx (Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer) is a proposed all-sky spectroscopic survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's Astrophysics Division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. SPHEREx will scan a series of Linear Variable Filters systematically across the entire sky. The SPHEREx data-set will contain R=40 spectra spanning the near infrared (0.75$\\mu$m$<\\lambda<$ 4.83$\\mu$m) for every 6.2 arcsecond pixel over the the entire-sky. In this paper, we detail the extra-galactic and cosmological studies SPHEREx will enable and present detailed systematic effect evaluations.

  11. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) program that was selected for Phase A in July 2015, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, in a single survey, with a single instrument. We will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power. Finally, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra (0.75 - 4.8 um at R = 41.5 and 150) with high sensitivity using a cooled telescope with large mapping speed.SPHEREx will observe from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit, covering the entire sky in a manner similar to IRAS, COBE and WISE. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps for constraining the physics of inflation. These same maps contain numerous high signal-to-noise absorption spectra to study water and biogenic ices. The orbit naturally covers two deep regions at the celestial poles, which we use for studying galaxy evolution. All aspects of the SPHEREx instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. The projected instrument sensitivity, based on conservative performance estimates, meets the driving point source sensitivity requirement with 300 % margin.SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the successful management structure of the NuSTAR and GALEX SMEX missions. The spacecraft

  12. Star formation and dust extinction properties of local galaxies from the AKARI-GALEX all-sky surveys . First results from the most secure multiband sample from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T. T.; Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Giovannoli, E.; Yuan, F.-T.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Murata, K. L.; Burgarella, D.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We explore spectral energy distributions (SEDs), star formation (SF), and dust extinction properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Methods: The AKARI all-sky survey provided the first bright point source catalog detected at 90 μm. Beginning with this catalog, we selected galaxies by matching the AKARI sources with those in the IRAS point source catalog redshift survey. We measured the total GALEX FUV and NUV flux densities with a photometry software we specifically developed for this purpose. In a further step we matched this sample with the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) and 2 micron all sky survey (2MASS) galaxies. With this procedure we obtained a basic sample which consists of 776 galaxies. After removing objects whose photometry was contaminated by foreground sources (mainly in the SDSS), we defined the “secure sample” which contains 607 galaxies. Results: The sample galaxies have redshifts of ⪉0.15, and their 90-μm luminosities range from 106 to 1012 L_⊙, with a peak at 1010 L_⊙. The SEDs display a large variety, especially more than four orders of magnitude at the mid-far-infrared (M-FIR), but if we sort the sample with respect to 90 μm, the average SED shows a coherent trend: the more luminous an SED at 90 μm, the redder the global SED becomes. The Mr - NUV - r color-magnitude relation of our sample does not show bimodality, and the distribution is centered on the green valley. We established formulae to convert the FIR luminosity from the AKARI bands to the total IR (TIR) luminosity LTIR. The luminosity related to the SF activity (LSF) is dominated by LTIR even if we take into account the FIR emission from dust heated by old stars. At a high SF rate (SFR) (>20 M_⊙ yr-1), the fraction of the directly visible SFR, SFRFUV, decreases. We also estimated the FUV attenuation AFUV from the FUV-to-TIR luminosity ratio. We examined the LTIR/LFUV-UV slope (FUV - NUV) relation. The majority of the sample has LTIR/LFUV ratios five to ten

  13. All Sky Survey Mission Observing Scenario Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Spangelo, Sara C; Unwin, Stephen C; Bock, Jamie J

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a general observing strategy for missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible such that targeted observations and variable coverage requirements can be achieved. This paper focuses on missions operating in Low Earth Orbit, where the thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in interacting and dynamic constraints. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based high-level strategy is presented for scheduling throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based...

  14. All Sky Observations with BATSE and GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2008-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) monitored the entire sky from 1991-2000. I will review highlights of BATSE observations including gamma ray bursts, black hole candidates, accreting pulsars, and active galaxies. On 2008 June 11, the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope was launched. The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi continues the all-sky monitoring legacy started with BATSE. I will review early results and planned observations with GBM.

  15. HHEBBES! All sky camera system: status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, F.

    2015-01-01

    A status update is given of the HHEBBES! All sky camera system. HHEBBES!, an automatic camera for capturing bright meteor trails, is based on a DSLR camera and a Liquid Crystal chopper for measuring the angular velocity. Purpose of the system is to a) recover meteorites; b) identify origin/parental bodies. In 2015, two new cameras were rolled out: BINGO! -alike HHEBBES! also in The Netherlands-, and POgLED, in Serbia. BINGO! is a first camera equipped with a longer focal length fisheye lens, to further increase the accuracy. Several minor improvements have been done and the data reduction pipeline was used for processing two prominent Dutch fireballs.

  16. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Querel, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 {\\mu}m) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5{\\deg} el...

  17. The SCUBA-2 "All-Sky" Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, M A; Jenness, T; Scott, D; Ashdown, M; Brunt, C; Butner, H; Chapin, E; Chrysostomou, A C; Clark, J S; Clements, D; Collett, J L; Coppin, K; Coulson, I M; Dent, W R F; Economou, F; Evans, A; Friberg, P; Fuller, G A; Gibb, A G; Greaves, J; Hatchell, J; Holland, W S; Hudson, M; Ivison, R J; Jaffe, A; Joncas, G; Jones, H R A; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Mann, R; Matthews, H E; Moore, T J T; Mortier, A; Negrello, M; Nutter, D; Pestalozzi, M P; Pope, A; Richer, J; Shipman, R; Urquhart, J S; Vaccari, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Viti, S; Weferling, B; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Zhu, M

    2007-01-01

    The sub-millimetre wavelength regime is perhaps the most poorly explored over large areas of the sky, despite the considerable effort that has been expended in making deep maps over small regions. As a consequence the properties of the sub-millimetre sky as a whole, and of rare bright objects in particular, remains largely unknown. Here we describe a forthcoming survey (the SCUBA-2 ``All-Sky'' Survey, or SASSy) designed to address this issue by making a large-area map of approximately one-fifth of the sky visible from the JCMT (4800 square degrees) down to a 1 sigma noise level of 30 mJy/beam. This map forms the pilot for a much larger survey, which will potentially map the remaining sky visible from the JCMT, with the region also visible to ALMA as a priority. SASSy has been awarded 500 hours for the 4800 square degree pilot phase and will commence after the commissioning of SCUBA-2, expected in early 2008.

  18. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 masyr, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-ALLWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new ˜ 13 Mjup\\ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared spectrum for the companion, which reveals typical signs of youth and a spectral type L4γ.

  19. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. © 2016 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian

    2014-08-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 μm) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.32 mm (peak to valley) or 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 10-15% (peak to valley) and 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared that can only be conducted during periods of very good atmospheric transmission and hence low PWV. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be

  1. VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillet, Christian; Lai, Olivier; Salmon, Derrick; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2006-06-01

    Building on an extensive and successful experience in Adaptive Optics (AO) and on recent developments made in its funding nations, the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Corporation (CFHT) is studying the VASAO concept: an integrated AO system that would allow diffraction limited imaging of the whole sky in the visible as well as in the infrared. At the core of VASAO, Pueo-Hou (the new Pueo) is built on Pueo, the current CFHT AO bonnette. Pueo will be refurbished and improved to be able to image the isoplanetic field at 700 nm with Strehl ratios of 30% or better, making possible imaging with a resolution of 50 milliarcseconds between 500 and 700nm, and at the telescope limit of diffraction above. The polychromatic tip-tilt laser guide star currently envisioned will be generated by a single 330nm mode-less laser, and the relative position of the 330nm and 589nm artificial stars created on the mesosphere by the 330nm excitation of the sodium layer will be monitored to provide the atmospheric tip-tilt along the line of sight, following the philosophy developed for the ELP-OA project. The feasibility study of VASAO will take most of 2006 in parallel with the development of a science case making the best possible use of the unique capabilities of the system, If the feasibility study is encouraging, VASAO development could start in 2007 for a full deployment on the sky by 2011-2012.

  2. Feasibility of polarized all-sky imaging for aerosol characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, A.; Blumthaler, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polarized all-sky distribution measurements contain radiative information about aerosol properties. We investigate the method of all-sky imaging for aerosol property retrieval and propose a technical frame work for image processing and analysis. Using Zernike polynomials, we decompose the relative Stokes parameter distributions, which efficiently captures the information content. The resulting feature vector is well suited for all-sky imaging, independent of calibration and robust against noise. It can be directly used in existing algorithms or alternative types of retrieval methods of aerosol optical properties in the future. By modeling possible aerosol scenarios we investigate the influence of different aerosol types in terms of the first two principal components describing the maximal variances. In this representation we show that the feature vector from a polarized all-sky imager is suitable for aerosol classification with respect to size and single scatter albedo.

  3. Feasibility of polarized all-sky imaging for aerosol characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kreuter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polarized all-sky distribution measurements contain radiative information about aerosol properties. We investigate the method of all-sky imaging for aerosol property retrieval and propose a technical frame work for image processing and analysis. Using Zernike polynomials, we decompose the relative Stokes parameter distributions, which efficiently captures the information content. The resulting feature vector is well suited for all-sky imaging, independent of calibration and robust against noise. It can be directly used in existing algorithms or alternative types of retrieval methods of aerosol optical properties in the future. By modeling possible aerosol scenarios we investigate the influence of different aerosol types in terms of the first two principal components describing the maximal variances. In this representation we show that the feature vector from a polarized all-sky imager is suitable for aerosol classification with respect to size and single scatter albedo.

  4. Gamma-Ray All Sky Imaging with BATSE

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, A. B.; Barlow, E. J.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A.J.; Ferguson, C.; Shaw, S. E.; Westmore, M. J.; Willis, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    The BATSE mission aboard CGRO observed the whole sky for 9 years in the 20 keV - 2 MeV energy band. Flat-fielding of the temporal variations in the background present in the data set has been accomplished through a GEANT3 Monte-Carlo simulation - the BATSE Mass Model (BAMM). The Earth Occultation technique (EOT) is used together with a maximum-likelihood imaging approach to construct all-sky maps with ~mCrab sensitivity. Additionally, a non-linear CLEAN algorithm is applied to the all-sky map...

  5. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.;

    2016-01-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling. The...... the maps generated with the DL model are made public in the Planck Legacy Archive....

  6. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey view of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Denner, K.; Kahabka, P.; Pakull, M.; Schaeidt, S.

    1996-01-01

    During the Rosat all sky survey, centered on the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), 516 X-ray sources were detected. The field was covered from July 1990 to January 1991. The X-ray parameters of the sources, involving position, count rates, hardness ratios, extent, and time variability during the observations, are discussed. Identifications with objects from optical, radio and infrared wavelength allow the LMC candidates to be separated from the foreground stars and the background objects.

  7. IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared Ks band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h-1). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the ΛCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1σ confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h-1. By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h-1 is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h-1 (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the ΛCDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only ∼80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate β ≡ Ωm0.55/b. The result is β = 0.38 ± 0

  8. Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is the first astrophysical payload which will be mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Exposed Facility in 2004. It is an X-ray all-sky monitor with unprecedented sensitivity to watch the activities of the X-ray sources in the whole sky in every 90 minutes. MAXI is boxshaped in 0.8x1.2x1.85 m with the weight of 500 kg. The mission life will be at least 2 years. MAXI has two fan-like field of views (FOV), 106x1.5 deg. each. The X-ray instruments are Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). The GSC uses gas one-dimensional position sensitive proportional counters with 5340 cm2 effective area in total and the SSC uses CCDs with 200 cm2. Both are capable to detect one-dimensional image which is used to obtain the locations of the X-ray sources in the FOV along the long direction. Together with the scan which determine the other direction, MAXI can scan almost all sky with a precision of better than 1 deg. in the energy range of 0.5-30 keV. The CCD is electrically cooled to -60 deg. C and the camera body is radiatively cooled to -20 deg. C. The CCD chip itself and the radiators may suffer contamination problem. The continuous Ethernet down link will enable us to alert the astronomers in all over the world to the appearance of X-ray transients, novae, bursts, flares etc. We made a test counter and test chips in 1998. Those are being tested in RIKEN, NASDA and Osaka-university. In this paper the test results will be presented, as well as the general description of the MAXI mission

  9. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a new young association

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, C A O; Montes, D

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  10. All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

  11. A Hexapod Design for All-sky Sidereal Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, András; Mészáros, László; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a hexapod-based telescope mount system intended to provide sidereal tracking for the Fly's Eye Camera project—an upcoming moderate, 21″ pixel-1 resolution all-sky survey. By exploiting such a kind of meter-sized telescope mount, we get a device that is both capable of compensating for the apparent rotation of the celestial sphere and the same design can be used independently from the actual geographical location. Our construction is the sole currently operating hexapod telescope mount performing dedicated optical imaging survey with a sub-arcsecond tracking precision.

  12. The Einstein All-Sky IPC slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Fabbiano, G.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of the Einstein All-Sky Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) slew survey is considered. It contains approximately 1000 sources between 10(exp -12) and 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm/s with a concentration toward the ecliptic poles and away from the galactic plane. Several sizable samples of bright soft X-ray selected objects for follow-up ROSAT and ASTRO-D observations and statistical study are presented. The survey source list is expected to be available by late 1989. Both paper and remote access online data base versions are to be available. An identification program is considered.

  13. All sky camera for the CTA atmospheric calibration work package

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandát, Dušan; Pech, Miroslav; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Trávníček, Petr; Janeček, Petr; Ebr, Jan; Doro, M.; Gaug, M.

    Les Ulis: EDP SCIENCES, 2015 - (Doro, M.), "03007-1"-"03007-3". (EPJ Web of Conferences. 89). ISSN 2100-014X. [Conference on Atmospheric Monitoring for High Energy AstroParticle Detectors /2./ AtmoHEAD 2014. Padova (IT), 19.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : all sky camera * CTA * atmospheric calibration * atmosphere monitoring Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  14. Hexapod Design For All-Sky Sidereal Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a hexapod-based telescope mount system intended to provide sidereal tracking for the Fly's Eye Camera project -- an upcoming moderate, 21"/pixel resolution all-sky survey. By exploiting such a kind of meter-sized telescope mount, we get a device which is both capable of compensating for the apparent rotation of the celestial sphere and the same design can be used independently from the actual geographical location. Our construction is the sole currently operating hexapod telescope mount performing dedicated optical imaging survey with a sub-arcsecond tracking precision.

  15. GAME: Grb and All-sky Monitor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, L; Frontera, F; Labanti, C; Feroci, M; Hudec, R; Gomboc, A; Ruffini, R; Santangelo, A; Vacchi, A; Campana, R; Evangelista, Y; Fuschino, F; Salvaterra, R; Stratta, G; Tagliaferri, G; Guidorzi, C; Rosati, P; Titarchuk, L; Penacchioni, A; Izzo, L; Zampa, N; Rodic, T

    2014-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ~1 keV up to ~20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~300 eV in ...

  16. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, J A; Bilicki, M; MacGillivray, H T; Miller, L; Read, M A; Tritton, S B

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UKST and POSS2 surveys. The photographic photometry is calibrated using SDSS data, with results that are linear to 2% or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero points that are uniform to 0.03 mag. or better. The typical AB depths achieved are B_J<21, R_F<19.5 and I_N<18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the I_N plates are shallower than the B_J & R_F plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90% complete with 5% stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the s...

  17. MAXI: all-sky observation from the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2009 it has been scanning the whole sky in every 92 minutes with ISS rotation. Due to high particle background at high latitude regions the carbon anodes of three GSC cameras were broken. We limit the GSC operation to low-latitude region around equator. GSC is suffering a double high background from Gamma-ray altimeter of Soyuz spacecraft. MAXI issued the 37-month catalog with 500 sources above ~0.6 mCrab in 4-10 keV. MAXI issued 133 to Astronomers Telegram and 44 to Gammaray burst Coordinated Network so far. One GSC camera had a small gas leak by a micrometeorite. Since 2013 June, the 1.4 atm Xe pressure went down to 0.6 atm in 2014 May 23. By gradually reducing the high voltage we keep using the proportional counter. SSC with X-ray CCD has detected diffuse soft X-rays in the all-sky, such as Cygnus super bubble and north polar spur, as well as it found a fast soft X-ray nova MAXI J0158-744. Although we operate C...

  18. All Sky Imager Network for Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, A.; Kendall, E. A.; Zalles, D. R.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Marshall, R. A.; Kaltenbacher, E.

    2012-12-01

    A new all sky imager network for space weather monitoring and education outreach has been developed by SRI International. The goal of this program is to install sensitive, low-light all-sky imagers across the continental United States to observe upper atmospheric airglow and aurora in near real time. While aurora borealis is often associated with the high latitudes, during intense geomagnetic storms it can extend well into the continental United States latitudes. Observing auroral processes is instrumental in understanding the space weather, especially in the times of increasing societal dependence on space-based technologies. Under the THEMIS satellite program, Canada has installed a network of all-sky imagers across their country to monitor aurora in real-time. However, no comparable effort exists in the United States. Knowledge of the aurora and airglow across the entire United States in near real time would allow scientists to quickly assess the impact of a geomagnetic storm in concert with data from GPS networks, ionosondes, radars, and magnetometers. What makes this effort unique is that we intend to deploy these imagers at high schools across the country. Selected high-schools will necessarily be in rural areas as the instrument requires dark night skies. At the commencement of the school year, we plan to give an introductory seminar on space weather at each of these schools. Science nuggets developed by SRI International in collaboration with the Center for GeoSpace Studies and the Center for Technology in Learning will be available for high school teachers to use during their science classes. Teachers can use these nuggets as desired within their own curricula. We intend to develop a comprehensive web-based interface that will be available for students and scientific community alike to observe data across the network in near real time and also to guide students towards complementary space weather data sets. This interface will show the real time extent of

  19. The AARTFAAC All Sky Monitor: System Design and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Peeyush; Kooistra, Eric; van der Schuur, Daniel; Gunst, Andre; Romein, John; Kuiack, Mark; Molenaar, Gijs; Rowlinson, Antonia; Swinbank, John D; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2016-01-01

    The Amsterdam-ASTRON Radio Transients Facility And Analysis Center (AARTFAAC) all sky monitor is a sensitive, real time transient detector based on the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). It generates images of the low frequency radio sky with spatial resolution of 10s of arcmin, MHz bandwidths, and a time cadence of a few seconds, while simultaneously but independently observing with LOFAR. The image timeseries is then monitored for short and bright radio transients. On detection of a transient, a low latency trigger will be generated for LOFAR, which can interrupt its schedule to carry out follow-up observations of the trigger location at high sensitivity and resolutions. In this paper, we describe our heterogeneous, hierarchical design to manage the 240 Gbps raw data rate, and large scale computing to produce real-time images with minimum latency. We discuss the implementation of the instrumentation, its performance, and scalability.

  20. COMPTEL Time-Averaged All-Sky Point Source Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W; Strong, A W; Blömen, H; Hermsen, W; McConnell, M; Ryan, J; Bennett, K

    1999-01-01

    We use all COMPTEL data from the beginning of the CGRO mission (April '91) upto the end of CGRO Cycle 6 (November '97) to carry out all-sky point sourceanalyses in the four standard COMPTEL energy bands for different time periods.We apply our standard maximum-likelihood method to generate all-skysignificance and flux maps for point sources by subtracting off the diffuseemission components via model fitting. In addition, fluxes of known sourceshave been determined for individual CGRO Phases/Cycles to generate lightcurveswith a time resolution of the order of one year. The goal of the analysis is toderive quantitative results -- significances, fluxes, light curves -- of ourbrightest and most significant sources such as 3C 273, and to search foradditional new COMPTEL sources, showing up in time-averaged maps only.

  1. A-STAR: The All-Sky Transient Astrophysics Reporter

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J P; Evans, P; Fraser, G W; Martindale, A; Atteia, J -L; Cordier, B; Mereghetti, S

    2013-01-01

    The small mission A-STAR (All-Sky Transient Astrophysics Reporter) aims to locate the X-ray counterparts to ALIGO and other gravitational wave detector sources, to study the poorly-understood low luminosity gamma-ray bursts, and to find a wide variety of transient high-energy source types, A-STAR will survey the entire available sky twice per 24 hours. The payload consists of a coded mask instrument, Owl, operating in the novel low energy band 4-150 keV, and a sensitive wide-field focussing soft X-ray instrument, Lobster, working over 0.15-5 keV. A-STAR will trigger on ~100 GRBs/yr, rapidly distributing their locations.

  2. Game: GRB and All-Sky Monitor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ˜1 keV up to ˜20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of ~1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g., by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB / transient triggers.

  3. All-Sky Observational Evidence for An Inverse Correlation Between Dust Temperature and Emissivity Spectral Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gold, B.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a one-component variable-emissivity-spectral-index model (the free- model) provides more physically motivated estimates of dust temperature at the Galactic polar caps than one- or two-component fixed-emissivity-spectral-index models (fixed- models) for interstellar dust thermal emission at far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths. For the comparison we have fit all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to a new and improved version of the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100-240 micrometer maps from the COBE-DIRBE and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. The best model, the free-alpha model, is well constrained by data at 60-3000 GHz over 86 per cent of the total sky area. It predicts dust temperature (T(sub dust)) to be 13.7-22.7 (plus or minus 1.3) K, the emissivity spectral index (alpha) to be 1.2-3.1 (plus or minus 0.3) and the optical depth (tau) to range 0.6-46 x 10(exp -5) with a 23 per cent uncertainty. Using these estimates, we present all-sky evidence for an inverse correlation between the emissivity spectral index and dust temperature, which fits the relation alpha = 1/(delta + omega (raised dot) T(sub dust) with delta = -.0.510 plus or minus 0.011 and omega = 0.059 plus or minus 0.001. This best model will be useful to cosmic microwave background experiments for removing foreground dust contamination and it can serve as an all-sky extended-frequency reference for future higher resolution dust models.

  4. Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Th.; Freyberg, M. J.; Trümper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present the second ROSAT all-sky survey source catalogue, hereafter referred to as the 2RXS catalogue. This is the second publicly released ROSAT catalogue of point-like sources obtained from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations performed with the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) between June 1990 and August 1991, and is an extended and revised version of the bright and faint source catalogues. Methods: We used the latest version of the RASS processing to produce overlapping X-ray images of 6.4° × 6.4° sky regions. To create a source catalogue, a likelihood-based detection algorithm was applied to these, which accounts for the variable point-spread function (PSF) across the PSPC field of view. Improvements in the background determination compared to 1RXS were also implemented. X-ray control images showing the source and background extraction regions were generated, which were visually inspected. Simulations were performed to assess the spurious source content of the 2RXS catalogue. X-ray spectra and light curves were extracted for the 2RXS sources, with spectral and variability parameters derived from these products. Results: We obtained about 135 000 X-ray detections in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band down to a likelihood threshold of 6.5, as adopted in the 1RXS faint source catalogue. Our simulations show that the expected spurious content of the catalogue is a strong function of detection likelihood, and the full catalogue is expected to contain about 30% spurious detections. A more conservative likelihood threshold of 9, on the other hand, yields about 71 000 detections with a 5% spurious fraction. We recommend thresholds appropriate to the scientific application. X-ray images and overlaid X-ray contour lines provide an additional user product to evaluate the detections visually, and we performed our own visual inspections to flag uncertain detections. Intra-day variability in the X-ray light curves was quantified based on the

  5. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (corruption by Faraday rotation, and complements the full-sky maps from WMAP and Planck. I will present the project status, show results of component separation in selected sky regions, and describe the northern survey data products.C-BASS (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/cbass/) is a collaborative project between the Universities of Oxford and Manchester in the UK, the California Institute of Technology (supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre Array project) in South Africa, and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia.

  6. The effect of radiation on the IRAS all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is in a sun synchronous, 'near' polar orbit at an altitude of 900 km. The primary objective of IRAS is related to the conduction of an all-sky survey in the wavelength range from 8 microns to 120 microns. The present investigation is concerned with three components of the radiation environment encountered by IRAS, taking into account the high energy protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly, high energy electrons in the horns of the Van Allen belts, and cosmic rays. The effect of radiation on the returned data stream is studied, and attention is given to the steps which were taken to minimize the impact of radiation on the completeness of the survey.

  7. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 353, 545, and 857 GHz, and IRAS 100 mu m data. Using a modified blackbody fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a good repr...

  8. An all-sky Support Vector Machine selection of WISE YSO Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Paladini, Roberta; Kun, Mária; Zahorecz, Sarolta; McGehee, Peregrine; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    We explored the AllWISE catalogue of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission and identified Young Stellar Object candidates. Reliable 2MASS and WISE photometric data combined with Planck dust opacity values were used to build our dataset and to find the best classification scheme. A sophisticated statistical method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to analyse the multi-dimensional data space and to remove source types identified as contaminants (extragalactic sources, main sequence stars, evolved stars and sources related to the interstellar medium). Objects listed in the SIMBAD database are used to identify the already known sources and to train our method. A new all-sky selection of 133,980 Class I/II YSO candidates is presented. The estimated contamination was found to be well below 1% based on comparison with our SIMBAD training set. We also compare our results to that of existing methods and catalogues. The SVM selection process successfully identified >90% of the Class I/II YSOs based on...

  9. An all-sky support vector machine selection of WISE YSO candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, G.; Tóth, L. V.; Paladini, R.; Kun, M.; Zahorecz, S.; McGehee, P.; Kiss, Cs.

    2016-06-01

    We explored the AllWISE catalogue of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission and identified Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates. Reliable 2MASS and WISE photometric data combined with Planck dust opacity values were used to build our data set and to find the best classification scheme. A sophisticated statistical method, the support vector machine (SVM) is used to analyse the multidimensional data space and to remove source types identified as contaminants (extragalactic sources, main-sequence stars, evolved stars and sources related to the interstellar medium). Objects listed in the SIMBAD data base are used to identify the already known sources and to train our method. A new all-sky selection of 133 980 Class I/II YSO candidates is presented. The estimated contamination was found to be well below 1 per cent based on comparison with our SIMBAD training set. We also compare our results to that of existing methods and catalogues. The SVM selection process successfully identified >90 per cent of the Class I/II YSOs based on comparison with photometric and spectroscopic YSO catalogues. Our conclusion is that by using the SVM, our classification is able to identify more known YSOs of the training sample than other methods based on colour-colour and magnitude-colour selection. The distribution of the YSO candidates well correlates with that of the Planck Galactic Cold Clumps in the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus-California region.

  10. Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Draine, B T; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rubio-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical est...

  11. A Two Micron All Sky Survey Analysis of the Stability of Southern Bok Globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Germán A.; Vilas-Boas, José W. S.; de la Reza, Ramiro

    2009-10-01

    We used near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey data to construct visual extinction maps of a sample of Southern Bok globules utilizing the NICE method. We derived radial extinction profiles of dense cores identified in the globules and analyzed their stability against gravitational collapse with isothermal Bonnor-Ebert spheres. The frequency distribution of the stability parameter (ξmax) of these cores shows that a large number of them are located in stable states, followed by an abrupt decrease of cores in unstable states. This decrease is steeper for globules with associated IRAS point sources than for starless globules. Moreover, globules in stable states have a Bonnor-Ebert temperature of T = 15 ± 6 K, while the group of critical plus unstable globules has a different temperature of T = 10 ± 3 K. Distances were estimated to all the globules studied in this work and the spectral class of the IRAS sources was calculated. No variations were found in the stability parameters of the cores and the spectral class of their associated IRAS sources. On the basis of 13CO J = 1 - 0 molecular line observations, we identified and modeled a blue-asymmetric line profile toward a globule of the sample, obtaining an upper limit infall speed of 0.25 km s-1. Based on a Ph.D. thesis made at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. AKARI-CAS --- Online Service for AKARI All-Sky Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, C; Ikeda, N; Inada, K; Katano, M; Kataza, H; Makiuti, S; Matsuzaki, K; Takita, S; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamura, I; 10.1086/660926

    2011-01-01

    The AKARI All-Sky Catalogues are an important infrared astronomical database for next-generation astronomy that take over the IRAS catalog. We have developed an online service, AKARI Catalogue Archive Server (AKARI-CAS), for astronomers. The service includes useful and attractive search tools and visual tools. One of the new features of AKARI-CAS is cached SIMBAD/NED entries, which can match AKARI catalogs with other catalogs stored in SIMBAD or NED. To allow advanced queries to the databases, direct input of SQL is also supported. In those queries, fast dynamic cross-identification between registered catalogs is a remarkable feature. In addition, multiwavelength quick-look images are displayed in the visualization tools, which will increase the value of the service. In the construction of our service, we considered a wide variety of astronomers' requirements. As a result of our discussion, we concluded that supporting users' SQL submissions is the best solution for the requirements. Therefore, we implemented...

  13. Planck 2013 results. XXI. All-sky Compton parameter power spectrum and high-order statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\\ell 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\theta \\lesssim 3.0^{\\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to ...

  14. Mapping the Cosmic Web with the largest all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, Maciej; Jarrett, Thomas H; Cluver, Michelle E; Steward, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Our view of the low-redshift Cosmic Web has been revolutionized by galaxy redshift surveys such as 6dFGS, SDSS and 2MRS. However, the trade-off between depth and angular coverage limits a systematic three-dimensional account of the entire sky beyond the Local Volume (z<0.05). In order to reliably map the Universe to cosmologically significant depths over the full celestial sphere, one must draw on multiwavelength datasets and state-of-the-art photometric redshift techniques. We have undertaken a dedicated program of cross-matching the largest photometric all-sky surveys -- 2MASS, WISE and SuperCOSMOS -- to obtain accurate redshift estimates of millions of galaxies. The first outcome of these efforts -- the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ, Bilicki et al. 2014a) -- has been publicly released and includes almost 1 million galaxies with a mean redshift of z=0.08. Here we summarize how this catalog was constructed and how using the WISE mid-infrared sample together with SuperCOSMOS optical data allows ...

  15. Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Draine, B. T.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density ΣMd, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the present dust mass estimates agree remarkably well (within 10%) with DL estimates based on independent Spitzer and Herschel data. We compare the DL optical extinction AV for the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) with optical estimates for approximately 2 × 105 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) observed inthe Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The DL AV estimates are larger than those determined towards QSOs by a factor of about 2, which depends on Umin. The DL fitting parameter Umin, effectively determined by the wavelength where the SED peaks, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust grains per unit AV, and not only in the starlight intensity. These results show that some of the physical assumptions of the DL model will need to be revised. To circumvent the model deficiency, we propose an empirical renormalization of the DL AV estimate, dependent of Umin, which compensates for the systematic differences found with QSO observations. This renormalization, made to match the AV estimates towards QSOs, also brings into agreement the DL AV estimates with those derived for

  16. INFORMATION ON THE MILKY WAY FROM THE 2MASS ALL SKY STAR COUNT: BIMODAL COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lai, Shao-Yu; Peng, Ting-Hung [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Ko, Chung-Ming, E-mail: rex@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: cmko@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics and Center of Complex Systems, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-10

    The J - K{sub s} color distributions (CDs) with a bin size of 0.05 mag has been carried out for the entire Milky Way using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). The CDs are bimodal, with a red peak at 0.8 < J - K{sub s} < 0.85 and a blue peak at 0.3 < J - K{sub s} < 0.4. The colors of the red peak are more or less the same for the whole sky, but those of the blue peak depend on Galactic latitude (J - K{sub s} {approx} 0.35 at low Galactic latitudes and 0.35 < J - K{sub s} < 0.4 for other sky areas). The blue peak dominates the bimodal CDs at low Galactic latitudes and becomes comparable with the red peak in other sky regions. In order to explain the bimodal distribution and the global trend shown by the all-sky 2MASS CDs, we assemble an empirical Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, which is composed of observational-based near-infrared H-R diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams, and incorporate a Milky Way model. In the empirical H-R diagram, the main-sequence turn-off for stars in the thin disk is relatively bluer, (J - K{sub s} ){sub 0} = 0.31, compared with that of the thick disk which is (J - K{sub s} ){sub 0} = 0.39. The age of the thin/thick disk is roughly estimated to be around 4-5/8-9 Gyr according to the color-age relation of the main-sequence turn-off. In general, the 2MASS CDs can be treated as a tool to measure the age of the stellar population of the Milky Way in a statistical manner and to our knowledge it is the first attempt to do so.

  17. Planck's dusty GEMS: The brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies discovered with the Planck all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañameras, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Guery, D.; McKenzie, T.; König, S.; Petitpas, G.; Dole, H.; Frye, B.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Montier, L.; Negrello, M.; Beelen, A.; Boone, F.; Dicken, D.; Lagache, G.; Le Floc'h, E.; Altieri, B.; Béthermin, M.; Chary, R.; de Zotti, G.; Giard, M.; Kneissl, R.; Krips, M.; Malhotra, S.; Martinache, C.; Omont, A.; Pointecouteau, E.; Puget, J.-L.; Scott, D.; Soucail, G.; Valtchanov, I.; Welikala, N.; Yan, L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of CO spectroscopy and infrared-to-millimetre dust photometry of 11 exceptionally bright far-infrared (FIR) and sub-mm sources discovered through a combination of the Planck all-sky survey and follow-up Herschel-SPIRE imaging - "Planck's Dusty Gravitationally Enhanced subMillimetre Sources". Each source has a secure spectroscopic redshift z = 2.2-3.6 from multiple lines obtained through a blind redshift search with EMIR at the IRAM 30-m telescope. Interferometry was obtained at IRAM and the SMA, and along with optical/near-infrared imaging obtained at the CFHT and the VLT reveal morphologies consistent with strongly gravitationally lensed sources, including several giant arcs. Additional photometry was obtained with JCMT/SCUBA-2 and IRAM/GISMO at 850 μm and 2 mm, respectively. The SEDs of our sources peak near either the 350 μm or 500 μm bands of SPIRE with peak flux densities between 0.35 and 1.14 Jy. All objects are extremely bright isolated point sources in the 18'' beam of SPIREat 250 μm, with apparent FIR luminosities of up to 3 × 1014 L⊙ (not correcting for the lensing effect). Their morphologies, sizes, CO line widths, CO luminosities, dust temperatures, and FIR luminosities provide additional empirical evidence that these are amongst the brightest strongly gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies on the sub-mm sky. Our programme extends the successful wide-area searches for strongly gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies (carried out with the South Pole Telescope and Herschel) towards even brighter sources, which are so rare that their systematic identification requires a genuine all-sky survey like Planck. Six sources are above the ≃600 mJy 90% completeness limit of the Planck catalogue of compact sources (PCCS) at 545 and 857 GHz, which implies that these must literally be amongst the brightest high-redshift FIR and sub-mm sources on the extragalactic sky. We discuss their dust masses and temperatures, and use

  18. The Clustering Dipole of the Local Universe from the Two Micron All Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maller, Ariyeh H.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, Martin D.

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented sky coverage and photometric uniformity of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provides a rich resource for investigating the galaxies populating the local Universe. A full characterization of the large-scale clustering distribution is important for theoretical studies of structure formation. 2MASS offers an all-sky view of the local galaxy population at 2.15 micron, unbiased by young stellar light and minimally affected by dust. We use 2MASS to map the local distribution ...

  19. All-sky Relative Opacity Mapping Using Night Time Panoramic Images

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Roberj J.

    2005-01-01

    An all-sky cloud monitoring system that generates relative opacity maps over many of the world's premier astronomical observatories is described. Photometric measurements of numerous background stars are combined with simultaneous sky brightness measurements to differentiate thin clouds from sky glow sources such as air glow and zodiacal light. The system takes a continuous pipeline of all-sky images, and compares them to canonical images taken on other nights at the same sidereal time. Data ...

  20. Coherently combining short data segments for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, Evan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments. For misaligned detectors, however, thi...

  1. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    OpenAIRE

    Planck Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 353, 545, and 857 GHz, and IRAS 100 mu m data. Using a modified blackbody fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a good representation of the IRAS and Planck data at 5 0 between 353 and 3000 GHz (850 and 100 mu m). It shows variations of the order of 30% compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlege...

  2. Planck early results. VIII. The all-sky early Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Le Jeune, M.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Rosset, C.; Stompor, R.; Carvalho, P.; Feroz, F.; Hobson, M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Olamaie, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Bhatia, R.; Bond, J.R.; Da Silva, A.; Shellard, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Yvon, D.; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Toffolatti, L.; Marleau, F.; Netterfield, C.B.; Scott, D.; Pierpaoli, E.; Liddle, A.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Chiang, C.; Jones, W.C.; Cayón, L.; White, M.; Knox, L.; Stanford, A.; Lubin, P.M.; Meinhold, P.R.; Zonca, A.; Matarrese, S.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Nati, F.; Piacentini, F.; Gregorio, A.; Balbi, A.; Cabella, P.; De Gasperis, G.; Mazzotta, P.; Vittorio, N.; Kneissl, R.; González-Riestra, R.; Dupac, X.; Mendes, L.; Giardino, G.; Laureijs, R.J.; Leonardi, R.; Tauber, J.A.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Bonaldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Polenta, G.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Maris, M.; Mennella, A.; Pasian, F.; Zacchei, A.; Burigana, C.; Cuttaia, F.; De Rosa, A.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Natoli, P.; Ricciardi, S.; Sandri, M.; Terenzi, L.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Maino, D.; Tomasi, M.; Stivoli, F.; Désert, F.-X.; Chamballu, A.; Clements, D.L.; Jaffe, A.H.; Mortlock, D.; Novikov, D.; Chary, R.-R.; Ganga, K.; Pearson, T.J.; Rusholme, B.; Benoît, A.; Aghanim, N.; Aumont, J.; Dole, H.; Douspis, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Lagache, G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Noviello, F.; Pajot, F.; Ponthieu, N.; Puget, J.-L.; Taburet, N.; Torre, J.-P.; Vibert, L.; Benabed, K.; Bouchet, F.R.; Colombi, S.; Delouis, J.-M.; Hivon, E.; Moneti, A.; Prunet, S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Wandelt, B.D.; Fosalba, P.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Efstathiou, G.; Dahle, H.; Donzelli, S.; Lilje, P.B.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Génova-Santos, R.T.; Hoyland, R.J.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Barreiro, R.B.; Diego, J.M.; Herranz, D.; López-Caniego, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bock, J.J.; Doré, O.; Eisenhardt, P.; Holmes, W.A.; Keskitalo, R.; Lawrence, C.R.; Mitra, S.; Prézeau, G.; Rocha, G.; Seiffert, M.D.; Wade, L.A.; Battye, R.; Davis, R.J.; Dickinson, C.; Maffei, B.; Ashdown, M.; Brown, M.L.; Challinor, A.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Harrison, D.; Lasenby, A.; MacTavish, C.J.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sutton, D.; Catalano, A.; Coulais, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Arnaud, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Pratt, G.W.; Starck, J.-L.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hurier, G.; MacÍas-Pérez, J.F.; Perotto, L.; Renault, C.; Santos, D.; Couchot, F.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Tristram, M.; Cantalupo, C.M.; Kisner, T.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Dolag, K.; Dörl, U.; Enßlin, T.A.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hovest, W.; Li, C.; Matthai, F.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Riller, T.; White, S.D.M.; Chon, G.; Tuovinen, J.; Murphy, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Naselsky, P.; Novikov, I.; Crill, B.P.; Savini, G.; Baccigalupi, C.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.; González-Nuevo, J.; Leach, S.; Perrotta, F.; Mann, R.; Ade, P.A.R.; Munshi, D.; Sudiwala, R.; Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Borrill, J.; Osborne, S.; Saar, E.; Heinämäki, P.; Bartelmann, M.; Schaefer, B.M.; Mei, S.; Banday, A.J.; Bernard, J.-P.; Forni, O.; Giard, M.; Montier, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ristorcelli, I.; Reach, W.T.; Weller, J.; Battaner, E.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Górski, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This early SZ (ESZ) sample is comprised of 189 candidates, which have a high signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 6 to 29. Its ...

  3. Coherently combining data between detectors for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, E.; Riles, K.

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors.

  4. Remote and automatic small-scale observatories: experience with an all-sky fireball patrol camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a remote, automatic all-sky camera for capturing bright meteor trails based on a DSLR camera combined with Liquid Crystal shutter technology for angular velocity measurement. Design, performance and first results are discussed, as well the up scaling towards a large autonomous network for accurate fireball orbit determination and meteorite recovery.

  5. Photometric indicators of visual night sky quality derived from all-sky brightness maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2016-09-01

    Wide angle or fisheye cameras provide a high resolution record of artificial sky glow, which results from the scattering of escaped anthropogenic light by the atmosphere, over the sky vault in the moonless nocturnal environment. Analysis of this record yields important indicators of the extent and severity of light pollution. The following indicators were derived through numerical analysis of all-sky brightness maps: zenithal, average all-sky, median, brightest, and darkest sky brightness. In addition, horizontal and vertical illuminance, resulting from sky brightness were computed. A natural reference condition to which the anthropogenic component may be compared is proposed for each indicator, based upon an iterative analysis of a high resolution natural sky model. All-sky brightness data, calibrated in the V band by photometry of standard stars and converted to luminance, from 406 separate data sets were included in an exploratory analysis. Of these, six locations representing a wide range of severity of impact from artificial sky brightness were selected as examples and examined in detail. All-sky average brightness is the most unbiased indicator of impact to the environment, and is more sensitive and accurate in areas of slight to moderate light pollution impact than zenith brightness. Maximum vertical illuminance provides an excellent indicator of impacts to wilderness character, as does measures of the brightest portions of the sky. Zenith brightness, the workhorse of field campaigns, is compared to the other indicators and found to correlate well with horizontal illuminance, especially at relatively bright sites. The median sky brightness describes a brightness threshold for the upper half of the sky, of importance to telescopic optical astronomy. Numeric indicators, in concert with all-sky brightness maps, provide a complete assessment of visual sky quality at a site.

  6. Hyper-luminous Reddened Broad-Line Quasars at z~2 from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey and WISE All Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Koposov, Sergey E

    2012-01-01

    We present the first sample of spectroscopically confirmed heavily reddened broad-line quasars selected using the new near infra-red VISTA Hemisphere Survey and WISE All-Sky Survey. Observations of four candidates with (J-K)>2.5 and K 22. We also present WISE photometry at 3--22um, for our full sample of spectroscopically confirmed reddened quasars including those selected from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (Banerji et al. 2012a). We demonstrate that the rest-frame infrared SEDs of these redde...

  7. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a Hemispherical Sky Imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated by spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelength 380 nm to 760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less then 20% for all sky conditions.

  8. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a hemispherical sky imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images, non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated using spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelengths 380–760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less than 20% for all sky conditions.

  9. Derivation of sky quality indicators from photometrically calibrated all-sky image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.; Moore, Chadwick A.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.

    2015-08-01

    A large database of high resolution all-sky measurements of V-band night sky brightness at sites in U.S. National Parks and astronomical observatories is utilized to describe sky quality over a wide geographic area. Mosaics of photometrically calibrated V-band imagery are processed with a semi-automated procedure to reveal the effects of artificial sky glow through graphical presentation and numeric indicators of artificial sky brightness. Comparison with simpler methods such as the use of the Unihedron SQM and naked eye limiting magnitude reveal that areas near the horizon, which are not typically captured with single-channel measurements, contribute significantly to the indicators maximum vertical illuminance, maximum sky luminance, and average all-sky luminance. Distant sources of sky glow may represent future threats to areas of the sky nearer the zenith. Timely identification and quantification of these threats may allow mitigating strategies to be implemented.

  10. All-sky Relative Opacity Mapping Using Night Time Panoramic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, L; Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Roberj J.

    2005-01-01

    An all-sky cloud monitoring system that generates relative opacity maps over many of the world's premier astronomical observatories is described. Photometric measurements of numerous background stars are combined with simultaneous sky brightness measurements to differentiate thin clouds from sky glow sources such as air glow and zodiacal light. The system takes a continuous pipeline of all-sky images, and compares them to canonical images taken on other nights at the same sidereal time. Data interpolation then yields transmission maps covering almost the entire sky. An implementation of this system is currently operating through the Night Sky Live network of CONCAM3s located at Cerro Pachon (Chile), Mauna Kea (Hawaii), Haleakala (Hawaii), SALT (South Africa) and the Canary Islands (Northwestern Africa).

  11. The GRB All-sky Spectrometer Experiment III: Upgrades and Commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zachary; Martinot, Zachary; Voigt, Elana; Pober, Jonathan; Morales, Miguel F.

    2015-01-01

    The GRB All-sky Spectrometer Experiment (GASE) is designed to detect low frequency radio emission following a gamma ray burst. GASE currently uses 8 dipole antennas to detect these emissions. This poster will discuss the commissioning and associated troubleshooting of setting up these antennas. This will include the challenges presented by having the instrument located here in Seattle such as water damage, corrosion, and RFI.

  12. Calibrated griz magnitudes of Tycho stars: All-sky photometric calibration using bright stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ofek, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Photometric calibration to ~5% level is frequently needed at arbitrary celestial location. However, existing all-sky astronomical catalogs do not reach this accuracy, and time consuming photometric calibration procedures are required. I fitted the Hipparcos B-T and V-T magnitudes, along with the 2MASS J, H, and K magnitudes of Tycho-2-catalog stars with stellar spectral templates. From the best-fit spectral template derived for each star, I calculated its synthetic SDSS griz magnitudes and co...

  13. WATCHDOG: A Comprehensive All-Sky Database of Galactic Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tetarenko, B E; Heinke, C O; Gladstone, J C

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient Universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments aboard the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion ...

  14. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    CERN Document Server

    Abergel, A; Aghanim, N; Alina, D; Alves, M I R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Grenier, I A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Joncas, G; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 857, 545 and 353 GHz, and IRAS 100 micron data. Using a modified black-body fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a tight representation of the data at 5 arcmin. It shows variations of the order of 30 % compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, tau_353/N_H, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T_obs, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at HI column densities lower than...

  15. WATCHDOG: A Comprehensive All-sky Database of Galactic Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Gladstone, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments on board the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion state make up a substantial fraction (∼40%) of the Galactic transient BHXB outburst sample over the past ∼20 years. Our findings suggest that this “hard-only” behavior, observed in transient and persistently accreting BHXBs, is neither a rare nor recent phenomenon and may be indicative of an underlying physical process, relatively common among binary BHs, involving the mass-transfer rate onto the BH remaining at a low level rather than increasing as the outburst evolves. We discuss how the larger number of these “hard-only” outbursts and detected outbursts in general have significant implications for both the luminosity function and mass-transfer history of the Galactic BHXB population.

  16. The MOXE X-ray all-sky monitor for Spectrum-X-Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In`t Zand, J.J.M.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Moss, C.E. [and others

    1994-08-01

    MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor to be flown on the Russian Spectrum-X-Gamma satellite, to be launched in a few years. It will monitor several hundred X-ray sources on a daily basis, and will be the first instrument to monitor most of the X-ray sky most of the time. MOXE will alert users of more sensitive instruments on Russia`s giant high energy astrophysics observatory and of other instruments to transient activity. MOXE consists of an array of 6 X-ray pinhole cameras, sensitive from 3 to 25 keV, which views 4{pi} steradians (except for a 20{degree} {times} 80{degree} patch which includes the Sun). The pinhole apertures of 0.625 {times} 2.556 cm{sup 2} imply an angular resolution of 2{degree}.4 {times} 9{degree}.7 (on-axis). The MOXE hardware program includes an engineering model, now delivered, and a flight model. The flight instrument will mass approximately 118 kg and draw 38 Watts. For a non-focusing all-sky instrument that is limited by sky background, the limiting sensitivity is a function only of detector area. MOXE, with 6,000 cm{sup 2} of detector area, will, for a 24 hrs exposure, have a sensitivity of approximately 2 mCrab. MOXE distinguishes itself with respect to other all-sky monitors in its high duty cycle, thus being particularly sensitive to transient phenomena with time scales between minutes and hours.

  17. Comprehensive All-sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Sixth Science Run LIGO Data

    OpenAIRE

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; ADAMS, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 100-1500 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of $[-1.18, +1.00]\\times 10^{-8}$ Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from the Initial LIGO sixth science run and covers a larger parameter space with respect to any past search. A Loosely Coherent detection pipeline was...

  18. The Steepness Ratio Technique: A New Method to analyze ROSAT All-Sky Survey Extended Sources

    OpenAIRE

    S. De Grandi; Molendi, S.; Böhringer, H.; Chincarini, G.; Voges, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this first paper of a series we develop a new technique to analyze clusters of galaxies observed during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). We call this method the Steepness Ratio Technique (SRT). The SRT uses the convolution between the real RASS point-spread function and the cluster emission profile assumed to be a beta-model with the beta parameter fixed to the value of 2/3. From the convolved source emission profile the SRT extracts total flux and extension (i.e., core radius) for each cl...

  19. Optical Identification of Four Hard X-ray Sources from the Swift All-Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lutovinov, A.; Burenin, R.; Revnivtsev, M.; Sazonov, S; Sholukhova, O.; Valeev, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of four hard X-ray sources from the Swift all-sky survey. We obtained optical spectra for each of the program objects with the 6-m BTA telescope (Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Arkhyz), which allowed their nature to be established. Two sources (SWIFT J2237.2+6324} and SWIFT J2341.0+7645) are shown to belong to the class of cataclysmic variables (suspected polars or intermediate polars). The measured...

  20. Fully-coherent all-sky search for gravitational-waves from compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, D.; Harry, I. W.; Fairhurst, S.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a fully coherent method for searching for gravitational wave signals generated by the merger of black hole and/or neutron star binaries. This extends the coherent analysis previously developed and used for targeted gravitational wave searches to an all-sky, all-time search. We apply the search to one month of data taken during the fifth science run of the LIGO detectors. We demonstrate an increase in sensitivity of 25% over the coincidence search, which is commensurate with expectations. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing and running a coherent search for gravitational wave signals from binary coalescence in the advanced gravitational wave detector data.

  1. A fully-coherent all-sky search for gravitational-waves from compact binary coalescences

    CERN Document Server

    Macleod, D M; Fairhurst, S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a fully-coherent method for searching for gravitational wave signals generated by the merger of black hole and/or neutron star binaries. This extends the coherent analysis previously developed and used for targeted gravitational wave searches to an all-sky, all-time search. We apply the search to one month of data taken during the fifth science run of the LIGO detectors. We demonstrate an increase in sensitivity of 25% over the coincidence search, which is commensurate with expectations. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing and running a coherent search for gravitational wave signals from binary coalescence in the advanced gravitational wave detector data.

  2. Status of GRB Observations with the Suzaku Wideband All-sky Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, M S; Urata, Y; Onda, K; Kodaka, N; Endo, A; Suzuki, M; Morigami, K; Yamaoka, K; Nakagawa, Y E; Sugita, S; Fukazawa, Y; Ohno, M; Takahashi, T; Kira, C; Uehara, T; Tamagawa, T; Enoto, T; Miyawaki, R; Nakazawa, K; Makishima, K; Sonoda, E; Yamauchi, M; Maeno, S; Tanaka, H; Hara, R; Suzuki, M; Kokubun, M; Takahashi, T; Hong, S J; Murakami, T; Tajima, H

    2008-01-01

    The Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) is a function of the large lateral BGO shield of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) onboard Suzaku. Its large geometrical area of 800 cm^2 per side, the large stopping power for the hard X-rays and the wide-field of view make the WAM an ideal detector for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observations in the energy range of 50-5000 keV. In fact, the WAM has observed 288 GRBs confirmed by other satellites, till the end of May 2007.

  3. All Sky Cameras for the characterization of the Cherenkov Telescope Array/ncandidate sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandát, Dušan; Pech, Miroslav; Ebr, Jan; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Bulik, T.; Allekotte, I.

    Singapore: International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), 2013, s. 0016. ISBN 978-85-89064-29-3. [The 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2013). Rio de Janeiro (BR), 02.07.2013-09.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12AR013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : All Sky Camera * CTA * candidate sites * cloud fraction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics http://www.cbpf.br/~icrc2013/proc_icrc2013.html

  4. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. I. Survey Description, Goals, and Initial Data Release

    OpenAIRE

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Pisano, D. J.; Calabretta, M. R.; Ford, H. A.; Lockman, F.J.; Staveley-Smith, L; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Bailin, J.; Dedes, L.; Janowiecki, S.; Gibson, B. K.; Murphy, T.; Nakanishi, H.; Newton-McGee, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) emission in the Southern sky covering declinations $\\delta \\leq 1^{\\circ}$ using the Parkes Radio Telescope. The survey covers $2\\pi$ steradians with an effective angular resolution of ~16', at a velocity resolution of 1.0 km/s, and with an rms brightness temperature noise of 57 mK. GASS is the most sensitive, highest angular resolution survey of Galactic HI emission ever made in the Southern sky. In this p...

  5. Comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the sixth science run LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We report on a comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 100-1500 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.18 ,+1.00 ] ×1 0-8 Hz /s . Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from the initial LIGO sixth science run and covers a larger parameter space with respect to any past search. A Loosely Coherent detection pipeline was applied to follow up weak outliers in both Gaussian (95% recovery rate) and non-Gaussian (75% recovery rate) bands. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strength. Our smallest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 is 9.7 ×1 0-25 near 169 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 5.5 ×1 0-24 . Both cases refer to all sky locations and entire range of frequency derivative values.

  6. An improved source-subtracted and destriped 408 MHz all-sky map

    CERN Document Server

    Remazeilles, M; Banday, A J; Bigot-Sazy, M -A; Ghosh, T

    2014-01-01

    The all-sky 408 MHz map of Haslam et al. is one the most important total-power radio surveys. It has been widely used to study diffuse synchrotron radiation from our Galaxy and as a template to remove foregrounds in cosmic microwave background data. However, there are a number of issues associated with it that must be dealt with, including large-scale striations and contamination from extragalactic radio sources. We have re-evaluated and re-processed the rawest data available to produce a new and improved 408 MHz all-sky map. We first quantify the positional accuracy ($\\approx 7$ arcmin) and effective beam ($56.0\\pm1.0$ arcmin) of the four individual surveys from which it was assembled. Large-scale striations associated with $1/f$ noise in the scan direction are reduced to a level $\\ll 1$ K using a Fourier-based filtering technique. The most important improvement results from the removal of extragalactic sources. We have used an iterative combination of two techniques -- two-dimensional Gaussian fitting and m...

  7. Solar radiation forecasting in the short- and medium-term under all sky conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorological conditions are decisive in solar plant management and electricity generation. Any increases or decreases in solar radiation mean a plant has to adapt its operation method to the climatological phenomena. An unexpected atmospheric change can provoke a range of problems related to various solar plant components affecting the electricity generation system and, in consequence, causing alterations in the electricity grid. Therefore, predicting atmospheric features is key to managing solar plants and is therefore necessary for correct electrical grid management. Accordingly, a solar radiation forecast model is presented, where the three solar components (beam, diffuse and global) are predicted over the short- and medium-term (up to three hours) for all sky conditions, demonstrating its potential as a useful application in decision-making processes at solar power plants. - Highlights: • A solar radiation forecasting has been proposed over the short- and medium-term. • The three radiation components have been predicted under all sky conditions. • Cloud motion and the Heliosat-2 model are combined for predicting solar radiation. • Results have been presented for cloudless, partially-cloudy and overcast conditions. • For beam and global radiation, the nRMSE value is lower than 10% under clear skies

  8. Sharp Chandra View of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Sources: I. Improvement of Positional Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) represents one of the most complete and sensitive soft X-ray all-sky surveys to date. However, the deficient positional accuracy of the RASS Bright Source Catalog (BSC) and subsequent lack of firm optical identifications affect the multi-wavelength studies of X-ray sources. The widely used positional errors $\\sigma_{pos}$ based on the Tycho Stars Catalog (Tycho-1) have previously been applied for identifying objects in the optical band. The considerably sharper Chandra view covers a fraction of RASS sources, whose $\\sigma_{pos}$ could be improved by utilizing the sub-arcsec positional accuracy of Chandra observations. We cross-match X-ray objects between the BSC and \\emph{Chandra} sources extracted from the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) archival observations. A combined counterparts list (BSCxACIS) with \\emph{Chandra} spatial positions weighted by the X-ray flux of multi-counterparts is employed to evaluate and improve the former identifications of BSC with the other...

  9. Comprehensive All-sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Sixth Science Run LIGO Data

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 100-1500 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of $[-1.18, +1.00]\\times 10^{-8}$ Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from the Initial LIGO sixth science run and covers a larger parameter space with respect to any past search. A Loosely Coherent detection pipeline was applied to follow up weak outliers in both Gaussian (95% recovery rate) and non-Gaussian (75% recovery rate) bands. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strength. Our smallest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude $h_0$ is ${9.7}\\times 10^{-25}$ near 169 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of ${5.5}\\times 10^{-24}$. Both cases refer to all sky locations and entire range of frequency derivative values.

  10. The Southern Twenty-centimeter All-sky Polarization Survey (STAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkorn, Marijke; Gaensler, Bryan; McConnell, David; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; Carretti, Ettore; Kesteven, Michael; Wolleben, Maik; Heiles, Carl

    2009-10-01

    This is the fourth semester proposal for the large project P624, the Southern Twenty-centimeter All-sky Polarization Survey (STAPS), a 1.4GHz broadband all-sky survey which started as a piggy-back survey on the 2.3GHz survey S-PASS (P560). STAPS/S-PASS take data in long azimuth scans at fixed elevation. Starting times of scans are determined exactly, so that scans cover adjacent bands across the sky, eventually resulting in a Nyquist-coverage of the southern sky. The science goals of STAPS focus on the Galactic interstellar medium and magnetism. Using rotation measure synthesis, we can disentangle synchrotron emitting and Faraday rotating sources along the line of sight, allowing a new view of the polarized radio sky. The data will be used to advance models of the large-scale Galactic magnetic field, for characterization of depolarization and interstellar turbulence and for studies of magnetism in discrete structures such as supernova remnants. On- and off-axis instrumental polarization will be characterized and removed. Initial calibration indicates on-axis instrumental polarization of about one percent, which is expected to go down using more sophisticated calibration methods.

  11. First observations from a CCD all-sky spectrograph at Barentsburg (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A digital CCD all-sky spectrograph was made by the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI to support IPY activity in auroral research. The device was tested at the Barentsburg observatory of PGI during the winter season of 2005–2006. The spectrograph is based on a cooled CCD and a transmission grating. The main features of this spectrograph are: a wide field of view (~180°, a wide spectral range (380–740 nm, a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm, a background level of about 100 R at 1-min exposure time. Several thousand spectra of nightglow and aurora were recorded during the observation season. It was possible to register both the strong auroral emissions, as well as weak ones. Spectra of aurora, including nitrogen and oxygen molecular and atomic emissions, as well as OH emissions of the nightglow are shown. A comparison has been conducted of auroral spectra obtained by the film all-sky spectral camera C-180-S at Spitsbergen during IGY, with spectra obtained at Barentsburg during the last winter season. The relationship between the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm auroral emissions shows that the green emission is dominant near the minimum of the solar cycle activity (2005–2006. The opposite situation is observed during 1958–1959, with a maximum solar cycle activity.

  12. All-sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Full S5 LIGO Data

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G S; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Behnke, B; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cain, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endrőczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Farr, W; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Ganija, M R; Garcia, J; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamaretsos, I; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinsey, M; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lang, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H M; Leindecker, N; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lindquist, P E; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marandi, A; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D J A; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menendez, D; Mercer, R A; Merill, L; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow--Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Nawrodt, R; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishida, E; Nishizawa, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Oldenburg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pathak, D; Pedraza, M; Peiris, P; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Peralta, C; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pöld, J; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C R; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Redwine, K; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Ryll, H; Sainathan, P; Sakosky, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; de la Jordana, L Sancho; Sandberg, V; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Satterthwaite, M; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schlamminger, S; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Soto, J; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Stein, A J; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tseng, K; Turner, L; Ugolini, D; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Wei, P; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zadroźny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2011-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 50-800 Hz and with the frequency time derivative in the range of 0 through -6e-9 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. After recent improvements in the search program that yielded a 10x increase in computational efficiency, we have searched in two years of data collected during LIGO's fifth science run and have obtained the most sensitive all-sky upper limits on gravitational wave strain to date. Near 150 Hz our upper limit on worst-case linearly polarized strain amplitude $h_0$ is 1e-24, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 3.8e-24 for all polarizations and sky locations. These results constitute a factor of two improvement upon previously published data. A new detection pipeline utilizing a Loosely Coherent algorithm was able to follow up weaker outliers, increasing the volume of space wher...

  13. STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF STELLAR DISKS FROM TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY IMAGES OF EDGE-ON GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of an analysis of the J, H, and Ks Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images of 139 spiral edge-on galaxies selected from the Revised Flat Galaxies Catalog. The basic structural parameters scale length (h), scale height (z 0), and central surface brightness of the stellar disks (μ0) are determined for all selected galaxies in the near-infrared (NIR) bands. The mean relative ratios of the scale heights of the thin stellar disks in the J:H:Ks bands are 1.16:1.08:1.00, respectively. Comparing the scale heights obtained from the NIR bands for the same objects, we estimate the scale heights of the thin stellar disks corrected for the internal extinction. We find that the extinction-corrected scale height is, on average, 11% smaller than that in the K band. Using the extinction-corrected structural parameters, we find that the dark-to-luminous mass ratio is, on average, 1.3 for the galaxies in our sample within the framework of a simplified galactic model. The relative thicknesses of the stellar disks z 0/h correlates with their face-on central surface brightnesses obtained from the 2MASS images. We also find that the scale height of the stellar disks shows no systematic growth with radius in most of our galaxies.

  14. The MAXI Mission on the ISS: Science and Instruments for Monitoring All Sky X-Ray Images

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Motoko; Adachi, Yasuki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Isobe, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yujin; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Jun; Morii, Mikio; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Chujo, Hirotaka; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamazaki, Osamu; Nakahira, Satoshi; You, Tetsuya; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Miyoshi, Sho; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Ebisawa, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the ISS. It is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2009 to monitor all-sky X-ray objects on every ISS orbit. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor (ASM) payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of AGN. MAXI will provide all sky images of X-ray sources of about 20 mCrab in the energy band of 2-30 keV from observation on one ISS orbit (90 min), about 4.5 mCrab for one day, and about 1 mCrab for one month. A final detectability of MAXI could be 0.2 mCrab for 2 year observations.

  15. The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey I. Source selection and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, S T; Browne, I W A; De Bruyn, A G; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Wilkinson, P N; Biggs, A D; Blandford, R D; Fassnacht, C D; Koopmans, L V E; Marlow, D R; McKean, J P; Norbury, M A; Phillips, P M; Rusin, D; Shepherd, M C; Sykes, C M

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) is an international collaborative program which has obtained high-resolution radio images of over 10000 flat-spectrum radio sources in order to create the largest and best studied statistical sample of radio-loud gravitationally lensed systems. With this survey, combined with detailed studies of the lenses found therein, constraints can be placed on the expansion rate, matter density, and dark energy (e.g. cosmological constant, quintessence) content of the Universe that are complementary to and independent of those obtained through other methods. CLASS is aimed at identifying lenses where multiple images are formed from compact flat-spectrum radio sources, which should be easily identifiable in the radio maps. Because CLASS is radio-based, dust obscuration in lensing galaxies is not a factor, and the relative insensitivity of the instrument to environmental conditions leads to nearly uniform sensitivity and resolution over the entire survey. In four observing seasons fr...

  16. A ROACH Based Data Acquisition System for the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartez, Louis P.; Jenet, F.; Cohen, S.; Creighton, T. D.; Ford, A.; Garcia, A.; Hicks, B.; Hinojosa, J.; Kassim, N. E.; Longoria, C.; Lunsford, G.; Mata, A.; Miller, R. B.; Price, R. H.; Quintero, L.; Ray, P. S.; Reser, J.; Rivera, J.; Stovall, K.; Taylor, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a distributed array of dipole antennas that are sensitive to radio frequencies from 5 to 88 MHz. The primary science goals will be the detection and study of low-frequency radio transients. LoFASM consists of antennas and front end electronics that were originally developed for the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) by the U.S. Naval Research Lab, the University of New Mexico, Virginia Tech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. LoFASM, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, will initially consist of 4 stations, each consisting of 12 dual-polarization dipole antenna stands. The signals received by LoFASM are digitized and processed using Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) boards. This poster will describe the LoFASM project with an emphasis on the ROACH data processing pipe-line.

  17. Hierarchical Hough all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new pipeline used to analyze the data from the fifth science run (S5) of the LIGO detectors to search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated spinning neutron stars. The method employed is based on the Hough transform, which is a semi-coherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. The Hough transform is used to find signals in the time-frequency plane of the data whose frequency evolution fits the pattern produced by the Doppler shift imposed on the signal by the Earth's motion and the pulsar's spin-down during the observation period. The main differences with respect to previous Hough all-sky searches are described. These differences include the use of a two-step hierarchical Hough search, analysis of coincidences among the candidates produced in the first and second year of S5, and veto strategies based on a χ2 test.

  18. Hierarchical Hough all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho de la Jordana, Llucia, E-mail: llucia.sancho@uib.e [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    We describe a new pipeline used to analyze the data from the fifth science run (S5) of the LIGO detectors to search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated spinning neutron stars. The method employed is based on the Hough transform, which is a semi-coherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. The Hough transform is used to find signals in the time-frequency plane of the data whose frequency evolution fits the pattern produced by the Doppler shift imposed on the signal by the Earth's motion and the pulsar's spin-down during the observation period. The main differences with respect to previous Hough all-sky searches are described. These differences include the use of a two-step hierarchical Hough search, analysis of coincidences among the candidates produced in the first and second year of S5, and veto strategies based on a {chi}{sup 2} test.

  19. Hierarchical Hough all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data

    CERN Document Server

    de la Jordana, Llucia Sancho

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new pipeline used to analyze the data from the fifth science run (S5) of the LIGO detectors to search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated spinning neutron stars. The method employed is based on the Hough transform, which is a semi-coherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. The Hough transform is used to find signals in the time-frequency plane of the data whose frequency evolution fits the pattern produced by the Doppler shift imposed on the signal by the Earth's motion and the pulsar's spin-down during the observation period. The main differences with respect to previous Hough all-sky searches are described. These differences include the use of a two-step hierarchical Hough search, analysis of coincidences among the candidates produced in the first and second year of S5, and veto strategies based on a $\\chi^2$ test.

  20. All-sky reconstruction of the primordial scalar potential from WMAP temperature data

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A

    2014-01-01

    An essential quantity required to understand the physics of the early Universe, in particular the inflationary epoch, is the primordial scalar potential $\\Phi$ and its statistics. We present for the first time an all-sky reconstruction of $\\Phi$ with corresponding $1\\sigma$-uncertainty from WMAP's cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature data - a map of the very early Universe right after the inflationary epoch. This has been achieved by applying a Bayesian inference method that separates the whole inverse problem of the reconstruction into many independent ones, each of them solved by an optimal linear filter (Wiener filter). In this way, the three-dimensional potential $\\Phi$ gets reconstructed slice by slice resulting in a thick shell of nested spheres around the comoving distance to the last scattering surface. Each slice represents the primordial scalar potential $\\Phi$ projected onto a sphere with corresponding distance. Furthermore, we present an advanced method for inferring $\\Phi$ and its power ...

  1. All Sky Cameras for the characterization of the Cherenkov Telescope Array candidate sites

    CERN Document Server

    Mandát, Dušan; Ebr, Jan; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Bulik, Tomasz; Allekotte, Ingomar

    2013-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as a universal device for the monitoring of the night sky quality. Eight ASCs are already installed and measure night sky parameters at eight of the candidate sites of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) gamma-ray observatory. The ACS system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical night. The images are automatically taken every 5 minutes and automatically processed using the control computer of the device. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds) and night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec$^{2}$)

  2. A Uniformly Selected, All-Sky Optical AGN catalog, for UHECR Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaw, Ingyin; Farrar, Glennys R

    2015-01-01

    Studies discerning whether there is a significant correlation between UHECR arrival directions and optical AGN are hampered by the lack of a uniformly selected and complete all-sky optical AGN catalog. To remedy this, we are preparing such a catalog based on the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), a spectroscopic sample of $\\sim 44,500$ galaxies complete to a K magnitude of 11.75 over 91% of the sky. We have analyzed the available optical spectra of these 2MRS galaxies ($\\sim 80$% of the galaxies), in order to identify the AGN amongst them with uniform criteria. We present a first-stage release of the AGN catalog for the southern sky, based on spectra from the 6dF Galaxy survey and CTIO telescope. Providing a comparably uniform and complete catalog for the northern sky is more challenging because the spectra for the northern galaxies were taken with different instruments.

  3. Meteor Shower Forecast Improvements from a Survey of All-Sky Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO's annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions. The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the "fireball" size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower's activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  4. All-sky sensitivity of HAWC to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatory in the state of Puebla, Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m. Its 22,000 m$^2$ instrumented area, wide field of view ($\\sim$2 sr), and >95% uptime make it an ideal instrument for discovering gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission at $\\sim$100 GeV. Such a discovery would provide key information about the origins of prompt GRB emission as well as constraints on extra-galactic background light (EBL) models and the violation of Lorentz invariance. We will present prospects for discovering GRB emission at $\\sim$100 GeV with a simple, all-sky search algorithm using HAWC data that is most sensitive to short GRBs. The search algorithm presented here can also be used to detect other short transients with timescales and fluxes similar to short GRBs.

  5. High sensitivity all sky X-ray monitor and survey with MAXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAXI is an all sky X-ray monitor to be mounted on the Japanese Experimental Module in the International Space Station (ISS). It scans almost all over the sky every 96 minutes, in the course of the orbital motion of the ISS. MAXI is designed to have a sensitivity, significantly higher than the previous X-ray monitors, and then, to detect X-ray sources as faint as 1 mCrab in a week observation. Therefore, MAXI is expected to create a novel catalogue of not only the stable X-ray sources but also the highly variable ones in the sky, especially active galactic nuclei for the first time. If MAXI detects X-ray phenomena, alerts will be quickly made through the Internet

  6. Outbursts, State Transitions, and Periodicities Observed with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, A M

    1998-01-01

    Results from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer are reviewed. A number of recurrent transient sources have been detected, while only a few previously unreported sources have been discovered. The ASM light curves show a wide variety of phenomena in general, and, in particular, those of transient sources show a wide range of properties. Examples are used to illustrate that the distinction between persistent and transient sources may be very unclear. The results of searches for periodicities in the ASM light curves are summarized, and other astrophysical investigations using ASM light curves are suggested. The latter include investigations of the possible causes of long-term quasiperiodic and chaotic variability, and comparative studies on the basis of the observed variability.

  7. First Results from the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, A M; Cui, W; Jernigan, J G; Morgan, E H; Remillard, R A; Shirey, R E; Smith, D A; Levine, Alan M.; Bradt, Hale; Cui, Wei; Morgan, Edward H.; Remillard, Ronald; Shirey, Robert E.; Smith, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    The All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has been monitoring the sky in the 1.5 - 12 keV band since late February. The instrument consists of three coded-aperture cameras which can be rotated to view different regions by a motorized drive assembly. Intensities of ~100 known sources are obtained via least-square fits of shadow patterns to the data and compiled to form x-ray light curves. Six orbital periodicities and four long-term periodicities, all previously known, have been detected in these light curves. Searches for additional sources have also been conducted. X-ray light curves for the Crab Nebula, Cyg X-1, 4U 1705-44, GRO J1655-40, and SMC X-1 are reported. They illustrate the quality of the results and the range of observed phenomena.

  8. Cepheids in Open Clusters: An 8-D All-sky Census

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Richard I; Mowlavi, Nami

    2012-01-01

    Cepheids in open clusters (cluster Cepheids: CCs) are of great importance as zero- point calibrators of the Galactic Cepheid period-luminosity relationship (PLR). We perform an 8-dimensional all-sky census that aims to identify new bona- fide CCs and provide a ranking of membership confidence for known CC candidates through membership probabilities. The probabilities are computed for combinations of known Galactic open clusters and classical Cepheid candidates, based on spatial, kine- matic, and population-specific membership constraints. Data employed in this analysis are taken largely from published literature and supplemented by a year-round observ- ing program on both hemispheres dedicated to determining systemic radial velocities of Cepheids. In total, we find 13 bona-fide CCs, 3 of which are identified for the first time, including an overtone-Cepheid member in NGC 129. Inconclusive cases are discussed in detail, some of which have been previously mentioned in the literature. Our results are inconsisten...

  9. Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain spectral sky radiances, at three wavelengths (464, 534 and 626 nm, from hemispherical sky images. Images are registered with an All-Sky Imager installed at the Andalusian Center for Environmental Research (CEAMA in Granada (Spain. The methodology followed in this work for the absolute calibration in radiance of this instrument is based on the comparison of its output measurements with modelled sky radiances derived from the Libradtran/UVSPEC radiative transfer code under cloud-free conditions. Previously, in order to check the goodness of the simulated radiances, these are compared with experimental values recorded by a CIMEL sunphotometer. In general, modelled radiances are in agreement with experimental data, showing mean differences lower than 15% except for the pixels located next to the sun position that show larger errors.

    The comparison between the output signal of the All-Sky Imager and the modelled sky radiances provides a calibration matrix for each image. The variability of the matrix coefficients is analyzed, showing no significant changes along a period of 5 months. Therefore, a unique calibration matrix per channel is obtained for all selected images (a total of 705 images per channel. Camera radiances are compared with CIMEL radiances, finding mean absolute differences between 2% and 15% except for pixels near to the Sun and high zenith angles. We apply these calibration matrices to three images in order to study the sky radiance distributions for three different sky conditions: cloudless, overcast and partially cloudy. Horizon brightening under cloudless conditions has been observed together with the enhancement effect of individual clouds on sky radiance.

  10. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  11. Fast All-Sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS): Algorithm and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit; Dudhia, Jimy

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resources for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the RT equation, the computation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time-consuming, though many approximations (e.g., two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme) have been utilized. Thus, a more efficient RT model is crucial for model developers as a new option for approximating solar radiation at the land surface with minimal loss of accuracy. In this study, we developed a fast all-sky radiation model for solar applications (FARMS) using the simplified clear-sky RT model, REST2, and simulated cloud transmittances and reflectances from the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) with a 16-stream Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT). Simulated lookup tables (LUTs) of cloud transmittances and reflectances are created by varying cloud optical thicknesses, cloud particle sizes, and solar zenith angles. Equations with optimized parameters are fitted to the cloud transmittances and reflectances to develop the model. The all-sky solar irradiance at the land surface can then be computed rapidly by combining REST2 with the cloud transmittances and reflectances. This new RT model is more than 1,000 times faster than those currently utilized in solar resource assessment and forecasting because it does not explicitly solve the RT equation for each individual cloud condition. Our results indicate that the accuracy of the fast radiative transfer model is comparable to or better than two-stream approximation in term of computing cloud transmittance and solar radiation.

  12. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  13. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations.

    We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%.

    This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The

  14. Parameterization of atmospheric longwave emissivity in a mountainous site for all sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herrero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Longwave radiation is an important component of the energy balance of the Earth's surface. The downward component, emitted by the clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere, is rarely measured, and is still not well understood. In mountainous areas, direct observations are even scarcer and the fitting of existing models is often subjected to local parameterization in order to surplus the particular physics of the atmospheric profiles. The influence of clouds makes it even harder to estimate for all sky conditions. This work presents a long-time continuous dataset of high-resolution longwave radiation measured in a weather station at a height of 2500 m a.s.l. in Sierra Nevada, Spain, together with the parameterization of the apparent atmospheric emissivity for clear and cloudy skies resulting from three different schemes. We evaluate the schemes of Brutsaert, and Crawford and Duchon with locally adjusted coefficients and compare them with a completely parametric expression adjusted for these data that takes into account three possible significant atmospheric states related to the cloud cover: clear, completely covered, and partly covered skies. All the parametric expressions are related to the screen-level values of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation, which can be frequently found in standard weather stations. Unobserved cloudiness measurements needed for Brutsaert scheme for cloudy sky are also parameterized from screen-level measurements. The calibration performed for a 6-yr period at the study site resulted in satisfactory estimations of emissivity for all the analyzed schemes thanks to the local fitting of the parameterizations, with the best achievement found for the completely parametric expression. Further validation of the expressions in two alternative sites showed that the greater accuracy of the latter can also be found in very close sites, while a better performance of the Brutsaert scheme, with a more physical background

  15. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8σ, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 × 10–11 erg s–1 cm–2 over 50% of the sky and 1.34 × 10–11 erg s–1 cm–2 over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site

  16. Timeline analysis and wavelet multiscale analysis of the AKARI All-Sky Survey at 90 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Shibai, Hiroshi; Savage, Rich; Oliver, Seb; Thomson, Matthew; Rahman, Nurur; Clements, Dave; Figueredo, Elysandra; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsuura, Shuji; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Pearson, Chris P; Serjeant, Stephen; Shirahata, Mai; White, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    We present a careful analysis of the point source detection limit of the AKARI All-Sky Survey in the WIDE-S 90 $\\mu$m band near the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP). Timeline Analysis is used to detect IRAS sources and then a conversion factor is derived to transform the peak timeline signal to the interpolated 90 $\\mu$m flux of a source. Combined with a robust noise measurement, the point source flux detection limit at S/N $>5$ for a single detector row is $1.1\\pm0.1$ Jy which corresponds to a point source detection limit of the survey of $\\sim$0.4 Jy. Wavelet transform offers a multiscale representation of the Time Series Data (TSD). We calculate the continuous wavelet transform of the TSD and then search for significant wavelet coefficients considered as potential source detections. To discriminate real sources from spurious or moving objects, only sources with confirmation are selected. In our multiscale analysis, IRAS sources selected above $4\\sigma$ can be identified as the only real sources at the Point Sourc...

  17. Neutrino constraints from future nearly all-sky spectroscopic galaxy surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine whether future, nearly all-sky galaxy redshift surveys, in combination with CMB priors, will be able to detect the signature of the cosmic neutrino background and determine the absolute neutrino mass scale. We also consider what constraints can be imposed on the effective number of neutrino species. In particular we consider two spectroscopic strategies in the near-IR, the so-called ''slitless'' and ''multi-slit'' approaches, whose examples are given by future space-based galaxy surveys, as EUCLID for the slitless case, or SPACE, JEDI, and possibly WFIRST in the future, for the multi-slit case. We find that, in combination with Planck, these galaxy probes will be able to detect at better than 3-sigma level and measure the mass of cosmic neutrinos: a) in a cosmology-independent way, if the sum of neutrino masses is above 0.1 eV; b) assuming spatial flatness and that dark energy is a cosmological constant, otherwise. We find that the sensitivity of such surveys is well suited to span the entire range of neutrino masses allowed by neutrino oscillation experiments, and to yield a clear detection of non-zero neutrino mass. The detection of the cosmic relic neutrino background with cosmological experiments will be a spectacular confirmation of our model for the early Universe and a window into one of the oldest relic components of our Universe

  18. Meteor shower forecast improvements from a survey of all-sky network observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-11-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA’s Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO’s annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions.The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the “fireball” size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower’s activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  19. The MICE Grand Challenge Lightcone Simulation III: Galaxy lensing mocks from all-sky lensing maps

    CERN Document Server

    Fosalba, P; Castander, F J; Crocce, M

    2013-01-01

    In paper I of this series (Fosalba et al. 2013), we presented a new N-body lightcone simulation from the MICE collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 Gpc)^3 comoving volume, from which we built halo and galaxy catalogues using a Halo Occupation Distribution and Halo Abundance Matching technique, as presented in the companion Paper II (Crocce et al. 2013). Given its large volume and fine mass resolution, the MICE-GC simulation also allows an accurate modeling of the lensing observables from upcoming wide and deep galaxy surveys. In the last paper of this series (Paper III), we describe the construction of all-sky lensing maps, following the "Onion Universe" approach (Fosalba et al. 2008), and discuss their properties in the lightcone up to z=1.4 with sub-arcmin spatial resolution. By comparing the convergence power spectrum in the MICE-GC to lower mass-resolution (i.e., particle mass ~ 10^11 Msun) simulations, we find that resolution effects ...

  20. High velocity clouds in the Galactic All Sky Survey I. Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Vanessa A; Murphy, Tara; Pisano, D J; Kummerfeld, Jonathan K; Curran, James R

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalogue of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) from the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS) of southern-sky neutral hydrogen, which has 57 mK sensitivity and 1 km/s velocity resolution and was obtained with the Parkes Telescope. Our catalogue has been derived from the stray-radiation corrected second release of GASS. We describe the data and our method of identifying HVCs and analyse the overall properties of the GASS population. We catalogue a total of 1693 HVCs at declinations < 0 deg, including 1111 positive velocity HVCs and 582 negative velocity HVCs. Our catalogue also includes 295 anomalous velocity clouds (AVCs). The cloud line-widths of our HVC population have a median FWHM of ~19 km/s, which is lower than found in previous surveys. The completeness of our catalogue is above 95% based on comparison with the HIPASS catalogue of HVCs, upon which we improve with an order of magnitude in spectral resolution. We find 758 new HVCs and AVCs with no HIPASS counterpart. The GASS catalogue will shed an un...

  1. The 70 Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgartner, W H; Markwardt, C B; Skinner, G K; Barthelmy, S; Mushotzky, R F; Evans, P; Gehrels, N

    2012-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations of the BAT hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8 sigma, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03e-11 ergs/sec/cm2 over 50% of the sky and 1.34e-11 ergs/sec/cm2 over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be AGN, with over 700 in the 70 month survey catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available 8-channel spectra and monthly-sampled lightcurves for each object detected in the survey at the Swift-BAT 70 month website.

  2. New AGN classifications in the Swift/BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Through an optical campaign performed at the San Pedro Martir (Mexico) Telescope and using the 6dF archive (http://www.aao.gov.au/local/www/6df, Jones et al. 2004), we determine or give a better classification for 8 newly discovered Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Swift/BAT 22-months All-sky Hard X-ray Survey (Baumgartner et al. 2008, Tueller et al. 2010). All these objects have observations taken with Swift/XRT or Chandra or XMM archival data which allowed us to pinpoint their optical counterpart thanks to the precise (better than a few arcsec) soft X-ray positions afforded by these observatories. This information enabled us to obtain optical spectra of all these counterparts, since only three spectra are available on-line, but not flux calibrated, allowing us to reveal their real nature (Baumgartner et al. 2008 give only a tentative classification based upon their X-ray properties). Here we present the spectra, along with the corresponding finding charts obtained from the DSS-II red survey, of these 8 s...

  3. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Greiner, J; Madejski, G M; Gehrels, N; Burlon, D

    2012-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15--55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of \\sim2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a ~5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN--LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN--LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a ~10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick ...

  4. THE DIFFUSE SOFT EXCESS EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data near the North Galactic Pole was analyzed in order to study the large-scale distribution of soft X-ray emission from the Coma cluster. These ROSAT data constitute the only available X-ray observations of Coma that feature an in situ-temporally and spatially contiguous-background, with unlimited and continuous radial coverage. These unique characteristics of the RASS data are used to deliver a final assessment on whether the soft excess previously detected in the Coma cluster is due to background subtraction errors, or not. This paper confirms the presence of soft X-ray excess associated with Coma, and reports the detection of 1/4 keV band excess out to 5 Mpc from the cluster center, the largest soft excess halo discovered to date. We propose that the emission is related to filaments that converge toward Coma, and generated either by nonthermal radiation caused by accretion shocks, or by thermal emission from the filaments themselves.

  5. All-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S4 data

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Daz, M; Dickson, J; Di Credico, A; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, a C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, a N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D; Ungarelli, C; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitbeck, D M; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yunes, N; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M; Zur Muhlen, H; Zweizig, J

    2007-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1000 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -1.0E-8 Hz/s to zero. Data from the fourth LIGO science run (S4) have been used in this search. Three different semi-coherent methods of transforming and summing strain power from Short Fourier Transforms (SFTs) of the calibrated data have been used. The first, known as "StackSlide", averages normalized power from each SFT. A "weighted Hough" scheme is also developed and used, and which also allows for a multi-interferometer search. The third method, known as "PowerFlux", is a variant of the StackSlide method in which the power is weighted before summing. In both the weighted Hough and PowerFlux methods, the weights are chosen according to the noise and detector antenna-pattern to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. The respective advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitationa...

  6. HAWC: A Next Generation All-Sky VHE Gamma-Ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sinnis, G; McEnery, J E

    2004-01-01

    The study of the universe at energies above 100 GeV is a relatively new and exciting field. The current generation of pointed instruments have detected TeV gamma rays from at least 10 sources and the next generation of detectors promises a large increase in sensitivity. We have also seen the development of a new type of all-sky monitor in this energy regime based on water Cherenkov technology (Milagro). To fully understand the universe at these extreme energies requires a highly sensitive detector capable of continuously monitoring the entire overhead sky. Such an instrument could observe prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts and probe the limits of Lorentz invariance at high energies. With sufficient sensitivity it could detect short transients ($\\sim$15 minutes) from active galaxies and study the time structure of flares at energies unattainable to space-based instruments. Unlike pointed instruments a wide-field instrument can make an unbiased study of all active galaxies and enable many multi-wavelength ca...

  7. C-Band All-Sky Survey: A First Look at the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Irfan, M O; Davies, R D; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Ferreira, P G; Holler, C M; Jonas, J L; Jones, Michael E; King, O G; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Leitch, E M; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Peel, M W; Readhead, A C S; Stevenson, M A; Sutton, D; Taylor, Angela C; Zuntz, J

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse emission at 5 GHz in the first quadrant of the Galactic plane using two months of preliminary intensity data taken with the C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) northern instrument at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California. Combining C-BASS maps with ancillary data to make temperature-temperature plots we find synchrotron spectral indices of $\\beta = -2.65 \\pm 0.05$ between 0.408 GHz and 5 GHz and $ \\beta = -2.72 \\pm 0.09$ between 1.420 GHz and 5 GHz for $-10^{\\circ} < |b| < -4^{\\circ}$, $20^{\\circ} < l < 40^{\\circ}$. Through the subtraction of a radio recombination line (RRL) free-free template we determine the synchrotron spectral index in the Galactic plane ($ |b| < 4^{\\circ}$) to be $\\beta = -2.56 \\pm 0.07$ between 0.408 GHz and 5 GHz, with a contribution of $53 \\pm 8$ per cent from free-free emission at 5\\,GHz. These results are consistent with previous low frequency measurements in the Galactic plane. By including C-BASS data in spectral fits we dem...

  8. Extragalactic Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan; Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN

    2016-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes can scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is to discover bright, nearby supernovae (SNe), we are discovering more than 60% of supernovae with V<17. Since June 2013, we have discovered 224 supernovae, 133 in 2015 alone (as of September 30, 2015). ASAS-SN has also discovered many other interesting extragalactic transients, including the three closest tidal disruption events (TDEs) ever discovered at optical wavelengths. The nearby nature of ASASSN discoveries allows detailed follow-up across a wide wavelength coverage; here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN extragalactic transients.

  9. Multifrequency observations of KAZ 102 during the ROSAT all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A.; Fink, H. H.; Malkan, M.; Wilkes, B. J.; Baganoff, F.; Heidt, J.; Pian, E.; Sadun, A.; Schaeidt, S.; Bonnell, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    The bright quasar Kaz 102, which lies in the vicinity of the North Ecliptic Pole, was monitored during the ROSAT All Sky Survey for 121.5 days from 1990 July 30 to 1991 January 25. In the course of the survey, optical photometry with various filters was peformed at several epochs, together with UV (IUE) and optical spectrophotometry. The spectral energy distribution in the 3 x 10(exp 14) -3 x 10(exp 17) Hz range is obtained simultaneously among the various frequencies to less than or = 1 day. No clear case of variability can be made in the X-rays, while in the optical and UV variability of 10%-20% is apparent. An analysis of IUE and Einstein archives indicates a doubling timescale of years for the UV and soft X-ray flux. The X-ray photon index, which in 1979 was rather flat (Gamma = 0.8(+0.6 -0.4), in 1990/1991 was found to be Gamma = 2.22 +/- 0.13, a typical value for radio-quiet quasars in this energy range. The overall energy distribution and the variability are discussed.

  10. A fast all-sky radiative transfer model and its implications for solar energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative transfer models simulating broadband solar radiation, e.g. Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its GCM applications, have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resource for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the radiative transfer equation, simulating solar radiation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time consuming though many approximations, e.g. two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme, have been utilized. To provide a new option to approximate solar radiation, we developed a Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) using simulated cloud transmittance and reflectance from 16-stream RRTM model runs. The solar irradiances at the land surface were simulated by combining parameterized cloud properties with a fast clear-sky radiative transfer model. Using solar radiation measurements from the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in Oklahoma as a benchmark against the model simulations, we were able to demonstrate that the accuracy of FARMS was comparable to the two-stream approach. However, FARMS is much more efficient since it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. We further explored the use of FARMS to promote solar resource assessment and forecasting research through the increased ability to accommodate higher spatial and temporal resolution calculations for the next generation of satellite and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  11. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    CERN Document Server

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Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J H; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodger, A S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffery, P; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepanczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, M; Wade, L E; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, K J; Williams, L; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 Hz and 128 Hz with a range of spin-down between $-1.0 \\times 10^{-10}$ Hz/s and $+1.5 \\times 10^{-11}$ Hz/s, and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), of length 8192 seconds, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, both in the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each dataset a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and...

  12. An all-sky search for long-duration gravitational wave transients with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D V; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J M; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; na-Sandoval, F Maga\\; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Pereira, R; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepanczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a search for long-duration gravitational wave transients in two sets of data collected by the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston detectors between November 5, 2005 and September 30, 2007, and July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010, with a total observational time of 283.0 days and 132.9 days, respectively. The search targets gravitational wave transients of duration 10 - 500 seconds in a frequency band of 40 - 1000 Hz, with minimal assumptions about the signal waveform, polarization, source direction, or time of occurrence. All candidate triggers were consistent with the expected background; as a result we set 90% confidence upper limits on the rate of long-duration gravitational wave transients for different types of gravitational wave signals. We also report upper limits on the source rate density per year per Mpc^3 for specific signal models. These are the first results from an all-sky search for unmodeled long-duration transient gravitational waves.

  13. Solar Wind Charge Exchange contribution to the ROSAT All Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Uprety, Y; Collier, M R; Cravens, T; Galeazzi, M; Koutroumpa, D; Kuntz, K D; Lallement, R; Lepri, S T; Liu, W; McCammon, D; Morgan, K; Porter, F S; Prasai, K; Snowden, S L; Thomas, N E; Ursino, E; Walsh, B M

    2016-01-01

    DXL (Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXB) and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). The detectors are large-area thin-window proportional counters with a spectral response similar to that of the PSPC used in the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). A direct comparison of DXL and RASS data for the same part of the sky allowed us to quantify the SWCX contribution to all 6 RASS bands (R1-R7). We find that the SWCX contribution at l=140 deg, b=0 deg, where the DXL path crosses the Galactic plane is 32%+-12% (statistical)+-5%(systematic) for R1, 45%+-8%+-5% for R2, 22%+-11%+-4% for R4, 14%+-12%+-4% for R5, and negligible for R6 and R7 bands. We can also estimate the contribution to the whole sky. We find that the average SWCX contribution in the whole sky is 25%+-10%+-7% for R1, 30%+-6%+-6% for R2, 9%+-5%+-2% for R4, 7%+-5%+-1% for R5, and neg...

  14. The 22-Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tüller, J; Markwardt, C B; Skinner, G K; Mushotzky, R F; Ajello, M; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A; Brandt, W N; Burrows, D; Chincarini, G; Campana, S; Cummings, J; Cusumano, G; Evans, P; Fenimore, E; Gehrels, N; Godet, O; Grupe, D; Holland, S; Kennea, J; Krimm, H A; Koss, M; Moretti, A; Mukai, K; Osborne, J P; Okajima, T; Pagani, C; Page, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Schneider, D P; Sakamoto, T; Sambruna, R; Sato, G; Stamatikos, M; Stroh, M; Ukwata, T; Winter, L

    2009-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in the first 22 months of data from the hard X-ray survey (14--195keV) conducted with the BAT coded mask imager on the Swift satellite. The catalog contains 461 sources identified above the 4.8 sigma detection threshold with BAT. A total of 262 of the sources are Seyfert galaxies (median redshift z ~ 0.03) or blazars, with the majority of the remaining sources associated with X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. High angular resolution X-ray data for every source from Swift-XRT or archival data have allowed associations to be made with known counterparts in other wavelength bands for over 90% of the detections, including the discovery of ~30 galaxies previously unknown as AGN and several new Galactic sources. This ongoing survey is the first uniform all sky hard X-ray survey since HEAO-1 in 1977. Since the publication of the 9-month BAT survey we have increased the number of energy channels from 4 to 8 and have substantially increased the number of sources with accurate ave...

  15. Machine-learning identification of galaxies in the WISExSuperCOSMOS all-sky catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Krakowski, T; Bilicki, M; Pollo, A; Krupa, M; Kurcz, A

    2016-01-01

    The two currently largest all-sky photometric datasets, WISE and SuperCOSMOS, were cross-matched by Bilicki et al. (2016) (B16) to construct a novel photometric redshift catalogue on 70% of the sky. Galaxies were therein separated from stars and quasars through colour cuts, which may leave imperfections because of mixing different source types which overlap in colour space. The aim of the present work is to identify galaxies in the WISExSuperCOSMOS catalogue through an alternative approach of machine learning. This allows us to define more complex separations in the multi-colour space than possible with simple colour cuts, and should provide more reliable source classification. For the automatised classification we use the support vector machines learning algorithm, employing SDSS spectroscopic sources cross-matched with WISExSuperCOSMOS as the training and verification set. We perform a number of tests to examine the behaviour of the classifier (completeness, purity and accuracy) as a function of source appa...

  16. Einstein@Home all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endrőczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner}, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Langley, A; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Lhuillier, V; Li, J; Li, T G F; Lindquist, P E; Litvine, V; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Logue, J; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow--Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Oldenberg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pihlaja, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pöld, J; Postiglione, F; Poux, C; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, M; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Saracco, E; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J; Anderson, D P

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of an all-sky searches for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range [50, 1190] Hz and with frequency derivative ranges of [-2 \\times 10^-9, 1.1 \\times 10^-10] Hz/s for the fifth LIGO science run (S5). The novelty of the search lies in the use of a non-coherent technique based on the Hough-transform to combine the information from coherent searches on timescales of about one day. Because these searches are very computationally intensive, they have been deployed on the Einstein@Home distributed computing project infrastructure. The search presented here is about a factor 3 more sensitive than the previous Einstein@Home search in early S5 LIGO data. The post-processing has left us with eight surviving candidates. We show that deeper follow-up studies rule each of them out. Hence, since no statistically significant gravitational wave signals have been detected, we report upper limits on the intrinsic gravitational wave amplitude h0. For example, in the 0.5 Hz-wide band at 15...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) DR9 (Henden+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, A. A.; Templeton, M.; Terrell, D.; Smith, T. C.; Levine, S.; Welch, D.

    2016-01-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) project is designed to bridge the gap between the shallow Tycho2 two-bandpass photometric catalog that is complete to V=11 and the deeper, but less spatially-complete catalogs like SDSS or PanSTARRS. It can be used for calibration of a specific field; for obtaining spectral information about single sources, determining reddening in a small area of the sky; or even obtaining current-epoch astrometry for rapidly moving objects. The survey is being performed at two locations: near Weed, New Mexico in the Northern Hemisphere; and at CTIO in the Southern Hemisphere. Each site consists of dual bore-sighted 20cm telescopes on a single mount, designed to obtain two bandpasses of information simultaneously. Each telescope covers 9 square degrees of sky with 2.5arcsec pixels, with the main survey taken with B,V,g',r',i' filters and covering the magnitude range 10professional astronomers participate in the data analysis. The project was initially funded by the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund, with a follow-on grant from the National Science Foundation. (1 data file).

  18. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr\\Hoczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semi-major axes of the orbit from ~0.6e-3 ls to ~6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3e-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for ci...

  19. RXTE All-Sky Monitor Detection of the Orbital Period of Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderlinde, K W; Rappaport, S A; Vanderlinde, Keith W.; Levine, Alan M.; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2002-01-01

    The orbital period of Scorpius X-1 has been accepted as 0.787313 d since its discovery in archival optical photometric data by Gottlieb, Wright, & Liller (1975). This period has been confirmed in both photometric and spectroscopic optical observations, though to date only marginal evidence has been reported for modulation of the X-ray intensity at that period. We have used data taken with the RXTE All Sky Monitor to search for such a modulation. A major difficulty in detecting the orbit in X-ray data is presented by the flaring behavior of Sco X-1, which contributes white noise to Fourier transforms of the intensity time series, and tends to obscure weak modulations. We present a new technique for substantially reducing the effects of the flaring behavior while retaining much of any periodic orbital modulation, provided only that the two temporal behaviors exhibit different spectral signatures. Through such a search, we have found evidence for orbital modulation at about the 1% level with a period of 0.78...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalog (Boller+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, T.; Freyberg, M. J.; Truemper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-03-01

    We have re-analysed the photon event files from the ROSAT all-sky survey. The main goal was to create a catalogue of point-like sources, which is referred to as the 2RXS source catalogue. We improved the reliability of detections by an advanced detection algorithm and a complete screening process. New data products were created to allow timing and spectral analysis. Photon event files with corrected astrometry and Moon rejection (RASS-3.1 processing) were made available in FITS format. The 2RXS catalogue will serve as the basic X-ray all-sky survey catalogue until eROSITA data become available. (2 data files).

  1. Data Analysis for Continuous Gravitational Waves: Deepest All-Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Holger J.

    2009-11-01

    Direct detection of gravitational waves would not only validate Einstein's theory of General Relativity but also constitute an important new astronomical tool. Continuous gravitational-wave (CW) signals are expected for instance from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Most such stars are estimated to be electromagnetically invisible, but might be detected and studied via gravitational waves. This dissertation is concerned with the development, study and application of data- analysis techniques to detect CW signals from previously unknown sources through all-sky surveys over broadest possible ranges of putative source frequencies and frequency time-derivatives. An all-sky CW search is presented using 510 hours of data from the fourth science run (S4) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), covering frequencies of 50 to 1500 Hz and linear drifts in frequency. The main computational work of the search is distributed over hundreds of thousands of computers via the public volunteer computing project "Einstein@Home". This enormous computing capacity allows the exploration of a wide parameter space, despite of using comparably long coherent integration times of 30 hours, subdividing the 510 hours of data into 17 segments. To enhance the sensitivity of the search, in a post-processing stage the coherent-analysis results from the 17 data segments are combined through a highly efficient coincidence scheme. Moreover, the sensitivity of the search is estimated, along with the fraction of parameter space vetoed because of contamination by instrumental artifacts. In a further Einstein@Home CW search the previous S4 analysis is extended to use 840 hours of early fifth-science-run (S5) LIGO data, which are examined in 28 coherent segments of 30 hours. The major part of the post-processing is again related to efficiently combining the 28 coherently-analyzed segments. Despite probing a slightly larger parameter space, this analysis achieves 3 times better

  2. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of ∼2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a ∼5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN-LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN-LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a ∼10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN and measure a space density of 7.9-2.9+4.1 x 10-5 Mpc-3 for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 x 1042 erg s-1. As the BAT AGN are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGN in the nearby Universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGN that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local ((le) 85 Mpc) Universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions.

  3. HAWC: a next generation all-sky VHE gamma-ray telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, G. (Gus); Smith, A.; McEnery, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the universe at energies above 100 GeV is a relatively new and exciting field. The current generation of pointed instruments have detected TeV gamma rays from at least 10 sources and the next generation of detectors promises a large increase in sensitivity. We have also seen the development of a new type of all-sky monitor in this energy regime based on water Cherenkov technology (Milagro). To fully understand the universe at these extreme energies requires a highly sensitive detector capable of continuously monitoring the entire overhead sky. Such an instrument could observe prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts and probe the limits of Lorentz invariance at high energies. With sufficient sensitivity it could detect shorthransients ({approx}15 minutes) from active galaxies and study the time structure of flares at energies unattainable to space-based instruments. Unlike pointed instruments a wide-field instrument can make an unbiased study of all active galaxies and enable many multi-wavelength campaigns to study these objects. This paper describes the design and performance of a next generation water Cherenkov detector. To attain a low energy threshold and have high sensitivity the detector should be located at high altitude (> 4km) and have a large area ({approx}40,000 m{sup 2}). Such an instrument could detect gamma ray bursts out to a redshift of 1, observe flares from active galaxies as short as 15 minutes in duration, and survey the overhead sky at a level of 50 mCrab in one year.

  4. Time Domain X-ray Astronomy with "All-Sky" Focusing Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The largest and most diverse types of temporal variations in all of astronomy occur in the soft, i.e. 0.5 to 10 keV, X-ray band. They range from millisecond QPO’s in compact binaries to year long flares from AGNs due to the absorption of a star by a SMBH, and the appearance of transient sources at decadal intervals. Models predict that at least some gravitational waves will be accompanied by an X-ray flare. A typical GRB produces more photons/sq. cm. in the soft band than it does in the Swift BAT 15 to 150 keV band. In addition the GRB X-ray fluence and knowledge of the details of the onset of the X-ray afterglow is obtained by observing the seamless transition from the active burst phase that has been attributed to internal shocks to the afterglow phases that has been attributed to external shocks. Detecting orphan X-ray afterglows will augment the event rate. With high sensitivity detectors some GRB identifications are likely to be with the youngest, most distant galaxies in the universe. Previous all-sky X-ray monitors have been non focusing limited field of view scanning instruments. An “All-Sky” (actually several ster FOV), focusing lobster-eye X-ray telescope will have much more grasp than the previous instruments and will allow a wide range of topics to be studied simultaneously. Two types of lobster-eye telescopes have been proposed. One type focuses in one dimension and uses a coded mask for resolution in the second. The other type focuses in two dimensions but has less effective area and less bandwidth. Both types are compatible with a Probe mission.

  5. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched w...

  6. Properties of eclipsing binaries from all-sky surveys - I. Detached eclipsing binaries in ASAS, NSVS, and LINEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee ( ), Chien-Hsiu

    2015-11-01

    Eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to measure fundamental properties of stars. With the advent of all-sky surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been reported, yet their light curves are not fully exploited. The goal of this work is to make use of the eclipsing binary light curves delivered by all-sky surveys. We attempt to extract physical parameters of the binary systems from their light curves and colour. Inspired by the work of Devor et al., we use the Detached Eclipsing Binary Light curve fitter (DEBIL) and the Method for Eclipsing Component Identification (MECI) to derive basic properties of the binary systems reported by the All Sky Automated Survey, the Northern Sky Variability Survey, and the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroids Research. We derive the mass, fractional radius, and age for 783 binary systems. We report a subsample of eccentric systems and compare their properties to the tidal circularization theory. With MECI, we are able to estimate the distance of the eclipsing binary systems and use them to probe the structure of the Milky Way. Following the approach of Devor et al., we demonstrate that DEBIL and MECI are instrumental to investigate eclipsing binary light curves in the era of all-sky surveys, and provide estimates of stellar parameters of both binary components without spectroscopic information.

  7. TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG: A COMPREHENSIVE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CENSUS OF THE WHOLE SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key cosmological applications require the three-dimensional (3D) galaxy distribution on the entire celestial sphere. These include measuring the gravitational pull on the Local Group, estimating the large-scale bulk flow, and testing the Copernican principle. However, the largest all-sky redshift surveys—the 2MASS Redshift Survey and IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey—have median redshifts of only z = 0.03 and sample the very local universe. All-sky galaxy catalogs exist that reach much deeper—SuperCOSMOS in the optical, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-IR, and WISE in the mid-IR—but these lack complete redshift information. At present, the only rapid way toward larger 3D catalogs covering the whole sky is through photometric redshift techniques. In this paper we present the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) containing one million galaxies, constructed by cross-matching Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC), WISE, and SuperCOSMOS all-sky samples and employing the artificial neural network approach (the ANNz algorithm), trained on such redshift surveys as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 6dFGS, and 2dFGRS. The derived photometric redshifts have errors nearly independent of distance, with an all-sky accuracy of σ z = 0.015 and a very small percentage of outliers. In this way, we obtain redshift estimates with a typical precision of 12% for all the 2MASS XSC galaxies that lack spectroscopy. In addition, we have made an early effort toward probing the entire 3D sky beyond 2MASS, by pairing up WISE with SuperCOSMOS and training the ANNz on GAMA redshift data currently reaching to z med ∼ 0.2. This has yielded photo-z accuracies comparable to those in the 2MPZ. These all-sky photo-z catalogs, with a median z ∼ 0.1 for the 2MPZ, and significantly deeper for future WISE-based samples, will be the largest and most complete of their kind for the foreseeable future

  8. CALIPSO All-Sky Lidar L3 Data V1-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the...

  9. CALIPSO All-Sky Lidar L3 Data V1-00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the...

  10. Coordinated airglow observations between IMAP/VISI and a ground-based all-sky imager on concentric gravity wave in the mesopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perwitasari, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Hozumi, Y.; Akiya, Y.; Saito, A.; Shiokawa, K.; Kawamura, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a study of concentric gravity waves (CGWs) event from the coordinated observation between Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping (IMAP)/Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI), all-sky camera at Rikubetsu, Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, and MF radar at Wakkanai combined with Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application data. IMAP/VISI is the first space-based imager that capable of imaging the airglow in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region in the nadir-looking direction. Therefore, it has a unique ability to observe a great extend of CGWs propagation. Arc-like shaped, part of CGWs pattern was observed around the mesopause (~95 km) in the O2 762 nm airglow emission obtained by IMAP/VISI at 1204 UT on 18 October 2012. Similar patterns were also observed by the all-sky imager at Rikubetsu (43.5°N, 143.8°E) in OI 557.7 nm and OH band airglow emissions from ~1100 to 1200 UT. Horizontal wavelengths of the observed small-scale gravity waves are ~50 km (OH band and OI 557.7 nm) and ~67 km (O2 762 nm). The source is suggested to be a deep convective activity over Honshu Island which likely was an enhanced convective activity related to a typhoon in the south of Japan. The data showed that the CGWs could propagate up to ~1400-1500 km horizontally from the source to the mesopause but not farther away. Using atmospheric temperature profiles obtained by Thermospheric Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, we conclude that this long-distance propagation of the waves could be caused by thermal duct in the middle atmosphere. The arc-like shaped instead of full circle pattern points out that the wind filtering effect is significant for the particular direction of wave propagation.

  11. The SKA Mid-frequency All-sky Continuum Survey: Discovering the unexpected and transforming radio-astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P; Brown, Michael; Carretti, Ettore; Kapinska, Anna D; Prandoni, Isabella; Rudnick, Lawrence; Seymour, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We show that, in addition to specific science goals, there is a strong case for conducting an all-sky (i.e. the visible 3-pi steradians) SKA continuum survey which does not fit neatly into conventional science cases. History shows that the greatest scientific impact of most major telescopes (e.g., HST, VLA) lies beyond the original goals used to justify the telescope. The design of the telescope therefore needs to maximise the ultimate scientific productivity, in addition to achieving the specific science goals. In this chapter, we show that an all-sky continuum survey is likely to achieve transformational science in two specific respects: (1) Discovering the unexpected (2) Transforming radio-astronomy from niche to mainstream

  12. Excitation Mechanisms for HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) in Galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Privon, G C; Evans, A S; Iwasawa, K; Perez-Torres, M A; Armus, L; Diaz-Santos, T; Murphy, E J; Stierwalt, S; Aalto, S; Mazzarella, J M; Barcos-Munoz, L; Borish, H J; Inami, H; Kim, D -C; Treister, E; Surace, J A; Lord, S; Conway, J; Frayer, D T; Alberdi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present new IRAM 30m spectroscopic observations of the $\\sim88$ GHz band, including emission from the CCH (n=1-0) multiplet, HCN (1-0), HCO+ (1-0), and HNC (1-0), for a sample of 58 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). By combining our new IRAM data with literature data and Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy, we study the correspondence between these putative tracers of dense gas and the relative contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation to the mid-infrared luminosity of each system. We find the HCN (1-0) emission to be enhanced in AGN-dominated systems ($\\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\\rangle=1.84$), compared to composite and starburst-dominated systems ($\\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\\rangle=1.14$, and 0.88, respectively). However, some composite and starburst systems have L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}$ ratios comparable to those of AGN, indicating that enhanced HCN emission is not uniquely ass...

  13. Hyper-luminous Reddened Broad-Line Quasars at z~2 from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey and WISE All Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Hewett, Paul C; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Koposov, Sergey E

    2012-01-01

    We present the first sample of spectroscopically confirmed heavily reddened broad-line quasars selected using the new near infra-red VISTA Hemisphere Survey and \\textit{WISE} All-Sky Survey. Observations of four candidates with $(J-K)>2.5$ and $K\\le16.5$ over $\\sim$180 deg$^2$, leads to confirmation that two are highly dust-reddened broad-line Type 1 quasars at z$\\sim$2. The typical dust extinctions are A$_V\\sim$2--2.5 mags. We measure black-hole masses of $\\sim10^{9}$M$_\\odot$ and extinction corrected bolometric luminosities of $\\sim10^{47}$ erg/s, making these among the brightest Type 1 quasars currently known. Despite this, these quasars lie well below the detection limits of wide-field optical surveys like the SDSS with $i_{AB}>22$. We also present \\textit{WISE} photometry at 3--22$\\mu$m, for our full sample of spectroscopically confirmed reddened quasars including those selected from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (Banerji et al. 2012a). We demonstrate that the rest-frame infrared SEDs of these reddened qu...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WATCHDOG: an all-sky database of Galactic BHXBs (Tetarenko+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Gladstone, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments on board the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion state make up a substantial fraction (~40%) of the Galactic transient BHXB outburst sample over the past ~20 years. Our findings suggest that this "hard-only" behavior, observed in transient and persistently accreting BHXBs, is neither a rare nor recent phenomenon and may be indicative of an underlying physical process, relatively common among binary BHs, involving the mass-transfer rate onto the BH remaining at a low level rather than increasing as the outburst evolves. We discuss how the larger number of these "hard-only" outbursts and detected outbursts in general have significant implications for both the luminosity function and mass-transfer history of the Galactic BHXB population. (9 data files).

  15. All-sky LIGO search for periodic gravitational waves in the early fifth-science-run data.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, W.; Arain, M; Araya, M.; Armandula, H; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50--1100 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -5.0E-9 Hz/s to zero. Data from the first eight months of the fifth LIGO science run (S5) have been used in this search, which is based on a semi-coherent method (PowerFlux) of summing strain power. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report 95% confidence-level upper limits on radiation emitt...

  16. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Plasma Bubbles Observed by an All-Sky Airglow Imager at Yonaguni, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiko Ogawa; Yuichi Otsuka; Kazuo Shiokawa; Takuya Tsugawa; Akinori Saito; Kazuaki Hoshinoo; Keisuke Matunaga; Minoru Kubota; and Mamoru Ishii

    2009-01-01

    We report on night time air glow imaging observations of the low latitude ionosphere by means of a 630-m all-sky imager in stalled in March 2006 at Yonaguni, Japan _ _ _ geomagnetic), about 100 km east of Taiwan. The imager detected medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) for about 7 hours on the night of 26 May 2006. A dense GPS net work in Japan also ob served the same MSTID event on this night. The imager and GEONET data indicate that most of the MSTIDs prop a gated south ...

  17. A long-term observation of 4U 1700-37 by the granat/watch all-sky monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazonov, S.; Lapshov, I.; Sunyaev, R.;

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of the observations of the X-ray source 4U 1700-37 by the WATCH all-sky monitor on GRANAT during the period 1991 to 1992. We have reconstructed light curves of 4U 1700-37 in two energy bands which prove the strong variability of the source's intensity on various time scales....... The light curve having been folded with the orbital period clearly reveals a dependence of the source's intensity upon the orbital phase. This dependence can be explained by scattering and absorption of photons in the stellar wind of the massive optical companion. We interpret the X-ray light curves...

  18. Stereoscopic determination of all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based Nikon DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, R.; Miyoshi, Y.; Shigematsu, K.; Hampton, D.; Mori, Y.; Kubo, T.; Yamashita, A.; Tanaka, M.; Takahei, T.; Nakai, T.; Miyahara, H.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-09-01

    A new stereoscopic measurement technique is developed to obtain an all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. Two identical full-color all-sky cameras were set with an 8 km separation across the Chatanika area in Alaska (Poker Flat Research Range and Aurora Borealis Lodge) to find localized emission height with the maximum correlation of the apparent patterns in the localized pixels applying a method of the geographical coordinate transform. It is found that a typical ray structure of discrete aurora shows the broad altitude distribution above 100 km, while a typical patchy structure of pulsating aurora shows the narrow altitude distribution of less than 100 km. Because of its portability and low cost of the DSLR camera systems, the new technique may open a unique opportunity not only for scientists but also for night-sky photographers to complementarily attend the aurora science to potentially form a dense observation network.

  19. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Agresti, J; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Luna, M; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswaran, A J; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Spjeld, O; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov,K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ward, R; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A

    2005-01-01

    We perform a wide parameter space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semi-coherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-$400 $Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is $4.43\\times 10^{-23}$.

  20. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    CERN Document Server

    Kalberla, Peter M W

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic All-Sky Survey is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope records are compared with averages on the nearest grid position for significant deviations. All averages are also decomposed into Gaussian components with the aim of segregating unacceptable solutions. Improved priors are used for an iterative baseline fitting and cleaning. In the last step we generate 3-D FITS data cubes and examine them for remaining problems. We have removed weak, but systematic baseline offsets with an improved baseline fitting algorithm. We have unraveled correlator failures that cause time dependent oscil...

  1. Probing the Dark Ages at Z~20: The SCI-HI 21 cm All-Sky Spectrum Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Voytek, Tabitha C; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose Miguel; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Lopez-Cruz, Omar

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged \\cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8

  2. Statistical Comparison of Gravity Wave Characteristics Obtained from Airglow All-Sky Observation at Mt. Bohyun, Korea and Shigaraki, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2015-12-01

    Previously, all-sky airglow images observed at Shigaraki (34.9° N, 136.1° E), Japan, during 2004 and 2005 were analyzed in relation to those observed at Mt. Bohyun (36.2° N, 128.9° E) for a comparison of their gravity wave characteristics (Kim et al. 2010). By applying the same selection criteria of waves and cloud coverages as in the case of Mt. Bohyun all-sky images, we derived apparent wavelengths, periods, phase velocities, and monthly occurrence rates of gravity waves at Shigaraki in this study. The distributions of wavelengths, periods, and speeds derived for Shigaraki were found to be roughly similar to those for Mt. Bohyun. However, the overall occurrence rates of gravity waves at Shigaraki were 36% and 34% for OI 557.7 nm and OH Meinel band airglow layers, respectively, which were significantly higher than those at Mt. Bohyun. The monthly occurrence rates did not show minima near equinox months, unlike those for Mt. Bohyun. Furthermore, the seasonal preferential directions that were clearly apparent for Mt. Bohyun were not seen in the wave propagation trends for Shigaraki. These differences between the two sites imply different origins of the gravity waves near the Korean peninsula and the Japanese islands. The gravity waves over the Japanese islands may originate from sources at various altitudes; therefore, wind filtering may not be effective in causing any seasonal preferential directions in the waves in the airglow layers. Our analysis of the Shigaraki data supports recent theoretical studies, according to which gravity waves can be generated from in situ sources, such as mesosphere wind shear or secondary wave formation, in the mesosphere.

  3. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  4. First Results from the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey Inclination-Dependent Selection Effects in a 21-cm Blind Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, R H; Kilborn, V A; Minchin, R F; Disney, M J; Jordan, C A; Grossi, M; García, D A; Freeman, K C; Phillipps, S; Wright, A E

    2003-01-01

    Details are presented of the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey (HIJASS). HIJASS is a blind neutral hydrogen (HI) survey of the northern sky, being conducted using the multibeam receiver on the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank. HIJASS covers the velocity range -3500 km/s to 10000 km/s with a velocity resolution of 18.1 km/s and a spatial positional accuracy of ~2.5 arcmin. Thus far about 1115 sq deg have been surveyed. We describe the methods of detecting galaxies within the HIJASS data and of measuring their HI parameters. The properties of the resulting HI-selected sample of galaxies are described. Of the 222 sources so far confirmed, 170 (77 per cent) are clearly associated with a previously catalogued galaxy. A further 23 sources (10 percent) lie close (within 6 arcmin) to a previously catalogued galaxy for which no previous redshift exists. A further 29 sources (13 per cent) do not appear to be associated with any previously catalogued galaxy. The distributions of peak flux, integrated flux, HI mass and cz are di...

  5. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  6. GMOSS: All-sky model of spectral radio brightness based on physical components and associated radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Mayuri Sathyanarayana; Shankar, N Udaya; Chluba, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We present Global MOdel for the radio Sky Spectrum (GMOSS) -- a novel, physically motivated model of the low-frequency radio sky from 22 MHz to 23 GHz. GMOSS invokes different physical components and associated radiative processes to describe the sky spectrum over 3072 pixels of $5^{\\circ}$ resolution. The spectra are allowed to be convex, concave or of more complex form with contributions from synchrotron emission, thermal emission and free-free absorption included. Physical parameters that describe the model are optimized to best fit four all-sky maps at 150 MHz, 408 MHz, 1420 MHz and 23 GHz and two maps at 22 MHz and 45 MHz generated using the Global Sky Model of de Oliveira-Costa et al. (2008). The fractional deviation of model to data has a median value of $6\\%$ and is less than $17\\%$ for $99\\%$ of the pixels. Though aimed at modeling of foregrounds for the global signal arising from the redshifted 21-cm line of Hydrogen during Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization (EoR) - over redshifts $150\\lesssim z ...

  7. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leto Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10–100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  8. Optical identification of six hard X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and SWIFT all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovinov, A. A.; Burenin, R. A.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Bikmaev, I. F.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of optical identifications of six hard X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and Swift all-sky surveys (IGR J03249+4041, SWIFT J1449.5+8602, SWIFT J1542.0-1410, IGR J17009+3559, IGR J18151-1052, IGR J18538-0102). Our optical observations were performed in 2009-2011 with the 6-m BTA telescope (Special Astrophysical Observatory, Nizhnii Arkhyz, Russia) and the 1.5-m RTT-150 telescope (Turkish National Observatory, Antalya, Turkey). The optical spectra obtained for each of the program sources have allowed us to establish the nature of the objects and to measure their redshifts from the positions of emission and absorption lines. Five sources are shown to be extragalactic—four of them are identified with Seyfert 1 or 2 galaxies and the fifth source belongs to the class of X-ray-bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs). The sixth object (IGR J18151-1052) is located in our Galaxy and is an X-ray binary (XRB), a suspected cataclysmic variable. Apart from the optical spectra, we provide the X-ray spectra for five sources in the 0.6-10 keV energy band obtained from XRT/Swift data.

  9. Implementation of an F-statistic all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Virgo VSR1 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an implementation of the F-statistic to carry out the first search in data from the Virgo laser interferometric gravitational wave detector for periodic gravitational waves from a priori unknown, isolated rotating neutron stars. We searched a frequency f0 range from 100 Hz to 1 kHz and the frequency dependent spindown f1 range from −1.6(f0/100 Hz)×10−9 Hz s−1 to zero. A large part of this frequency–spindown space was unexplored by any of the all-sky searches published so far. Our method consisted of a coherent search over two-day periods using the ℱ-statistic, followed by a search for coincidences among the candidates from the two-day segments. We have introduced a number of novel techniques and algorithms that allow the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm in the coherent part of the search resulting in a fifty-fold speed-up in computation of the F-statistic with respect to the algorithm used in the other pipelines. No significant gravitational wave signal was found. The sensitivity of the search was estimated by injecting signals into the data. In the most sensitive parts of the detector band more than 90% of signals would have been detected with dimensionless gravitational-wave amplitude greater than 5×10−24. (paper)

  10. Cloud screening and quality control algorithm for star photometer data: assessment with lidar measurements and with all-sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pérez-Ramírez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, δAe(λ, and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of δAe(λ and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable δAe(λ and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16° N, 3.60° W, 680 m a.s.l.; South-East of Spain for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  11. Cloud screening and quality control algorithm for star photometer data: assessment with lidar measurements and with all-sky-images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pérez-Ramírez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. This kind of algorithms is necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, δAe(λ, and precipitable water vapor content, W, at night-time. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of δAe(λ and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable δAe(λ and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16° N, 3.60° W, 680 m a.s.l.; South-East of Spain for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  12. Implementation of an F-statistic all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Virgo VSR1 data

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Borkowski, K; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; 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    2014-01-01

    We present an implementation of the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic to carry out the first search in data from the Virgo laser interferometric gravitational wave detector for periodic gravitational waves from a priori unknown, isolated rotating neutron stars. We searched a frequency $f_0$ range from 100 Hz to 1 kHz and the frequency dependent spindown $f_1$ range from $-1.6\\,(f_0/100\\,{\\rm Hz}) \\times 10^{-9}\\,$ Hz/s to zero. A large part of this frequency - spindown space was unexplored by any of the all-sky searches published so far. Our method consisted of a coherent search over two-day periods using the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic, followed by a search for coincidences among the candidates from the two-day segments. We have introduced a number of novel techniques and algorithms that allow the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm in the coherent part of the search resulting in a fifty-fold speed-up in computation of the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic with respect to the algorithm used in the other pipelines. No ...

  13. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Plasma Bubbles Observed by an All-Sky Airglow Imager at Yonaguni, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on night time air glow imaging observations of the low latitude ionosphere by means of a 630-m all-sky imager in stalled in March 2006 at Yonaguni, Japan _ _ _ geomagnetic, about 100 km east of Taiwan. The imager detected medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs for about 7 hours on the night of 26 May 2006. A dense GPS net work in Japan also ob served the same MSTID event on this night. The imager and GEONET data indicate that most of the MSTIDs prop a gated south west ward from the north of Japan to the south of Yonaguni and Taiwan over 4000 km, with a southern limit of _ (geomagnetic latitude _ or lower. On the night of 10 November 2006, the imager observed two weak emission bands that were embedded on the F-region anomaly crest to the south of Yonaguni. The simultaneous electron density profiles from the FORMOSAT-3/COS MIC mission demonstrate that the weak emission bands are due to density depletions in equatorial plasma bubbles. These case studies suggest that the Yonaguni imager in collaboration with other instruments is very suit able for the study of ionospheric disturbances in and around the northern F-region anomaly crest.

  14. GALACTIC ALL-SKY SURVEY HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS IN THE REGION OF THE MAGELLANIC LEADING ARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    For, Bi-Qing; Staveley-Smith, Lister [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M., E-mail: biqing.for@uwa.edu.au [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2013-02-10

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds in the region of the Magellanic Leading Arm. The catalog is based on neutral hydrogen (H I) observations from the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Excellent spectral resolution allows clouds with narrow-line components to be resolved. The total number of detected clouds is 419. We describe the method of cataloging and present the basic parameters of the clouds. We discuss the general distribution of the high-velocity clouds and classify the clouds based on their morphological type. The presence of a significant number of head-tail clouds and their distribution in the region is discussed in the context of Magellanic System simulations. We suggest that ram-pressure stripping is a more important factor than tidal forces for the morphology and formation of the Magellanic Leading Arm and that different environmental conditions might explain the morphological difference between the Magellanic Leading Arm and Magellanic Stream. We also discuss a newly identified population of clouds that forms the LA IV and a new diffuse bridge-like feature connecting the LA II and III complexes.

  15. All-sky LIGO search for periodic gravitational waves in the early fifth-science-run data.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Mason, K; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Miller, A; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohanty, S D; Moreno, G; Mors, K; Mossavi, K; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perraca, A; Petrie, T; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Reed, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J H; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Scanlan, M; Schediwy, S W; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sergeev, A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, L C; Strain, K A; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Ugolini, D; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Sluys, M V; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J D; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zur Mühlen, H; Zweizig, J

    2009-03-20

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1100 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -5 x 10{-9}-0 Hz s{-1}. Data from the first eight months of the fifth LIGO science run (S5) have been used in this search, which is based on a semicoherent method (PowerFlux) of summing strain power. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report 95% confidence-level upper limits on radiation emitted by any unknown isolated rotating neutron stars within the search range. Strain limits below 10{-24} are obtained over a 200-Hz band, and the sensitivity improvement over previous searches increases the spatial volume sampled by an average factor of about 100 over the entire search band. For a neutron star with nominal equatorial ellipticity of 10{-6}, the search is sensitive to distances as great as 500 pc. PMID:19392186

  16. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Leto, Giuseppe; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astro- physics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF ob- serving station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data anal- ysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  17. Concept of a small satellite for sub-MeV and MeV all sky survey: the CAST mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Takashima, Takeshi; Tashiro, Makoto; Tamagawa, Toru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Nomachi, Masaharu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mitani, Takefumi; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Shin

    2012-09-01

    MeV and sub-MeV energy band from ~200 keV to ~2 MeV contains rich information of high-energy phenomena in the universe. The CAST (Compton Telescope for Astro and Solar Terrestrial) mission is planned to be launched at the end of 2010s, and aims at providing all-sky map in this energy-band for the first time. It is made of a semiconductor Compton telescope utilizing Si as a scatterer and CdTe as an absorber. CAST provides allsky sub-MeV polarization map for the first time, as well. The Compton telescope technology is based on the design used in the Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) onboard ASTRO-H, characterized by its tightly stacked semiconductor layers to obtain high Compton reconstruction efficiency. The CAST mission is currently planned as a candidate for the small scientific satellite series in ISAS/JAXA, weighting about 500 kg in total. Scalable detector design enables us to consider other options as well. Scientific outcome of CAST is wide. It will provide new information from high-energy sources, such as AGN and/or its jets, supernova remnants, magnetors, blackhole and neutron-star binaries and others. Polarization map will tell us about activities of jets and reflections in these sources, as well. In addition, CAST will simultaneously observe the Sun, and depending on its attitude, the Earth.

  18. The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS): Design and implementation of the northern receiver

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Blackhurst, E J; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Dickinson, C; Holler, C M; Irfan, M O; John, J J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Stevenson, M A; Taylor, Angela C

    2013-01-01

    The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to map the full sky in total intensity and linear polarization at 5 GHz. The northern component of the survey uses a broadband single-frequency analogue receiver fitted to a 6.1-m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California, USA. The receiver architecture combines a continuous-comparison radiometer and a correlation polarimeter in a single receiver for stable simultaneous measurement of both total intensity and linear polarization, using custom-designed analogue receiver components. The continuous-comparison radiometer measures the temperature difference between the sky and temperature-stabilized cold electrical reference loads. A cryogenic front-end is used to minimize receiver noise, with a system temperature of $\\approx 30$ K in both linear polarization and total intensity. Custom cryogenic notch filters are used to counteract man-made radio frequency interference. The radiometer $1/f$ noise is dominated by atmospheric fluctuations, while th...

  19. The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS): design and implementation of the northern receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, O. G.; Jones, Michael E.; Blackhurst, E. J.; Copley, C.; Davis, R. J.; Dickinson, C.; Holler, C. M.; Irfan, M. O.; John, J. J.; Leahy, J. P.; Leech, J.; Muchovej, S. J. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Stevenson, M. A.; Taylor, Angela C.

    2014-03-01

    The C-Band All-Sky Survey is a project to map the full sky in total intensity and linear polarization at 5 GHz. The northern component of the survey uses a broad-band single-frequency analogue receiver fitted to a 6.1-m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California, USA. The receiver architecture combines a continuous-comparison radiometer and a correlation polarimeter in a single receiver for stable simultaneous measurement of both total intensity and linear polarization, using custom-designed analogue receiver components. The continuous-comparison radiometer measures the temperature difference between the sky and temperature-stabilized cold electrical reference loads. A cryogenic front-end is used to minimize receiver noise, with a system temperature of ≈30 K in both linear polarization and total intensity. Custom cryogenic notch filters are used to counteract man-made radio frequency interference. The radiometer 1/f noise is dominated by atmospheric fluctuations, while the polarimeter achieves a 1/f noise knee frequency of 10 mHz, similar to the telescope azimuthal scan frequency.

  20. GALACTIC ALL-SKY SURVEY HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS IN THE REGION OF THE MAGELLANIC LEADING ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds in the region of the Magellanic Leading Arm. The catalog is based on neutral hydrogen (H I) observations from the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Excellent spectral resolution allows clouds with narrow-line components to be resolved. The total number of detected clouds is 419. We describe the method of cataloging and present the basic parameters of the clouds. We discuss the general distribution of the high-velocity clouds and classify the clouds based on their morphological type. The presence of a significant number of head-tail clouds and their distribution in the region is discussed in the context of Magellanic System simulations. We suggest that ram-pressure stripping is a more important factor than tidal forces for the morphology and formation of the Magellanic Leading Arm and that different environmental conditions might explain the morphological difference between the Magellanic Leading Arm and Magellanic Stream. We also discuss a newly identified population of clouds that forms the LA IV and a new diffuse bridge-like feature connecting the LA II and III complexes.

  1. Conceptual Design of a Next-Generation All-Sky $\\gamma$-Ray Telescope Operating at TeV Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, R S

    1998-01-01

    The next generation all-sky monitor operating at TeV (0.1 - 30 TeV) energies should be capable of performing a continuous high sensitivity sky survey, and detecting transient sources, such as AGN flares, with high statistical significance on timescales of hours to days. We describe an instrument concept for a large area, wide aperture, TeV ground-based Gamma-ray telescope. The conceptual design is comprised of 20000 sqm scintillator-based pixels arranged in a densely packed mosaic. In addition to fast timing, the dense array of pixels also provides a unique imaging capability; the shower image, the spatial distribution of secondary particles at ground level, can be exploited to identify and reject hadronic backgrounds. The good angular resolution and background rejection capabilities lead directly to high sensitivity, while retaining a large field of view, large effective area, and high duty cycle. An instrument such as the one described here complements the narrow field of view air-Cherenkov telescopes and c...

  2. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: jwrichar@stat.berkeley.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  4. Construction of a Calibrated Probabilistic Classification Catalog: Application to 50k Variable Sources in the All-Sky Automated Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien

    2012-12-01

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  5. Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor measurements of duration distributions of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Norisuke; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Ohno, Masanori; Sugita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Ryuuji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Hurley, Kevin; Hanabata, Yoshitaka; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Enomoto, Junichi; Fujinuma, Takeshi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Iwakiri, Wataru; Kawano, Takafumi; Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakaya, Souhei; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Sawako; Terada, Yukikatsu; Urata, Yuji; Yabe, Seiya; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    We report on the T90 and T50 duration distributions and their relations with spectral hardness using 1464 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were observed by the Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) from 2005 August 4 to 2010 December 29. The duration distribution is clearly bimodal in three energy ranges (50-120, 120-250, and 250-550 keV), but is unclear in the 550-5000 keV range, probably because of the limited sample size. The WAM durations decrease with energy according to a power-law index of -0.058(-0.034, +0.033). The hardness-duration relation reveals the presence of short-hard and long-soft GRBs. The short:long event ratio tends to be higher with increasing energy. We compared the WAM distribution with ones measured by eight other GRB instruments. The WAM T90 distribution is very similar to those of INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS and Granat/PHEBUS, and least likely to match the Swift/BAT distribution. The WAM short:long event ratio (0.25:0.75) is much different from Swift/BAT (0.08:0.92), but is almost the same as CGRO/BATSE (0.25:0.75). To explain this difference for BAT, we examined three effects: BAT trigger types, energy dependence of the duration, and detection sensitivity differences between BAT and WAM. As a result, we found that the ratio difference could be explained mainly by energy dependence including soft extended emissions for short GRBs and much better sensitivity for BAT which can detect weak/long GRBs. The reason for the same short:long event ratio for BATSE and WAM was confirmed by calculation using the trigger efficiency curve.

  6. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  7. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Haud, U.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (H i) emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. Aims: We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. Methods: We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope records are compared with averages on the nearest grid position for significant deviations. All averages are also decomposed into Gaussian components with the aim of segregating unacceptable solutions. Improved priors are used for an iterative baseline fitting and cleaning. In the last step we generate 3D FITS data cubes and examine them for remaining problems. Results: We have removed weak, but systematic baseline offsets with an improved baseline fitting algorithm. We have unraveled correlator failures that cause time dependent oscillations; errors cause stripes in the scanning direction. The remaining problems from radio frequency interference (RFI) are spotted. Classifying the severeness of instrumental errors for each individual telescope record (dump) allows us to exclude bad data from averages. We derive parameters that allow us to discard dumps without compromising the noise of the resulting data products too much. All steps are reiterated several times: in each case, we check the Gaussian parameters for remaining problems and inspect 3D FITS data cubes visually. We find that in total ~1.5% of the telescope dumps need to be discarded in addition to ~0.5% of the spectral channels that were excluded in GASS II. Conclusions: The new data release (GASS III) facilitates data products with improved quality. A new web interface, compatible with the previous version, is available for download of GASS III FITS cubes and spectra.

  8. INFORMATION ON THE MILKY WAY FROM THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY WHOLE SKY STAR COUNT: THE STRUCTURE PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ks -band differential star count of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) is used to derive the global structure parameters of the smooth components of the Milky Way. To avoid complication introduced by other fine structures and significant extinction near and at the Galactic plane, we only consider Galactic latitude |b| > 300 data. The star count data are fitted with a three-component model: double exponential thin disk and thick disk, and a power-law decay oblate halo. Using maximum likelihood, the best-fit local density of the thin disk is n0 = 0.030 ± 0.002 stars pc-3. The best-fit scale height and length of the thin disk are Hz1 = 360 ± 10 pc and Hr1 = 3.7 ± 1.0 kpc, and those of the thick disk are Hz2 = 1020 ± 30 pc and Hr2 = 5.0 ± 1.0 kpc, the local thick-to-thin disk density ratio is f2 = 7% ± 1%. The best-fit axis ratio, power-law index, and local density ratio of the oblate halo are κ = 0.55 ± 0.15, p = 2.6 ± 0.6, and fh = 0.20% ± 0.10%, respectively. Moreover, we find some degeneracy among the key parameters (e.g., n0, Hz1, f2, and Hz2). Any pair of these parameters are anti-correlated to each other. The 2MASS data can be well fitted by several possible combinations of these parameters. This is probably the reason why there is a wide range of values for the structure parameters in literature similar to this study. Since only medium and high Galactic latitude data are analyzed, the fitting is insensitive to the scale lengths of the disks.

  9. Observation of the distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the IBEX-Lo all-sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Kucharek, H.; Moebius, E.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the spatial distribution of heavy energetic neutral atoms, mostly oxygen and neon, in the sky maps taken with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in 2009 - 2011. The IBEX-Lo sensor, one of two highly sensitive single-pixel cameras on the IBEX spacecraft, measures neutral particles within an energy range from 0.01 to 2 keV. In the time-of-flight detector of IBEX-Lo these neutral atoms can be identified as hydrogen or heavier atoms, such as oxygen. These measurements have provided all-sky maps of neutral hydrogen and oxygen. The dominant feature in these maps is the interstellar oxygen and neon gas flow. Its peak location is approximately consistent with the interstellar helium gas flow (Möbius et al., 2009, Science, 326, 969). The flow distribution is distributed over 210° - 240° ecliptic longitude and -6° - 12° ecliptic latitude. Another prominent feature in the oxygen sky maps at 0.2 to 0.8 keV is an extended tail of the oxygen signal toward lower longitude and higher positive latitude (180° - 210° ecliptic longitude and 0° - 24° ecliptic latitude). The measured peak rates in the extended tail is 3 - 5% of the maximum count rate in the primary oxygen and neon gas flow, but is four times higher than any other surrounding oxygen signals. The extended tail may indicate the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen, which is likely generated by charge exchange between local O+ ions and interstellar neutral H in the outer heliosheath. In this poster, we will discuss these two most prominent features in the oxygen sky maps and their implications for the source and the mechanism generating an extended tail in the oxygen signal.

  10. Fast All-Sky Radiation Model for Solar Applications (FARMS): A Brief Overview of Mechanisms, Performance, and Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-01

    Solar radiation can be computed using radiative transfer models, such as the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its general circulation model applications, and used for various energy applications. Due to the complexity of computing radiation fields in aerosol and cloudy atmospheres, simulating solar radiation can be extremely time-consuming, but many approximations--e.g., the two-stream approach and the delta-M truncation scheme--can be utilized. To provide a new fast option for computing solar radiation, we developed the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by parameterizing the simulated diffuse horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiance for cloudy conditions from the RRTM runs using a 16-stream discrete ordinates radiative transfer method. The solar irradiance at the surface was simulated by combining the cloud irradiance parameterizations with a fast clear-sky model, REST2. To understand the accuracy and efficiency of the newly developed fast model, we analyzed FARMS runs using cloud optical and microphysical properties retrieved using GOES data from 2009-2012. The global horizontal irradiance for cloudy conditions was simulated using FARMS and RRTM for global circulation modeling with a two-stream approximation and compared to measurements taken from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Our results indicate that the accuracy of FARMS is comparable to or better than the two-stream approach; however, FARMS is approximately 400 times more efficient because it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. Radiative transfer model runs are computationally expensive, but this model is promising for broad applications in solar resource assessment and forecasting. It is currently being used in the National Solar Radiation Database, which is publicly available from the National Renewable Energy

  11. NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IRSA is chartered to curate the calibrated science products from NASAs infrared and sub-millimeter missions, including five major large-area/all-sky surveys. IRSA...

  12. Simultaneous measurements of dark band structures in the OI 630 nm emission all-sky images associated with Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Perkins instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Using ground-based measurements we investigate the simultaneous occurrence of dark band structures in the OI 630 nm nightglow emission all-sky images associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) and Perkins instability. This is the first reported observation related to the quasi north-south aligned intensity depletion bands (plasma bubble) simultaneously with the presence of medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) in the tropical region using OI 630 nm nightglow emission all-sky images. On February 27-28, 2006, the OI 630 nm emission all-sky images obtained at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 deg S, 45.0 deg W), Brazil, were used to map the spatial and temporal locations of plasma bubble and MSTIDs in the bottomside of the F-region. The ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift measured by the all-sky imaging showed that it moved to eastward with average speed of 50 m/s, whereas MSTIDs moved from southeast to northwest with average speed of about 40 m/s. Also, digisonde observations registered abrupt increases in both the F-layer peak height (hmF2) and base height (h'F) when the MSTIDs passed over Cachoeira Paulista. It should be pointed out that these thermospheric/ionospheric events are not related to geomagnetic disturbed conditions. In this work, we present and discuss the dynamics of these kind airglow structures and their effects in the thermosphere/ionosphere dynamics.

  13. Temporal-spatial structure of magnetic merging at the magnetopause inferred from 557.7-nm all-sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that high-resolution 557.7-nm all-sky images are useful tools for investigating the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Analysis of ground and satellite measurements leads us to conclude that high-latitude merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 30s to 3min. Variations of 557.7nm emissions were observed at a 10s cadence at Ny-Ålesund on 19 December 2001, while significant changes in the IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. The optical patterns are consistent with a scenario in which merging occurs around the rim of the high-latitude cusp at positions dictated by the IMF clock angle. Electrons energized at merging sites represent plausible sources for 557.7nm emissions in the cusp. Polar observations at the magnetopause have directly linked enhanced fluxes of ≥0.5keV electrons with merging. Spectra of electrons responsible for some of the emissions, measured during a DMSP F15 overflight, exhibit "inverted-V" features, indicating further acceleration above the ionosphere. SuperDARN spectral width boundaries, characteristic of open-closed field line transitions, are located at the equatorward edge of the 557.7nm emissions. Optical data suggest that with IMF BY>0, the Northern Hemisphere cusp divides into three source regions. When the IMF clock angle was ~150° structured 557.7-nm emissions came from east of the 13:00 MLT meridian. At larger clock angles the emissions appeared between 12:00 and 13:00 MLT. No significant 557.7-nm emissions were detected in the prenoon MLT sector. MHD simulations corroborate our scenario, showing that with the observed large dipole-tilt and IMF clock angles, merging sites develop near the front and eastern portions of the high-altitude cusp rim in the Northern Hemisphere and near the western part of the cusp rim in the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. Gravity wave activity observed in the mesosphere and ionosphere on September 16th 2015 by an all-sky imager and dTEC maps over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Gobbi, Delano; Buriti, Ricardo; Bageston, José Valentin; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Cosme Alexandre Figueiredo, M.; Takahashi, Hisao; Azambuja, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    All-sky imager was used to observe the wave activity in the mesosphere and a ground network of GPS receivers were used to make detrended Total Electron Content (dTEC) maps to monitor the ionosphere. The wave activity was observed on September 16th 2015 over the southeast region in Brazil. The gravity wave characteristics and the atmospheric conditions for wave propagation will be presented and discussed. The gravity wave source was associated with strong tropospheric convection.

  15. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850–2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokohata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280–315 nm radiation through 1850–2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface all-sky UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N–60° N and 120° E–150° E, where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70% dominates the total UV-B change.

  16. BANYAN. V. A SYSTEMATIC ALL-SKY SURVEY FOR NEW VERY LATE-TYPE LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-01-10

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ∼13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the Two Micron All Sky Survey and AllWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98,970 potential ≥M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr{sup –1}. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYAN II to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segregation in the AB Doradus moving group and the Tucana-Horologium and Columba associations. The BASS sample has already been successful in identifying several new young brown dwarfs in earlier publications, and will be of great interest in studying the initial mass function of YMGs and for the search of exoplanets by direct imaging; the input sample of potential close-by ≥M5 dwarfs will be useful to study the kinematics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and search for new proper motion pairs.

  17. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF/IASF di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  18. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q 22 parameter, which is analogous to the q 24 parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources

  19. Time-resolved hard X-Ray hardness variation of solar flares observed by Suzaku Wide-band All-sky monitor

    OpenAIRE

    遠藤, 輝; Endo, Akira; 守上, 浩市; Morigami, Kouichi; 田代, 信; Tashiro, Makoto; 寺田, 幸功; Terada, Yukikatsu; 山岡, 和貴; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; 園田 絵里; Sonoda, Eri; 簑島, 敬; Minoshima, Takashi; Krucker, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Results of solar flare observations in the hard X-ray band with the Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) are reported. On June 2009, 108 solar flares (GOES class X:16, M:29, C:46, B:17) have been detected with the WAM since the launch. One of the brightest flares WAM detected was the event occurring on 2006 December 13. It lasted for more than 700 seconds even in above 500 keV. This event was simultaneously observed by the solar missions Hinode and RHESSI in soft and hard X-ray region respe...

  20. Hierarchical follow-up of sub-threshold candidates of an all-sky Einstein@Home search for continuous gravitational waves on LIGO sixth science run data

    CERN Document Server

    Papa, Maria Alessandra; Walsh, Sinéad; Di Palma, Irene; Allen, Bruce; Astone, Pia; Bock, Oliver; Creighton, Teviet D; Keitel, David; Machenschalk, Bernd; Prix, Reinhard; Siemens, Xavier; Singh, Avneet; Zhu, Sylvia J; Schutz, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    We report results of an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves with frequency between 50 and 510 Hz from isolated compact objects, i.e. neutron stars. A new hierarchical multi-stage approach is taken, supported by the computing power of the Einstein@Home project, allowing to probe more deeply than ever before. 16 million sub-threshold candidates from the initial search [LVC,arXiv:1606.09619] are followed up in three stages. None of those candidates is consistent with an isolated gravitational wave emitter, and 90% confidence level upper limits are placed on the amplitudes of continuous waves from the target population. Between 170.5 and 171 Hz we set the most constraining 90% confidence upper limit on the strain amplitude h0 at 4.3x10-25 , while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve an upper limit of 7.6x10-25. These are the most constraining all-sky upper limits to date and constrain the ellipticity of rotating compact objects emitting at 300 Hz at a distance D to less than 6x10-7 [d/100...

  1. The Fermi All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Brandt, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Scargle, J. D; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  2. Empirically extending the range of validity of parameter-space metrics for all-sky searches for gravitational-wave pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Karl

    2016-01-01

    All-sky searches for gravitational-wave pulsars are generally limited in sensitivity by the finite availability of computing resources. Semicoherent searches are a common method of maximizing search sensitivity given a fixed computing budget. The work of Wette and Prix [Phys. Rev. D 88, 123005 (2013)] and Wette [Phys. Rev. D 92, 082003 (2015)] developed a semicoherent search method which uses metrics to construct the banks of pulsar signal templates needed to search the parameter space of interest. In this work we extend the range of validity of the parameter-space metrics using an empirically-derived relationship between the resolution (or mismatch) of the template banks and the mismatch of the overall search. This work has important consequences for the optimization of metric-based semicoherent searches at fixed computing cost.

  3. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Eric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants, in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  4. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytek, Tabitha C.; Natarajan, Aravind; Peterson, Jeffrey B. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jáuregui García, José Miguel; López-Cruz, Omar, E-mail: tcv@andrew.cmu.edu [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica (INAOE), Coordinación de Astrofísica, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1 Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla, 72840 Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-02-10

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work.

  5. XSS J00564+4548 and IGR J00234+6141 -- new cataclysmic variables from RXTE and INTEGRAL all sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bikmaev, I F; Burenin, R A; Sunyaev, R A

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of optical identification of two X-ray sources from RXTE and INTEGRAL all sky surveys: XSS J00564+4548 and IGR J00234+6141. Using the optical data from Russian-Turkish 1.5-m Telescope (RTT150) and SWIFT X-ray observations, we show that these sources most probably are intermediate polars, i.e. binary systems with accreting white dwarfs with not very strong magnetic field (<~10 MG). Periodical oscillations of optical emission with periods 480 s and 570 s were found. We argue that these periods most probably correspond to the rotating periods of the white dwarfs in these systems. Further optical observations scheduled at RTT150 will allow to study the parameters of these systems in more detail.

  6. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  7. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: majello@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: allafort@stanford.edu, E-mail: rolf.buehler@desy.de [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 Degree-Sign and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  8. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work

  9. Characteristics of merging at the magnetopause inferred from dayside 557.7-nm all-sky images: IMF drivers of poleward moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We combine in situ measurements from Cluster with high-resolution 557.7 nm all-sky images from South Pole to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Variations of 557.7 nm emissions were observed at a 6 s cadence at South Pole on 29 April 2003 while significant changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. Electrons energized at merging sites are the probable sources for 557.7 nm cusp emissions. At the same time Cluster was crossing the pre-noon cusp in the Northern Hemisphere. The combined observations confirm results of a previous study that merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 10 s to 3 min (Maynard et al., 2004. The intensity of the emissions and the merging rate appear to vary with changes in the IMF clock angle, IMF BX and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Most poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs reflect responses to changes in interplanetary medium rather than to local processes. The changes in magnetopause position required by increases in dynamic pressure are mediated by merging and result in the generation of PMAFs. Small (15–20% variations in dynamic pressure of the solar wind are sufficient to launch PMAFs. Changes in IMF BX create magnetic flux compressions and rarefactions in the solar wind. Increases (decreases in IMF BX strengthens |B| near northern (southern hemisphere merging sites thereby enhancing merging rates and triggering PMAFs. When correlating responses in the two hemispheres, the presence of significant IMF BX also requires that different lag-times be applied to ACE measurements acquired ~0.1 AU upstream of Earth. Cluster observations set lag times for merging at Northern Hemisphere sites; post-noon optical emissions set times of Southern Hemisphere merging. All-sky images and

  10. Wide-range solar resource forecasting by combining radiation measurements, all-sky camera imagery and high-resolution large-eddy simulations on a GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Alexander; Jonker, Harmen; Schalkwijk, Jerome; De Roode, Stephan; Zinner, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    With the current tendency to larger photovoltaic power plants the demand for accurate forecasts of solar radiation increases steadily. In contrast to the traditional, controllable power generation that can handle the power grid variability, renewables must cope with natural power resource fluctuations. To maintain grid stability with an increasing penetration of renewables, the variability of natural power sources has to be accounted for in the operation of the renewables by accurate minutes ahead to days ahead forecasts of natural energy resources. We present two forecasting methods based on novel techniques. For short-time scale predictions up to 15-30 minutes we use atmospheric observations including an all-sky camera and for longer time scales we use a high-resolution Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. These methods allow to cover forecasting time horizons from one minute to several days ahead. First we discuss results of solar radiation forecasts based on observational techniques. Clouds are observed with an all-sky camera and their effects on the solar radiation are monitored by means of ground-based pyranometers. We use a sophisticated cloud tracking algorithm to derive cloud motion vector fields. In turn, these results are used to predict solar radiative fluxes at the surface every minute up to 15 minutes ahead. Our integrated cloud classification algorithm differentiates between advective and convective cloud fields so that we are able to choose the suitable forecasting method. In the convective cloud case we apply a so-called morphing method which analyses the optical flow of cloudy pixels on several spatial scales. In the advective case the cloud displacement is based on the mean motion vector. In both cases the motion vector field is then applied to the latest cloud mask allowing cloud position and radiation forecasts up to 15 minutes. The second forecasting technique fully relies on intensive numerical calculations with the Graphics Processing Unit

  11. Ground-based search for the brightest transiting planets with the Multi-site All-Sky CAmeRA - MASCARA

    CERN Document Server

    Snellen, Ignas; Navarro, Ramon; Bettonvil, Felix; Kenworthy, Matthew; de Mooij, Ernst; Otten, Gilles; ter Horst, Rik; Poole, Rudolf le

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-site All-sky CAmeRA MASCARA is an instrument concept consisting of several stations across the globe, with each station containing a battery of low-cost cameras to monitor the near-entire sky at each location. Once all stations have been installed, MASCARA will be able to provide a nearly 24-hr coverage of the complete dark sky, down to magnitude 8, at sub-minute cadence. Its purpose is to find the brightest transiting exoplanet systems, expected in the V=4-8 magnitude range - currently not probed by space- or ground-based surveys. The bright/nearby transiting planet systems, which MASCARA will discover, will be the key targets for detailed planet atmosphere observations. We present studies on the initial design of a MASCARA station, including the camera housing, domes, and computer equipment, and on the photometric stability of low-cost cameras showing that a precision of 0.3-1% per hour can be readily achieved. We plan to roll out the first MASCARA station before the end of 2013. A 5-station MASCA...

  12. The spatial clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Active Galactic Nuclei IV. More massive black holes reside in more massive dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, Mirko; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikos; Coil, Alison L; Aceves, Hector

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this paper we investigate the cause of the X-ray luminosity dependence of the clustering of broad-line, luminous AGN at 0.16

  13. Results of the deepest all-sky survey for continuous gravitational waves on LIGO S6 data running on the Einstein@Home volunteer distributed computing project

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the S6 LIGO science run. The search was possible thanks to the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home distributed computing project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, between $170.5$ and $171$ Hz we set a 90% confidence upper limit of ${5.5}^{-25}$, while at the high end of our frequency range, around 505 Hz, we achieve upper limits $\\simeq {10}^{-24}$. At $230$ Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-6}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \\textrm{kg m}^2$. If we assume a higher (lower) gravitational wave spindown we constrain farther (closer) objects to higher (lower) ellipticities.

  14. A Large, Uniform Sample of X-ray Emitting AGN from the ROSAT All-Sky and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: the Data Release 5 Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, S F; Voges, W; Plotkin, R M; Syphers, D; Haggard, D; Collinge, M J; Meyer, J; Strauss, M A; Agüeros, M A; Hall, P B; Homer, L; Ivezic, Z; Richards, G T; Richmond, M W; Schneider, D P; Stinson, G; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Voges, Wolfgang; Plotkin, Richard M.; Syphers, David; Haggard, Daryl; Collinge, Matthew J.; Meyer, Jillian; Strauss, Michael A.; Agueros, Marcel A.; Hall, Patrick B.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Richards, Gordon T.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stinson, Gregory; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe further results of a program aimed to yield ~10^4 fully characterized optical identifications of ROSAT X-ray sources. Our program employs X-ray data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS), and both optical imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). RASS/SDSS data from 5740 deg^2 of sky spectroscopically covered in SDSS Data Release 5 (DR5) provide an expanded catalog of 7000 confirmed quasars and other AGN that are probable RASS identifications. Again in our expanded catalog, the identifications as X-ray sources are statistically secure, with only a few percent of the SDSS AGN likely to be randomly superposed on unrelated RASS X-ray sources. Most identifications continue to be quasars and Seyfert 1s with 15

  15. AN EXTENDED AND MORE SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR PERIODICITIES IN ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER/ALL-SKY MONITOR X-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.

  16. Results of an all-sky high-frequency Einstein@Home search for continuous gravitational waves in LIGO 5th Science Run

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Avneet; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Zhu, Sylvia; Pletsch, Holger; Allen, Bruce; Bock, Oliver; Maschenchalk, Bernd; Prix, Reinhard; Siemens, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a high-frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated compact objects in LIGO's 5th Science Run S5 data, using the computing power of the Einstein@Home volunteer computing project. This is the only dedicated continuous gravitational wave search that probes this high frequency range on S5 data. We find no significant candidate signal, so we set 90%-confidence level upper-limits on continuous gravitational wave strain amplitudes. At the lower end of the search frequency range, around 1250 Hz, the most constraining upper-limit is $5.0\\times 10^{-24}$, while at the higher end, around 1500 Hz, it is $6.2\\times 10^{-24}$. Based on these upper-limits, and assuming a fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38}$kg$\\,$m$^2$, we can exclude objects with ellipticities higher than roughly $2.8\\times10^{-7}$ within 100 pc of Earth with rotation periods between 1.3 and 1.6 milliseconds.

  17. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; Burton, S.; Torres, O.; Remer, L.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  18. The ASTRO-F Mission : Large Area Infrared Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Shibai, Hiroshi; Onaka, Takashi; Usui, Fumihiko

    2005-01-01

    ASTRO-F is the first Japanese satellite mission dedicated for large area surveys in the infrared. The 69cm aperture telescope and scientific instruments are cooled to 6K by liquid Helium and mechanical coolers. During the expected mission life of more than 500 days, ASTRO-F will make the most advanced all-sky survey in the mid- to far-infrared since the Infrared astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The survey will be made in 6 wavebands and will include the first all sky survey at >100-160(mu)m. De...

  19. The Spatial Clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. More Massive Black Holes Reside in More Massive Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpe, Mirko; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikos; Coil, Alison L.; Aceves, Hector

    2015-12-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this paper we investigate the cause of the X-ray luminosity dependence of the clustering of broad-line, luminous AGNs at 0.16\\lt z\\lt 0.36. We fit the Hα line profile in the SDSS spectra for all X-ray and optically selected broad-line AGNs, determine the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), {M}{BH}, and infer the accretion rate relative to Eddington (L/{L}{EDD}). Since {M}{BH} and L/{L}{EDD} are correlated, we create AGN subsamples in one parameter while maintaining the same distribution in the other parameter. In both the X-ray and optically selected AGN samples, we detect a weak clustering dependence with {M}{BH} and no statistically significant dependence on L/{L}{EDD}. We find a difference of up to 2.7σ when comparing the objects that belong to the 30% least and 30% most massive {M}{BH} subsamples, in that luminous broad-line AGNs with more massive black holes reside in more massive parent dark matter halos at these redshifts. These results provide evidence that higher accretion rates in AGNs do not necessarily require dense galaxy environments, in which more galaxy mergers and interactions are expected to channel large amounts of gas onto the SMBH. We also present semianalytic models that predict a positive {M}{DMH} dependence on {M}{BH}, which is most prominent at {M}{BH}˜ {10}8-9 {M}⊙ .

  20. Distortion of thermospheric air masses by horizontal neutral winds over Poker Flat Alaska measured using an all-sky scanning Doppler imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.

    2016-01-01

    An air mass transported by a wind field will become distorted over time by any gradients present in the wind field. To study this effect in Earth's thermosphere, we examine the behavior of a simple parameter that we describe here as the "distortion gradient." It incorporates all of the wind field's departures from uniformity and is thus capable of representing all contributions to the distortion or mixing of air masses. The distortion gradient is defined such that it is always positive, so averaging over time and/or space does not suppress small-scale features. Conventional gradients, by contrast, are signed quantities that would often average to zero. To analyze the climatological behavior of this distortion gradient, we used three years (2010, 2011, and 2012) of thermospheric F region wind observations from a high-latitude ground-based all-sky wavelength scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Poker Flat Alaska. Climatological averaging of the distortion gradient allowed us to investigate its diurnal and seasonal (annual) behaviors at our observing location. Distortion was observed to be higher before local magnetic midnight and to be seasonally dependent. While maximum distortion occurred before local magnetic midnight under all geomagnetic conditions, the peak distortion occurred earlier under moderate geomagnetic conditions as compared to the quiet geomagnetic conditions and even earlier still when geomagnetic conditions were active. Peak distortion was stronger and appeared earlier when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward compared to northward. By contrast, we could not resolve any time-shift effect due to the IMF component tangential to Earth's orbit.

  1. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850–2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watanabe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280–315 nm radiation through 1850–2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N–60° N and 120° E–150° E, where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70% dominates the total UV-B change.

  2. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  3. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables in the Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Howell, Steve B; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J E; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R; Froning, Cynthia S; van Belle, Gerard T; Pretorius, M L

    2014-01-01

    Novalike cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of twelve novalikes obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at >3-5 microns over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present...

  4. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 with Burst and Transient Source Experiment and All-Sky Monitor Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Lin-Qing

    2002-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of all observations of Cyg X-1 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE; 20-300 keV) and by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer all-sky monitor (ASM; 1.5-12 keV) until 2002 June, including approximately 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between fluxes and hardnesses in different energy bands. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the 20-100 keV flux. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. There is also another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependencies of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We also study in detail recent soft states from late 2000 until 2002. The last of them has lasted thus far for more than 200 days. Their spectra are generally harder in the 1.5-5 keV band and similar or softer in the 3-12 keV band than the spectra of the 1996 soft state, whereas the rms variability is stronger in all the ASM bands. On the other hand, the 1994 soft state transition observed by BATSE appears very similar to the 1996 one. We interpret the variability patterns in terms of theoretical Comptonization

  5. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Dame, T. M.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Dobashi, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Grenier, I. A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kawamura, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Onishi, T.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    An all sky map of the apparent temperature and optical depth of thermal dust emission is constructed using the Planck-HFI (350μm to 2 mm) andIRAS(100μm) data. The optical depth maps are correlated with tracers of the atomic (Hi) and molecular gas traced by CO. The correlation with the column density of observed gas is linear in the lowest column density regions at high Galactic latitudes. At high NH, the correlation is consistent with that of the lowest NH, for a given choice of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. In the intermediate NH range, a departure from linearity is observed, with the dust optical depth in excess of the correlation. This excess emission is attributed to thermal emission by dust associated with a dark gas phase, undetected in the available Hi and CO surveys. The 2D spatial distribution of the dark gas in the solar neighbourhood (|bII| > 10°) is shown to extend around known molecular regions traced by CO. The average dust emissivity in the Hi phase in the solar neighbourhood is found to be τD/NHtot = 5.2×10-26 cm2 at 857 GHz. It follows roughly a power law distribution with a spectral index β = 1.8 all the way down to 3 mm, although the SED flattens slightly in the millimetre. Taking into account the spectral shape of the dust optical depth, the emissivity is consistent with previous values derived fromFIRAS measurements at high latitudes within 10%. The threshold for the existence of the dark gas is found at NHtot = (8.0±0.58)×1020 H cm-2 (AV = 0.4mag). Assuming the same high frequency emissivity for the dust in the atomic and the molecular phases leads to an average XCO = (2.54 ± 0.13) × 1020 H2 cm-2/(K km s-1). The mass of dark gas is found to be 28% of the atomic gas and 118% of the CO emitting gas in the solar neighbourhood. The Galactic latitude distribution shows that its mass fraction is relatively constant down to a few degrees from the Galactic plane. A possible explanation for the dark gas lies in a dark molecular phase, where

  6. An accuracy assessment of an empirical sine model, a novel sine model and an artificial neural network model for forecasting illuminance/irradiance on horizontal plane of all sky types at Mahasarakham, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on all sky modeling and forecasting daylight availability for the tropical climate found in the central region of the northeastern part of Thailand (16 deg. 14' N, 103 deg. 15' E) is presented. The required components of sky quantities, namely, global and diffuse horizontal irradiance and global horizontal illuminance for saving energy used in buildings are estimated. The empirical sinusoidal models are validated. A and B values of the empirical sinusoidal model for all sky conditions are determined and developed to become a form of the sky conditions. In addition, a novel sinusoidal model, which consists of polynomial or exponential functions, is validated. A and B values of the empirical sinusoidal model for all sky conditions are determined and developed to become a new function in the polynomial or exponential form of the sky conditions. Novelettes, an artificial intelligent agent, namely, artificial neural network (ANN) model is also identified. Back propagation learning algorithms were used in the networks. Moreover, a one year data set and a next half year data set were used in order to train and test the neural network, respectively. Observation results from one year's round data indicate that luminosity and energy from the sky on horizontal in the area around Mahasarakham are frequently brighter than those of Bangkok. The accuracy of the validated model is determined in terms of the mean bias deviation (MBD), the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) and the coefficient of correlation (R2) values. A comparison of the estimated solar irradiation values and the observed values revealed a small error slide in the empirical sinusoidal model as well. In addition, some results of the sky quantity forecast by the ANN model indicate that the ANN model is more accurate than the empirical models and the novel sinusoidal models. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict highly accurate solar radiance/illuminance values. We believe that

  7. The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1992-01-01

    The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.

  8. The ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of Sloan Digital Sky Survey sources detected by GALEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agueros, MA; Ivezic, Z; Covey, KR; Obric, M; Hao, L; Walkowicz, LM; West, AA; Vanden Berk, DE; Lupton, RH; Knapp, GR; Gunn, JE; Richards, GT; Bochanski, J; Brooks, A; Claire, M; Haggard, D; Kaib, N; Kimball, A; Gogarten, SM; Seth, A; Solontoi, M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) sources detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX) as part of its All-sky Imaging Survey Early Release Observations. Virtually all (> 99%) the GALEX sources in the overlap region are detected

  9. Proton Irradiation Experiment for the X-ray Charge-Coupled Devices of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image mission onboard the International Space Station I. Experimental Setup and Measurement of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kouno, H; Mihara, M; Matsuta, K; Tsunemi, H; Tanaka, K; Minamisono, T; Tomida, H; Miyaguchi, K

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a CCD to be employed in the Japanese X-ray astronomy mission including the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Since low energy protons release their energy mainly at the charge transfer channel, resulting a decrease of the charge transfer efficiency, we thus focused on the low energy protons in our experiments. A 171 keV to 3.91 MeV proton beam was irradiated to a given device. We measured the degradation of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a function of incremental fluence. A 292 keV proton beam degraded the CTI most seriously. Taking into account the proton energy dependence of the CTI, we confirmed that the transfer channel has the lowest radiation tolerance. We have also developed the different device architectures to reduce the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, the ``notch'' CCD, in which the buried channel implant concentration is increased, resulting in a deeper potential well than outsi...

  10. Proton irradiation experiment for X-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky X-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 1. Experimental setup and measurement of the charge transfer inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be employed in the Japanese X-ray astronomy mission including the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI) onboard the international space station (ISS). Since low-energy protons release their energy mainly at the charge transfer channel, resulting in a decrease of the charge transfer efficiency, we focused on low-energy protons in our experiments. A 171 keV to 3.91 MeV proton beam was irradiated onto a given device. We measured the degradation of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a function of incremental fluence. A 292 keV proton beam degraded the CTI critically. Taking into account the proton energy dependence of the CTI, we confirmed that the transfer channel has the lowest radiation tolerance. We have also developed different device architectures to reduce the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, the 'notch' CCD, in which the buried channel implant concentration is increased, resulting in a potential well deeper than outside, has a three times higher radiation tolerance than that of the normal CCD. We then estimated the CTI of the CCD in the orbit of the ISS, considering the proton energy spectrum. The CTI value is estimated to be 1.1x10-5 per transfer after two years of mission life in the worst case analysis if the highest radiation tolerant device is employed. This value is well within the acceptable limit and we have confirmed the high radiation-tolerance of CCDs for the MAXI mission. (author)

  11. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependence of the dark current enables us to determine the electron trap level that generates the dark current. We fitted dark current as a function of temperature by the theoretical models and found that the dark current increase after proton irradiations is caused by, at least, two kinds of electron trap levels. The shallow trap level (Ec - Et c and Et are the energy at the bottom of the conduction band and the energy level of electron trap) might be associated with oxygen which is dominant at the operating temperature of >210 K. On the other hand, another trap level is located roughly at the center of the silicon bandgap which might be associated with divacancies or P-V traps. We finally investigated the spatial distribution of the low-energy protons in the orbit of the ISS. Their density has a peak around l - 20deg and b - 55deg independent of the altitude. The peak value is roughly two orders of magnitude higher than that at the South Atlantic Anomaly. (author)

  12. Contamination control of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, L. C.; Irace, W. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite, to be launched in August 1981, will perform an all-sky survey in the 8-120 micron wavelength region. High sensitivity to thermal radiation and the low operating temperature of optics and thermal control surfaces make the IRAS telescope extremely vulnerable to contamination. Four special topics of importance are discussed in this paper: (1) deposition of atmospheric gases; (2) sighting of particles released from the satellite; (3) functions of a deployable aperture cover; and (4) degradation of a radiatively cooled sunshade from spacecraft outgassing. These topics demonstrate how mission strategy, ground cleaning and handling, and hardware design are used to avoid contamination which would degrade telescope performance.

  13. X-ray and infrared diagnostics of nearby active galactic nuclei with MAXI and AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, Naoki; Oyabu, Shinki; Nakagawa, Takao; Baba, Shunsuke; Yano, Kenichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Nearby active galactic nuclei were diagnosed in the X-ray and mid-to-far infrared wavelengths, with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) and the Japanese infrared observatory AKARI, respectively. Among the X-ray sources listed in the second release of the MAXI all-sky X-ray source catalog, 100 ones are currently identified as a non-blazar-type active galactic nucleus. These include 95 Seyfert galaxies and 5 quasars, and they are composed of 73 type-1 and 27 type-2 objects. The AKARI all-sky survey point source catalog was searched for their mid- and far-infrared counterparts at 9, 18, and 90 $\\mu$m. As a result, 69 Seyfert galaxies in the MAXI catalog (48 type-1 and 21 type-2 ones) were found to be detected with AKARI. The X-ray (3-4 keV and 4-10 keV) and infrared luminosities of these objects were investigated, together with their color information. Adopting the canonical photon index, $\\Gamma = 1.9$, of the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxies, the X-ray hardness ratio between the 3-4 and 4-10 ...

  14. AKARI Detections of Hot Dust in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Oyabu, S; Malkan, M; Matsuhara, H; Wada, T; Nakagawa, T; Ohyama, Y; Toba, Y; Onaka, T; Takita, S; Kataza, H; Yamamura, I; Shirahata, M

    2011-01-01

    We have made a new sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), using the catalog of the AKARI Mid-infrared(MIR) All-Sky Survey. Our MIR search has an advantage in detecting AGNs that are obscured at optical wavelengths due to extinction. First, we selected AKARI 9micron excess sources with F(9micron)/F(K_S)>2 where K_S magnitudes were taken from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Then, we obtained follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy with the AKARI/IRC, to confirm that the excess is caused by hot dust. We also obtained optical spectroscopy with the Kast Double Spectrograph on the Shane 3-m telescope at Lick Observatory. Based on these observations, we detected hot dust with a characteristic temperature of ~500K in two luminous infrared galaxies. The hot dust is suspected to be associated with AGNs, which show their nonstellar activity not in the optical, but in the near- and mid-infrared bands--i.e., they harbor buried AGNs. The host galaxy stellar masses of 4-6 x 10^9 M_sun are small compared with the hosts in opti...

  15. An Infrared Examination of Young Stars in Upper Centaurus Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, M.; Barge, J.; Rebull, L. M.; Aranda, D.; Canlas, N. G.; Donahoe, K. E.; Ernst, M. K.; Ford, S.; Fox, M. E.; Gutierrez, E.; Haecker, L. W.; Hibbs, C. A.; Maddaus, M. R.; Martin, T. A.; Ng, E.; Niedbalec, A. P.; O'Bryan, S. E.; Searls, E. F.; Zeidner, A. B.; Zegeye, D.

    2014-01-01

    Optical studies of the Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) region of the Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen) complex have found many young stellar objects. The nearby G/K/M Sco-Cen members have been estimated to be much younger 10 Myr) than similar star associations (Song, et al 2012). We have assembled infrared data for the objects thought to be members of UCL by mining various archives including the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), the Spitzer Heritage Archive (SHA), specifically the Spitzer Enhanced Imaging Products Source List, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky source catalog. We created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with multiple wavelengths to identify infrared excesses and determine what fraction of these stars have circumstellar disks. Students from three high schools collaborated on this project, which is a follow-up project made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP; http://nitarp.ipac.caltech.edu).

  16. The ASTRO-F Mission Large Area Infrared Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuhara, H; Onaka, T; Usui, F; Matsuhara, Hideo; Shibai, Hiroshi; Onaka, Takashi; Usui, Fumihiko

    2005-01-01

    ASTRO-F is the first Japanese satellite mission dedicated for large area surveys in the infrared. The 69cm aperture telescope and scientific instruments are cooled to 6K by liquid Helium and mechanical coolers. During the expected mission life of more than 500 days, ASTRO-F will make the most advanced all-sky survey in the mid- to far-infrared since the Infrared astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The survey will be made in 6 wavebands and will include the first all sky survey at >100-160(mu)m. Deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys with pointed observations will also be carried out in 13 wavelength bands from 2-160(mu)m. ASTRO-F should detect more than a half million galaxies tracing the large-scale structure of the Universe out to redshifts of unity, detecting rare, exotic extraordinarily luminous objects at high redshift, numerous brown dwarfs, Vega-like stars, protostars, and will reveal the large-scale structure of nearby galactic star forming regions. ASTRO-F is a perfect complement to Spitzer Space Telescop...

  17. All-Sky Monitoring of Variable Sources with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Jenke, Pater; Rodi, James C.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the monitoring of variable sources with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It reviews the use of the Earth Occultation technique, the observations of the Crab Nebula with the GBM, and the comparison with other satellite's observations. The instruments on board the four satellites indicate a decline in the Crab from 2008-2010.

  18. All-sky observations with HAWC: latest results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; HAWC Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a ground-based air- shower detector designed to study cosmic rays and gamma rays with energies from 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. HAWC simultaneously surveys 2sr of the northern sky with a high duty cycle > 90% in search for photons from point and extended sources, diffuse emission, transient events and other astrophysical phenomena at multi-TeV scales against the background of cosmic rays. In fact, the study of this background will open also the possibility of doing cosmic ray physics in the GeV — TeV regime and even to perform solar studies at HAWC. The observatory will consist of a densely packed array of 300 water Cherenkov tanks (4.5 m tall and 7.3 m diameter with 4 photomultipliers each) distributed on a 22 000 m2 surface. Deployment started in March 2012 on a plateau situated on the Sierra Negra Volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico, at an altitude of 4100 m. Construction is expected to be finished by the first months of 2015. In the mean time, HAWC has been taking data with a partial array and preliminary results have been already obtained. In this contribution, the results from the latest HAWC observations will be presented.

  19. All-Sky Cataloging and Analysis of Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent quick instrumental progress provides possibilities to careful study the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galaxy and in the nearest galaxies (M31, LMC, SMC, etc.). Significant enough baryon mass of the galactic and extragalactic ISM is concentrated in the clouds with molecular content in the densest parts. The molecular clouds (MoC) are closely related to cold dust-gas clouds, particularly HI ones and should play a key-role in the star forming processes as well as in the dynamics of the Galaxy. These arguments show the importance of counting and surveying of the MoC populations. In order to attempt to solve at least some problems of the physics and evolution of the MoC system in the Galaxy (as well as in other galaxies), its impact on the dynamics and evolution of the Galaxy itself, and to extend the results to the MoC systems in other galaxies we drafted a consolidated composite catalog of molecular and dust-gas clouds based on the recent data. Online data banks and services such as VizieR, SIMBAD at CDS as well as original publications were used. In our Galaxy there are about 200 large molecular clouds, more than 2500 smaller cold dark clouds (including clumps and cores this value exceeds approximately 5000 objects) observed in 11 kpc Solar neighborhood. The general catalog has been divided into 3 sub-catalogs: 1)large and giant MoC; 2) MoC with moderate masses and sizes; 3) small MoC including the clumps and cores. All main catalogs and subcatalogs contain the coordinates, sizes, distances, masses and other physical parameters (density, temperature, radial velocity, etc.) that are available for the different clouds. Statistical and correlation analyses of the data has been performed, the spatial distribution is drawn and the total number is estimated, the dynamic model of formation and evolution of MoC system is proposed. Our results are compared and discussed with data of other investigations as well as the ways to complete and improve the catalog data are also proposed. We prepared the complex program for further observations of MoC using the Suffa radio telescope and other large facilities to cover the gaps in observed physical parameters of MoC.

  20. SPACE: the SPectroscopic, All-Sky Cosmic Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimatti, A.; Robberto, M.; Baugh, C.; Beckwith, S. W. V.; Content, R.; Daddi, E.; deLucia, G.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Kauffmann, G.; Lehnert, M.; Maccagni, D.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Pasian, F.; Reid, I. N.; Rosati, P.; Salvaterra, R.; Stiavelli, M.; Wang, Y.; ZapateroOsorio, M.; Balcells, M.; Bersanelli, M.; Gardner, J.P.; Kimble, R.; Clampin, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the scientific motivations, the mission concept and the instrumentation of SPACE, a class-M mission proposed for concept study at the first call of the ESA Cosmic-Vision 2015-2025 planning cycle. SPACE aims at producing the largest three-dimensional evolutionary map of the Universe over the past 10 billion years by taking near-IR spectra and measuring redshifts of more than half a billion galaxies at 0 baryonic acoustic oscillations imprinted when matter and radiation decoupled, the distance-luminosity relation of cosmological supernovae, the evolution of the cosmic expansion rate, the growth rate of cosmic large-scale structure, the large scale distribution of galaxies. The datasets from the SPACE mission will represent a long lasting legacy that will be data mined for many years to come.

  1. Conducting The Deepest All-Sky Pulsar Survey Ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared among the MPIfR in Germany, ATNF/CASS and Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, University of Manchester in the UK and INAF in Italy. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with recent advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. While a general overview of HTRU has been given by Keith at this conference, here we focus on three further aspects of HTRU discoveries and highlights...

  2. Conducting the deepest all-sky radio pulsar survey ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cherry

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of aspects of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey; a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with new advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. Observations from Parkes have recently been completed and it is thus a suitable moment to review the success of the survey. In my talk I will discuss the discovery highlights such as the magnetar, two “planet-pulsar” binaries and the Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) from cosmological distances. The HTRU low-latitude data promises to provide the deepest large-scale search ever for the Galactic plane region. I will present an innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discoveries of highly accelerated relativistic binary systems, including the potential pulsar-black-hole binaries. I will also provide an update on the survey status for the Northern survey with Effelsberg, which has led to the recent discovery of a highly eccentric binary millisecond pulsar.

  3. Conducting the deepest all-sky pulsar survey ever: the all-sky High Time Resolution Universe survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cherry; HTRU Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared among the MPIfR in Germany, ATNF/CASS and Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, University of Manchester in the UK and INAF in Italy. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with recent advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. While a general overview of HTRU has been given by Keith at this conference, here we focus on three further aspects of HTRU discoveries and highlights. These include the `Diamond-planet pulsar' binary J1719-1438 and a second similar system recently discovered. In addition, we provide specifications of the HTRU-North survey and an update of its status. In the last section we give an overview of the search for highly-accelerated binaries in the Galactic plane region. We discuss the computational challenges arising from the processing of the petabyte-sized HTRU survey data. We present an innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discovering highly accelerated relativistic binary systems, potentially including pulsar-black-hole binaries.

  4. Conducting The Deepest All-Sky Pulsar Survey Ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Cherry; Collaboration, the HTRU

    2014-01-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared...

  5. A Comprehensive Census of Nearby Infrared Excess Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3σ or 5σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  6. AKARI far-infrared maps of the zodiacal dust bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Usui, Fumihiko; Arimatsu, Ko

    2016-06-01

    Zodiacal emission is thermal emission from interplanetary dust. Its contribution to the sky brightness is non-negligible in the region near the ecliptic plane, even in the far-infrared (far-IR) wavelength regime. We analyze zodiacal emission observed by the AKARI far-IR all-sky survey, which covers 97% of the entire sky at arcminute-scale resolution in four photometric bands, with central wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm. AKARI detected small-scale structures in the zodiacal dust cloud, including the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring, at far-IR wavelengths. Although the smooth component of the zodiacal emission structure in the far-IR sky can be reproduced well by models based on existing far-IR observations, previous zodiacal emission models have discrepancies in the small-scale structures compared with observations. We investigate the geometry of the small-scale dust-band structures in the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps and construct template maps of the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring components based on the AKARI far-IR maps. In the maps, ± 1.4°, ± 2.1°, and ± 10° asteroidal dust-band structures are detected in the 65 μm and 90 μm bands. A possible ± 17° band may also have been detected. No evident dust-band structures are identified in either the 140 μm or the 160 μm bands. By subtracting the dust-band templates constructed in this paper, we can achieve a similar level of flux calibration of the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps in the |β| 40°.

  7. Morphological Classification of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Psychogyios, A; Santos, T Diaz-; Armus, L; Haan, S; Howell, J; Floc'h, E Le; Petty, S M; Evans, A S

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the morphological classification of 89 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample using non-parametric coefficients and compare their morphology as a function of wavelength. We rely on images obtained in the optical (B- and I-band) as well as in the infrared (H-band and 5.8$\\mu$m). Our classification is based on the calculation of $Gini$ and the second order of light ($M_{20}$) non-parametric coefficients which we explore as a function of stellar mass ($M_\\star$), infrared luminosity ($L_{IR}$) and star formation rate (SFR). We investigate the relation between $M_{20}$, the specific SFR (sSFR) and the dust temperature ($T_{dust}$) in our galaxy sample. We find that $M_{20}$ is a better morphological tracer than $Gini$, as it allows to distinguish systems formed by double systems from isolated and post-merger LIRGs. The multi-wavelength analysis allows us to identify a region in the $Gini$-$M_{20}$ parameter space where ongoing m...

  8. AKARI far-infrared maps of the zodiacal dust bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Takita, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Usui, Fumihiko; Arimatsu, Ko

    2016-01-01

    Zodiacal emission is thermal emission from interplanetary dust. Its contribution to the sky brightness is non-negligible in the region near the ecliptic plane, even in the far-infrared (far-IR) wavelength regime. We analyse zodiacal emission observed by the AKARI far-IR all-sky survey, which covers 97% of the entire sky at arcminute-scale resolution in four photometric bands, with central wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, and 160 $\\mu$m. AKARI detected small-scale structures in the zodiacal dust cloud, including the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring, at far-IR wavelengths. Although the smooth component of the zodiacal emission structure in the far-IR sky can be reproduced well by models based on existing far-IR observations, previous zodiacal emission models have discrepancies in the small-scale structures compared with observations. We investigate the geometry of the small-scale dust-band structures in the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps and construct template maps of the asteroidal dust bands and the circu...

  9. Warm Molecular Gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, N; Xu, C K; Gao, Y; Armus, L; Mazzarella, J M; Isaak, K G; Petric, A O; Charmandaris, V; Diaz-Santos, T; Evans, A S; Howell, J; Appleton, P; Inami, H; Iwasawa, K; Leech, J; Lord, S; Sanders, D B; Schulz, B; Surace, J; van der Werf, P P

    2014-01-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the $J$ to $J$$-$1 transitions from $J=4$ up to $13$ from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at $J \\le 4$ to a broad distribution peaking around $J \\sim\\,$6$-$7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 um color, $C(60/100)$, increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, $L_{\\rm IR}$, show the smallest variation for $J$ around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-$J$ regime ($5 \\lesssim J \\lesssim 10$). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5$-$4), (6$-$5), (7$-$6), (8$-$7) and (10$-$9) transitions to $L_{\\rm IR}$, $\\log R_{\\rm midCO}$, remain largely independent of $C(60/100)$, ...

  10. New infrared star clusters in the Northern and Equatorial Milky Way with 2MASS

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Soares, J; Barbuy, B

    2003-01-01

    We carried out a survey of infrared star clusters and stellar groups on the 2MASS J, H and K_s all-sky release Atlas in the Northern and Equatorial Milky Way (350 < l < 360, 0 < l < 230). The search in this zone complements that in the Southern Milky Way (Dutra et al. 2003a). The method concentrates efforts on the directions of known optical and radio nebulae. The present study provides 167 new infrared clusters, stellar groups and candidates. Combining the two studies for the whole Milky Way, 346 infrared clusters, stellar groups and candidates were discovered, whereas 315 objects were previously known. They constitute an important new sample for future detailed studies.

  11. Planck intermediate results: VII. Statistical properties of infrared and radio extragalactic sources from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue at frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2013-01-01

    We make use of the Planck all-sky survey to derive number counts and spectral indices of extragalactic sources-infrared and radio sources-from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) at 100 to 857 GHz (3 mm to 350 μm). Three zones (deep, medium and shallow) of approximately...... Planck High Frequency Instrument, all the sources have been classified as either dust-dominated (infrared galaxies) or synchrotron-dominated (radio galaxies) on the basis of their spectral energy distributions (SED). Our sample is thus complete, flux-limited and color-selected to differentiate between...

  12. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  13. THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHKs and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V – J)☉ = 1.198, (V – H)☉ = 1.484, (V – Ks )☉ = 1.560, (J – H)☉ = 0.286, (J – Ks )☉ = 0.362, (H – Ks )☉ = 0.076, (V – W1)☉ = 1.608, (V – W2)☉ = 1.563, (V – W3)☉ = 1.552, and (V – W4)☉ = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive Teff, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% ± 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

  14. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF TYPE 1 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the Spitzer Space Telescope Enhanced Imaging Products and the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey to study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of spectroscopically confirmed type 1 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By combining the Spitzer and SDSS data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey, we are able to construct a statistically robust rest-frame 0.1-100 μm type 1 quasar template. We find that the quasar population is well-described by a single power-law SED at wavelengths less than 20 μm, in good agreement with previous work. However, at longer wavelengths, we find a significant excess in infrared luminosity above an extrapolated power-law, along with significant object-to-object dispersion in the SED. The mean excess reaches a maximum of 0.8 dex at rest-frame wavelengths near 100 μm.

  15. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  16. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-orbit Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Edward L; Mainzer, Amy; Ressler, Michael E; Cutri, Roc M; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S; Skrutskie, Michael; Stanford, S A; Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G; Mather, John C; Leisawitz, David; Gautier, Thomas N; McLean, Ian; Benford, Dominic; Lonsdale, Carol J; Blain, Andrew; Mendez, Bryan; Irace, William R; Duval, Valerie; Liu, Fengchuan; Royer, Don; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Shannon, Mark; Kendall, Martha; Walsh, Amy L; Larsen, Mark; Cardon, Joel G; Schick, Scott; Schwalm, Mark; Abid, Mohamed; Fabinsky, Beth; Naes, Larry; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1, 6.4, 6.5 and 12.0 arc-seconds at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns, and the astro...

  17. The G-HAT Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason Thomas; Povich, Matthew; Griffith, Roger; Maldonado, Jessica; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Star Cartier, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    The WISE and Spitzer large-area surveys of the mid-infrared sky bring a new opportunity to search for evidence of the energy supplies of very large extraterrestrial civilizations. If these energy supplies rival the output of a civilization's parent star (Kardashev Type II), or if a galaxy-spanning supercivilization's use rivals that of the total galactic luminosity (Type III), they would be detectable as anomolously mid-infrared-bright stars and galaxies, respectively. We have already performed the first search for this emission from Type III civilizations using the WISE all-sky survey, and put the first upper limits on them in the local universe, and discuss ways to improve on these limits. We also discuss some detectable forms of and limits on Type II civilizations in the Mliky Way.

  18. The \\^G Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. II. Framework, Strategy, and First Result

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, J T; Sigurðsson, S; Povich, M S; Mullan, B

    2014-01-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the \\^G infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although Gaia will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a "zeroth order" null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can...

  19. Morphological classification of local luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogyios, A.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Petty, S. M.; Evans, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We present analysis of the morphological classification of 89 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, using non-parametric coefficients and compare their morphology as a function of wavelength. We rely on images that were obtained in the optical (B- and I-band) as well as in the infrared (H-band and 5.8 μm). Our classification is based on the calculation of Gini and the second order of light (M20) non-parametric coefficients, which we explore as a function of stellar mass (M⋆), infrared luminosity (LIR), and star formation rate (SFR). We investigate the relation between M20, the specific SFR (sSFR) and the dust temperature (Tdust) in our galaxy sample. We find that M20 is a better morphological tracer than Gini, as it allows us to distinguish systems that were formed by double systems from isolated and post-merger LIRGs. The effectiveness of M20 as a morphological tracer increases with increasing wavelength, from the B to H band. In fact, the multi-wavelength analysis allows us to identify a region in the Gini-M20 parameter space where ongoing mergers reside, regardless of the band used to calculate the coefficients. In particular, when measured in the H band, a region that can be used to identify ongoing mergers, with minimal contamination from LIRGs in other stages. We also find that, while the sSFR is positively correlated with M20 when measured in the mid-infrared, i.e. star-bursting galaxies show more compact emission, it is anti-correlated with the B-band-based M20. We interpret this as the spatial decoupling between obscured and unobscured star formation, whereby the ultraviolet/optical size of an LIRG experience an intense dust-enshrouded central starburst that is larger that in the mid-infrared since the contrast between the nuclear to the extended disk emission is smaller in the mid-infrared. This has important implications for high redshift surveys of dusty sources, where sizes of galaxies

  20. High-ionization Fe K emission from luminous infrared galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasawa, K; Evans, A S; Massarella, J M; Armus, L; Surace, J A

    2009-01-01

    The Chandra component of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) presently contains 44 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies with log (Lir/Lsun) = 11.73-12.57. Omitting 15 obvious AGNs, the other galaxies are, on average, underluminous in the 2-10 keV band by 0.7 dex at a given far-infrared luminosity, compared to nearby star-forming galaxies with lower star formation rates. The integrated spectrum of these hard X-ray quiet galaxies shows strong high-ionization Fe K emission (Fe XXV at 6.7 keV), which is incompatible with X-ray binaries as its origin. The X-ray quietness and the Fe K feature could be explained by hot gas produced in a starburst, provided that the accompanying copious emission from high-mass X-ray binaries is somehow suppressed. Alternatively, these galaxies may contain deeply embedded supermassive black holes that power the bulk of their infrared luminosity and only faint photoionized gas is visible, as seen in some ULIRGs with Compton-thick AGN.

  1. Planck 2015 results. XXIII. The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect--cosmic infrared background correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mak, D S Y; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Welikala, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We use Planck data to detect the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and the infrared emission from the galaxies that make up the the cosmic infrared background (CIB). We first perform a stacking analysis towards Planck-confirmed galaxy clusters. We detect infrared emission produced by dusty galaxies inside these clusters and demonstrate that the infrared emission is about 50% more extended than the tSZ effect. Modelling the emission with a Navarro--Frenk--White profile, we find that the radial profile concentration parameter is $c_{500} = 1.00^{+0.18}_{-0.15}$. This indicates that infrared galaxies in the outskirts of clusters have higher infrared flux than cluster-core galaxies. We also study the cross-correlation between tSZ and CIB anisotropies, following three alternative approaches based on power spectrum analyses: (i) using a catalogue of confirmed clusters detected in Planck data; (ii) using an all-sky tSZ map built from Planck frequency maps; and (iii) using cross-spe...

  2. MID- AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Terashima, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Oyabu, Shinki [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Matsuta, Keiko, E-mail: ichikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-07-20

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT nine-month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 {mu}m band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over three orders of magnitude (42 < log {lambda}L{sub {lambda}}(9, 18 {mu}m) < 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 {mu}m. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 {mu}m in the averaged infrared spectral energy distribution from heavy obscured 'new type' AGNs with small scattering fractions in the X-ray spectra. This could be attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission feature, suggesting that their host galaxies have strong starburst activities.

  3. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L IR, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L IR, log R midCO, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log RmidCOSF) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R midCO higher and lower than RmidCOSF, respectively

  4. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaak, K. G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Petric, A. O. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Leech, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sanders, D. B., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  5. A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the IRAS Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at λ > 100 μm. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at Td = 20 endash 30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with Td ∼ 10 endash 15 K suggest that between 2%endash 100% of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 μm suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by IRAS and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65%. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  6. Infrared retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Jang, Woo-Yong

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  7. Infrared properties of blazars: putting the GASP-WEBT sources into context

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, C M; Carnerero, M I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Larionov, V M; D'Ammando, F; Arévalo, M J; Arkharov, A A; Bueno, A Bueno; Di Paola, A; Efimova, N V; González-Morales, P A; Gorshanov, D L; Grinon-Marin, A B; Lázaro, C; Manilla-Robles, A; Yabar, A Pastor; Giménez, I Puerto; Velasco, S

    2014-01-01

    The infrared properties of blazars can be studied from the statistical point of view with the help of sky surveys, like that provided by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). However, these sources are known for their strong and unpredictable variability, which can be monitored for a handful of objects only. In this paper we consider the 28 blazars (14 BL Lac objects and 14 flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs) that are regularly monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) since 2007. They show a variety of infrared colours, redshifts, and infrared-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and thus represent an interesting mini-sample of bright blazars that can be investigated in more detail. We present near-IR light curves and colours obtained by the GASP from 2007 to 2013, and discuss the infrared-optical SEDs. These are analysed with the aim of understanding the interplay among different emission compon...

  8. The Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) Spectral Library: Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D.

    2009-12-01

    We present a 0.8-5 μm spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R ≡ λ/Δλ ~ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  9. The Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) Spectral Library: Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, J T; Vacca, W D

    2009-01-01

    We present a 0.8 -5 micron spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R = lambda / Delta lambda ~ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra are measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically-obscured regions...

  10. The Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI - Design and Imaging Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Onaka, T; Wada, T; Fujishiro, N; Fujiwara, H; Ishigaki, M; Ishihara, D; Ita, Y; Kataza, H; Kim, W; Matsumoto, T; Murakami, H; Ohyama, Y; Oyabu, S; Sakon, I; Tanabé, T; Takagi, T; Uemizu, K; Ueno, M; Usui, F; Watarai, H; Cohen, M; Enya, K; Ootsubo, T; Pearson, C P; Takeyama, N; Yamamuro, T; Ikeda, Y

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. It is designed for wide-field deep imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy in the near- to mid-infrared (1.8--26.5um) in the pointed observation mode of AKARI. IRC is also operated in the survey mode to make an all-sky survey at 9 and 18um. It comprises three channels. The NIR channel (1.8--5.5um) employs a 512 x 412 InSb array, whereas both the MIR-S (4.6--13.4um) and MIR-L (12.6--26.5um) channels use 256 x 256 Si:As impurity band conduction arrays. Each of the three channels has a field-of-view of about 10' x 10' and are operated simultaneously. The NIR and MIR-S share the same field-of-view by virtue of a beam splitter. The MIR-L observes the sky about $25' away from the NIR/MIR-S field-of-view. IRC gives us deep insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies, the evolution of planetary disks, the process of star-formation, the properties of interstellar matter under various physical conditions, and the nature an...

  11. THE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (IRTF) SPECTRAL LIBRARY: COOL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a 0.8-5 μm spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R ≡ λ/Δλ ∼ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  12. Effects of high-energy ionizing particles on the Si:As mid-infrared detector array on board the AKARI satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Mouri, Akio; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Yamagishi, Mituyoshi; Mori, Tatuya; Onaka, Takashi; Wada, Takehiko; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of high-energy ionizing particles on the Si:As impurity band conduction (IBC) mid-infrared detector on board AKARI, the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite. IBC-type detectors are known to be little influenced by ionizing radiation. However we find that the detector is significantly affected by in-orbit ionizing radiation even after spikes induced by ionizing particles are removed. The effects are described as changes mostly in the offset of detector output, but not in the gain. We conclude that the changes in the offset are caused mainly by increase in dark current. We establish a method to correct these ionizing radiation effects. The method is essential to improve the quality and to increase the sky coverage of the AKARI mid-infrared all-sky-survey map.

  13. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}ȯ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}ȯ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  14. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ Scientific Data Analysis System /SDAS/ sky flux subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, J. R.; Girard, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The sky flux subsystem of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Scientific Data Analysis System is described. Its major output capabilities are (1) the all-sky lune maps (8-arcminute pixel size), (2) galactic plane maps (2-arcminute pixel size) and (3) regional maps of small areas such as extended sources greater than 1-degree in extent. The major processing functions are to (1) merge the CRDD and pointing data, (2) phase the detector streams, (3) compress the detector streams in the in-scan and cross-scan directions, and (4) extract data. Functional diagrams of the various capabilities of the subsystem are given. Although this device is inherently nonimaging, various calibrated and geometrically controlled imaging products are created, suitable for quantitative and qualitative scientific interpretation.

  15. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene; Haas, M.; Klaas, U.; Abraham, P.; Lemke, D.; Rasmussen, Ib Lundgaard; Schnopper, H.W.

    2000-01-01

    higher than the 90 x 90 arcsec(2) pixels of the IRAS All Sky Survey. We describe the main instrumental effects encountered in our data, outline our data reduction and analysis scheme and present astrometry and photometry of the detected point sources. With a formal signal to noise ratio of 6.75 we have......We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  16. ESA joins forces with Japan on new infrared sky surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Prof. David Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science, said: “The successful launch of ASTRO-F(Akari) is a big step. A decade ago, our Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) opened up this field of astronomy, and the Japanese took part then. It is wonderful to be cooperating again with Japan in this discipline.” “Our involvement with the Japanese in this programme responds to our long-term commitment in infrared astronomy, whose potential for discovery is huge. We are now off and rolling with ASTRO-F/Akari, but we are also working extremely hard towards the launch of the next-generation infrared telescope, ESA’s Herschel spacecraft, which will go up in the next two years”, he continued. “This will still not be the end of the story. Infrared astronomy is also a fundamental part of the future vision for ESA’s space research, as outlined in the ‘Cosmic Vision 2015-2025’ programme. The truth is, subjects such as the formation of stars and exoplanets, or the evolution of the early universe, are themes at the very core of our programme.” The mission : On 21 February, at 22:28 Central European Time, (22 February, 06:28 local time), a Japanese M-V rocket blasted off from the Uchinoura Space Centre, in the Kagoshima district of Japan, carrying the new infrared satellite into space. In about two weeks' time, ASTRO-F will be in polar orbit around the Earth at an altitude of 745 kilometres. From there, after two months of system check-outs and performance verification, it will survey the whole sky in about half a year, with much better sensitivity, spatial resolution and wider wavelength coverage than its only infrared surveyor predecessor, the Anglo-Dutch-US IRAS satellite (1983). The all-sky survey will be followed by a ten-month phase during which thousands of selected astronomical targets will be observed in detail. This will enable scientists to look at these individual objects for a longer time, and thus with increased sensitivity, to conduct their spectral

  17. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  18. [Infrared erythema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, H J; Schmidt, R; Mahrle, G

    1985-06-15

    This article deals with the immediate effect of infra-red (IR) irradiation on human skin. The cutaneous response to IR significantly differed from that to polychromatic UV rays. The IR erythema showed a reticular pattern and was monophasic. Minimal erythema (ME) appeared without latency and faded a few minutes later. Induction of IR-ME required a radiation doses about 15,000 times higher (187-295 J/m2) than was needed for UVB erythema. The maximum erythema also occurred immediately after exposure to IR and faded away within one to four hours. The response was biphasic in only one of 28 test persons. Histological studies revealed dilated vessels and perivascular accumulation of degranulated mast cells. PMID:4024676

  19. ISM Properties of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Elbaz, David; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2015-08-01

    Luminous and Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) represent the most important galaxy population at redshifts z > 1 as they account for more than 50% of all star formation produced in the Universe at those epochs; and encompass what it is called the main-sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Investigating their local counterparts -low luminosity LIRGs- is therefore key to understand the physical properties and phases of their inter-stellar medium (ISM) - a task that is rather challenging in the distant Universe. On the other hand, high-z star-bursting (out of the MS) systems, although small in number, account for a modest yet still significant fraction of the total energy production. Here I present far-IR line emission observations ([CII]158μm, [OI]63μm, [OIII]88μm and [NII]122μm) obtained with Herschel for two large samples of nearby LIRGs: The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), a sample of more than 240 relatively cold LIRGs, and a survey of 30 LIRGs selected to have very warm mid- to far-IR colors, suggestive of an ongoing intense nuclear starburst and/or an AGN. Using photo-dissociation region (PDR) models we derive the basic characteristics of the ISM (ionization intensity and density) for both samples and study differences among systems as a function of AGN activity, merger stage, dust temperature, and compactness of the starburst - parameters that are thought to control the life cycle of galaxies moving in and out of the MS, locally and at high-z.

  20. An X-ray and infrared survey of the Lynds 1228 cloud core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Rebull, Luisa [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-01

    The nearby Lynds 1228 (L1228) dark cloud at a distance of ∼200 pc is known to harbor several young stars including the driving sources of the giant HH 199 and HH 200 Herbig-Haro (HH) outflows. L1228 has previously been studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths but not in X-rays. We present results of a sensitive 37 ks Chandra ACIS-I X-ray observation of the L1228 core region. Chandra detected 60 X-ray sources, most of which are faint (<40 counts) and non-variable. Infrared counterparts were identified for 53 of the 60 X-ray sources using archival data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Object classes were assigned using mid-IR colors for those objects with complete photometry, most of which were found to have colors consistent with extragalactic background sources. Seven young stellar object candidates were identified including the class I protostar HH 200-IRS which was detected as a faint hard X-ray source. No X-ray emission was detected from the luminous protostar HH 199-IRS. We summarize the X-ray and infrared properties of the detected sources and provide IR spectral energy distribution modeling of high-interest objects including the protostars driving the HH outflows.

  1. Mid and Far Infrared Properties of a Complete Sample of Local AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Matsuta, Keiko; Nakagawa, Takao

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/BAT all sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with IRAS and WISE. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT 9 month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 um band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over 3 orders of magnitude (42< log lambda L_{lambda}(9, 18 um)< 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 um. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 um in the averaged infrared spectral ...

  2. Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

    2004-01-01

    What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

  3. MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION AND ITS VARIATION WITH GALACTIC LONGITUDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the data obtained from the Spitzer/Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIPMSE) Legacy Program and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) project, we derive the extinction in the four IRAC bands, [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm, relative to the 2MASS Ks band (at 2.16 μm) for 131 GLIPMSE fields along the Galactic plane within |l| ≤ 65 deg., using red giants and red clump giants as tracers. As a whole, the mean extinction in the IRAC bands (normalized to the 2MASS Ks band), A[3.6]/AKs∼0.63±0.01, A[4.5]/AKs∼0.57±0.03, A[5.8]/AKs∼0.49±0.03, A[8.0]/AKs∼0.55±0.03, exhibits little variation with wavelength (i.e., the extinction is somewhat flat or gray). This is consistent with previous studies and agrees with that predicted from the standard interstellar grain model for RV = 5.5 by Weingartner and Draine. As far as individual sightline is concerned, however, the wavelength dependence of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction Aλ/AKs varies from one sightline to another, suggesting that there may not exist a 'universal' IR extinction law. We, for the first time, demonstrate the existence of systematic variations of extinction with Galactic longitude which appears to correlate with the locations of spiral arms as well as with the variation of the far-infrared luminosity of interstellar dust.

  4. PHASE-RESOLVED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND PHOTOMETRY OF V1500 CYGNI, AND A SEARCH FOR SIMILAR OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present phase-resolved near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the classical nova (CN) V1500 Cyg to explore whether cyclotron emission is present in this system. While the spectroscopy do not indicate the presence of discrete cyclotron harmonic emission, the light curves suggest that a sizable fraction of its near-infrared fluxes are due to this component. The light curves of V1500 Cyg appear to remain dominated by emission from the heated face of the secondary star in this system. We have used infrared spectroscopy and photometry to search for other potential magnetic systems among old CNe. We have found that the infrared light curves of V1974 Cyg superficially resemble those of V1500 Cyg, suggesting a highly irradiated companion. The old novae V446 Her and QV Vul have light curves with large amplitude variations like those seen in polars, suggesting they might have magnetic primaries. We extract photometry for 79 old novae from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and use those data to derive the mean, un-reddened infrared colors of quiescent novae. We also extract WISE data for these objects and find that 45 of them were detected. Surprisingly, a number of these systems were detected in the WISE 22 μm band. While two of those objects produced significant dust shells (V705 Cas and V445 Pup), the others did not. It appears that line emission from their ionized ejected shells is the most likely explanation for those detections

  5. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Kirsten L; Barnes, Joshua E; Ishida, Cathy M; Evans, Aaron S; U, Vivian; Mazzarella, Joseph M; Kim, Don-Chan; Privon, George C; Mirabel, I Felix; Flewelling, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) using high resolution $I$-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with $L_{\\rm IR} > 10^{11.5} L_\\odot $; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach $L_{\\rm IR} > 10^{12.0} L_\\odot $ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean molecular gas fraction (MGF $= M_{\\rm H_2} / (M_* + M_{\\rm H_2})$) for non-inter...

  6. Mid-Infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies II: Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Marshall, Jason; Evans, Aaron; Haan, Sebastian; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dongchan; Murphy, Eric J; Rich, Jeff A; Spoon, Henrik W W; Inami, Hanae; Petric, Andreea; U, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low resolution mid-IR Spitzer IRS spectra from 5-38um of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual PAH features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of GOALS, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e. tau_9.7um, tau_ice, neon line and PAH feature ratios). However, as their PAH EQW decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant AGN, LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAHs to the total L(IR) in LIRGs varies from 2-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between ...

  7. Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of a lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these ``residual events''. We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a new brand of asteroid catalog, named the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA), which contains 5120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4953 main belt asteroids, 58 near-Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog is publicly available via the Internet.

  8. AcuA: the AKARI/IRC Mid-infrared Asteroid Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Fumihiko; Mueller, Thomas G; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of the lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these "residual events". We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a brand-new catalog of asteroids, named the Asteroid Catalog Using Akari (AcuA), which contains 5,120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4,953 main belt asteroids, 58 near Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog will be publicly available via th...

  9. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF LOCAL LUMINOUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminous (LIRGs; log (LIR/L☉) = 11.00-11.99) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; log (LIR/L☉) = 12.00-12.99) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe. The local (U)LIRGs provide a unique opportunity to study their multi-wavelength properties in detail for comparison with their more numerous counterparts at high redshifts. We present common large aperture photometry at radio through X-ray wavelengths and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of 53 nearby (z IR/L☉) = 11.14-12.57 from the flux-limited (f60μm > 5.24 Jy) Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. The SEDs for all objects are similar in that they show a broad, thermal stellar peak (∼0.3-2 μm), and a dominant FIR (∼40-200 μm) thermal dust peak, where νLν(60 μm)/νLν(V) increases from ∼2 to 30 with increasing LIR. When normalized at IRAS 60 μm, the largest range in the luminosity ratio, R(λ) ≡ log[νLν(λ)/νLν(60 μm)], observed over the full sample is seen in the hard X-rays (HX = 2-10 keV), where ΔRHX = 3.73 (R-barHX= -3.10). A small range is found in the radio (1.4 GHz), ΔR1.4GHz = 1.75, where the mean ratio is largest, (R-bar1.4GHz= -5.81). Total infrared luminosities, LIR(8-1000 μm), dust temperatures, and dust masses were computed from fitting thermal dust emission modified blackbodies to the mid-infrared (MIR) through submillimeter SEDs. The new results reflect an overall ∼0.02 dex lower luminosity than the original IRAS values. Total stellar masses were computed by fitting stellar population synthesis models to the observed near-infrared (NIR) through ultraviolet (UV) SEDs. Mean stellar masses are found to be log (M*/M☉) = 10.79 ± 0.40. Star formation rates have been determined from the infrared (SFRIR ∼ 45 M☉ yr–1) and from the monochromatic UV luminosities (SFRUV ∼ 1.3 M☉ yr–1), respectively. Multi-wavelength active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicators have be used to select putative AGNs: About 60% of the ULIRGs

  10. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  11. Noise estimating and filtering of hyperspectral infrared radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanni; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) is a hyper-spectral infrared instrument on the EOS-Aqua satellite. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of realistic simulations of AIRS radiances, which includes the effects of variable clouds and surface parameters, can be used to estimate and filter AIRS instrumental noise. The PCA uses noise scaled radiance, i.e. radiance divided by noise (R/N). Since the square root of the eigenvalues is equivalent to the standard deviation of the principal component score of the dependent ensemble, the square root of the eigenvalues in the R/N domain can be interpreted as a signal to the noise ratio for the new principal components (PC) or say "abstract channels". New PCs are arranged from the largest to the smallest eigenvalues. Once the R/N ratio is below unity, the signal has less contribution than noise for that PC and all the remaining PCs. This physical meaningful fact can be a criterion for radiance noise filtering. Using the linearity of PCA to the pure signal S plus ideal noise N in the R/N domain, PCA(N/N) becomes PCA(I). I is the identity matrix and hence eigenvalues of I are all equal. If reconstructing I, only k/m information can be recovered by k eigenvectors, where k = 1 .... m eigenvectors. Thus, it is easy to know how much noise merged into the reconstructed radiance and how many eigenvectors are needed for filtering noise when performing PCA in R/N domain. The number of eigenvectors to be used for noise estimating is around 60 in all sky conditions. 60 eigenvectors can filter over 97% of noise. Only 3% noise remains in the reconstructed data. Signal information can be recovered with accuracy in noise level. In addition, there is less than 5% error using PCA to estimate noise. Preliminary results from the real AIRS observation are discussed briefly.

  12. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  13. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. II. A LARGE-SCALE STUDY OF THE GALACTIC INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) photometry to characterize the IR extinction law (1.2-8 μm) over nearly 150 deg. of contiguous Milky Way midplane longitude. The relative extinctions in five passbands across these wavelength and longitude ranges are derived by calculating color excess ratios for G and K giant red clump stars in contiguous midplane regions and deriving the wavelength dependence of extinction in each one. Strong, monotonic variations in the extinction law shape are found as a function of angle from the Galactic center, symmetric on either side of it. These longitudinal variations persist even when dense interstellar regions, known a priori to have a shallower extinction curve, are removed. The increasingly steep extinction curves toward the outer Galaxy indicate a steady decrease in the absolute-to-selective extinction ratio (RV ) and in the mean dust grain size at greater Galactocentric angles. We note an increasing strength of the 8 μm extinction inflection at high Galactocentric angles and, using theoretical dust models, show that this behavior is consistent with the trend in RV . Along several lines of sight where the solution is most feasible, A λ/AKs as a function of Galactic radius (R GC) is estimated and shown to have a Galactic radial dependence. Our analyses suggest that the observed relationship between extinction curve shape and Galactic longitude is due to an intrinsic dependence of the extinction law on Galactocentric radius.

  14. Infrared Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  15. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  16. Seedless clustering in all-sky searches for gravitational-wave transients

    OpenAIRE

    Thrane, Eric; Coughlin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The problem of searching for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts can be thought of as a pattern recognition problem: how to find statistically significant clusters in spectrograms of strain power when the precise signal morphology is unknown. In a previous publication, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to dramatically improve the sensitivity of searches for long-lived gravitational-wave transients. In order to manage the computational costs, this initial analysis focused on exte...

  17. Evryscope science: exploring the potential of all-sky gigapixel-scale telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Nicholas M; Ratzloff, Jeffrey; Wulfken, Philip; Kavanaugh, Dustin; Sitar, David J; Pruett, Zachary; Birchart, Mariah; Barlow, Brad; Cannon, Kipp; Cenko, S Bradley; Dunlap, Bart; Kraus, Adam; Maccarone, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost mass-produced sensors and optics have recently made it feasible to build telescope arrays which observe the entire accessible sky simultaneously. In this article we discuss the scientific motivation for these telescopes, including exoplanets, stellar variability and extragalactic transients. To provide a concrete example we detail the goals and expectations for the Evryscope, an under-construction 780 MPix telescope which covers 8,660 square degrees in each two-minute exposure; each night, 18,400 square degrees will be continuously observed for an average of approximately 6 hours. Despite its small 61mm aperture, the system's large field of view provides an etendue which is ~10% of LSST. The Evryscope, which places 27 separate individual telescopes into a common mount which tracks the entire accessible sky with only one moving part, will return 1%-precision, many-year-length, high-cadence light curves for every accessible star brighter than mV=16.5, with brighter stars having few-millimagnitude photo...

  18. An All Sky Extrasolar Planet Survey with new generation multiple object Doppler instruments at Sloan telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ge

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La Exploración de Planetas Extrasolares de Todo el Cielo (ASEPS utilizara el telescopio Sloan de 2.5-m de campo amplio y la nueva generación de instrumentos Doppler de objetos múltiples de alto rendimiento con el fin de emprender una exploración Doppler a gran escala en las bandas del visibles e IR cercano de hasta 250,000 estrellas relativamente brillantes (V < 13 y J < 11 y para planetas extrasolares entre 2008-2013. Una exploración continuada hasta 2020 podrá explorar 250,000 estrellas adicionales y obtener información sobre planetas de periodo largo, posiblemente detectando muchos análogos solares. El objetivo de ASEPS es el de incrementar el número de planetas extrasolares en casi dos órdenes de magnitud (hasta 10,000 planetas durante 12 años utilizando todas las noches despejadas. Este incremento tan dramático en el número de planetas conocidos permitirá estudiar mejor las correlaciones entre las diversas propiedades de planetas extrasolares. Además, el gran número de descubrimientos de planetas permitirá detectar planetas raros que pudieron haber quedado fuera de búsquedas previas, así como también planetas en tránsito, y sistemas de planetas múltiples que interactúan entre sí.

  19. Precise data on Leonid fireballs from all-sky photographic records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shrbený, Lukáš; Spurný, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 506, č. 3 (2009), s. 1445-1454. ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : photometric techniques * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  20. An all-sky catalog of solar-type dwarfs for exoplanetary transit surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimbeni, V; Ortolani, S; Giuffrida, G; Marrese, P M; Magrin, D; Ragazzoni, R; Pagano, I; Rauer, H; Cabrera, J; Pollacco, D; Heras, A M; Deleuil, M; Gizon, L; Granata, V

    2016-01-01

    Most future surveys designed to discover transiting exoplanets, including TESS and PLATO, will target bright (V3.0 subgiants. The relatively low amount of contamination (defined as the fraction of false positives; <30%) also makes UCAC4-RPM a useful tool for the past and ongoing ground-based transit surveys, which need to discard candidate signals originating from early-type or giant stars. As an application, we show how UCAC4-RPM may support the preparation of the TESS (that will map almost the entire sky) input catalog and the input catalog of PLATO, planned to survey more than half of the whole sky with exquisite photometric precision.

  1. Project ASTRAL: All-sky Space Telescope to Record Afterglow Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, G.; Bisnovaty-Kogan, G.; Pozanenko, A.; Beskin, G. M.; Bondar, S.; Rumyantsev, V.

    ASTRAL is a project incorporating wide-field optical telescopes on board a small satellite (FedSat or SMEX type) dedicated to the whole-sky detection of a variety of rapid astronomical phenomena, particularly optical flashes associated with gamma ray bursts (GRB). Those flashes only visible optically (so called orphans), as well as those which could precede associated GRBs, cannot be detected in the current triggering mode of the world wide GRB Coordinates Network (GCN). Hence ASTRAL would have a unique opportunity to trigger a follow-up multi-frequency study via GCN. ASTRAL consists of a set of 13 wide-field cameras, each with FOV = 70°, equipped with 4096 × 4096 CCDs. The detection method is based on comparison of sky images with the reference image. Supernovae, novae and nova-like explosions, fast variable AGNs, flare stars, and even new comets would be promptly detected as well. Thus ASTRAL would be an original working prototype of the prospective major space mission to monitor on-line all the sky, a high priority instrument of 21st Century astrophysics. See http://www.atnf.csiro.au/people/Gregory.Tsarevsky for details.

  2. Parameterization of atmospheric long-wave emissivity in a mountainous site for all sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herrero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-wave radiation is an important component of the energy balance of the Earth's surface. The downward component, emitted by the clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere, is rarely measured, and is still not well understood. In mountainous areas, the models existing for its estimation through the emissivity of the atmosphere do not give good results, and worse still in the presence of clouds. In order to estimate this emissivity for any atmospheric state and in a mountainous site, we related it to the screen-level values of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. This permitted the obtaining of: (1 a new set of parametric equations and (2 the modification of the Brutsaert's equation for cloudy skies through the calibration of C factor to 0.34 and the parameterization of the cloud index N. Both fitted to the surface data measured at a weather station at a height of 2500 m a.s.l. in Sierra Nevada, Spain. This study analyzes separately three significant atmospheric states related to cloud cover, which were also deduced from the screen-level meteorological data. Clear and totally overcast skies are accurately represented by the new parametric expressions, while the intermediate situations corresponding to partly clouded skies, concentrate most of the dispersion in the measurements and, hence, the error in the simulation. Thus, the modeling of atmospheric emissivity is greatly improved thanks to the use of different equations for each atmospheric state.

  3. The BANYAN All-Sky Survey for Brown Dwarf Members of Young Moving Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Doyon, René; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Malo, Lison; Cruz, Kelle L; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J; Naud, Marie-Eve; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John E; Albert, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    We describe in this work the BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups of the solar neighborhood, and summarize the results that it generated. These include the discovery of the 2MASS J01033563-5515561 (AB)b and 2MASS J02192210-3925225 B young companions near the deuterium-burning limit as well as 44 new low-mass stars and 69 new brown dwarfs with a spectroscopically confirmed low gravity. Among those, ~20 have estimated masses within the planetary regime, one is a new L4 $\\gamma$ bona fide member of AB Doradus, three are TW Hydrae candidates with later spectral types (L1-L4) than all of its previously known members and six are among the first contenders to low-gravity $\\geq$ L5 $\\beta$/$\\gamma$ brown dwarfs, reminiscent of WISEP J004701.06+680352.1, PSO J318.5338-22.8603 and VHS J125601.92-125723.9 b. Finally, we describe a future version of this survey, BASS-Ultracool, that will specifically target $\\geq$ L5 candidate members of young moving groups. First experimentations in designing the survey h...

  4. AMS fireball program, community website, mobile app, and all-sky camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Mike; Perlerin, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This short paper describes the content of a video produced by Mike Hankey for the American Meteor Society (AMS) about the technology platform of the organization. This video can be watched on the web.

  5. Low-Cost Optical All-Sky Monitor For Detection of Bright OTs of GRBs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Spurný, M.; Krizek, P.; Páta, P.; Řeřábek, M.

    Melville : American Institute of Physics, 2009 - (Meegan, C.), s. 215-217 ISBN 978-0-7354-0670-4. ISSN 0094-243X. - (AIP Conference proceedings. 1133). [Huntsville Symposium on Gamma-Ray Burst /6./. Huntsville (US), 20.10.2008-23.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : gamma-ray sources * X-ray sources * neutrino Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    distribution peaking around 13K. The data are inconsistent with a constant value of the associated spectral index β over the whole temperature range: β varies from 1.4 to 2.8, with a mean value around 2.1. Distances are obtained for approximately one third of the objects. Most of the detections lie within 2kpc...... of the Sun, but more distant sources are also detected, out to 7kpc. The mass estimates inferred from dust emission range from 0.4 M to 2.4 × 105 M. Their physical properties show that these cold sources trace a broad range of objects, from low-mass dense cores to giant molecular clouds, hence the...... "cold clump" terminology. This first statistical analysis of the C3PO reveals at least two colder populations of special interest with temperatures in the range 7 to 12K: cores that mostly lie close to the Sun; and massive cold clumps located in the inner Galaxy. We also describe the statistics of the...

  7. Low Cost Optical All Sky Monitoring Camera: Further Developments and Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Spurný, M.; Křížek, M.; Řeřábek, M.; Páta, P.; Klíma, M.

    Melville: American Institute of Physics, 2011 - (McEnery, J.), s. 377-380. (AIP Conference proceedings. 1358). ISBN 978-0-7354-0916-3. ISSN 0094-243X. [Gamma Ray Bursts 2010. Annapolis (US), 01.11.2010-04.11.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : spectral analysis * X-ray sources * telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  8. ALL SKY CAMERA OBSERVATIONS OF CLOUD AND LIGHT POLLUTION AT THIRTY METER TELESCOPE CANDIDATE SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Skidmore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cámaras fotográficas de cobertura hemisférica fueron instaladas en los sitios candidatos del Telescopio de Treinta Metros (TMT para obtener imágenes que permitieron estimar las estadísticas de cobertura de nubes, y evaluar el nivel de contaminación lumínica. Dos métodos fueron empleados para estudiar la cobertura de nubes; el primero un método manual basado en la inspección de películas en las bandas azul y rojo, y el segundo un método automático basado en la análisis fotométrico de las imágenes. Desarrollamos un procedimiento para el estudio de la contaminación lumínica que demostró que esta contaminación, en los sitios candidatos, no es relevante para la selección de sitio de TMT.

  9. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20° to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover eight known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having V=19.8±0.1, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for V≲19.1 (V≲18.6 in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plane is approximately 32%.

  10. The BANYAN All-Sky Survey for Brown Dwarf Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Cruz, Kelle L.; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Naud, Marie-Eve; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John E.; Albert, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    We describe in this work the BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups of the solar neighborhood, and summarize the results that it generated. These include the discovery of the 2MASS J01033563-5515561 (AB)b and 2MASS J02192210-3925225 B young companions near the deuterium-burning limit as well as 44 new low-mass stars and 69 new brown dwarfs with a spectroscopically confirmed low gravity. Among those, ~20 have estimated masses within the planetary regime, one is a new L4 γ bona fide member of AB Doradus, three are TW Hydrae candidates with later spectral types (L1-L4) than all of its previously known members and six are among the first contenders for low-gravity >= L5 β/γ brown dwarfs, reminiscent of WISEP J004701.06+680352.1, PSO J318.5338-22.8603 and VHS J125601.92-125723.9 b. Finally, we describe a future version of this survey, BASS-Ultracool, that will specifically target >= L5 candidate members of young moving groups. First experimentations in designing the survey have already led to the discovery of a new T dwarf bona fide member of AB Doradus, as well as the serendipitous discoveries of an L9 subdwarf and an L5 + T5 brown dwarf binary.

  11. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. E.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bannister, M. T. [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Schmidt, B. P.; McNaught, R. [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E. [The University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20° to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover eight known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having V=19.8±0.1, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for V≲19.1 (V≲18.6 in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plane is approximately 32%.

  12. New nearby AGNs from all sky surveys of INTEGRAL and RXTE observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Bikmaev, I F; Revnivtsev, M G; Burenin, R A

    2005-01-01

    We present first results of a campaign of optical identifications of X-ray sources discovered by RXTE and INTEGRAL observatories during their sky surveys. In this work we study six newly discovered nearby active galactic nuclei at z<0.1. The optical spectrophotometric data were obtained with Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150). We present their redshifts and main parameters of brightest emission lines.

  13. RFI Mitigation for the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kalberla, Peter M W

    2011-01-01

    The GASS is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. With a sensitivity of 60 mK for a channel width of 1 km/s the GASS is the most sensitive and most accurate survey of the Galactic HI emission in the southern sky. We discuss RFI mitigation strategies that have been applied during the data reduction. Most of the RFI could be cleaned by using prior information on the HI distribution as well as statistical methods based on median filtering. Narrow line RFI spikes have been flagged during the first steps of the data processing. Most of these lines were found to be constant over long periods of time, such data were replaced by interpolating profiles from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) survey. Remaining RFI was searched for at any position by a statistical comparison of all observations within a distance of 0.1 deg. The median and mean of the line emission was calculated. In cases of significant deviations between both it was checked in...

  14. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Bhat, P N; Briggs, M S; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Camero-Arranz, A; Case, G; Cherry, M; Rodi, J; Finger, M H; Jenke, P; Haynes, R H

    2009-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog enters or exits occultation by the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. In addition, to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels. We will present early results. Regularly updated results can be found on our website http://gammaray.nsstc.nasa.gov/gbm/science/occultation

  15. An hybrid approach to CMB lensing reconstruction on all-sky intensity maps

    CERN Document Server

    Plaszczynski, S; Perotto, L; Starck, J-L

    2012-01-01

    Based on realistic simulations, we propose an hybrid method to reconstruct the lensing potential power spectrum, directly on PLANCK-like CMB frequency maps. It implies using a large galactic mask and dealing with a strong inhomogeneous noise. For l 100 we develop a method based on tiling the cut-sky with local 10x10 degrees overlapping tangent planes (referred to in the following as "patches"). It requires to solve various issues concerning their size/position, non-periodic boundaries and irregularly sampled data after the sphere-to-plane projection. We show how the leading noise term of the quadratic lensing estimator applied onto an apodized patch can still be taken directly from the data. To not loose spatial accuracy, we developed a tool that allows the fast determination of the complex Fourier series coefficients from a bi-dimensional irregularly sampled dataset, without performing an interpolation. We show that the multi-patch approach allows the lensing power spectrum reconstruction with a very small b...

  16. All-sky interferometric meteor radar meteoroid speed estimation using the Fresnel transform

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, D. A.; Elford, W. G.; Vincent, R. A.; I. M. Reid; Murphy, D. J.; Singer, W.

    2007-01-01

    Fresnel transform meteor speed estimation is investigated. A spectral based technique is developed allowing the transform to be applied at low temporal sampling rates. Simulations are used to compare meteoroid speeds determined using the Fresnel transform and alternative techniques, confirming that the Fresnel transform produces the most accurate meteoroid speed estimates for high effective pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). The Fresnel transform is applied to high effecti...

  17. All-sky interferometric meteor radar meteoroid speed estimation using the Fresnel transform

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, D. A.; Elford, W. G.; Vincent, R. A.; I. M. Reid; Murphy, D. J.; Singer, W.

    2007-01-01

    Fresnel transform meteor speed estimation is investigated. A spectral based technique is developed allowing the transform to be applied at low temporal sampling rates. Simulations are used to compare meteoroid speeds determined using the Fresnel transform and alternative techniques, confirming that the Fresnel transform produces the most accurate meteoroid speed estimates for high effective pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). The Fresnel transform is applied to high effective PRF data collec...

  18. Nature and completeness of galaxies detected in the Two Micron All Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, D H; Weinberg, M D; Katz, N; Intosh, Daniel H. Mc; Bell, Eric F.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2005-01-01

    We cross correlate the well-defined and very complete spectroscopic Main Galaxy Sample (MGS) of 156,000 bright (r16 reflects the sharp surface-brightness limit of the extended source detection algorithm in 2MASS. As a result, the r>16 galaxies found in the XSC are over-representative in red early types and under-representative in blue latetypes. At r>16 the XSC suffers an additional selection effect from the 2-3" spatial resolution limit of 2MASS. Therefore, 2MASS continues to detect 90% of of the MGS at 16

  19. Known Pulsars Identified in the GMRT 150 MHz All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Mooley, K P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We have used the 150 MHz radio continuum survey (TGSS ADR) from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to search for phase-averaged emission toward all well-localized radio pulsars north of -53deg Declination. We detect emission toward 200 pulsars with high confidence (>=5-sigma) and another 88 pulsars at fainter levels. We show that most of our identifications are likely from pulsars, except for a small number where the measured flux density is confused by an associated supernova or pulsar-wind nebula, or a globular cluster. We investigate the radio properties of the 150 MHz sample and we find an unusually high number of gamma-ray binary millisecond pulsars with very steep spectral indices. We also note a discrepancy in the measured flux densities between GMRT and LOFAR pulsar samples, suggesting that the flux density scale for the LOFAR pulsar sample may be in error by approximately a factor two. We carry out a separate search of 30 well-localized gamma-ray, radio-quiet pulsars in an effort to detect a ...

  20. Inferences of all-sky solar irradiance using Terra and Aqua MODIS satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Rasmus Møller; Søgaard, Henrik; Emmerich, W.;

    2007-01-01

    Solar irradiance is a key environmental control, and accurate spatial and temporal solar irradiance data are important for a wide range of applications related to energy and carbon cycling, weather prediction, and climate change. This study presents a satellite-based scheme for the retrieval of all...... the Terra and Aqua satellites, and employs a cloud motion tracking scheme for the production of hourly solar irradiance data throughout the day. The scheme was implemented for the Island of Zealand, Denmark (56° N, 12° E) and Southern Arizona, USA (31° N, 110° W) permitting model evaluation for two highly...... contrasting climates and cloud environments. Information on the atmospheric state was provided by MODIS data products and verifications against AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data demonstrated usefulness of MODIS aerosol optical depth and total precipitable water vapour retrievals for the delineation...

  1. Evaluation of Algorithms to estimate Daily Evapotranspiration from Instantaneous Measurements under All-sky Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instantaneous EvapoTranspiration (ET) can be estimated using a single set of instantaneous observations by polar orbiting satellites during the day. Daily, weekly or monthly total ET is required for hydrological studies and water resources assessment. This requires daily total ET regardless of cloud cover. The daily total ET is usually determined assuming that the evaporative fraction (EF) remains constant during at least the central hours of the day and that the product of EF times the daily total net radiation gives a satisfactory estimate of daily total ET. The impact of cloud cover is rarely discussed. In this paper, we used data collected at two experimental sites in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China: Arou with grassland in an alpine region and Yingke with agricultural crops in a semi-arid region. Two methods were evaluated to determine daily total ET with instantaneous observations: a) self-conservation of evaporative fraction (EFconst); b) assuming the diurnal course of ET is the same sinusoidal function of the time of the instantaneous observation as the solar irradiance (Rs) (ET-Rs). Daily ET calculated with the two methods were evaluated against observed daily values. The results showed that these assumptions did not hold and the accuracy of ET estimates obtained with either method was reduced by: a) diurnal variation of ET and b) the time lag between ET and net radiation under clear skies. Larger errors occurred when applying both methods under cloudy conditions during the growing season, while in the remaining part of the year the impact of cloud cover was lower

  2. An all-sky extrasolar planet survey with multiple object, dispersed fixed-delay interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ge

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La prospección de planetas extrasolares en todo el cielo (ASEPS se basará en telescopios de campo amplio (inicialmente el telescopio Sloan, para luego pasar a telescopios con mayores aperturas y una nueva generación de potentes espectrógrafos multiobjetos para dar seguimiento a millones de estrellas brillantes cercanas. ASEPS detectará decenas de miles de planetas extrasolares en las próximas dos décadas. Actualmente, ya se ha detectado un planeta (con periodo de 4.11 días y con 0.49 masas de Júpiter alrededor de una estrella de V = 8.05 mag (Ge et al. 2006, con el telescopio de 0.9-m Coude del KPNO, con el instrumento interferométrico de retardo fijo dispersado en su version mono-objeto. En las bandas visibles, ASEPS incrementará el número de sistemas planetarios en al menos dos órdenes de magnitud, dando así una poderosa base estad´ıstica para comprender las diferentes clases de sistemas planetarios. Este estudio tiene la capacidad de detectar planetas tipo Júpiter, tanto en masa como en distancia a su estrella madre. El estudio se desarrolla en el cercano infrarrojo y puede conducir al descubrimiento de planetas tipo terrestre en las zonas habitables de estrellas poco masivas. Las observaciones recientes con el telescopio Sloan demuestran la viabilidad de la búsqueda de planetas en forma multi-objeto en paralelo al reconocimiento espectroscópico de objetos d´ebiles SDSS. Esto sugiere que es posible combinar instrumentos Doppler con otros instrumentos astronómicos dentro de un solo paquete para incrementar la productividad científica y la eficiencia de operación, y así reducir los costos de instrumentos de los futuros grandes telescopios de campo amplio

  3. Star formation rates in isolated galaxies selected from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Melnyk, O; Karachentsev, I

    2015-01-01

    We have considered the star formation properties of 1616 isolated galaxies from the 2MASS XSC selected sample (2MIG) with the FUV GALEX magnitudes. This sample was then compared with corresponding properties of isolated galaxies from the Local Orphan Galaxies catalogue (LOG) and paired galaxies. We found that different selection algorithms define different populations of isolated galaxies. The population of the LOG catalogue, selected from non-clustered galaxies in the Local Supercluster volume, mostly consists of low-mass spiral and late type galaxies. The SSFR upper limit in isolated and paired galaxies does not exceed the value of ~dex(-9.4). This is probably common for galaxies of differing activity and environment (at least at z11.5 have higher (S)SFR than isolated galaxies. Our results suggest that the environment helps to trigger the star formation in the highest mass galaxies. We found that the fraction of AGN in the paired sample is only a little higher than in our isolated galaxy sample. We assume t...

  4. The GMRT 150 MHz All-sky Radio Survey: First Alternative Data Release TGSS ADR1

    CERN Document Server

    Intema, H T; Mooley, K P; Frail, D A

    2016-01-01

    We present the first full release of a survey of the 150 MHz radio sky, observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope between April 2010 and March 2012 as part of the TGSS project. Aimed at producing a reliable compact source survey, our automated data reduction pipeline efficiently processed more than 2000 hours of observations with minimal human interaction. Through application of innovative techniques such as image-based flagging, direction-dependent calibration of ionospheric phase errors, correcting for systematic offsets in antenna pointing, and improving the primary beam model, we created good quality images for over 95 percent of the 5336 pointings. Our data release covers 36,900 square degrees (or 3.6 pi steradians) of the sky between -53 deg and +90 deg DEC, which is 90 percent of the total sky. The majority of pointing images have a background RMS noise below 5 mJy/beam with an approximate resolution of 25" x 25" (or 25" x 25" / cos (DEC - 19 deg) for pointings south of 19 deg DEC). We have pro...

  5. Retrieval of Garstang's emission function from all-sky camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio; Kundracik, František

    2015-10-01

    The emission function from ground-based light sources predetermines the skyglow features to a large extent, while most mathematical models that are used to predict the night sky brightness require the information on this function. The radiant intensity distribution on a clear sky is experimentally determined as a function of zenith angle using the theoretical approach published only recently in MNRAS, 439, 3405-3413. We have made the experiments in two localities in Slovakia and Mexico by means of two digital single lens reflex professional cameras operating with different lenses that limit the system's field-of-view to either 180º or 167º. The purpose of using two cameras was to identify variances between two different apertures. Images are taken at different distances from an artificial light source (a city) with intention to determine the ratio of zenith radiance relative to horizontal irradiance. Subsequently, the information on the fraction of the light radiated directly into the upward hemisphere (F) is extracted. The results show that inexpensive devices can properly identify the upward emissions with adequate reliability as long as the clear sky radiance distribution is dominated by a largest ground-based light source. Highly unstable turbidity conditions can also make the parameter F difficult to find or even impossible to retrieve. The measurements at low elevation angles should be avoided due to a potentially parasitic effect of direct light emissions from luminaires surrounding the measuring site.

  6. COATLI: an all-sky robotic optical imager with 0.3 arcsec image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Alan M. Watson; Cardona, Salvador Cuevas; Núñez, Luis C. Álvarez; Ángeles, Fernando; Becerra-Godínez, Rosa L.; Chapa, Oscar; Farah, Alejandro S.; Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Figueroa, Liliana; Lebre, Rosalía Langarica; Quirós, Fernando; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ruíz-Diáz-Soto, Jaime; Tejada, Carlos G.; Tinoco, Silvio J.

    2016-01-01

    COATLI will provide 0.3 arcsec FWHM images from 550 to 900 nm over a large fraction of the sky. It consists of a robotic 50-cm telescope with a diffraction-limited fast-guiding imager. Since the telescope is small, fast guiding will provide diffraction-limited image quality over a field of at least 1 arcmin and with coverage of a large fraction of the sky, even in relatively poor seeing. The COATLI telescope will be installed at the at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in Sierra San Ped...

  7. COATLI: an all-sky robotic optical imager with 0.3 arcsec image quality

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Alan M; Núñez, Luis C Álvarez; Ángeles, Fernando; Becerra-Godínez, Rosa L; Chapa, Oscar; Farah, Alejandro S; Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Figueroa, Liliana; Lebre, Rosalía Langarica; Quirós, Fernando; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G; Ruíz-Diáz-Soto, Jaime; Tejada, Carlos G; Tinoco, Silvio J

    2016-01-01

    COATLI will provide 0.3 arcsec FWHM images from 550 to 900 nm over a large fraction of the sky. It consists of a robotic 50-cm telescope with a diffraction-limited fast-guiding imager. Since the telescope is small, fast guiding will provide diffraction-limited image quality over a field of at least 1 arcmin and with coverage of a large fraction of the sky, even in relatively poor seeing. The COATLI telescope will be installed at the at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro M\\'artir, M\\'exico, during 2016 and the diffraction-limited imager will follow in 2017.

  8. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  9. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Veilleux, S. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96825 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bothun, G. [Physics Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97402 (United States); Bridge, C. R., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  10. MSX, 2MASS, and the LMC A Combined Near and Mid Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, M P; Price, S D; Egan, Michael P.; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Price, Stephan D.

    2001-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has been observed by both the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) in the mid-infrared and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-infrared. We have performed a cross-correlation of the 1806 MSX catalog sources and nearly 1.4 million 2MASS catalogued point and extended sources and find 1664 matches. Using the available color information, we identify a number of stellar populations and nebulae, including main sequence stars, giant stars, red supergiants, carbon- and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, planetary nebulae, H II regions, and other dusty objects likely associated with early-type stars. 731 of these sources have no previous identification. We compile a listing of all objects, which includes photometry and astrometry. The 8.3 micron MSX sensitivity is the limiting factor for object detection: only the brighter red objects, specifically the red supergiants, AGB stars, planetary nebulae and HII regions, are detected in the LMC. The remaining objects a...

  11. Preliminary Design of The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Wright, E L; Liu, F; Irace, W; Heinrichsen, I; Cutri, R; Duval, V

    2005-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024x1024 HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47'x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions....

  12. First Detection of Galactic Latitude Dependence of Near-Infrared Diffuse Galactic Light from DIRBE Reanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, K; Tsumura, K; Arai, T; Shirahata, M; Onishi, Y

    2016-01-01

    Observational study on near-infrared (IR) scattering properties of interstellar dust grains has been limited due to its faintness. Using all-sky maps obtained from Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE), we investigate the scattering property from diffuse Galactic light (DGL) measurements at 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 {\\mu}m in addition to our recent analyses of diffuse near-IR emission (Sano et al. 2015; Sano et al. 2016). As a result, we first find that the intensity ratios of near-IR DGL to 100 {\\mu}m emission increase toward low Galactic latitudes at 1.25 and 2.2 {\\mu}m. The derived latitude dependence can be reproduced by a scattered light model of interstellar dust with a large scattering asymmetry factor g = of $0.8^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$ at 1.25 and 2.2 {\\mu}m, assuming an infinite Galaxy disk as an illuminating source. The derived asymmetry factor is comparable to the values obtained in the optical, but several times larger than that expected from a recent dust model. Since possible latitude dependence of u...

  13. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Povich, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Mullan, B. [Blue Marble Space Institution of Science, P.O. Box 85561, Seattle, WA 98145-1561 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  14. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  15. J-Band Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Brown Dwarfs Using NIRSPEC on Keck II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean; Wilcox; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Graham; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Kirkpatrick

    2000-04-10

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of very cool, low-mass objects are presented with higher spectral resolution than in any previous studies. Six of the objects are L dwarfs, ranging in spectral class from L2 to L8/9, and the seventh is a methane or T dwarf. These new observations were obtained during commissioning of the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC), the first high-resolution near-infrared cryogenic spectrograph for the Keck II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectra with a resolving power of R approximately 2500 from 1.135 to 1.360 µm (approximately J band) are presented for each source. At this resolution, a rich spectral structure is revealed, much of which is due to blending of unresolved molecular transitions. Strong lines due to neutral potassium (K i) and bands due to iron hydride (FeH) and steam (H2O) change significantly throughout the L sequence. Iron hydride disappears between L5 and L8, the steam bands deepen, and the K i lines gradually become weaker but wider because of pressure broadening. An unidentified feature occurs at 1.22 µm that has a temperature dependence like FeH but has no counterpart in the available FeH opacity data. Because these objects are 3-6 mag brighter in the near-infrared compared with the I band, spectral classification is efficient. One of the objects studied (2MASSW J1523+3014) is the coolest L dwarf discovered so far by the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), but its spectrum is still significantly different from the methane-dominated objects such as Gl 229B or SDSS 1624+0029. PMID:10727388

  16. Infrared design examples

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, William L

    1999-01-01

    This tutorial covers infrared design examples in considerable detail, building on principles presented in an earlier text, 'Introduction to Infrared System Design' (SPIE PRESS Vol. TT24). The text explores a range of problems illustrating several design issues, with applications in military, industry, aeronautics, space, and medicine, among others.

  17. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [INAF-Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rich, J. A. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); U, V., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  18. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ9.7μm, τice, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW6.2μm decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = LIR/L8μm) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s9.7μm < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H2)/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H2)/L(PAH) ratio with increasing L(H2). While star formation appears to be the

  19. WISE TF: A MID-INFRARED, 3.4 μm EXTENSION OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION USING WISE PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a mid-infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometry from the 3.4 μm W1 band of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The WISE TF relation is formed from 568 galaxies taken from the all-sky 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) galaxy catalog, spanning a range of environments including field, group, and cluster galaxies. This constitutes the largest mid-infrared TF relation constructed to date. After applying a number of corrections to galaxy magnitudes and line widths, we measure a master TF relation given by Mcorr = –22.24 – 10.05[log (Wcorr) – 2.5], with an average dispersion of σWISE = 0.686 mag. There is some tension between WISE TF and a preliminary 3.6 μm relation, which has a shallower slope and almost no intrinsic dispersion. However, our results agree well with a more recent relation constructed from a large sample of cluster galaxies. We additionally compare WISE TF to the near-infrared 2MTF template relations, finding a good agreement between the TF parameters and total dispersions of WISE TF and the 2MTF K-band template. This fact, coupled with typical galaxy colors of (K – W1) ∼ 0, suggests that these two bands are tracing similar stellar populations, including the older, centrally-located stars in the galactic bulge which can (for galaxies with a prominent bulge) dominate the light profile.

  20. Infrared emission from novae

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, A

    2012-01-01

    We review infrared observations of classical and recurrent novae, at wavelengths >3microns, including both broad-band and spectroscopic observations. In recent years infrared spectroscopy in particular has revolutionised our understanding of the nova phenomenon, by revealing fine-structure and coronal lines, and the mineralogy of nova dust. Infrared spectroscopic facilities that are, or will be, becoming available in the next 10 - 20 years have the potential for a comprehensive study of nova line emission and dust mineralogy, and for an unbiassed assessment of the extragalactic nova populations.

  1. Serendipitous discovery of an infrared bow shock near PSR J1549–4848 with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongxiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an infrared cometary nebula around PSR J1549–4848 in our Spitzer survey of a few middle-aged radio pulsars. Following the discovery, multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula were carried out. We detected the nebula in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 8.0, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 and 70 μm imaging, and in Spitzer IRS 7.5-14.4 μm spectroscopic observations, and also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey at 12 and 22 μm. These data were analyzed in detail, and we find that the nebula can be described with a standard bow shock shape, and that its spectrum contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and H{sub 2} emission features. However, it is not certain which object drives the nebula. We analyze the field stars and conclude that none of them can be the associated object because stars with a strong wind or mass ejection that usually produce bow shocks are much brighter than the field stars. The pulsar is approximately 15'' away from the region in which the associated object is expected to be located. In order to resolve the discrepancy, we suggest that a highly collimated wind could be emitted from the pulsar and produce the bow shock. X-ray imaging to detect the interaction of the wind with the ambient medium- and high-spatial resolution radio imaging to determine the proper motion of the pulsar should be carried out, which will help verify the association of the pulsar with the bow shock nebula.

  2. Synergies with the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.

    2016-06-01

    In this solicited talk I will review the synergy between XMM-Newton (and Chandra) and infrared facilities. I will focus on two key advantages from the combination of X-ray and infrared observations. First, infrared observations allow for the identification of the most heavily obscured AGNs that are weak or undetected at X-ray observations, providing a more complete census of AGN activity than from X-ray observations alone. Second, infrared observations provide constraints on the star-formation properties of the AGNs, allowing for insight into the connection between AGN activity and star formation. I will use these key advantages to discuss our progress in identifying a complete census of AGN activity and our understanding of the AGN-star formation connection. I will also review how yet greater gains can be made with future planned and proposed facilities.

  3. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  4. The infrared luminosities of ˜332 000 SDSS galaxies predicted from artificial neural networks and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Teimoorinia, Hossein; Rosario, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The total infrared (IR) luminosity (LIR) can be used as a robust measure of a galaxy's star formation rate (SFR), even in the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), or when optical emission lines are weak. Unfortunately, existing all sky far-IR surveys, such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and AKARI, are relatively shallow and are biased towards the highest SFR galaxies and lowest redshifts. More sensitive surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory are limited to much smaller areas. In order to construct a large sample of LIR measurements for galaxies in the nearby Universe, we employ artificial neural networks (ANNs), using 1136 galaxies in the Herschel Stripe 82 sample as the training set. The networks are validated using two independent data sets (IRAS and AKARI) and demonstrated to predict the LIR with a scatter σ ˜ 0.23 dex, and with no systematic offset. Importantly, the ANN performs well for both star-forming galaxies and those with an AGN. A public catalogue is presented with our LIR predictions which can be used to determine SFRs for 331 926 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including ˜129 000 SFRs for AGN-dominated galaxies for which SDSS SFRs have large uncertainties.

  5. The \\^G Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. III. The Reddest Extended Sources in WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Roger L; Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Nearby Type II (galaxy-spanning) Kardashev supercivilizations would have high mid-infrared (MIR) luminosities. We have used the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to survey ~$1 \\times 10^5$ galaxies for extreme MIR emission, $10^3$ times more galaxies than the only previous such search. We have calibrated the WISE All-sky Catalog pipeline products to improve its photometry for extended sources. We present 563 extended sources with $|b| \\ge 10$ and red MIR colors, having visually vetted them to remove artifacts. No galaxies in our sample host an alien civilization reprocessing more than 85% of its starlight into the MIR, and only 50 galaxies, including Arp 220, have MIR luminosities consistent with >50% reprocessing. Ninety of these (likely) extragalactic sources have little literature presence; in most cases they are likely barely resolved galaxies or pairs of galaxies undergoing large amounts of star formation. Five are new to science and deserve further study. The Be star 48 Librae sits within a MIR...

  6. Planck intermediate results. XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; de Bernardis, P; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Dusini, S; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Lilley, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Natoli, P; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature observations, we perform the separation of Galactic thermal dust emission and cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combination (GNILC) method. This makes use of the spatial information (angular power spectrum) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. A significantly improved all-sky map of the Planck thermal dust, with reduced CIB contamination, is produced at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. From the reduction of the CIB contamination in the thermal dust maps, we are able to provide a more accurate estimate of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion at high latitudes. We find that $T = (19.4 \\pm 1.3)$ K and $\\beta = 1.6 \\pm 0.1$ on the whole sky, while $T = (19.4 \\pm 1.5)$ K and $\\beta = 1.6 \\pm 0.2$ on 21 % of the sky at high latitudes, where the error b...

  7. Optical - Near Infrared Photometric Calibration of M-dwarf Metallicity and Its Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hejazi, Neda; Dawson, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Based on a carefully constructed sample of dwarf stars, a new optical-near infrared photometric calibration to estimate the metallicity of late-type K and early-to-mid-type M dwarfs is presented. The calibration sample has two parts; the first part includes 18 M dwarfs with metallicities determined by high-resolution spectroscopy and the second part contains 49 dwarfs with metallicities obtained through moderate-resolution spectra. By applying this calibration to a large sample of around 1.3 million M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, the metallicity distribution of this sample is determined and compared with those of previous studies. Using photometric parallaxes, the Galactic heights of M dwarfs in the large sample are also estimated. Our results show that stars farther from the Galactic plane, on average, have lower metallicity, which can be attributed to the age-metallicity relation. A scarcity of metal-poor dwarf stars in the metallicity distribution relative to ...

  8. The Spatial Extent of (U)LIRGs in the Mid-Infrared. II. Feature Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haan, Sebastian; Mazzarella, Joseph; Howell, Justin; Veilleux, Sylvain; Murphy, Eric; Petric, Andreea; Appleton, Philip N; Evans, Aaron S; Sanders, David; Surace, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the second part of our analysis of the extended mid-infrared (MIR) emission of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample based on 5-14 micron low-resolution spectra obtained with the IRS on Spitzer. We calculate the fraction of extended emission as a function of wavelength for all galaxies in the sample, FEE_lambda, and spatially separate the MIR spectrum of galaxies into their nuclear and extended components. We find that the [NeII] emission line is as compact as the hot dust MIR continuum, while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is more extended. The 6.2 and 7.7 micron PAH emission is more compact than that of the 11.3 micron PAH, which is consistent with the formers being enhanced in a more ionized medium. The presence of an AGN or a powerful nuclear starburst increases the compactness of the hot dust MIR continuum, but has a negligible effect on the spatial extent of the PAH emission on kpc-scales. Globally, the spectra of the extended emission com...

  9. A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey at the SDSS 2.5-meter Telescope?

    CERN Document Server

    Skrutskie, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    We are posting this 10-year-old white paper to support an upcoming survey description paper for the SDSS-III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) led by PI Dr. Steven Majewski. The white paper presented here was a contribution to a 2005 "futures" planning process for the Astrophysical Research Consortium led by Dr. Donald York that examined both prospects for extending the work of SDSS and SDSS-II as well as enhancing the capabilities of the Apache Point 3.5-meter telescope and the overall scientific reach of the Consortium. This particular white paper describes the potential for using the Sloan 2.5-meter telescope and its fiber optic infrastructure to conduct a galactic plane chemical abundance survey in the low-extinction 1.6um H-band. The survey would target >1000 red giant stars per night selected from the Two Micron All Sky Survey using a >200 fiber near-infrared spectrograph operating at spectral resolution of R~24,000 with a magnitude limit of H~12 - very close to the final APOGEE implem...

  10. Infrared source test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  11. Variable waveband infrared imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  12. Powerful infrared emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan L. M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Powerful infrared LEDs with emission wavelength 805 ± 10, 870 ± 20 and 940 ± 10 nm developed at SPC OED "OPTEL" are presented in the article. The radiant intensity of beam diode is under 4 W/sr in the continuous mode and under 100 W/sr in the pulse mode. The radiation power of wide-angle LEDs reaches 1 W in continuous mode. The external quantum efficiency of emission IR diodes runs up to 30%. There also has been created infrared diode modules with a block of flat Fresnel lenses with radiant intensity under 70 W/sr.

  13. Barrier infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  14. Decoherence and infrared divergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kupsch

    2002-08-01

    The dynamics of a particle which is linearly coupled to a boson field is investigated. The boson field induces superselection rules for the momentum of the particle, if the field is infrared divergent. Thereby the Hamiltonian of the total system remains bounded from below.

  15. Near infrared testbed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R. B.; McCalmont, J. F.; Montgomery, J. B.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.

    2007-04-01

    A new tactical airborne multicolor missile warning testbed was developed and fielded as part of an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiative focusing on clutter and missile signature measurements for algorithm development. Multicolor discrimination is one of the most effective ways of improving the performance of infrared missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple fielded sensors. Traditionally, multicolor discrimination has been performed in the mid-infrared, 3-5 μm band, where the molecular emission of CO and CO2 characteristic of a combustion process is readily distinguished from the continuum of a black body radiator. Current infrared warning sensor development is focused on near infrared (NIR) staring mosaic detector arrays that provide similar spectral discrimination in different bands to provide a cost effective and mechanically simpler system. This, in turn, has required that multicolor clutter data be collected for both analysis and algorithm development. The developed sensor test bed is a multi-camera system 1004x1004 FPA coupled with optimized filters integrated with the optics. The collection portion includes a ruggedized field-programmable gate array processor coupled with with an integrated controller/tracker and fast disk array capable of real-time processing and collection of up to 60 full frames per second. This configuration allowed the collection and real-time processing of temporally correlated, radiometrically calibrated data in multiple spectral bands that was then compared to background and target imagery taken previously

  16. Infrared spectroscopy with visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A.; Paterova, Anna V.; Kulik, Sergei P.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral measurements in the infrared optical range provide unique fingerprints of materials, which are useful for material analysis, environmental sensing and health diagnostics. Current infrared spectroscopy techniques require the use of optical equipment suited for operation in the infrared range, components of which face challenges of inferior performance and high cost. Here, we develop a technique that allows spectral measurements in the infrared range using visible-spectral-range components. The technique is based on nonlinear interference of infrared and visible photons, produced via spontaneous parametric down conversion. The intensity interference pattern for a visible photon depends on the phase of an infrared photon travelling through a medium. This allows the absorption coefficient and refractive index of the medium in the infrared range to be determined from the measurements of visible photons. The technique can substitute and/or complement conventional infrared spectroscopy and refractometry techniques, as it uses well-developed components for the visible range.

  17. Infra-red material structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for modifying properties of infra-red materials in or for use in infra-red windows and other structures, in which the infra-red material is subjected to ion implantation whereby ions of an elemental dopant are implanted into the infra-red material under vacuum conditions. Heat diffusion may improve the depth of ion penetration. Specified materials are germanium, zinc sulphide, cadmium mercury telluride, calcium lanthanum sulphide and zinc selenide; specified dopants are boron, carbon and silicon. (author)

  18. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  19. Bringing the infrared to light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    Infrared imaging is usually done by use of infrared cameras. We present an effective alternative approach where infrared light is converted to near visible light in a non-linear process, and then detected by low cost, high performance camera. The approach is generic and can be applied towards many...

  20. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  1. Infrared Sensor with Liquid Crystal Chopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An infrared sensor using the liquid crystal chopper is presented. The infrared sensor is designed to detect infrared rays with a pyroelectric element used as a liquid crystal chopper in such an infrared sensor or the like.

  2. Infrared Dielectric Resonator Metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Ginn, James C; Peters, David W; Wendt, Joel R; Stevens, Jeffrey O; Hines, Paul F; Basilio, Lorena I; Warne, Larry K; Ihlefeld, Jon F; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, an all-dielectric metamaterial resonator in the mid-wave infrared based on high-index tellurium cubic inclusions. Dielectric resonators are desirable compared to conventional metallo-dielectric metamaterials at optical frequencies as they are largely angular invariant, free of ohmic loss, and easily integrated into three-dimensional volumes. With these low-loss, isotropic elements, disruptive optical metamaterial designs, such as wide-angle lenses and cloaks, can be more easily realized.

  3. Infrared face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Colin K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study continues a previous face recognition investigation using uncooled infrared technology. The database developed in an earlier study is further expanded to include 50 volunteers with 30 facial images from each subject. The automatic image reduction method reduces the pixel size of each image from 160 120 to 60 45 . The study reexamines two linear classification methods: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher ...

  4. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  5. Thermochromic Infrared Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    An infrared artificial thermochromic material composed of a metamaterial emitter and a bimaterial micro-electro-mechanical system is investigated. A differential emissivity of over 30% is achieved between 623 K and room temperature. The passive metamaterial device demonstrates the ability to independently control the peak wavelength and temperature dependence of the emissivity, and achieves thermal emission following a super Stefan-Boltzmann power curve. PMID:26619382

  6. Infrared finite electron propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the properties of a dressed electron which reduces, in a particular class of gauges, to the usual fermion. A one-loop calculation of the propagator is presented. We show explicitly that an infrared finite, multiplicative, mass shell renormalization is possible for this dressed electron, or, equivalently, for the usual fermion in the above-mentioned gauges. The results are in complete accord with previous conjectures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]18.7μm, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]33.5μm, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z☉, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 107 cm s–1. Based on the [S III]33.5μm/[S III]18.7μm ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm–3, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm–3, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s–1) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s–1. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential, suggesting the possibility of a compact energy source and stratified interstellar medium in their

  8. The infra-red luminosities of ~332,000 SDSS galaxies predicted from artificial neural networks and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Rosario, David J; Mendel, J Trevor

    2015-01-01

    The total infra-red (IR) luminosity (L_IR) can be used as a robust measure of a galaxy's star formation rate (SFR), even in the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), or when optical emission lines are weak. Unfortunately, existing all sky far-IR surveys, such as the Infra-red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and AKARI, are relatively shallow and are biased towards the highest SFR galaxies and lowest redshifts. More sensitive surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory are limited to much smaller areas. In order to construct a large sample of L_IR measurements for galaxies in the nearby universe, we employ artificial neural networks (ANNs), using 1136 galaxies in the Herschel Stripe 82 sample as the training set. The networks are validated using two independent datasets (IRAS and AKARI) and demonstrated to predict the L_IR with a scatter sigma ~ 0.23 dex, and with no systematic offset. Importantly, the ANN performs well for both star-forming galaxies and those with an AGN. A public catalog is presented wi...

  9. Planck intermediate results. XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] We use the Planck all-sky submm and mm maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundreds of mJy, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353 and 857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z=2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background (CIB). We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500um sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350um. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing ...

  10. Mid- and Near-infrared spectral properties of a sample of Swift-BAT X-ray selected AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Angel; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Malkan, Matthew A.; Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shirahata, M.; Nakagawa, Takao; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Oyabu, Shinki

    2015-08-01

    We present a comparative study of the mid- (MIR) to near-infrared (NIR) properties of a sample of X-ray selected AGNs from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 70-month all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey. For a sample of 78 AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 sources with black hole masses derived from 2MASS K-band magnitudes and literature, we obtain spectroscopic data from the IRC (2.5 - 5 μm) and IRS (in the 5-14 μm band) instruments onboard the Akari and Spitzer satellites, respectively. We test possible correlations between the 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, the continuum slope and CO optical depth, as well as CO2, H2O, and amorphous silicates. Using the 3.3, 6.2 and 11.3 μm PAH emission features as a proxy for the star-formation rate (SFR) we report the AGN type and Eddington-ratio dependences of circum-nuclear star formation.

  11. Far-Ultraviolet and Far-Infrared Bivariate Luminosity Function of Galaxies: Complex Relation between Stellar and Dust Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Yuan, Fang-Ting; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV) and far-infrared (FIR) luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies show a strong evolution from $z = 0$ to $z = 1$, but the FIR LF evolves much stronger than the FUV one. The FUV is dominantly radiated from newly formed short-lived OB stars, while the FIR is emitted by dust grains heated by the FUV radiation field. It is known that dust is always associated with star formation activity. Thus, both FUV and FIR are tightly related to the star formation in galaxies, but in a very complicated manner. In order to disentangle the relation between FUV and FIR emissions, we estimate the UV-IR bivariate LF (BLF) of galaxies with {\\sl GALEX} and {\\sl AKARI} All-Sky Survey datasets. Recently we invented a new mathematical method to construct the BLF with given marginals and prescribed correlation coefficient. This method makes use of a tool from mathematical statistics, so called "copula". The copula enables us to construct a bivariate distribution function from given marginal distributions with prescri...

  12. Optical and infrared photometry of new very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Sigma Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar, V J S; Rebolo, R

    2004-01-01

    We present an RI photometric survey covering an area of 430 arcmin^2 around the multiple star Sigma Orionis. The observations were conducted with the 0.8 m IAC-80 Telescope at the Teide Observatory. The survey limiting R and I magnitudes are 22.5 and 21, and completeness magnitudes 21 and 20, respectively. We have selected 53 candidates from the I vs. R-I colour-magnitude diagram (I=14-20) that follow the previously known photometric sequence of the cluster. Adopting an age of 2-4 Myr for the cluster, we find that these objects span a mass range from 0.35 Msol to 0.015 Msol. We have performed J-band photometry of 52 candidates and Ks photometry for 12 of them, with the result that 50 follow the expected infrared sequence for the cluster, thus confirming with great confidence that the majority of the candidates are bona fide members. JHKs photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) is available for 50 of the candidates and are in good agreement with our data. Out of 48 candidates, which have photomet...

  13. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  14. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  15. All-Sky Search for Gravitational-Wave Bursts in the First Joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J. B.; Camizzo, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an aU-sky search for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO, GEO 600 and Virgo detectors between November 2006 and October 2007. The search is performed. by three different analysis algorithms over the frequency band 50 - 6000 Hz. Data are analyzed for times with at least two of the four LIGO-Virgo detectors in coincident operation, with a total live time of 266 days, No events produced by the search algorithms survive the selection cuts. We set a frequentist upper limit on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts impinging on our network of detectors. When combined with the previous LIGO search of the data collected between November 2005 and November 2006, the upper limit on the rate of detectable gra.vitational. wave bursts in the 64-2048 Hz band is 2,0 events per year at 90% confidence. We also present event rate versus strength exclusion plots for several types of plausible burst waveforms. The sensitivity of the combined search is expressed in terms of the root-sum-squared strain amplitude for a variety of simulated waveforms and lies in the range 6 X 10(exp -22) Hz(exp - 1/2) to 2 X 10(exp -20) Hz(exp -l/2). This is the first untriggered burst search to use data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors together, and the most sensitive untriggered burst search performed so far.

  16. A simple evaluation of global and diffuse luminous efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical and humid climate

    CERN Document Server

    Fakra, Ali Hamada; Miranville, Frédéric; Bigot, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents initial values of global and diffuse luminous efficacy at Saint-Pierre (Reunion Island). Firstly, data used were measured for a period of 6 months, from February to June 2008. During this period, all defined day-types have been studied (clear, cloudy and intermediate). Generally, the meteorological database of Reunion does not contain information for illuminance values. On the other hand, the local meteorological center has a 60-years-old database for solar irradiance (W.m-2). So it is important to determine Luminous Efficacy in order to find illuminance from solar irradiance (or luminance from solar radiance). The measured data were analyzed, and empirical constant models were developed and presented in this paper in order to determine luminous efficacy under different sky conditions. A comparison between these empirical constants (models) and existing models has been made. The method used to define sky conditions (overcast, intermediate and clear) and day-types characterization as well a...

  17. Identification of High Energy Gamma-Ray Sources And Source Populations in the Era of Deep All-Sky Coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Torres, Diego F.; /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC

    2007-04-17

    A large fraction of the anticipated source detections by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST-LAT) will initially be unidentified. We argue that traditional approaches to identify individuals and/or populations of gamma ray sources will encounter procedural limitations. Those limitations are discussed on the background of source identifications from EGRET observations. Generally, our ability to classify (faint) source populations in the anticipated GLAST dataset with the required degree of statistical confidence will be hampered by sheer source wealth. A new paradigm for achieving the classification of gamma ray source populations is discussed.

  18. Identification of high energy gamma-ray sources and source populations in the era of deep all-sky coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Olaf; Torres, Diego F.

    2006-01-01

    A large fraction of the anticipated source detections by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST-LAT) will initially be unidentified. We argue that traditional approaches to identify individuals and/or populations of gamma ray sources will encounter procedural limitations. Those limitations are discussed on the background of source identifications from EGRET observations. Generally, our ability to classify (faint) source populations in the anticipated GLAST dataset with the required d...

  19. INTEGRAL/IBIS 7-year All-Sky Hard X-Ray Survey. Part I: Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Krivonos, R; Tsygankov, S; Sazonov, S; Vikhlinin, A; Pavlinsky, M; Churazov, E; Sunyaev, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series devoted to the hard X-ray whole sky survey performed by the INTEGRAL observatory over seven years. Here we present an improved method for image reconstruction with the IBIS coded mask telescope. The main improvements are related to the suppression of systematic effects which strongly limit sensitivity in the region of the Galactic Plane (GP), especially in the crowded field of the Galactic Center (GC). We extended the IBIS/ISGRI background model to take into account the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE). To suppress residual systematic artifacts on a reconstructed sky image we applied nonparametric sky image filtering based on wavelet decomposition. The implemented modifications of the sky reconstruction method decrease the systematic noise in the ~20 Ms deep field of GC by ~44%, and practically remove it from the high-latitude sky images. New observational data sets, along with an improved reconstruction algorithm, allow us to conduct the hard X-ray survey with the best...

  20. Construction of a Calibrated Probabilistic Classification Catalog: Application to 50k Variable Sources in the All-Sky Automated Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joseph W; Miller, Adam A; Bloom, Joshua S; Butler, Nathaniel R; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien

    2012-01-01

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities, and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the pre...

  1. All-sky search for gravitational-wave bursts in the second joint LIGO-Virgo run

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardt, A; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lindquist, P E; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lundgren, A P; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marandi, A; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McKechan, D J A; McWilliams, S; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Peiris, P; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pold, J; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Racz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Redwine, K; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosinska, D; Rover, C; Rowan, S; Rudiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sainathan, P; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Soto, J; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Stein, A J; Stein, L C; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thuring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tseng, K; Tucker, E; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zadrozny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a search for gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010: data are analyzed when at least two of the three LIGO-Virgo detectors are in coincident operation, with a total observation time of 207 days. The analysis searches for transients of duration < 1 s over the frequency band 64--5000 Hz, without other assumptions on the signal waveform, polarization, direction or occurrence time. All identified events are consistent with the expected accidental background. We set frequentist upper limits on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts by combining this search with the previous LIGO-Virgo search on the data collected between November 2005 and October 2007. The upper limit on the rate of strong gravitational-wave bursts at the Earth is 1.3 events per year at 90% confidence. We also present upper limits on source rate density per year and Mpc^3 for sample populations of standard-candle sources. As in the previous...

  2. A long-term observation of 4U 1700-37 by the granat/watch all-sky monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazonov, S.; Lapshov, I.; Sunyaev, R.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A.

    1995-01-01

    with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations and derive the basic parameters of the stellar wind. We show that the wind in 4U 1700-37 well fits in the radiatively driven stellar wind theory. Our measurement of the mid-eclipse time together with the measurements of other experiments imply a decrease in the...

  3. Flat-Fielding BATSE Occultation Data for use in a Hard X-Ray All Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, S. E.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A.J.; Diallo, N.; Ferguson, C.; J. Knodlseder(CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France); Lockley, J. J.; Westmore, M. J.; Willis, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The BATSE mission aboard CGRO can be used to observe hard X-ray sources by using the Earth occultation method. This method relies on measuring a step in the count rate profile in each BATSE detector as a source rises above or sets below the Earth's limb. A major problem in determining the step sizes (and hence the flux) is in extracting the steps from the varying background. A technique for flat-fielding the response of gamma ray detectors has been developed at Southampton. The technique uses...

  4. An all-sky, three-flavor search for neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with the icecube neutrino observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellauer, Robert Eugene, III

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), defined by energy greater than 10. 18 eV, have been observed for decades, but their sources remain unknown. Protons and heavy ions, which comprise cosmic rays, interact with galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields and, consequently, do not point back to their sources upon measurement. Neutrinos, which are inevitably produced in photohadronic interactions, travel unimpeded through the universe and disclose the directions of their sources. Among the most plausible candidates for the origins of UHECRs is a class of astrophysical phenomena known as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs are the most violent and energetic events witnessed in the observable universe. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located in the glacial ice 1450 m to 2450 m below the South Pole surface, is the largest neutrino detector in operation. IceCube detects charged particles, such as those emitted in high energy neutrino interactions in the ice, by the Cherenkov light radiated by these particles. The measurement of neutrinos of 100 TeV energy or greater in IceCube correlated with gamma-ray photons from GRBs, measured by spacecraft detectors, would provide evidence of hadronic interaction in these powerful phenomena and confirm their role in ultra high energy cosmic ray production. This work presents the first IceCube GRB-neutrino coincidence search optimized for charged-current interactions of electron and tau neutrinos as well as neutral-current interactions of all neutrino flavors, which produce nearly spherical Cherenkov light showers in the ice. These results for three years of data are combined with the results of previous searches over four years of data optimized for charged-current muon neutrino interactions, which produce extended Cherenkov light tracks. Several low significance events correlated with GRBs were detected, but are consistent with the background expectation from atmospheric muons and neutrinos. The combined results produce limits that place the strongest constraints thus far on models of neutrino and UHECR production in GRB fireballs.

  5. GOALS, STRATEGIES AND FIRST DISCOVERIES OF AO327, THE ARECIBO ALL-SKY 327 MHz DRIFT PULSAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report initial results from AO327, a drift survey for pulsars with the Arecibo telescope at 327 MHz. The first phase of AO327 will cover the sky at declinations of –1° to 28°, excluding the region within 5° of the Galactic plane, where high scattering and dispersion make low-frequency surveys sub-optimal. We record data from a 57 MHz bandwidth with 1024 channels and 125 μs sampling time. The 60 s transit time through the AO327 beam means that the survey is sensitive to very tight relativistic binaries even with no acceleration searches. To date we have detected 44 known pulsars with periods ranging from 3 ms to 2.21 s and discovered 24 new pulsars. The new discoveries include 3 ms pulsars, three objects with periods of a few tens of milliseconds typical of young as well as mildly recycled pulsars, a nuller, and a rotating radio transient. Five of the new discoveries are in binary systems. The second phase of AO327 will cover the sky at declinations of 28°-38°. We compare the sensitivity and search volume of AO327 to the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey and the GBT350 drift survey, both of which operate at 350 MHz

  6. All sky mapping of the Cosmic Microwave Background at 8' angular resolution with a 0.1 K bolometer: simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Giard, M.; Hivon, E.; Nguyen, C.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Lange, A; Ristorcelli, I.

    1999-01-01

    We present simulations of observations with the 143 GHz channel of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI). These simulations are performed over the entire sky, using the true angular resolution of this channel: 8 arcmin FWHM, 3.5 arcmin per pixel. We show that with measured 0.1 K bolometer performances, the sensitivity needed on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) survey is obtained using simple and robust data processing techniques, including a destriping algorithm.

  7. THE ALL-SKY GEOS RR Lyr SURVEY WITH THE TAROT TELESCOPES: ANALYSIS OF THE BLAZHKO EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Borgne, J.-F.; Klotz, A.; Poretti, E. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31400 Toulouse (France); Boeer, M. [ARTEMIS, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Nice (France); Butterworth, N.; Dvorak, S. [American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), 49 Bay State Rd., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dumont, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Vandenbroere, J. [Groupe Europeen d' Observations Stellaires (GEOS), 23 Parc de Levesville, 28300 Bailleau l' Eveque (France); Hund, F. [Bundesdeutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Veraenderliche Sterne e.V. (BAV), Munsterdamm 90, 12169 Berlin (Germany); Kugel, F. [Observatoire Chante-Perdrix, 04150 Banon (France); Vilalta, J. M. [Agrupacio Astronomica de Sabadell (AAS), Apartat de Correus, 50, 08200 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We used the GEOS database to study the Blazhko effect of galactic RRab stars. The database is continuously enriched by maxima supplied by amateur astronomers and by a dedicated survey by means of the two TAROT robotic telescopes. The same value of the Blazhko period is observed at different values of the pulsation periods and different values of the Blazhko periods are observed at the same value of the pulsation period. There are clues suggesting that the Blazhko effect is changing from one cycle to the next. The secular changes in the pulsation and Blazhko periods of Z CVn are anticorrelated. The diagrams of magnitudes against phases of the maxima clearly show that the light curves of Blazhko variables can be explained as modulated signals, both in amplitude and in frequency. The closed curves describing the Blazhko cycles in such diagrams have different shapes, reflecting the phase shifts between the epochs of the brightest maximum and the maximum O - C. Our sample shows that both clockwise and counterclockwise directions are possible for similar shapes. The improved observational knowledge of the Blazhko effect, in addition to some peculiarities of the light curves, has yet to be explained by a satisfactory physical mechanism.

  8. The Infrared Environment of Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1996-12-01

    The IRAS survey has shown that the spectral energy distribution of quasars exhibits a relative maximum in the mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The infrared bump is present at about the same level in both radio quiet and radio loud quasars. The generally accepted explanation is that the infrared emission is dominated by thermal emission from dust grains within a few parsecs of a central non thermal source. The results of an observational test of this explanation in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths will be described. In the near-infrared, the emission from quasars is sometimes significantly contaminated by galaxy light from the host galaxies surrounding the quasar. Infrared observations which emphasize these hosts will also be shown and the possible relationship between AGNs and the ultraluminous galaxies will be discussed.

  9. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski A.; Chrzanowski K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems,...

  10. Infrared technology in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Jari A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the main actors in the Finnish infrared research community in the Defense Forces, the civilian research institutes and industry. Within the Defence Forces, the Defence Forces Research Centre (PvTT) has a key role as the most important research institute dealing with military technology in Finland and as an integrator of civilian expertise. The basic research strategy of the Finnish Defense Forces is to rely on external research institutes (either domestic or foreign) and to concentrate its own resources only on the areas where external expertise is not available. Accordingly, the research focus of PvTT is on the signature research and the environmental conditions affecting the performance of infrared sensors. The paper also describes the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and at various universities. The role of the Finnish defense industry has been fairly modest, but both its own products and recent technology transfer agreements may change the situation in the long run.

  11. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  12. Mid-Infrared Lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid Infrared DIAL systems can provide vital data needed by atmospheric scientists to understand atmospheric chemistry. The Decadal Survey recommended missions, such...

  13. Infrared analysis of supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared observations of supernova remnants obtained with the infrared astronomical satellite provide new insights into the dynamics and energetics of the remnants, and into their interaction with the ambient interstellar medium. In most remnants the infrared emission arises from dust that is collisonally heated by the x-ray emitting gas. The infrared observations can therefore be used as a diagnostic for the physical conditions of the shocked gas. In particular, it is shown that all the prominent x-ray remnants in the galaxy and in the LMC cool mainly by dust grain collisions instead of atomic processes

  14. Dust in BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies: infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal Braun, P.

    2015-12-01

    Here 28 BL Lac objects, 18 FR I type radio galaxies, 4 FR I/II type radio galaxies and 10 FR II type radio galaxies are studied from FIR (far infrared) to optical region (180 μm to 0.44 μm) to understand the nature of infrared emission from these objects and the physical properties of dust in the emitting region. Using the flux densities from 2MASS, IRAS, ISO, SCUBA (40 % samples), WISE All-sky Data, AKARI (10 % samples) data and optical (B) observations, the spectral energy distributions are constructed. FIR and NIR spectral indices (α_{FIR} and α_{NIR}) are estimated. The dust temperatures and dust masses of all the samples are estimated from FIR flux densities. The SEDs of most of the samples (90 %) show steep slopes from FIR to optical region and about 10 % of the samples show flat continuous spectra from FIR to NIR region. The SEDs of 80 % FR I type radio galaxies and 1 out of 4 FR I/II type radio galaxies and two RBLs show a bump in the NIR to optical region. The SEDs of these sources are compared with Radiative transfer models. From FIR to MIR region, the SEDs of 90 % of the objects studied here can be fitted to the models with luminosities L˜ 10^{9.5} L0, considering uncertainty from 10 % to 20 %. But the observable fluxes in the NIR region are higher and can be fitted to other models with higher L˜ 10^{12.5} L0. Since there is a difference in emission in NIR region, mainly for FR I radio galaxies, so the variation of apparent K magnitudes with logarithm of redshift z is also studied. The WISE colours, (W1 - W2) and (W2 - W3) are compared with isodensity contours. Comparing with radiative transfer models it can be suggested that, in the FIR and MIR region the infrared emission is from the dust containing large grains, small graphites and PAHs at temperature ˜50 K-100 K. In the NIR region hot dust is mainly due to small grains at temperature ˜1200 K and the emission is mainly from synchrotron radiation produced in the inner part of the relativistic

  15. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  17. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  18. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  19. A WIDE-FIELD SURVEY OF THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present J, H, and K S photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) obtained at the CTIO/Blanco 4 m telescope at Cerro Tololo with the Infrared Side Port Imager camera. From the observations we have assembled a catalog of about ∼7800 sources distributed over an area of approximately 30' x 40', the largest of any survey deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in this region. The catalog provides absolute coordinates accurate to about 0.15 arcsec and 3σ photometry in the 2MASS system, enough to detect planetary size objects 1 Myr old under AV ≅ 10 mag of extinction at the distance of the Orion Nebula. We present a preliminary analysis of the catalog, done by comparing the (J-H, H-K S ) color-color diagram, the (H, J-H) and (K S , H-K S ) color-magnitude diagrams, and the J H K S luminosity functions (LFs) of three regions at an increasing projected distance from the Trapezium. Sources in the inner region typically show IR colors compatible with reddened T Tauri stars, whereas the outer fields are dominated by field stars seen through an amount of extinction which decreases with the distance from the center. The color-magnitude diagrams make it possible to clearly distinguish between the main ONC population, spread across the full field, and background sources. The LFs of the inner region, corrected for completeness, remain relatively flat in the substellar regime regardless of the strategy adopted to remove background contamination.

  20. EXTENDED [C II] EMISSION IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ∼1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios ≥4 × 10–3, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] ''deficits'' found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, ΣIR, for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ∼6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and ΣIR with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies

  1. An optical and near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for type I Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Gibbs, John; Gorjian, Varoujan; Pruett, Lee; Young, Diedre; Boyd, Robert; Byrd, Joy; Cheshier, Jaicie; Chung, Stephanie; Clark, Ruby; Fernandez, Joseph; Gonzales, Elyse; Kumar, Anika; McGinnis, Gillian; Palmer, John; Perrine, Luke; Phelps, Brittney; Reginio, Margaret; Richter, Kristi; Sanchez, Elias; Washburn, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This project is seeking another standard candle for measuring cosmic distances by trying to establish a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN). Type I AGN selected from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) were used to establish a correlation between the color and the luminosity of AGN. This work builds on previous NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program team attempts to establish such a relationship. This is novel in that it uses both optical and 1-2 micron near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths as a better color discriminator of the transition between accretion-dominated and dust/torus-dominated emission.Photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) was extracted and analyzed for type I AGN with redshifts z < 0.20. Our color-magnitude diagram for the area where the dust vaporizes is analogous to a stellar Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Data from SDSS and 2MASS were specifically selected to focus on the sublimation boundary between the coolest part of the accretion disk and the hottest region of the inner edge of the dusty torus surrounding the accretion disk to find the greatest ratio for the color. The more luminous the AGN, the more extended the dust sublimation radius, causing a larger hot dust emitting surface area, which corresponds to a greater NIR luminosity.Our findings suggest that the best correlations correspond to colors associated with the Sloan z band and any of the 2MASS bands with slight variations dependent on redshift. This may result in a tool for using AGN as a standard for cosmic distances. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  2. EXTENDED [C II] EMISSION IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Stacey, G. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Stierwalt, S.; Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Malhotra, S. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Cech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, G. E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Elbaz, D. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mazzarella, J. M.; Xu, C. K.; Lu, N.; Howell, J. H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van der Werf, P. P.; Meijerink, R., E-mail: tanio@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); and others

    2014-06-10

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ∼1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios ≥4 × 10{sup –3}, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] ''deficits'' found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, Σ{sub IR}, for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ∼6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and Σ{sub IR} with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies.

  3. Infrared troubles of differential renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of generalizing differential renormalization of D.Z. Freedman, K.Jonnson and J.I.Latorre in an invariant fashion to theories with infrared divergencies is investigated. It is concluded that the calculations on infrared differential renormalization lead to incorrect result. 16 refs.; 7 figs

  4. Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio Salvetti; Laura Abbozzo Ronchi; Carlo Corsi; Antoni Rogalski; Marija Strojnik

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, advanced infrared techniques are a key ingredient in disparate applications, ranging from medical diagnostics and treatment to industrial inspection and environmental monitoring. We believe that the success of such infrared applications highly depends on a continuous exchange between scientific advances and technological progresses.

  5. The infrared-ultraviolet connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Physics below 300 GeV is termed infrared, and physics above 1 TeV is called ultraviolet. Some aspects of the relation between these two regions are discussed. It is argued that the symmetries of the infrared must be symmetries in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, naturalness within the context of the st

  6. Does QCD have infrared renormalons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A naive perturbative proof of the existence of infrared renormalons for large distance asymptotically free theories is given. It is argued that the extension of the result for small distance asymptotically free theories is not obvious. Indeed infrared renormalons for QCD are not found. (Author)

  7. Infrared fetoscopy in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, F I; Deprest, J A; Peers, K H; Desimpelaere, L; Vandenberghe, K

    1994-01-01

    The strong light sources used in fetoscopy and embryoscopy may cause eye injuries to the fetus. To circumvent this potential hazard, we have successfully used an infrared light source and infrared video camera to perform 'night vision' fetoscopy in a fetal lamb model. PMID:7818781

  8. All-weather estimates of the land surface skin temperatures from combined analyses of microwave and infrared satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, C.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Catherinot, J.; Rossow, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    The surface skin temperature (Ts) is a key parameter at the land-atmosphere interface. Global datasets of Ts are traditionally estimated from satellite infrared radiance observations, under clear sky conditions. First, the inter-comparison of different IR land surface temperature satellite datasets (ISCCP, MODIS, and AIRS) is presented, along with an evaluation with in situ measurements at selected stations archived during CEOP (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period). The objective is to assess the accuracy of the Ts estimates, and to evidence the major error sources in the retrieval. Results show that the major sources of differences between the different satellite products come from instrument calibration differences, especially for high Ts, followed by the impact of the water vapor treatment in the algorithm, and the differences in surface emissivities. The main limitation of satellite infrared measurements of Ts is their inability to penetrate clouds, limiting them to clear conditions. Microwave wavelengths, being much less affected by clouds than the infrared, are an attractive alternative in cloudy regions as they can be used to derive an all-sky skin Ts product. A neural network inversion scheme has been developed to retrieve surface Ts along with atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and surface emissivities over land from a combined analysis of Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence of routine in situ Ts measurements, retrieved all-weather Ts values are first evaluated globally by comparison to the surface air temperature (Tair) measured by the meteorological station network. The Ts-Tair difference from the global comparisons showed all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. This evaluation has been recently extended locally at a few sites by using the Ts in-situ measurements from several CEOP stations representing different

  9. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  12. Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

  13. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  14. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  15. Retinex enhancement of infrared images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance. PMID:19163132

  16. Mid-infrared silicon photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Green, W. M. J.; Kuyken, B.; X. Liu; M. A. Van Camp; S. Assefa; D. M. Gill; T. Barwicz; Shank, S. M.; Y.A. Vlasov; Osgood Jr, R. M.; Baets, R.; Roelkens, G.

    2013-01-01

    A mid-infrared silicon nanophotonic integrated circuit platform can have broad impact upon environmental monitoring, personalized healthcare, and public safety applications. Development of various mid-IR components, including optical parametric amplifiers, sources, modulators, and detectors, is reviewed.

  17. Infrared astronony and galactic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of infrared sources of cosmic radiation - interstellar dust clouds, cocoon stars, novae, and gas supergiants - is presented. The possibilities of exact estimation of the star and galaxy brightness are considered. The difficulties of experiments and the reasons for choosing the infrared range for observations (teh maximum radiation of cold dust particles and the high transparency of the dust clouds) are noted. A Galaxy centre strongly radiating in the infrared range and situated in the Sagittarius constellation is considered as an example, and its schematic picture is given. A rough estimate of the absorption by stellar structures, dust and gas clouds is given. The diagram of the Main sequence of infrared sources and the dependence of their luminosity on the effective temperature are presented. The energy distribution in the spectrum of a complex object at different temperatures and wave lengths is considered. The frequency dependence of the radiation flux for the objects of the Orion constellation is given

  18. Imaging in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Many common pigments are partially transparent to near infrared (IR) light, making it possible to use IR-sensitive imaging sensors to capture information from surfaces covered by several tens of micrometers of such pigments. Because of this, ``IR reflectograms'' have been made of paintings since the late 1960s, revealing important aspects of many works of art that are not observable in the visible. However, although a number of paintings have been studied this way, the high cost and specialized nature of available IR cameras have limited such work to a small fraction of the two- and three-dimensional works of art that could be usefully studied in the IR. After a brief introduction to IR reflectography, I will describe the characteristics of a high resolution imaging system based on a modified Canon EOS digital camera that operates over the wavelength range 830--1100 nm [1]. This camera and autofocus Canon 20 mm f/2.8 lens make it possible to obtain IR reflectograms of works of art ``in situ'' with standard museum lighting, resolving features finer than 0.35 mm on a 1.0x0.67 m painting. After describing its relevant imaging properties of sensitivity, resolution, noise and contrast, I will illustrate its capabilities with IR and visible images of various types of art in museums on three continents. IR reflectograms of one painting, in particular, have revealed important new information about the working practices of the 16th century artist Lorenzo Lotto who our previous work has shown used projected images as aids for producing some of the features in this painting [2]. [4pt] [1] Charles M. Falco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 071301 (2009). [0pt] [2] see, for example, David Hockney and Charles M. Falco, Proc. of the SPIE 5666, 326 (2005).

  19. The Infrared Astronomical Mission AKARI

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, H.; Baba, H.; Barthel, P.; Clements, D. L.; Cohen, M.; Doi, Y.; Enya, K.; Figueredo, E.; Fujishiro, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.; T. Goto; Hasegawa, S.; Hibi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    AKARI, the first Japanese satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy, was launched on 2006 February 21, and started observations in May of the same year. AKARI has a 68.5 cm cooled telescope, together with two focal-plane instruments, which survey the sky in six wavelength bands from the mid- to far-infrared. The instruments also have the capability for imaging and spectroscopy in the wavelength range 2 - 180 micron in the pointed observation mode, occasionally inserted into the continuous sur...

  20. Integrated infrared and visible image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor imaging devices integrating an array of visible detectors and another array of infrared detectors into a single module to simultaneously detect both the visible and infrared radiation of an input image. The visible detectors and the infrared detectors may be formed either on two separate substrates or on the same substrate by interleaving visible and infrared detectors.

  1. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Floc’h, E. Le [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bridge, C. [Div. of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M{sub 20} parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M{sub 20} (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M{sub 20} parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M{sub 20} at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M{sub 20} for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M{sub 20} is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  2. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M20 parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M20 (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M20 parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M20 at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M20 for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M20 is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  3. Clustering of the Diffuse Infrared Light from the COBE DIRBE maps; 3, Power spectrum analysis and excess isotropic component of fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Kashlinsky, A; Odenwald, S

    1999-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation is the cosmic repository for energy release throughout the history of the universe. Using the all-sky data from the COBE DIRBE instrument at wavelengths 1.25 - 100 mic we attempt to measure the CIB fluctuations. In the near-IR, foreground emission is dominated by small scale structure due to stars in the Galaxy. There we find a strong correlation between the amplitude of the fluctuations and Galactic latitude after removing bright foreground stars. Using data outside the Galactic plane ($|b| > 20\\deg$) and away from the center ($90\\deg< l <270\\deg$) we extrapolate the amplitude of the fluctuations to cosec$|b|=0$. We find a positive intercept of $\\delta F_{\\rm rms} = 15.5^{+3.7}_{-7.0},5.9^{+1.6}_{-3.7}, 2.4^{+0.5}_{-0.9}, 2.0^{+0.25}_{-0.5}$ nW/m2/sr at 1.25, 2.2,3.5 and 4.9 mic respectively, where the errors are the range of 92% confidence limits. For color subtracted maps between band 1 and 2 we find the isotropic part of the fluctuations at $7.6^{+1.2}_...

  4. Herschel Far-Infrared Photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. II. SPIRE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, T Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F; Koss, Michael J; Barger, Amy J; Cowie, Lennox L

    2015-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory's Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) for 313 nearby z<0.05 active galactic nuclei (AGN). We selected AGN from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog, the result of an all-sky survey in the 14-195 keV energy band, allowing for a reduction in AGN selection effects due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination. We find 46% (143/313) of our sample is detected at all three wavebands and combined with our PACS observations represents the most complete FIR spectral energy distributions of local, moderate luminosity AGN. We find no correlation between the 250, 350, and 500 micron luminosities with 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating the bulk of the FIR emission is not related to the AGN. However, Seyfert 1s do show a very weak correlation with X-ray luminosity compared to Seyfert 2s and we discuss possible explanations. We compare the SPIRE colors (F250/F350 and F350/F500) to a sample of n...

  5. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R., E-mail: marat.1994@me.com; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Izhevsk, Russia (426034, Izhevsk, Kommunarov street, 281) (Russian Federation); Soicher, E. M. [Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdokimov of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, (127473, Moscow, Delegatskaya str., 20/1) (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  6. Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Furnstahl, R J; Papenbrock, T; Wendt, K A

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.

  7. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R.; Soicher, E. M.; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  8. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  9. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  10. Mid-infrared frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Schliesser, Albert; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2012-01-01

    Laser frequency combs are coherent light sources that emit a broad spectrum consisting of discrete, evenly spaced narrow lines, each having an absolute frequency measurable within the accuracy of an atomic clock. Their development, a decade ago, in the near-infrared and visible domains has revolutionized frequency metrology with numerous windfalls into other fields such as astronomy or attosecond science. Extension of frequency comb techniques to the mid-infrared spectral region is now under exploration. Versatile mid-infrared frequency comb generators, based on novel laser gain media, nonlinear frequency conversion or microresonators, promise to significantly expand the tree of applications of frequency combs. In particular, novel approaches to molecular spectroscopy in the fingerprint region, with dramatically improved precision, sensitivity, recording time and/or spectral bandwidth may spark off new discoveries in the various fields relevant to molecular sciences.

  11. KIC 8462852 - The Infrared Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Marengo, Massimo; Willis, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the warm Spitzer/IRAC data of KIC 8462852. We found no evidence of infrared excess at 3.6 micron and a small excess of 0.43 +/- 0.18 mJy at 4.5 micron, below the 3 sigma threshold necessary to claim a detection. The lack of strong infrared excess 2 years after the events responsible for the unusual light curve observed by Kepler, further disfavors the scenarios involving a catastrophic collision in a KIC 8462852 asteroid belt, a giant impact disrupting a planet in the system or a population of a dust-enshrouded planetesimals. The scenario invoking the fragmentation of a family of comets on a highly elliptical orbit is instead consistent with the lack of strong infrared excess found by our analysis.

  12. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia

  13. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration

  14. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  15. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamidouche, M; Marcum, P; Krabbe, A

    2010-01-01

    We present one of the new generations of observatories, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This is an airborne observatory consisting of a 2.7-m telescope mounted on a modified Boeing B747-SP airplane. Flying at an up to 45,000 ft (14 km) altitude, SOFIA will observe above more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmospheric water vapor allowing observations in the normally obscured far-infrared. We outline the observatory capabilities and goals. The first-generation science instruments flying on board SOFIA and their main astronomical goals are also presented.

  16. Mid infrared properties of distant infrared luminous galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marcillac, D; Dickinson, M; Elbaz, D; Galliano, F; Morrison, G

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence that the mid infrared (MIR) is a good tracer of the total infrared luminosity, L(IR), and star formation rate (SFR), of galaxies up to z 1.3. We use deep MIR images from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the Spitzer Space Telescope in the Northern field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS-N) together with VLA radio data to compute three independant estimates of L(IR). The L(IR,MIR) derived from the observed 15 and/or 24 um flux densities using a library of template SEDs, and L(IR,radio), derived from the radio (1.4 and/or 8.5 GHz) using the radio-far infrared correlation, agree with a 1-sigma dispersion of 40 %. We use the k-correction as a tool to probe different parts of the MIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of galaxies as a function of their redshift and find that on average distant galaxies present MIR SEDs very similar to local ones. However, in the redshift range z= 0.4-1.2, L(IR,24um) is in better agreement with L(IR,radio) than L(IR,15 um) by 20 %, sug...

  17. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  18. Easy rectification for infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, R.

    2016-05-01

    Most applications using infrared thermography only take advantage of one feature in the images: the intensity of the objects in the infrared images, which is mainly a function of its temperature. Many different applications use this feature as an indicator of health, early signs of malfunction or signs of hidden conditions. However, infrared images also contain relevant geometric information that can be used to measure objects or to locate areas of thermal contrast in the scene. The problem is that the extraction of geometric information requires a complex camera calibration procedure that depends upon calibration plates which are difficult to build. In this work, an easy rectification procedure for infrared images is proposed without using calibration plates. The proposed method uses a camera projection model not considering distortions, which greatly simplifies the estimation of the projection parameters while producing very good accuracy. The method estimates the projection parameters iteratively based on features from objects in the image and the knowledge about its geometric properties. The result is a method that provides reliable geometric information about the objects in the scene with a single image. A series of experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. Results show excellent performance, with sub-pixel accuracy.

  19. Mid-infrared fiber lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Jackson, Stuart D.; Sorokina, I.T.; Vodopyanov, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    The current state of the art in mid-infrared fiber lasers is reviewed in this chapter. The relevant fiber-host materials such as silicates, fluorides, chalcogenides, and ceramics, the fiber, pump, and resonator geometries, and the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions are introduced. Lasers at

  20. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  1. INFRARED EMISSIVITY OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Meixiang; LI Suzhen; LI Junchao; DONG Haiou

    1991-01-01

    The infrared emissivity of conducting polymers in 8-20μm and at 50-150℃ in the direction of normal line has been measured as a function of wavelength, conductivity at room temperature,counterion, doping levels, measuring temperature and thickness of sample.

  2. Carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposite infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Setyowati, Kristina; Liu, Haiying; Waldeck, David H; Chen, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The infrared photoresponse in the electrical conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is dramatically enhanced by embedding SWNTs in an electrically and thermally insulating polymer matrix. The conductivity change in a 5 wt % SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposite is significant (4.26%) and sharp upon infrared illumination in the air at room temperature. While the thermal effect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of a pure SWNT film, the photoeffect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposites. PMID:18333623

  3. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  4. The TNG Near Infrared Camera Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Baffa, C.; Comoretto, G.; Gennari, S.; F. Lisi; Oliva, E; Biliotti, V.; Checcucci, A.; Gavrioussev, V.; Giani, E; Ghinassi, F.; Hunt, L. K.; Maiolino, R.; Mannuci, F.; Marcucci, G.; Sozzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    NICS (acronym for Near Infrared Camera Spectrometer) is the near-infrared cooled camera-spectrometer that has been developed by the Arcetri Infrared Group at the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, in collaboration with the CAISMI-CNR for the TNG (the Italian National Telescope Galileo at La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). As NICS is in its scientific commissioning phase, we report its observing capabilities in the near-infrared bands at the TNG, along with the measured performance and the limi...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  6. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  7. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman--Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cut-off) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can well be described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field th...

  8. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  9. Infrared thermal imaging in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the features of modern infrared imaging technology and the standardization protocols for thermal imaging in medicine. The technique essentially uses naturally emitted infrared radiation from the skin surface. Recent studies have investigated the influence of equipment and the methods of image recording. The credibility and acceptance of thermal imaging in medicine is subject to critical use of the technology and proper understanding of thermal physiology. Finally, we review established and evolving medical applications for thermal imaging, including inflammatory diseases, complex regional pain syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. Recent interest in the potential applications for fever screening is described, and some other areas of medicine where some research papers have included thermal imaging as an assessment modality. In certain applications thermal imaging is shown to provide objective measurement of temperature changes that are clinically significant. (topical review)

  10. Infrared Spectroscopy with Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A; Kulik, Sergei P; Krivitsky, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Spectral measurements in the infrared (IR) optical range provide unique fingerprints of materials which are useful for material analysis, environmental sensing, and health diagnostics. Current IR spectroscopy techniques require the use of optical equipment suited for operation in the IR range, which faces challenges of inferior performance and high cost. Here we develop a spectroscopy technique, which allows spectral measurements in the IR range using visible spectral range components. The technique is based on nonlinear interference of infrared and visible photons, produced via Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC). The intensity interference pattern for a visible photon depends on the phase of an IR photon, which travels through the media. This allows determining properties of the media in the IR range from the measurements of visible photons. The technique can substitute and/or complement conventional IR spectroscopy techniques, as it uses well-developed optical components for the visible range.

  11. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  12. Galactic structure from infrared studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Star densities on a galactic scale are traced by far infrared emission of dust heated by young stars and by the 2.4 μm radiation of stars in the red giant phase. Coherent results are obtained, pointing to a very strong star formation rate during the last approximately 200 My in a ring 5 kpc from the galactic center. A steepening of the initial mass function compared to that observed in the solar vicinity is also suggested. (Auth.)

  13. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  14. Chemistry in Infrared Dark Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyunina, T; Henning, Th; Zinchenko, I; Beuther, H; Voronkov, M

    2010-01-01

    Massive stars play an important role in shaping the structure of galaxies. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), with their low temperatures and high densities, have been identified as the potential birthplaces of massive stars. In order to understand the formation processes of massive stars the physical and chemical conditions in infrared dark clouds have to be characterized. The goal of this paper is to investigate the chemical composition of a sample of southern infrared dark clouds. One important aspect of the observations is to check, if the molecular abuncances in IRDCs are similar to the low-mass pre-stellar cores, or whether they show signatures of more evolved evolutionary stages. We performed observations toward 15 IRDCs in the frequency range between 86 and 93 GHz using the 22-m Mopra radio telescope. We detect HNC, HCO$^+$ and HNC emission in all clouds and N$_2$H$^+$ in all IRDCs except one. In some clouds we detect SiO emission. Complicated shapes of the HCO$^+$ emission line profile are found in all IR...

  15. Airborne fourier infrared spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer has been interfaced to a 35 cm aperture telescope and a digital data processing and display system and flown in a downward-viewing configuration on a Queen Air aircraft. Real-time spectral analysis and display software were developed to provide the means to direct aircraft flight operations based on atmospheric and/or surface features identified on 1 to 8 cm-1 resolution infrared spectra. Data are presented from ground-based tests consisting of simultaneous horizontal path measurements by the FTIR system and an infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) observing gas volumes generated in an open-ended chamber. Airborne FUR data are presented on the tracking of a surface-released puff of SF6 gas to a downwind distance of 45 km in a time period of 1.5 hours. The experiment demonstrated the real time tracking of a gas tracer cloud to provide atmospheric transport and diffusion information and for directing airborne in-situ sensors for optimum cloud sampling. 5 refs., 5 figs

  16. Infrared Study of the Southern Galactic Star-Forming Regions Associated with IRAS 10049-5657 and IRAS 10031-5632

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Verma, R. P.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the interstellar medium and stellar components in the regions of the southern Galactic star-forming complexes associated with IRAS 10049-5657 and IRAS 10031-5632. These regions have been mapped simultaneously in two far-infrared bands (λeff ~ 150 and 210 μm), with ~1' angular resolution using the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research 1 m balloon-borne telescope. Spatial distribution of the temperature of cool dust and optical depth at 200 μm have been obtained taking advantage of the similar beams in the two bands. The HIRES processed Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm have been used for comparison. Using the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared sources, we find the stellar populations of the embedded young clusters. A rich cluster of OB stars is seen in the IRAS 10049-5657 region. The fits to the stellar density radial profile of the cluster associated with IRAS 10049-5657 have been explored with the inverse radius profile as well as the King's profile; the cluster radius is ~2 pc. The source in the cluster closest to the IRAS peak is IRA-7, which lies above the zero-age main-sequence curve of spectral type O5 in the color-magnitude diagram. Unlike IRAS 10049-5657, a small cluster comprising a few deeply embedded sources is seen at the location of IRAS 10031-5632. Self-consistent radiative transfer modeling aimed at extracting important physical and geometrical details of the two IRAS sources shows that the best-fit models are in good agreement with the observed spectral energy distributions. The geometric details of the associated cloud and optical depths (τ100) have been estimated. A uniform density distribution of dust and gas is implied for both the sources. In addition, the infrared ionic fine-structure line emission from gas has been modeled for both the regions and compared with data from the IRAS low-resolution spectrometer. For IRAS 10049-5657, the observed and modeled

  17. SDSS QUASARS IN THE WISE PRELIMINARY DATA RELEASE AND QUASAR CANDIDATE SELECTION WITH OPTICAL/INFRARED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 37,842 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, which have counterparts within 6'' in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Preliminary Data Release. The overall WISE detection rate of the SDSS quasars is 86.7%, and it decreases to less than 50.0% when the quasar magnitude is fainter than i = 20.5. We derive the median color-redshift relations based on this SDSS-WISE quasar sample and apply them to estimate the photometric redshifts of the SDSS-WISE quasars. We find that by adding the WISE W1- and W2-band data to the SDSS photometry we can increase the photometric redshift reliability, defined as the percentage of sources with photometric and spectroscopic redshift difference less than 0.2, from 70.3% to 77.2%. We also obtain the samples of WISE-detected normal and late-type stars with SDSS spectroscopy, and present a criterion in the z – W1 versus g – z color-color diagram, z – W1 > 0.66(g – z) + 2.01, to separate quasars from stars. With this criterion we can recover 98.6% of 3089 radio-detected SDSS-WISE quasars with redshifts less than four and overcome the difficulty in selecting quasars with redshifts between 2.2 and 3 from SDSS photometric data alone. We also suggest another criterion involving the WISE color only, W1 – W2 > 0.57, to efficiently separate quasars with redshifts less than 3.2 from stars. In addition, we compile a catalog of 5614 SDSS quasars detected by both WISE and UKIDSS surveys and present their color-redshift relations in the optical and infrared bands. By using the SDSS ugriz, UKIDSS, YJHK, and WISE W1- and W2-band photometric data, we can efficiently select quasar candidates and increase the photometric redshift reliability up to 87.0%. We discuss the implications of our results on the future quasar surveys. An updated SDSS-WISE quasar catalog consisting of 101,853 quasars with the recently released WISE all-sky data is also provided.

  18. High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have emerged as attractive devices for sensing long wavelength radiation. Their principle of operation is based on intersublevel transitions in quantum dots (QDs). Three-dimensional quantum confinement offers the advantages of normal incidence operation, low dark currents and high-temperature operation. The performance characteristics of mid-infrared devices with three kinds of novel heterostructures in the active region are described here. These are a device with upto 70 QD layers, a device with a superlattice in the active region, and a tunnel QDIP. Low dark currents (1.59 A cm-2 at 300 K), large responsivity (2.5 A W-1 at 78 K) and large specific detectivity (1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at 100 K) are measured in these devices. It is evident that QDIPs will find application in the design of high-temperature focal plane arrays. Imaging with small QD detector arrays using the raster scanning technique is also demonstrated

  19. A Thermal Infrared Cloud Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallama, A.; Degnan, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    A thermal infrared imager for mapping the changing cloud cover over a ground based observing site has been developed. There are two main components to our instrument. One is a commercially made uncooled 10 micron thermal infrared detector that outputs a 120x120 pixel thermogram. The other is a convex electroplated reflector, which is situated beneath the detector and in its field of view. The resulting image covers the sky from zenith down to about 10 degrees elevation. The self-reflection of the camera and supporting vanes is removed by interpolation. Atmospheric transparency is distinguished by the difference between the sky temperature and the ambient air temperature. Clear sky is indicated by pixels having a difference of about 20 degrees C or more. The qualitative results 'clear, haze and cloud' have proven to be very reliable during two years of development and testing. Quantitative information, such as the extinction coefficient, is also available though it is not exact. The uncertainty is probably due to variability of the lapse rate under different atmospheric conditions. Software has been written for PC/DOS and VME/LynxOS (similar to Linux) systems in the C programming language. Functionality includes serial communication with the detector, analysis of the thermogram, mapping of cloud cover, data display, and file I/O. The main elements of cost in this system were for the thermal infrared detector and for the machining of an 18-inch diameter stainless steel mandrel. The latter is needed to produce an electroplated reflector. We have had good success with the gold and rhodium reflectors that have been generated. The reflectors themselves are relatively inexpensive now that the mandrel is available.

  20. Infrared studies of active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRAS observations of extragalactic objects are analyzed, supplemented by optical spectroscopy and 10 μm photometry. The relationship between various forms of activity in the nuclei of spiral galaxies and their mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distributions is explored. It is shown that more than 70% of galaxies with F60/F25 ≤ 3 are Seyferts, while the remainder have bright optical emission lines in their nuclear spectra. It is argued that most Seyferts are powered by their active nuclei at 25 μm, while there is some indication that Seyferts with large F60/F25 flux ratios are undergoing starbursts in the vicinity of their nuclei. The properties of a sample of bright, extragalactic IRAS sources are studied. A catalog containing total infrared and blue fluxes, distance estimates, recession velocities, and morphological classifications for these objects is presented. The brightest sources at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths are nearby, normal spiral galaxies; galaxies with disturbed or irregular morphology (often known as interacting galaxies); type 2 Seyferts; and dust-embedded type 1 Seyferts. All of these sources are dominated by thermal emission from dust. The dust in the peculiar, irregular, and Seyfert galaxies is exposed to a higher mean intensity of radiation. Moreover, these IR-active galaxies tend to have strong, compact nuclear sources at 11 μm, whether or not they contain a known Seyfert nucleus. The distinctive spectral behavior of IR-luminous galaxies is shown to result from the presence of compact, dust-dominated IR nuclear sources, which are the predominant cause of IR luminosities above 1011 L of sun

  1. Infrared laser diagnostics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infrared laser-based diagnostics are under development at ORNL for measurements on burning plasmas such as ITER. The primary effort is the development of a CO2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of the velocity distribution of confined fusion-product alpha particles. Key components of the system include a high-power, single-mode CO2 pulsed laser, an efficient optics system for beam transport and a multichannel low-noise infrared heterodyne receiver. A successful proof-of-principle experiment has been performed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellerator at ORNL utilizing scattering from electron plasma frequency satellites. The diagnostic system is currently being installed on Alcator C-Mod at MIT for measurements of the fast ion tail produced by ICRH heating. A second diagnostic under development at ORNL is an infrared polarimeter for Faraday rotation measurements in future fusion experiments. A preliminary feasibility study of a CO2 laser tangential viewing polarimeter for measuring electron density profiles in ITER has been completed. For ITER plasma parameters and a polarimeter wavelength of 10.6 microm, a Faraday rotation of up to 26 degree is predicted. An electro-optic polarization modulation technique has been developed at ORNL. Laboratory tests of this polarimeter demonstrated a sensitivity of ≤ 0.01 degree. Because of the similarity in the expected Faraday rotation in ITER and Alcator C-Mod, a collaboration between ORNL and the MIT Plasma Fusion Center has been undertaken to test this polarimeter system on Alcator C-Mod. A 10.6 microm polarimeter for this measurement has been constructed and integrated into the existing C-Mod multichannel two-color interferometer. With present experimental parameters for C-Mod, the predicted Faraday rotation was on the order of 0.1 degree. Significant output signals were observed during preliminary tests. Further experiment and detailed analyses are under way

  2. Infrared Sensitivity of Unstable Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Krotov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We discover that some unstable vacua have long memory. By that we mean that even in the theories containing only massive particles, there are correllators and expectation values which grow with time. We examine the cases of instabilities caused by the constant electric fields, expanding and contracting universes and, most importantly, the global de Sitter space. In the last case the interaction leads to a remarkable UV/IR mixing and to a large back reaction. This gives reasons to believe that the cosmological constant problem could be resolved by the infrared physics.

  3. Infrared optical coatings in SITP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ding-quan; ZHANG Feng-shan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared optical coatings in SITP (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics) mainly cover the spectrum range from 0.7 μm to 15 μm, and visible and near-UV range are also been included. The coatings are mainly used for metal-reflectance mirrors, Anti-reflection(AR) lens and windows, filters, and dichroic beam splitters. Coatings passed some dependability tests. These optical coated devices usually consist in a remote observing instrument. Most coating materials are commercial products. And one kind of special material PbTe is made by ourselves. Some main results of our research department are reported.

  4. Infrared sensitivity of unstable vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discover that some unstable vacua have long memory. By that we mean that even in the theories containing only massive particles, there are correllators and expectation values which grow with time. We examine the cases of instabilities caused by the constant electric fields, expanding and contracting universes and, most importantly, the global de Sitter space. In the last case the interaction leads to a remarkable UV/IR mixing and to a large back reaction. This gives reasons to believe that the cosmological constant problem could be resolved by the infrared physics.

  5. Nova Eruptions with Infrared Interferometric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Valério A R M

    2015-01-01

    Infrared interferometric observations have a great deal of potential to unravel the nature of the nova eruptions. We suggest that techniques, already in place, to derive the ejection details at optical wavelengths be used with infrared interferometric observations to derive parameters such as the ejected mass in a nova eruption. This is achievable based on modelling the initial phase of the eruption when the infrared light is dominated by the free-free thermal process.

  6. Introductory survey for wireless infrared communications

    OpenAIRE

    Munsif Ali Jatoi; Nidal Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless infrared communications can be defined as the propagation of light waves in free space using infrared radiation whose range is 400–700 nm. This range corresponds to frequencies of hundreds of terahertz, which is high for higher data rate applications. Wireless infrared is applied for higher data rates applications such as wireless computing, wireless video and wireless multimedia communication applications. Introduced by Gfeller, this field has grown with different link configuration...

  7. Following Enzyme Activity with Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Kumar; Andreas Barth

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a direct, "on-line" monitor of enzymatic reactions. Measurement of enzymatic activity is based on the fact that the infrared spectra of reactants and products of an enzymatic reaction are usually different. Several examples are given using the enzymes pyruvate kinase, fumarase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The main advantage of the infrared method is that it observes the reaction of interest directly, i.e.,no activity assay is required to c...

  8. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  9. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sojka, Lukasz; Stone, Nick; Jayakrupakar, Nallala; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Lindsay, Ian; Ward, Jon; Farries, Mark; Moselund, Peter M.; Napier, Bruce; Lamrini, Samir; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian R.; Bang, Ole

    2016-03-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the midinfrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy (`opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked portable, bright sources. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum generated light 1.4 to 13.3 microns in a specially engineered, high numerical aperture mid-infrared optical fiber. The active mid-infrared fiber broadband supercontinuum for the first time offers the possibility of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR- infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).

  10. Characterization of Electrochemical Interfaces by INfrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jimin

    1996-01-01

    The properties of electrochemical interfaces are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Potential difference infrared spectroscopy (PDIRS) was used in the investigation of carbon monoxide adsorbed on polycrystalline platinum electrodes. It is found that the infrared peak position of adsorbed carbon monoxide is linearly dependent on the applied electrode potential, and that the Stark tuning rate is a function of system temperature. The change in Stark tuning rate is the result ...

  11. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-06-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman-Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cutoff) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can be well described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field theories, require at least a perturbative treatment of inhomogeneity beyond a strict minisuperspace model. The new methods suggest a systematic extension of minisuperspace models by a canonical effective formulation of perturbative inhomogeneity.

  12. Jupiter Eruptions Captured in Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers. This infrared image shows two bright plume eruptions obtained by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on April 5, 2007. Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena. According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vigorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  13. Optical infrared sky survey instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    An unusual, highly modified, Baker reflector-corrector class telescope has been adapted for wide field survey photography in the near infrared. This optical system uses a full field corrector plate and a field flattening lens to provide a flat field subtending about 4.5 deg on the sky. The small aperture telescope (20 inch primary) has been modified for use in the Newtonian focus configuration while preserving the optical elements of the Prime focus configuration. The telescope has been further modified to accept a very large format (146mm diameter photocathode) image intensifier camera to serve as a detector. The camera output is recorded photographically on film rather than glass plates. This unique instrument system is used in a program of sky survey photography in the optical infrared (8000-9000A bandpass) supplemented by visual bandpass photography. The photographs obtained with this system are of value not only for the extreme redness of the band but also because of their high resolution and their freedom from hydrogen emission.

  14. Infrared Microspectroscopy Of Pathologic Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy J.; Engler, Walter F.; Ventre, Kathleen M.

    1989-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique by which to characterize the conformations of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (1). Previously we have demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy can be used to characterize the secondary structure of abnormal protein accumulation products, known as amyloid, which are often found in association with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (2). The utility of the technique was highly limited by the fact that essentially the entire specimen had to consist of this abnormal protein for infrared spectroscopic analysis to be useful. The development of high quality microscopes capable of both light microscopic and infrared characterization of materials has enabled us to extend our earlier use of infrared spectroscopy to diseases and tissues in which the abnormal region of interest is only a few hundred square micrometers in area. Tissue for spectroscopic examination is mounted on microscope slides which have been prepared by acid washing, plating with gold or gold-palladium alloy (3) and coating with high molecular weight poly-L-lysine. Sections of tissue which have been previously embedded in paraffin are cut with a microtome at 4 to 5 micrometers thickness, floated onto a bath of distilled water, picked up on the microscope slide, and allowed to dry overnight. Paraffin is removed by soaking the slides in two changes of xylene, and then the sections are rehydrated by placing them in absolute alcohol, then in fifty percent alcohol, and finally in water. Sections may then be stained using standard histologic stains, such as hematoxylin and eosin, then once again dehydrated with alcohol. After drying, the sections are covered with an index-matching fluid, such as Fluorolube, which allows a relatively good visual microscopic examination of the tissue when the microscope is used in reflectance mode. High quality reflectance infrared spectra may be easily obtained when the tissue is prepared and mounted in this way (Figure 1

  15. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  16. DUAL-BAND INFRARED DETECTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    As the infrared technology continues to advance, there is a growing demand for multispectral detectors for advanced IR systems with better target discrimination and identification. Both HgCdTe detectors and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs photodetectors offer wavelength flexibility from medium wavelength to very long wavelength and multicolor capability in these regions. The main challenges facing all multicolor devices are more complicated device structtures, thicker and multilayer material growth, and more difficult device fabrication, especially when the array size gets larger and pixel size gets smaller. In the paper recent progress in development of two-color HgCdTe photodiodes and quantum well infrared photodetectors is presented.More attention is devoted to HgCdTe detectors. The two-color detector arrays are based upon an n-P-N (the capital letters mean the materials with larger bandgap energy) HgCdTe triple layer heterojunction design. Vertically stacking the two p-n junctions permits incorporation of both detectros into a single pixel. Both sequential mode and simultaneous mode detectors are fabricated. The mode of detection is determined by the fabrication process of the multilayer materials.Also the performances of stacked multicolor QWIPs detectors are presented. For multicolor arrays, QWIP's narrow band spectrum is an advantage, resulting in low spectral crosstalk. The major challenge for QWIP is developing broadband or multicolor optical coupling structures that permit efficient absorption of all required spectral bands.

  17. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  18. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling l